PART II END-OF-CHAPTER ACTIVITIES Chapter 1 The Nature of Intercultural Communication Questions 1.

The term "melting pot" means a sociocultural assimilation of people of differing backgrounds and nationalities; the term implies losing your ethnic differences and forming one large society. When a firm is referred to as being global, it means that the corporation is producing and marketing products in numerous parts of the world. For an example of how products have been globalized but have maintained the status quo of the area to which they were introduced, students should be instructed to consult such references as Axtell's books and Advertising Age, which covers new marketing ventures of corporations. A comparison should be made between how the product selected is marketed in the U.S. and in a foreign country. Norms are culturally ingrained principles of correct and incorrect behaviors that, if broken, carry a form of overt or covert penalty. Rules are formed to clarify cloudy areas of norms. A role includes the behavioral expectations of a position within a culture and is affected by norms and rules. Networks are formed with personal ties and involve an exchange of assistance. Subcultures are groups of people possessing characteristic traits that set them apart and distinguish them from others within a larger society. Examples of subcultures in the U.S. include senior citizens, baby boomers, Latin Americans, Catholics, trade associations, and self-help groups. Cultural synergy takes place with the merging of two cultures to form a stronger overriding culture. Corporate cultures are an example of a synergy of diverse cultures. Intercultural communication is communication between persons of different cultures; intracultural communication is communication between members of the same culture. The three main dimensions of culture as identified by Borden are languages, physical, and psychological. The language dimension is used to communicate with those with values and beliefs like ours. The physical dimension deals with the physical reality of our environment; it is measured objectively. The psychological dimension is measured subjectively.








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Barriers to communication include physical, cultural, perceptual, motivational, experiential, emotional, linguistic, nonverbal, and competition. To show whether business cultures are aligned to national cultures the answer should include information on how particular businesses either mirror the national culture, develop their own unique culture, or are someplace in between. The answer should show an understanding of the difference between ethnocentric, polycentric, regiocentric, and geocentric management orientations.


Case 1 In a reception for a political candidate, the explanation of the cultural phenomenon would include the following. People tend to break into groups with which they feel comfortable where communication barriers will be minimal. The group displays a lack of sociocultural assimilation. The groups have not had to come together and therefore do not have cultural synergy. The groups are practicing ethnocentrism and feel their cultural background is correct and, therefore, they have a preference for people who believe as they do. The groups, because they are ethnically divided, form subcultures within the macroculture of the political party. Case 2 An explanation of the globalization of the automotive industry should include the following factors. As firms globalize, it becomes very difficult to say if a car is U.S., German, Japanese, Mexican, or something else because it is made literally with parts and labor from all over the world. The Japanese did their marketing homework and found out what the U.S. market wanted and gave it to them. As Japan is a very small country and you must prove you have a place to park a car in the larger cities before you can purchase a car, the Japanese obviously need vehicles which are very different from the large automobiles most of the U.S. manufacturers make. Also the Japanese are assembling many of their automobiles in the U.S. that are destined for the U.S. market thereby providing U.S. citizens with jobs. It may be fair to ask how many U.S. cars are assembled in Japan giving Japanese workers jobs? As firms globalize another point is that they are raising the standard of living in those countries where they do manufacturing, which will in turn allow those countries to purchase more of our goods and services in the long run. Case 3 In the U.S. we expect others to honor their obligations to us. Therefore when the Shah was ill, it was correct for the U.S. to offer him medical assistance. The Christian religion is based on a number of commandments, one of which is “Love thy neighbor as thyself.” The U.S. feels it is their responsibility to help anyone in need anywhere in the world, but particularly friends. The Iranian mindset is based in the Islamic religion which has a very strict code of an eye for an eye, et cetera. The Islamic 10 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall

Iranians felt that the Shah had sold them out to the U.S. economic concerns, and therefore felt the Shah should pay for his wrong doings. They also felt that if the medical facilities were good enough for the rest of Iran they should be good enough for the Shah. Both the U.S. and Iran saw their positions as correct based on their religious philosophies, and neither looked at the situation from the other’s perspective. Objectivity is difficult to maintain because we consider our views correct and the other culture’s views as wrong. Case 4 Media has made it possible for the world to know what is going on in any part of the world at any time. The only limit is if the media has limited access. The general public did not know when dignitaries talked, met, agreed, or disagreed. It was much easier before satellites for the governments to keep information from the public. Politicians and world leaders now have to deal with the views of their constituents. It has also tended to change the views of the public concerning their leaders. People formerly believed their leaders were almost superhuman and were praised for the devotion. People hear much more today about their leaders and realize they are only human beings and have tended to become more cynical about politics in general. In the United States people realize that when they have “helped” other countries in the past, the rich got richer and the poor remained in poverty. The money never truly trickled down to the poor to help them. Imelda, in the Philippines, is probably one of the best examples of leaders using money, equipment, and the like meant for the people at large. The leaders are now in a glass bowl where everyone can see what they are doing. It has become more difficult for leaders to hide political manipulation of the public. Case 5 The use of an ethnocentric management style would be very difficult for Asians if it were coming from North America or Europe because this style does not account for cultural differences in the workforce. Ethnocentric management would not take into account the collectivistic nature of Asians. If polycentric management practices are followed, then whichever culture would be working in any other country in the triad would consider the differences in the country’s culture and would change their management practice to fit the culture of the country. Regiocentric management considers a smaller area of a country, a region. Geocentric management allows locations to operate independently. It may be difficult for North Americans or Europeans to adjust to the country culture or the regional cultures in Asia. It might also be difficult for some of the Europeans or North Americans to adjust to the country or to regional cultural differences. Europe and North America have very diverse cultures themselves. Many companies now hire from within the culture to avoid these problems. Activities 11 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall


Instructors may provide an abstract format for students to use, which would include what the intercultural problem is and a synopsis of the article. Instructors may want to suggest questions on mindsets, roles, subcultures, norms, and networks that the foreign student could address. The Chamber of Commerce would be a possible contact for identifying persons in the local community that conduct business globally. Instructors may wish to suggest cultures where roles of women and children are markedly different from those in the U.S. Proposals for improving relationships between the U.S. and foreign students would need to address the issues of English as a second language, perceptions, and environment. Annual reports are usually kept in the library; instructors may wish to suggest such multinational corporations as General Motors, Sharp, and Coca Cola.



4. 5.


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the House of Commons is elected by citizens age 18 and over. Mexico has a federal government with the president elected by the people 18 years of age and above (voting is compulsory). it is capitalistic with socialistic controls in the areas of health care and the retirement system. third-. and exporting. The states of Mexico are heavily controlled by the federal government in the areas of education and certain industries. Japan has few natural resources. have monogamous or serial monogamous marriages. 3. England is ruled by a constitutional monarchy with a parliament. Canada. Premarital sex is common. and social hierarchies and interaction. and agriculture. The family system in the U. Dating begins at 13 to 15 years of age. Inc. fishing. A culture develops an economic system in order to meet the physiological needs of its people. mother. Germany's educational system is a bit different. 5. 4. The economy is driven by industrial plants.. education. and Mexico.S. and children) and the extended family (grandparents. informal. Japan's economy is the strongest in the world. and Canada has many natural resources. In Saudi Arabia. fishing. Universal cultural systems are formed out of common problems of all cultures. and cousins). on the other hand. Educational systems may be formal. males and females attend separate schools after age six.S. England. 13 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. only recently has their educational system included females. marriages are arranged although 2. aunts. publishing as Prentice Hall . includes the nuclear family (father. In other cultures the family may include second-. These needs are met by establishing a system for producing or procuring goods and a procedure for distributing them. The House of Lords are noblemen who are life appointees and Church of England bishops and is the highest court. Systems that are universal to all cultures include economic. it is a capitalistic/free market based on manufacturing. The prime minister is the leader of the majority party in the House of Commons and appoints a cabinet that runs the government. mining.Chapter 2 Universal Systems Questions 1. or a combination of the two. In Mexico godparent relationships are considered family. The Arabs may have over a hundred close relatives. In Saudi Arabia. Education is free and compulsory for certain age groups in the U. political. and fourth-generation relationships. France. People must choose between technical training and college at age 13. education is free from kindergarten through the university. including universities. Canada's economy is strong worldwide.S. 6. People in the U. and many couples live together prior to marriage. Japan. uncles. marriage and family. In Iran religious instruction receives more support than secular education.

population does not graduate from high school is important in light of what is happening in other countries of the world. however. S. position. S. Property is important to the Japanese.S.S. The term equality in the U. Case 1 1. S. The role of U. Although Islamic law allows a man to have four wives with the wife's permission. The attitude toward higher education in the U. they are used in Japan. Inc. S. The presence of so many foreign students in U. secondary schools should provide a stronger foundation in the basics (reading. colleges probably seen primarily as positive. Even those who criticize the U. 10. and Saudi Arabia. and friend. Anyone can get into college in the U.S. people are born into a certain social class (monarchies). publishing as Prentice Hall .. Perhaps U. The fact that 25 percent of the U. most Saudi men have only one wife. 14 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. but their personal privacy is important. people think of property as an extension of the self and are very possessive of it. not to equality in terms of wealth. Property can be viewed as private. In the U. Cultures that use intermediaries generally dislike confrontations and are group oriented. In some cultures. The Saudi Arabians are also friendly and hospitable. students would be on a more equal footing with such cultures as Japan. The guiding ideal of U. Because of the separation of genders. or mental ability. Intermediaries are people who act as go betweens with other people. were able to put men on the moon. 7. there is no dating. employee. equality in that culture would imply the person is equal in terms of social class. Social reciprocity is important in Mexico. school system have to concede that something must be right about the system since people of the U. while Mexicans think of property ownership in relation to feelings and need. now most people choose their mates.some people are being allowed to choose their mates. S. refers to equality of opportunity. educational system is based on the principle that as people as possible should have access to as much education is the many as 2. S. S. S. where 99 percent complete high school. S. and calculating) so that U. or community. universities will continue to be important. is that all persons who are academically qualified should have access to higher education. Although intermediaries are not used in the U. utilitarian. Mexicans are good hosts and place great importance on being a good employer. 8. The Japanese are also concerned with social reciprocity that can be seen in the importance they place on gift giving. 9.S. especially in negative situations. perhaps because it is very expensive because so many people live in such small geographic areas. writing. In Japan most marriages were arranged in the past. since some postsecondary schools have low admissions standards. Japan. in contrast to other nations where applicants would not have access to their colleges. 3.

but should include such items as languages.S. Do you feel that everyone who is in Iraq as a foreign worker should train an Iraqi to replace him/her? The answer to this question will vary but should include arguments for the U. The U. What characteristics that you possess would be a strength or a weakness? This will be individual in response. and those for who English is a second language. family situations. Americans often do return to their native country to learn about their own ethnic heritage. housing. and standards of cleanliness. Formerly communist states gave everyone necessities and jobs. How would you prepare for the welcoming and/or the hatred you would experience? Through predeparture training. and mindsets. 3. Case 5 1. a person should be prepared for the Iraqis who welcome us and the ones who do not. the reasons why it is difficult 15 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education.S. physical. including customs and beliefs. education situation. system is geared to accommodate students of various academic aspirations as well as the physically impaired. the fact that culture is learned and the willingness to learn a new culture. Part of the preparation should be arguments to use with those who do not want us there. not being stereotypical.S. 2. understanding enculturation. publishing as Prentice Hall . A predeparture training program on these issues should be a requirement. and social hierarchies and interaction. and differences in political structures. differences in GDPs. food and diet. Now individuals will have to learn how to compete and be part of the new economic and political systems. differences in costs of living. in the future not requiring as many of their students to study abroad. Case 3 The people will have to learn to accept risk. If you chose to take one of the positions. and psychological dimensions.’s not staying longer than necessary in Iraq (or any country staying in another country).possible. 4. Case 2 Children of other nationalities who have been adopted by U. Case 4 The feasibility of developing one monetary system to do away with exchange rates is questionable. Inc. what would you want to know? The answer should include information on the universal systems such as political situation. acculturation ethnocentrism. because of widely fluctuating economies in various countries. lack of modern conveniences. S. economic situation. Cultural problems would include typical types of cultural shock. and a willingness to be open and learn new ideas and ways of life. Foreign countries will be able to develop educational systems similar to the U.

Inc. The CultureGrams series would be an excellent source for locating this information on patriarchal and matriarchal family systems. the fact that only the Iraqi people can form a new political and economic structure for Iraq. is one of the strongest nations in the world and fear by the Iraqis that we want their oil and our reason for being there may not be altruistic. different education. Current event articles can also be brought in for this part of the question. 5. publishing as Prentice Hall .S. The local international student organization may be a good contact for finding names of Asian or Latin American students to interview. Possible references to suggest include the CultureGrams series or the encyclopedia. 16 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. The language problem is very large. people consider normal. 3. What are the intercultural relationship problems in this current situation? Different religion. and economic structure than what the U. The fact that the U. Instructors may wish to provide a list of countries from which students could choose to assure a variety and that two students do not select the same country.S.5. political. 2. for a people to be occupied (freedom. social hierarchy and interaction differences). Activities 1. cultural differences. Providing a list of countries would again be recommended to avoid possible duplication of countries on which reports are made. different family structure. 4. the fact that the Iraq people need to have incomes and be part of the process of rebuilding their own nation. outsiders.

and religious leaders.Chapter 3 Contrasting Cultural Values Questions 1. Latin cultures do not place the same importance on time as do people of the U. include equality. In the U. and Canada. 5. Values held by people in the U. people value work and subscribe to the work ethic. In Libya. Cultural roots influence attitudes toward women. In much of Europe. Religion plays a minor role in conducting business in the U. is a time-.S. informality.. warm. which in the U. “Grease” payments are considered ethical by the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977. teachers. Australians would use the word bloke for man and sandshoes for sneakers.S. women are considered equal to men and hold leadership positions in government and industry. and directness are not valued in Asian cultures. 17 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. the U. individualism.S. the past is revered. publishing as Prentice Hall . Although business is not conducted on such religious holidays as 2. Countries in the Far East are beginning to advance women in business. The Japanese work long hours Monday through Friday but do not usually work weekends as do U.S. France. The term attribution means the ability to look at social behavior from another culture's view.S. Communication problems occur because known experiences from your own culture are used to explain unknown behaviors of those in another culture. Equality. individualism. means plain but to the English it means friendly.S. as evidenced by the custom of closing businesses during the month of August so that people can go on vacation.S.S. Attitudes toward ethics are culturally diverse.S. attitudes toward work seem more relaxed. however. future-. and comfortable. 6. informality. 3. 8. An example of semantic differences is the use of the word homely. values. and directness. Persons in other cultures do not share these U. women are considered subordinate to men. while in the Middle East progress is slow. Inc. which means that hard work is rewarded and failure to work is viewed negatively. while in some Latin American countries the practice of using gifts to assure success in sealing an agreement is an accepted way of conducting business. businesspeople. and work-oriented society. 4. Accepting bribes would not be considered ethical in the U.. Values are formed by contacts with family members. Semantic differences can affect intercultural communication when the word used has multiple meanings and when the English word does not have a counterpart in a foreign language. In the Asian and Arab cultures. The media also has an impact on the formation of values. 7.S. the people are not future-oriented. In the U.

Case 2 Cultural attitudes and behaviors Laura Green could expect as a woman negotiating a contract for fast-food restaurants in Saudi Arabia include separation of males and females in the society. Countries that are collectivistic include South and Central American countries. In Saudi Arabia the official religion is Islam. people do not feel obligated to participate in religious ceremonies since the U.S. and interdependence.S.S. Inc. 18 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. and many of their restrictions apply to women from other cultures. Helping one’s family is a valid reason for missing work in Mexico. workers may have preceded him when entering an elevator or room (Asians permit those of higher rank to enter first). Conducting business during the month of Ramadan is not recommended as Muslims are required to fast from dawn to sunset. Canada. will do so only if they know and trust her. Collectivism emphasizes common interests. conformity. steady eye contact (Asians do not favor direct eye contact). so meetings with Saudis would need to be flexible to allow for this ritual. Case 1 The behaviors Ching Lee observed of the U. Pakistan and Indonesia. 9. in Mexico most people stay near their extended families.S. publishing as Prentice Hall . for the most part family members take care of themselves. Cultures that are primarily individualistic include the U. In the U. 10. A parent would not expect children or other extended family members to accompany them to the doctor or school. where children do not necessarily continue to live near their relatives as adults. Also bosses are considered to be a parental figure and would be expected to know that if the subordinate is not at work there is a valid reason. cooperation. work is first and family is second. Individualism refers to the attitude of valuing ourselves as separate individuals with responsibility for our own destinies and actions. Great Britain. and the workers may have been assertive or direct in their communication style (Asians prefer being indirect).S. although they will do business with a woman. has never had an official state church.. Green would need to understand that most Arabs. Ms. Case 3 Mr. Muslims observe the ritual of stopping work five times a day to pray. in Mexico family is first and work is second. and the Netherlands. Unlike the U.S.Christmas and Easter. In the U. they do not drive a car. Women do not socialize with men in public. Australia. workers that may have led to the conclusion that workers were not giving him the proper respect could have included: addressing him by his first name (Asians typically would not address superiors by their first name). Hunt needed to learn about family values in Mexico. the Japanese and Chinese value the group approach over individualism.

S. they do enjoy their pastries.Case 4 First Disney must learn about the different European cultures and understand they are dealing with many different cultures. Foreign professors or professors of foreign languages are good sources to talk on attitudes toward women in other cultures. other Europeans particularly would realize this fact. If only one day a week is dedicated to family outings in France. 19 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Case 5 The Taiwanese would feel they are being polite by listening intently and not making conversation. personnel agencies. To identify women in high-ranking positions in another country. The results could then be combined and statistically analyzed to determine differences between attitudes toward work among the five groups.S. and newspapers are good sources for finding names of women in high-ranking positions in government or business. however. Who's Who in Business is another possible source. 4. people that they were impressed with their presentation. businesspeople made them feel as if the Taiwanese were arrogant. coffee shops. discuss among themselves. embassies would be a good source. The Taiwanese not interacting with the U. Disney will need to revamp parts of the park with parks and picnic facilities. Disney could use interns or full-time employees from “friendly” countries to fill some of the key positions. The instructor could suggest foreign newscasts as sources. and foreign students from other English-speaking countries are also possible sources. and discuss with the other side. While the French may not snack. People visiting France would realize that most of the French employees in the country are not overtly friendly to strangers.S. 2. Individualistic cultures want to talk and do business immediately while collectivistic cultures want to listen. Public relations departments. cheese shops. the instructor may wish to provide a form on which all students would record responses. Responses will vary. Instructors may wish to provide an abstract format to assure consistency. Inc. then Disney must attract people from other cultures to use the park the other six days of the week. and wine shops. To assure consistency of format. then come back. The silence was being used to show attention and respect and was misunderstood as arrogance and a lack of being willing to share ideas. students who have lived in different parts of the U. The two sides look at doing business from very different perspectives. 3. Activities 1. 5. the Taiwanese were trying to show the U. Vacation structures and family structures will be very important considerations. publishing as Prentice Hall .

services. (concept that using any single training approach is not as effective as is using an approach which attempts to combine cognitive. you are fascinated with the food and people and tend to overlook minor problems and inconveniences. and acceptance. In the third stage. affective. climate. Positive coping skills to alleviate stress include diversions. The first stage can last a few days or several months. interaction approach (participants interact with people in the host country). such as taking up a hobby. you return to the home culture and experience reentry shock. crisis or disenchantment. 3. Cultural shock includes the frustrations that accompany a lack of understanding of the verbal and nonverbal communication of the host culture. The stages of cultural shock include: excitement or initial euphoria. adjustment. culture specific content. or communication. Types of cultural stress that may confront persons who are living abroad include adjusting to new foods and problems with housing. which may go through the initial four stages of cultural shock. and experiential processes). area training model or simulation model (emphasizes affective goals. During the second stage. Multinational firms can alleviate cultural shock by selecting employees for overseas assignments who possess certain personal and professional qualifications and by providing training programs for employees prior to overseas deployment. cultural awareness model (emphasizes cultural insight and stresses affective goals and an experiential process). 4. Inc. In the fourth phase. 20 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. planning family events. their customs. The term cultural shock is used to describe the trauma you experience when moving into a culture different from your home culture. publishing as Prentice Hall . 6. and behavioral aspects of training). In the final stage. self-awareness model or human relations model (based on the assumption that the trainee with self-understanding will understand the new culture better and will therefore be more effective in the overseas assignment). and values. your excitement turns to disappointment as some of the problems now appear to be overwhelming.Chapter 4 Cultural Shock Questions 1. you feel at home in the new culture and become involved in activities of the culture and make friends with the nationals. multidimensional approach. 5. you begin to make adjustments to the new culture and can see the humor in situations you cannot change. Approaches to intercultural training offered by multinational firms include: intellectual model or classroom model (participants are given facts about the host country using a variety of instructional methods). sharing 2.

it is not appropriate to address persons by their first names in business situations. changes in social life. banking practices and use of credit cards. American humor is often misunderstood by people in 21 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. things others don't know that I know (hidden). 7. and a change in the standard of living.S. and asking about the state of the Japanese economy. Sharing your feelings with other people who have lived abroad and with sympathetic family members and friends can also help counteract reentry shock. bringing gifts with the company logo. The panes of the window are used to represent things others know that I also know (arena or open). the public self is quite small. Inc. what is known to self and to others. things others know that I don't know (blind spot).problems with friends and family members. such as hiring domestic help and investing in appropriate formal attire. The types of reentry problems encountered by persons returning to the home culture include readjustment to the job (often perceived as a demotion). People in the U. and they often deal with poverty in socially unacceptable ways. cost and availability of housing.S. have a larger public self with the private self being relatively small. people living overseas are then grouped with the upper class. The employee may incur additional expenses related with a higher standard of living. and costs of schooling for employees with families. Keeping in touch with professional organizations and other groups with which you will want to affiliate is also helpful. 8. U. and in many developing countries.S. The Japanese are rather formal when compared to the U. Social class and poverty-wealth extremes can be sources of cultural shock for U. and things others don't know that I don't know (unknown). can be translated into one's public self and private self. 10. such as the Japanese. Jokes do not translate well in other languages. reestablishing friendships.S.S. while the private self is rather large. Case 1 Larry made several mistakes while trying to make a good impression on his Japanese hosts. Reentry shock can be alleviated somewhat by corresponding regularly with members of the home culture and by subscribing to the home newspaper to stay abreast of current happenings. The major dimensions of the Johari Window. uncomfortable. The Johari Window is used to depict how people in various cultures differ with respect to how much of the inner self is shared with others. and spiritual copers. readjusting to the lifestyle. changing one's mental outlook. is mainly one large middle class. Americans. therefore. The poverty of the lower class in other cultures makes people of the U. exercise and meditation. These include: asking the Japanese to call him by his first name. such as paying a maid twice the usual rate just because the person is poor. Americans in overseas assignments because the U. no middle class exists. 9.S. Types of financial adjustments associated with cultural shock include rate of exchange. publishing as Prentice Hall . In some cultures. telling several "humorous" stories.

other cultures. who can keep him up to date on any events that he may have missed. He may also talk to family members in the U. Since Japanese is a very complicated language. publishing as Prentice Hall . Karl should order the local Chicago newspaper to catch up on the events of the area. Case 2 Karl and his family have a big adjustment to make and should prepare for it fully. we tend not to drink as much during lunch. 22 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. culture. Case 4 With a little research Janice would have realized that English is used in business but is not used for everyday life. Larry should have also inquired into appropriate gift giving practices with the local staff who were more familiar with the Japanese culture.. Case 3 Frank had not prepared for his trip to Mexico by learning about the Mexican business culture. Mexicans also do not do business with someone they know nothing about. Because family is so important in Mexico. What does commitment mean to each of the cultures? Germany. however. If Frank had prepared. Knowing this she could have taken Japanese lessons to learn the basics she would need to understand to survive. she probably would not be able to become fluent before she moved to Japan. The first few meetings are getting to know each other meetings. speaking about the Japanese economy is an inappropriate topic for conversation in Japan. Mexicans also take a lot of pride in their history and would expect anyone interested in a business partnership with them would also be interested in Mexican history. Karl should also be prepared for a possible demotion in job title as well as salary upon returning to the U. Frank should have realized this was the first of many getting to know each other meetings and had nothing to do with Juan’s interest. Pre-departure training is very important when cultures are completely different. drinking during lunch in Mexico is still very normal. Better topics for small talk would have been history. If Juan had not been interested in a proposed partnership.m. Karl's son is an important consideration. he would have realized that lunch is around 2:00 p.S. Case 5 1. Juan wanted to know about Frank’s family and wanted to tell Frank about his family. Juan did not apologize for being late because he was not late. or art.S. Juan would not have met with Frank at all. Larry should have also known that the Japanese are comfortable with silence. he should become involved with activities involving other children and new friends as soon as possible to help lessen the reentry shock for him.S. Whereas in the U. Inc. Further. she would be able to find a tutor in Japan and continue to learn and practice her Japanese. and that it is for relaxation and getting to know each other not for a business discussion.

. and then Mexico. then the Dutch. Why were the members acting as they did? The Mexicans arrived late. The work ethics are somewhat different among the countries and could cause some prejudices such as a perception of laziness or that the other team members are not pulling their weight. Germans. then the Germans.2. and U. religion. How would exploring each other’s beliefs. perhaps only an indication that they probably had something else to finish first. 5. The group maintenance goals are most important to the Mexicans. 3. the Germans would be very focused. For the other three countries. A reason for cultural training is to avoid some of these problems or at least to understand why these differences take place. differences in meanings of gestures. Persons who have not traveled to a foreign country could be instructed to respond according to their experiences when returning to live in a certain part of the country after a prolonged absence.S.S. they would be able to work together better and carry out their task objectives more efficiently. The Netherlands. After returning to the U. and greetings. from Kenya. Instruct students to use a scale of 1 to 5. People simply treat others ethnocentrically until they learn not to do so. the U. norms.. and Mexico are very different in their work activities. Activities 1.S.. 2. eating practices. the U. Islamic style of dress. What knowledge would everyone need to know going into an international team? Each of the members needed to understand the basic cultural values of the other team members. Dutch. Mexicans like to get to know everyone before they really begin the task. Americans all can sit down and start to work immediately. you are always on time.S. and values at the beginning of the team building affect the group? If they all understood each other’s cultural values. the types of reentry shock a person might experience include: not having unexpected visits from friends and colleagues. Students' responses to cultural shock expected in Egypt could include: attitudes toward gender. 23 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Americans and the Dutch would have a lighter attitude towards the work.S. 3. How do task and group-maintenance goals differ in an international team of workers? The task goals are more important to the Germans. and more formal dress during work. 4. If you are a relationship-based country. then the U. publishing as Prentice Hall . differences in meanings of gestures. for evaluating a through e. with 5 representing a large degree of reentry shock and 1 representing the least degree of reentry shock. having children eat with the family again. What prejudices might these team members have against other group members? The three who are speaking English as a second language could have a prejudice against the U. then the Dutch. While the U. you are more concerned with the group maintenance goals than countries that are not relationship oriented. Inc.S.S. 6.

Suggest to students that they check the libraries of other public and private schools. publishing as Prentice Hall . in addition to their own school library. Inc.4. 24 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. 5. Students could simply review material in the chapter to determine the most important qualifications to look for when deciding which job applicants to interview.

talking about sex. They also develop a self-esteem and importance many times due to this differentiation. they would find a loud. 7. The examples could include refraining from swearing. would be able to interpret what is meant more accurately than a monocultural/bilingual interpreter. Language differentiates us into groups by controlling the way we think. because they understand both cultures. of becoming their own group. German. Many times there are not equivalent words in both languages and the intended meaning becomes very important. or French extraction. 4. If a U. 3. salesperson would probably not get the sale.S. the person would understand the work attitude differences if they could speak the language because they would understand some of the cultural differences. The reasons teenagers and other groups develop jargon and slang are many and varied. More verbal dueling is also observed in the North and Northeast portions of 2.Chapter 5 Language Questions 1. The Japanese' nonverbal behaviors are very small and hard for most U. and how we judge others.S. they develop a feeling of separation.. Many people believe other cultures do not care about their jobs or are more demanding because of the way they express ideas. therefore. Teenagers want to differentiate themselves from the main stream culture (particularly their parents). or others. 5. Ethnic groups that enjoy verbal dueling in the U. fast-talking person offensive. The Japanese use a low voice when they speak without much inflection. how we perceive. 25 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. 6. By developing their own meanings for everyday words. include those of Italian. talking about home problems. A worker would need to be knowledgeable of a foreign language in situations where the worker interfaces with the other cultures directly. If the salesperson did their homework on Japan and chose to ignore what they learned. publishing as Prentice Hall . A bicultural/bilingual. The students are also to give examples of slang or jargon used by people with whom they associate. or did not do their homework and proceeded to treat the Japanese like they do people in the U. Greek. person is working for a German national in the U.S. the Japanese would find the salesperson distasteful.. and it allows them to know who one of them is and who is not. A bicultural/bilingual interpreter has a better understanding of what is meant as well as what is said. Students are to give examples of conversation taboos in their home or group of friends.S.S. Inc. people to catch versus our nonverbal dramatization as we speak. the way we shape concepts.S. A flamboyant U.

within the main society. Argot is language of a co-culture. publishing as Prentice Hall .the U. meaning to the same 9. Culture and language affect the way we think. 11. At the linear end a person answers the why to the question and assumes the what. In the U. and should be 26 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. In the European Union. deal with one another regularly. Generally the words are the same but the meanings change. the Hispanics. In countries in which interacting with people from other cultures is quite common. Vocabulary equivalence means there are words with the same meaning. Restricted code messages are generally between people who know each other quite well. We learn to think along a linear or nonlinear continuum. Spanish should be considered the first language. for example. A word will not have equivalence if a subgroup attributes another or another country may attribute a different word. by not learning English as well as the rest of the country. to them. Our culture teaches us how we should perceive what has been said to us. as opposed to the South and Southeast. Florida could lose major revenues each year that are generated by tourists. it may hurt their chances of getting into college which in turn will hurt their chances to achieve politically and economically. we will use our own background which may or may not be like the speaker's background. due to a large Hispanic population in Florida. several co-cultures practice an argot form of English including the Black Americans. If younger people of Florida do not speak English well enough. Case 1 The suggestion that. The restricted codes of the Bernstein Hypothesis are messages that are highly predictable and require no explanation.S. 10. the teaching of other languages should be a priority. If we lack the cultural background. and a number of subgroups. which is an English-speaking country.S. it is still part of the United States. whether it is taught as a first or second language.S. countries are very close together.S. Spanish Americans. citizens who are not Hispanic and who do not know Spanish will not be as likely to visit the state. 8. a subgroup. Elaborated code messages are used with strangers and involve detail and explicit information in an attempt to prevent misunderstanding. makes no sense.S. Because the main language of the U. may be creating a separate society. It is very frustrating when each believes they have asked the correct question to solicit the answer they desire only to receive an answer that. at the nonlinear end the person answers what happened and assumes the why. Southerners do not like confrontation and often view verbal dueling as arguing. Despite this large Hispanic population in Florida. U. brings up several problems. Inc. Teaching Spanish as a first language and English as a second language could result in isolating Florida from the rest of the U. is English (which most immigrants have learned). in each language vocabulary meaning to the word. If Spanish becomes the language of Florida.

The lack of a common language is one of the main problems that India. the U. Joe faced a barrier before he even started. Getting to know the persons with whom you work is very important in the Mexican culture. By not meeting the people. manager could live with the incorrect English easier than his customers could live with incorrect Portuguese or Spanish and a good possibility the U. Case 3 They should hire the Brazilian because he would know how to hire people in South America. but were using their language because it was easier for them to think about technical changes in their first language. all countries and their cultures in a sense are on equal ground. people were offended because they could not understand the dialogue and were cut out of the conversation. The Germans did not mean to be rude. perhaps the plans for improvement would have been accepted. and if you do not learn the language of the mainstream. get their opinions.S. Inc. you should apologize to the 27 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Canada. publishing as Prentice Hall . He needed to learn about the local customs. Language determines an individual's cognition and perception. you may not know all the correct terminology. you would not have the conceptual framework to explain your ideas and opinions to others. Since the bottom line is what matters in business. While Joe thought the people did not care about their work. and care about their families. the U. it is easier to think about it in your home language and then translate it into the second language later. Case 2 Joe was apparently unfamiliar with the Mexican culture and did not understand the Mexican way of thinking. you work hard for someone because you care what happens to them and they care for you as an individual.S.S. If it is necessary to speak with another in your first language. If Joe had established good rapport and focused on how to meet the needs of the Mexican to communicate. and because he speaks Spanish and Portuguese would have no problem calling on people in South American countries. holidays. and the EU share. would have no problem living in South America. he did not speak the language. and activities and take a part in them. person would be culturally deficient. In the Mexican culture. However. Also if you are thinking about something new particularly. Because he understands the Hispanic mindset. no predominant culture exists. they were disappointed that Joe did not care about them. he would not feel uncomfortable doing business on their terms. he sent the unintentional message that he did not think the Mexican people were worth meeting or knowing. A production manager in a Mexican facility would need to know his workers by name. In the EU. Joe should have tried to understand the Mexicans' perspectives as to what was important and what was not important. talk with them. Case 4 When you learn a new language. Many of the internal problems in countries are due to ethnic differences. Joe should have learned at least a little Spanish to let the people know he cared.

S. politics. 4. persons living in the United States is extremely rude. promptness. In addition. 5. the assumption (an assumption that is accurate according to some research) is that the person speaking another language is speaking negatively about them. include how much things cost.S. Carlos should also be informed that speaking a language other than English when in the presence of U. When Barbara. employees do not hug each other or use terms of endearment. Responses will vary. and nonacccusatory. and speaking Spanish in the presence of others.” When Barbara offers constructive criticism to Carlos. The local library will have books listed under proverbs and parables that can be used for completing this activity. Students who have not traveled to other countries may provide a list of slang expressions that would have negative connotations in certain parts of the U. in addition to ones students may have learned from their personal experience. the Axtell books contain numerous examples.people who do not speak the language before you begin and then translate the discussion for them when you finish. manager. and other problems such as India's caste system and poverty. the U. promptness and dependability on the job are expected and that work takes precedence over the family. such as “honey” and “sweetie.S.” impersonal culture. students will probably mention problems with word usage. workplace. subject/verb agreement. Case 5 Cultural differences between people of the United States and Venezuela often account for issues in the U. Barbara would explain that the United States is a “no touch. Inc. Instructors may wish to provide an abstract format for students to use for the article on use of interpreters. Activities 1. political problems. she should keep in mind cultural differences in importance of the family.S. a person's work. 2. nonaggressive. Barbara needs to be aware that supervision of male employees by female managers may not be the norm in Venezuela and that she should keep the evaluation session nonconfrontational. incorrect tense. Possible conversation taboos in other cultures may be questions about one's family or other personal information. conducts the evaluation session with Carlos. Although responses will vary. and religion. and failure to use plurals when appropriate. she should explain that in the United States. enunciation. past wars. 28 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Possible conversation taboos in the U. 3. publishing as Prentice Hall . If the instructor would like to provide examples of slang expressions.S. thus. pronunciation. expressions of familiarity.

publishing as Prentice Hall .6. students may have encountered passages in other books that have been translated in which the message was changed from the meaning intended. 29 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Responses will vary. Inc.

the United States. while the Japanese views this as impulsive. Making quick decisions is a characteristic of U. Cultures that are comfortable with bodily contact include the Latin and Middle East countries. Switzerland. The deductive method of problem solving is used in the U. 5. monochronic and polychronic time. Canada. and people of the Mediterranean) do several things at once and do not mind interruptions. Spain. Differences in body language of people in various cultures include: people in the U. on the other hand. People of the Philippines speak softly.S. and some Latin Americans use vigorous gestures. or holding hands. Scandinavia.. Greeks. 8. 30 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Cultures that do not favor direct eye contact include the Japanese and people of China and Indonesia. Burmese. embracing. and Eastern Europe. would be shaking hands. Olfactics (smell) can have a positive or negative effect on intercultural encounters.S. The Japanese. Cultures that favor direct eye contact include Britain. volume. and perspiration. 7. publishing as Prentice Hall . Space needs of people in the United States are greater than those in Latin America or Greece. Japan. and Russia. and Australia. managers. 6. Canada. (going from broad categories to specific examples to determine facts. have greater space needs than people of the United States. Attitudes toward time are reflected in the two time systems.S. People in countries that follow monochronic time (the U. England. the Arabs. Arabs speak loudly. inappropriate contact would include giving hugs. then solutions to problems). and Germany) perform only one major activity at a time. and quality that affect meanings of messages. and Samoans. the Chinese and Japanese keep hands and arms close to their bodies when speaking. use moderate gesturing. people respond negatively to body odor. Greece. People in countries that follow polychronic time (Latin Americans.. Cultures that avoid bodily contact include the U.S. Most U. 4.S. Thought patterns include the speed with which decisions are made. 3. The inductive method is used by Asians (starting with facts or observations and going to generalizations). England. Smell is important to the Japanese. Inc. breath odor. Paralanguage refers to rate. Italians and Arabs speak faster than do people of the United States.S. Appropriate bodily contact in the U.Chapter 6 Oral and Nonverbal Communication Patterns Questions 1. while Italians. Portugal.S. The Arabs are comfortable with natural odors and often breathe on people when they talk. 2. Italy.

S. like many U. show respect by not maintaining eye contact. and Greece use little silence. but white is worn to Japanese funerals. Many cultures. the movement of their heads in an up and down motion may have simply meant "we're listening. Phrase such as "It is very difficult for us to sign" are meant to save the other party from the embarrassment of receiving a direct "no" in response to the request. Black is the color of mourning in the U.S. S. she would have known that Germans are typically more time conscious than people in the U. For social occasions one arrives half an hour to an hour after the time on the invitation." Case 2 In the negotiation between the representative of the U. Since punctuality is highly regarded by Germans.S. Italy. Had Barbara been better informed about the German culture and its values. such as China. 10. and members of the Japanese firm. Inc. Silence following a question could mean that the person does not know the answer. The implication may also have been that your organization is more inefficient than other firms in the U.S. S. people of the U. but at least I speak both languages. Anna may have been saying nonverbally: "Maybe the materials were delayed. This and other social blunders can be eliminated with training and reading. people..S.9. The meaning of silence following a tasteless joke could be disapproval or a lack of understanding. The situation could have been made more positive by simply asking for the reasons why the deliveries during a certain period had been delayed. publishing as Prentice Hall . The Japanese are comfortable with silence. she may have insulted Anna's national pride. just that they are being politely attentive. The meaning of silence during a conversation with someone you know well could be dissent or disapproval. Case 4 Fred. believes people show respect by maintaining eye contact. By sending her reply in German (which Barbara did not speak). Some colors have a positive connotation in one culture and a negative connotation in another. Case 3 Pre-departure training would have corrected this faux pas.." Nodding of the head does not necessarily mean that they agree with you. Saving face is an important aspect in Japanese society. wear white. Even Arabs who maintain 31 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. but brides in India wear red or yellow. Harry could have also asked a colleague when he should arrive at the party. Brides in the U. Case 1 Barbara's asking Anna in the e-mail why the Germans cannot get their materials shipped on time could be perceived as a generalization that Germans are never on time.

S. Nonverbal aspects of miscommunication could include chromatics. 3. Eye contact is probably one of the most misinterpreted nonverbal communication signals. and what is considered appropriate classroom behavior. Students who have traveled widely will. The Axtell books (Do's and Taboos . importance of the family. 2. Activities 1. is direct. Responses will vary. 4. of course. U. Case 5 Cultural differences involved in this situation include different attitudes toward tardiness. will defer eye contact between opposite sexes to show respect.) and books by Martin and Chaney (Global Business Etiquette and Passport to Success) are good sources of material. In Canada students are expected to be on time. Egyptian males would not shake hands or hug a female other than a family member.prolonged eye contact between the same sex. in Japan it is impolite to look superiors or elders directly in the eye. . males with females/males. The instructor could divide the class into small groups. oculesics. 5. males and females would shake hands. when they are unavoidably late. and in the Middle East eye contact is intense between males but much more indirect between males and females. chronemics. . 32 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. accent. and proxemics. they should quietly take their seat and wait until the end of class to apologize to the professor in private. such as: interaction between Latin American males with females/males. Latin American females and males would hug if they know each other. U. Latin American and Egyptian males would hug. haptics. Prior to preparing the skit. All cultures make many assumptions based on the amount of eye contact they expect to receive. kinesics. Perhaps the instructor would want to make flash cards for students to use for testing other students' knowledge of these gestures.S. class members should discuss possible scenarios that would make for an interesting skit. The instructor could find numerous examples of gestures with various meanings in different cultures in the Axtell books. have more opportunities to encounter incidents of miscommunication.S. and pronunciation. Inc. and Egyptian males with females/males. tone. olfactics. enunciation. different priorities often exist in such countries as Canada. Eye contact in the U. Plausible explanations could include rate of speech. While in South America the family is considered more important than work or school. publishing as Prentice Hall .

the buffer is pleasant but does not say what the bad news is directly. and syntactic errors are the incorrect order of the words in the sentence. the writer's name. inside address is title and full name first line-street number and street name second line-city. avoid humor. then the writer's title. 3. very friendly salutation followed by colon. The formats of business letters in the U.S. words that paint a picture for one culture may give a very different picture in another culture. 33 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. People from two cultures who speak the same language may have difficulty communicating due to lexical errors. slang. date is day-month-year. use short. use a collaborative tone. Inc. differences in spelling. date is month-day-year. uses a buffer. complimentary close is very formal followed by the company name. simple sentences.S. publishing as Prentice Hall . The tone and writing style of foreign correspondents is more formal and traditional. nonverbal signals with different cultural meanings. state. A buffer is used in U. 5. The Japanese tone and letter style is different from the U. Guidelines for writing e-mail messages to international colleagues include the following: Use some phrases in the customer’s language.S. The difference between lexical and syntactic errors is that lexical errors are content errors or differences in word meaning. 2.Chapter 7 Written Communication Patterns Questions 1. 8.block style. Chinese. four lines. letters to begin a letter that contains bad news. The Japanese write in the plural rather than the first or second person. 4. 7. In order to utilize international English. The Japanese open with a statement concerning the weather or season of the year. and cultural differences between the two speakers. avoid dwelling on cultural differences. and Latin America are as follows: U. the following cultural factors need to be considered: An understanding of business communication in the other culture. salutation followed by a colon or no punctuation mark. .S. and zip code third line. name of street then street number on second line. Latin America . knowledge of how business communication is taught in the other culture. Latin Americans avoid the bad news. and knowing that content errors are more difficult for another culture to discern than language errors.S.block style. Reading between the lines is expected by Latin Americans. 6. Bad news--U. and Japanese writers.

they generally maintain their deadlines and expect to be left alone to complete them. 9. does not include a picture. You could use a personnel search firm in Germany. If it is for a position that needs experience.S. Case 2 If the members of two corporations do not speak a common language and are to work together. slang.S. the search should be conducted in Germany. résumé is very different from some countries and similar to others. It is considerably shorter with less detail than the German résumé. They work hard. Since the U. Case 3 Although the U. phone number. résumé are name. Since the position is in Germany.S. The U. executive was not living in England. avoid use of all capital letters. Inc. U. Short term an interpreter. Long term it would be best if someone from both corporations learn the native language of the other corporation. Have the people send their résumé to you at your office and then review them to find which people you would want to interview. and Australians think they understand each other because they happen to be descendents of the British Isles and all speak English. they acted as children and did everything according to the book. you would want to contact the universities.S. or idioms. 10. or consultant could be used. corporations orders. Case 1 To find a list of potential candidates for a management position in a U. be generous with compliments. you would place ads in le Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung and Suddeutsche Zeitung.S.S. they will need to have a common language or very good interpreters and translators. This assumption has destroyed numerous business deals. Canadian. Items currently included in U. address. GDSS system. Studies have found that the corporation who appeals to a foreign corporation's culture generally is the one that gets the orders. be explicit.. education. if he planned to do business in England he needed cultural training. and does not include hobbies and activities but may include military experience unlike the British résumé.S. It would be best if the ad were written in German even though the person you would want would probably speak English. The English are different. religion or age as does the French résumé.S. does not include family information like the Spanish résumé. translator. jargon. they also do not take kindly to ultimatums and tend to want to get even. corporations generally expect the other company to learn English. Currently this position is costing many U. executive was going to (in their minds) treat them as children. and avoid showing anger and assigning blame. maintain a consistent organizational pattern. Many U. job objective.avoid abbreviations. publishing as Prentice Hall . corporate office in Germany. English. All paper work was 34 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. contractions. The English have a stubborn nature. experience. If it is a beginning position. and references. you need to obtain résumés of candidates as follows.

and should contain compliments and apologies when appropriate. you will not have the booth. the English were saying that we could have finished it on time.S. Suggested bad-news letter is shown below: 3. or any other topic about which the individual wishes to joke. and humor. or ignore the humor. it is unclear to the receiver whether they are to act upon the humor. and many cultures find this distasteful. The U. Basically. The dictionary is the best source for determining the Latin or Germanic roots of words in the English language. publishing as Prentice Hall . sex. Initial messages should be spent on introductions and building relationships. should be explicit. and strategies for handling problem situations in the absence of nonverbal communication. persons do not have a dry or sarcastic sense of humor and find it hard to appreciate such humor. Case 4 U. food. Case 5 Since the intercultural virtual team is composed of members from China. Inc. use short. e-mail messages should focus on relationship building. simple sentences. Email messages should avoid dwelling on cultural differences.perfect before they would allow the booth to be picked up. and the United States. jokes are made about everything from religion. Disadvantages of virtual teams include problems associated with communicating solely via written communication among people who speak different languages. France. avoid slang. Activities 1. persons use humor which foreigners find very difficult to understand. Instruct students to look in the foreign language section of the library to complete this activity. 35 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education.S. jokes are disrespectful of someone or something. In the U. if you do not have faith in us. and Mexicans.S. lack of face-to-face interaction. Most libraries also carry some foreign journals or newspapers. jargon. Most U. however.S. When humor is used out of context. person should have talked to the advertising firm first before having done anything. Much of humor is a play on words which is lost when someone does not speak the language fluently and understand the culture completely. 2. work. idioms. French.S. Mexico. sports. laugh. Many of the U. which is important to the Chinese. and should avoid the typical North American style of being direct and abrupt.

Your order is appreciated. 2---. 2--- Mr. Smith: Your electronics order has been received. Jane Brewer September 10. 2--. Sincerely. James Smith The Copper Company 1010 Holmes Road Memphis. We expect delivery of the parts you ordered by October 2. Inc. TN 38018 Dear Mr. TN 38117 Distribution Manager: Brewer Jane Allow us to open with all reverence to you: The warm part of the year is now here and we are enjoying the change in the weather. and hope that this meets with your schedule. as a businessperson you realize that sometimes this is not possible. publishing as Prentice Hall .September 10. 2--The Copper Company Attention Yoshida Kumar The Electronic Company 4646 Poplar Avenue Memphis. We will supply the electronic parts you requested after October 2. Let us close with 36 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education.and will ship them upon arrival. Although we try to have all parts in stock at all times. We congratulate you on a very prosperous business.

5. the accusation. sentence construction. Students should concentrate on the fact that one person is group oriented and the other is individual oriented. Have the students consult a text designed for people who speak English as a second language for vocabulary that is appropriate for the letter. use of abbreviations. 9. and use of person's title in the attention line. Second Fax: too apologetic. 6. sentence structure. word usage. Instruct students to note the job requirements as to language skills or other qualifications that are not typically required of a U. grammar. 8. no room to save face. 7. position.S. The students can follow the suggested formats in the text or research beyond the text for the appropriate format. 37 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. word usage. publishing as Prentice Hall . Inc. Students should have identified such errors as missing articles.4. Instructors could provide a case problem that all students would use as a basis for writing the letter. and word usage. Provide students with an appropriate letter format or instruct them to follow guidelines given in the chapter. Writing that could have been improved upon include: First Fax: the strength of disappointment. such as asking the foreign person to write a letter thanking someone for a gift. incorrect/ informal English. 10. and writing style.

3. the lack of nonverbal interaction. tend to be rather informal. the Middle East.S. 4. In Mexico lunch time is from 2 to 4 p.. Flaming means sending vicious. number of courses served. Introductions in the U. The caste system the person belongs to is determined at birth. Good telephone manners include answering the phone promptly (first or second ring). The recipient examines the card and makes some comment while accepting it.m. rude attitude. not paying attention. In Latin American countries even 2. In Britain people who have been knighted are introduced as "Sir" and the first name only (Sir Thomas). 5. publishing as Prentice Hall .S. The respect for age alone is not as apparent in the U. The Japanese use both hands when presenting the business card and position it so that the recipient can read it. 6. a relationship exists between gender and age and position and status. education. the society is divided into castes. and interaction between castes is limited. In the U. including the frequent use of "please" and "thank you. identifying yourself properly by giving your department and your name. they are not routinely exchanged on the first meeting. Business cards are usually exchanged in the U. and manner or style of eating. The disadvantage is lack confidentiality and." Avoid putting people on hold for prolonged periods. 7. Titles are used when introducing people in Germany and Italy. of course.Chapter 8 Business and Social Etiquette Questions 1. The recipient simply glances at the card and puts it in his or her pocket. Also avoid mouth noises. the Pacific and Asia.S. Inc. In India a class system exists. Business card exchange is an expected part of introductions in Europe. is not a nation of classes. and occupation or profession. and having a negative.S.m. 38 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. shouting is typing the message in all capital letters. and the Caribbean. and being courteous at all times. In the U.S. 8. a person's age is not viewed as an indication of seniority.S.S. Cultural differences in dining practices involve times of day meals are eaten. but subtle class distinctions exist based on wealth. while in the U. only when there is a reason to contact the person later. First names are used almost immediately. The U. Introductions are more formal in other cultures. as it is in Asian and Arab cultures. Women are given leadership positions in business and government and are considered equal to men. insulting messages. it is usually 12 to 2 p. E-mail has the advantage of having a low preparation and fast delivery time as well as being personal and convenient for the receiver.

is that the gift must be modest in price ($25 or less). 12. Tahitians eat their food with their fingers. Armenians give an 10. informal meals have only one to three courses. forks. A general rule to follow is that the gift should be U. you are not expected to leave an additional tip in most European countries. In Japan. consumables of high quality. 13. and number.S. The primary guideline for business gift giving in the U. In most other countries the Continental style is used. and spoons are replaced by other utensils. while in the U. Tiffany & Co. gift giving is very much a part of conducting business. In addition to tipping in restaurants. knives. U. which involves placing the fork in the left hand and knife in the right hand and placing the food onto the back of the fork before placing the food the mouth. white is the color of mourning. gifts are beautifully wrapped but without the ornate bows used on U. 11.S. gifts. In China. 9. In Europe a service charge is added to your restaurant and hotel bill. Gifts considered appropriate for a U. avoid a gift of carnations. The manner of eating in the U. The Japanese do not open a gift in front of the giver.S. avoid giving a gift in the presence of another person. followed by a verbal and written expression of appreciation. red. they are associated with funerals and mourning. variety. Cultural taboos related to flowers involve color. gifts are opened in front of the giver. be useful. bellman. In some cultures.S.S.S. and designer-made products containing such names as Gucci. Avoid sending yellow. which involves switching the fork from the left to the right hand after cutting the meat. is the zigzag style.. a gift of white gladioli would be inappropriate. made. person to give someone in another culture include imported liquor (except in Islamic cultures). and other service personnel who may carry your luggage. thus. Tipping customs in other cultures vary. In China. restaurants is to tip 15 to 20 percent of the bill. and gladioli are often used in funeral sprays. Native American art or jewelry. Business gifts should be personal. In the U. Red roses are associated with romance in some cultures. for example. and have conversational value.informal meals usually have numerous courses. yet not too personal. which are for cemeteries only. the gift must be presented when someone else is present so it will not be interpreted as a bribe. however. Many Asians use chopsticks. U.S.S. Inc. or Mark Cross. 39 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Musical tapes and CDs are also good choices. In the Arab countries. tipping is prohibited. traveling involves the following situations in which tipping is expected: cab driver. publishing as Prentice Hall .S. fork tines down. Tipping in Japan is also frowned upon.S. for example. especially for eating rice. or deliver small appliances to your hotel room. Avoid gag gifts as people of some cultures do not appreciate them. Gift-giving practices are not the same in all cultures. Presentation is important. Chrysanthemums would be inappropriate in both Japan and Italy. or white flowers to a Mexican host as these colors have negative connotations for some classes of Mexicans. summon a cab. In most European countries. A general guideline for tipping in U.-made sports equipment.

In Thailand and Hong Kong. the U. Generally. A leather briefcase would be a popular gift. He probably should have avoided alcohol. Inc.S. high quality consumables. without first asking permission of the person seated behind you. If at all possible. 15. If alcohol was welcomed. Because of the limited space.S. limit their time on the telephone and in the bathroom. The pen and pencil set are not appropriate. businessman. Mark should have presented the gifts while in Japan. as any items "made in Japan" would not be appropriate gifts to the Japanese from a U. three is a lucky number so give gifts of three in these countries. 14. Also. For the Chinese. some frozen steaks or a bottle of Scotch might be a better choice. Instead of a country ham. it should have been a brand made in the U. and it should have 40 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. The bright red wrapping paper and matching bows on the gifts are also inappropriate. and make sure that their children do not engage in annoying activities. as it was not known whether the host drinks. Avoid putting one’s seat back in a reclining position when traveling in the main cabin.S. passengers should refrain from wearing strong fragrances. if it has the company logo.. Case 2 Latin American people are far less time conscious than the people of the U. Passengers should also remember to stay out of the aisles as much as possible. Case 1 Gift giving is an important aspect of nonverbal communication with the Japanese.S.m. The clock is an acceptable gift but would be more appropriate without the company logo. and liquor. Although the invitation was for 9 p. Mark's ideas present several problems. Lightly tinted rice paper would have been the best choice for wrapping the gifts. a good rule to follow is to let the persons of the other culture initiate the gift giving. They should respect the preferences of those seated next to them related to conversations. Mark should add another gift to the list to avoid a multiple of four.uneven number of flowers on happy occasions. the logo should be very small. but Mark's presentation of gifts is welcome in the Japanese culture. American was not expected to arrive right on time but at least 10 to 15 minutes late.S. Airline passengers should be especially considerate of those around them and careful that their behavior does not offend anyone. the gifts should have been delivered in person. Further. Other welcome gifts he could include would be coins. Dressing professionally sends the message that you care about the impression you make on your compatriots and on persons of other cultures. People who wear a suit or executive casual when traveling often get better service from airline personnel and from hotel employees upon their arrival. because the number four has morbid connotations. publishing as Prentice Hall . four is the most negative number so gifts of four flowers should be avoided.. executive brought a bottle of alcohol unwrapped. even numbers of flowers are associated with death. However. the U. musical tapes and CDs.

she can ask if either of the people seated beside her are flying with someone else on the plane and offer to switch seats. The visitor should have tipped the taxi driver 15 to 20 percent of the fare. Students may volunteer to act as persons from the various cultures listed. the hotel bellman who helped with the luggage a minimum of $5. You can refuse to eat the item and probably lose face with your fellow employees. Ask students to evaluate others in the group on their effectiveness in business card presentation to someone from Japan. a.been wrapped.S. Case 5 Research by the visitor from Singapore would have determined that the United States is a high tipping culture. Señora María Comerlato-Velasquez d. Chung c. tipping include Chaney and Martin’s The Essential Guide to Business Etiquette (2007). You can tell them you have an allergy or medical condition and that your doctor has told you not to eat such foods. Sir Thomas Edward Peacock Divide the class into small groups for this activity. If these two options fail. Inc. Mr. and 18 to 20 percent in the hotel restaurant. and Ford’s 21st Century Etiquette (2003. Ingram’s The Everything Etiquette Book (2005). Case 3 The best option is to eat them by swallowing whole if small enough or cutting into bites where you do not have to chew but can simply swallow without tasting the food. Case 4 If there are open seats on the flight. a medical excuse is accepted. Dr. 2. Activities 1. others will make the introductions. In most countries. Etiquette books that contain guidelines for U. John Giovanni b. If there is not a seat available. publishing as Prentice Hall . she can ask the flight attendant to change her seat. 41 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. The yellow and white chrysanthemums were inappropriate because in many countries these flowers are associated with funerals and mourning. the concierge who provided special services at least a couple of dollars each time he or she gave assistance. if it is not an obvious lie. The executive should have asked in a flower shop in the host country what flowers were appropriate. Sara may be stuck and can pray the baby stops crying.

Suggest to students that a good reference would be a recognized book of etiquette. Samoa. Bow. or Shake Hands. and the Axtell books. 42 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. publishing as Prentice Hall . 5.3. and Latin America) are good sources. and Tanzania. or Stewart's The New Etiquette. such as Chaney and Martin’s The Essential Guide to Business Etiquette. 6. Baldrige's New Complete Guide to Executive Manners. Martin and Chaney’s Global Business Etiquette. Inc. Suggest students consult books on global etiquette for giftgiving practices. such as the CultureGrams series. Dresser’s Multicultural Managers. 4. Since students may not have ready access to information on dining practices in Zimbabwe. instructors may wish to suggest sources that include this information. books of etiquette. To assure that students do not duplicate the cultural faux pas incident. and Borden’s Kiss. Conaway. and Sabath’s International Business Etiquette series (Asia and the Pacific Rim. Morrison. assign certain issues of the journal or newspaper to each student. Europe.

In the United States. and headcloth. Countries in which business dress may be different from that worn in the U. Japan. The Chinese. your host may wear the traditional Arabic white. such as kissing them on their cheek each morning or embracing them. The U. guten tag (GOO-tun TAHK).S. Cartoons are not appropriate in a professional setting of strangers in Germany. Visitors should not. in German. When women conduct business in other cultures. women are considered equal to men in the workplace. Countries in which business dress is similar to that worn in the U. Many U. handshake is firm. Women are assuming more assertive roles and work side by side in the workplace with men. persons will not schedule important events on this day. Many Chinese believe that having an uneven number of people in a photograph will bring bad luck. In Mexico. People of the United States think that 13 is an unlucky number. and Mexico.S. Verbal expressions used in the United States that have little meaning when translated include: “What’s up?”. "Good day" in French is bonjour (bawn-JHOOR). however. 5. Inc. and dress/skirt lengths should go below the knees.S. who also believe that good luck or bad is associated with certain numbers. publishing as Prentice Hall . Germany. Women should avoid wearing pants when 3. “How’s it going?”. France. 6. 2.S. 7. include Canada. include the Philippines. where more casual attire is appropriate.S. attempt to dress in a like manner. more familiarity exists between male supervisors and their female secretaries. buenos días (bway-nos DEE-ahs). 8. 10. presentations are often started with a joke or cartoon related to the topic to be covered. 9. They take business seriously and do not appreciate kidding remarks during negotiations. England. feel that four is the most negative number because it sounds like the word for death. they should follow the rule of wearing a conservative skirted suit or dress. In Saudi Arabia. and “graveyard shift. Dresses should be long-sleeved. In the United States. in Spanish. in France the handshake is light and quick. 43 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Germans find humor out of place during business meetings. include such regional expressions as "I'm fixin' to leave" (for "I'm ready to leave") and "He's afeared of the dark" (for "He's afraid of the dark"). flowing robe.” Examples of variations in the English language within regions of the U. and Indonesia.Chapter 9 Business and Social Customs Questions 1. 4.

view as unusual include dog meat. With a little research. foods considered unusual by people of other cultures include corn-on-the-cob. pork. fish. employees consider their job to be permanent.S. On the other hand. be considerate of nonsmokers. do not block traffic. In the United States people are hired with the understanding that their retention and promotion on the job depend upon their performing the job satisfactorily and upon getting along with their colleagues.conducting business abroad since in many countries women do not wear pants to the office or to nice restaurants. grits. unless the person breaks the law or is guilty of a moral turpitude. do not block someone’s view at a ballgame or other public event. 12. Another suggestion is to indicate that the occasion is an "intercultural party" and prepare one dish that is typical of the cuisine of various cultures. and other service personnel with courtesy and respect. 13. Foods of other cultures that people of the U. since in the United States the principle of equality prevails. August is not a good time for conducting business in Europe as it is considered the vacation month and many businesses close during this time. sheep's eyeballs. and chicken/duck feet. wait your turn when standing in line at the post office. Chicken. in such countries as Japan.S. marshmallows. it is understood that no job is permanent. give priority to the first person who arrives (rather than to people who are older or wealthier as is done in Asian cultures). or theater. Rules for appropriate behavior in public places in the United States include: keep to the right when walking in malls or on the street. Avoid foods such as beef. 14. different foods may be prepared to suit the majority of the people. Little business is conducted with the Arabs during Ramadan. 44 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. and Orthodox Jews eat neither pork nor shellfish. Case 1 Hosting a party where people from different parts of the world are present can be a difficult job because of differences in food preferences and consumption taboos. publishing as Prentice Hall . For example. strict Muslims do not eat pork or other scavengers or alcohol. the Islamic fasting season which lasts a month. 11. U. treat clerks. Inc. and vegetables are some safe recommendations. grits. 15. dog. and others that may be offensive in some cultures. popcorn. taxi drivers. Knowledge of holidays and holy days of other cultures is important so that telephone calls and business trips can be scheduled around them. Consumption taboos include: Hindus do not eat any beef. While workers cannot legally be fired without cause. and crawfish. bank. One solution may be to find out the home culture of most of the guests. raw fish.

Velasquez probably would feel his honor had been besmirched.S. would not be favorably impressed by a female presenter in form-fitting. Possible sources for appropriate business and social dress information include: CultureGrams. Inc. subculture and would. Velasquez was being friendly and needed to get to know her before he could do business. Mr. have first-hand knowledge of religious taboos 2. If the businessperson does happen to end up in Mexico during Carnival Week. Case 3 The Japanese businessman did not understand the art of small talk. 45 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. are like so that the Japanese businessperson did not feel deserted. The festivities should be enjoyed. it would be a good idea to set up appointments before traveling. female presenters in such attire would not be taken seriously. publishing as Prentice Hall . The host should have explained what cocktail parties in the U.S. The Japanese businessperson should have let the U. the Chinese. Further. Students may be a member of a U. In short. but the behavior of the businessperson should be above reproach since the person is representing his or her company. Activities 1. Devine and Braganti's The Travelers' Guide to Asian Customs and Manners. Developing good business relationships is important in Mexico. Case 5 Business dress in the United States has become increasingly casual since the decade of business casual attire in the 1990s. Velasquez probably did not give Ms. Case 4 Ms. Since attire and hair styles for business presentations should be professional even in the United States. bright-colored clothes with short hemlines and long hair. executive know he was leaving. The host knowing that this was the Japanese businessperson’s first visit to the U. they would lack credibility. Ms. he or she should share in the experience.Case 2 A businessperson traveling to a foreign country should know beforehand if there is a conflict with a holiday in the host country. The businessman needs to acquire the knack of small talk so that he can be a good conversationalist at such gatherings. and the Axtell books. so accepting the invitation would be a good idea if handled properly. Mr. U.S. who dress conservatively in loosely styled clothing in muted colors. therefore. Van Buren did not understand the culture.S.S. should have made sure that he or one of the guests helped the businessman feel at home by being sure someone was with him at all times. Mr. Van Buren responded as if there was something incorrect or improper in his invitation. Van Buren any business because he did not feel comfortable doing so.

German. 6. Many times these foods are available at ethnic grocery stores in the local community. Students who have traveled abroad would also be able to provide knowledge of such taboos not commonly known. goodbye. Instructors may wish to suggest such references as Dresser’s Multicultural Manners. and Sabath’s International Business Etiquette books for information on superstitions. Instructors could provide an unusual or foreign food for students to try.associated with food consumption. Inc. Refer students to the section in the chapter related to ways of saying please. The instructor may divide the class into small groups to practice these expressions. publishing as Prentice Hall . 46 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. 4. Bosrock’s Put Your Best Foot Forward. and Spanish. thank you. and excuse me in French. 3.

and meaning. Preparation could include learning about their geography. and media allowing people to see more of what is happening in the world The steps in the negotiation process are site and team selection. There has to be trust between the parties. the translation of ideas. The integrative agreement takes a cooperative pragmatist who can negotiate an integrative deal and realize distributive outcomes. 47 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education." Prepare. Also be very careful about choosing a translator so that ideas are not confused due to language. Cognitive dissonance.Chapter 10 Intercultural Negotiation Process Questions 1. technology making communication easier. One can prepare for cultural shock during negotiations by preparing ahead of time. Three reasons why global joint ventures and strategic alliances are increasing are trade agreements dissolving protective tariffs. The negotiators do not share a perception of reality or the ability to block out information that is inconsistent with their cultural beliefs. plan. and talk with legal counsel. The factors to consider when analyzing a negotiation problem include: cognitive dissonance. and respect the other culture. history. concepts. 3. forcing approach. Because conflicts are culturally based. do as the Romans do. and social context. Models to consider using are the problem-solving approach. relationship building. Inc. 5. publishing as Prentice Hall . opening talks. logic and reasoning differences. 3. The saying. When you are negotiating with someone who has beliefs different from your own. and legalistic approach. discussions. 4." is important to the negotiation process. The joint benefits are generally higher with an integrative agreement. and reasoning differences are generally culturally learned. learn at least a little of the language. Also research has shown that socio-cultural and political issues take up a great deal of the time spent negotiating. read about the culture. it is necessary to understand and try to accommodate those beliefs as much as possible in order not to offend. the meeting should run more smoothly. "When in Rome. they are not always easy to decipher or recognize. Talk with others who have negotiated with the party. If you can understand some of the cultural issues ahead of the negotiation time. compromising approach. Most negotiation conflicts are culturally based because the negotiators are "not seeing through the same glasses. the competitive approach. and agreement. 7. 6. interpreter and translation. The compromise 2. logic.

8. dispensing of positions worldwide helps other economies.agreement is reached when two parties find a common ground that results in lower joint benefits. language. The cultural implications for U. When negotiating with the Canadians. If the salesman had done any reading on the culture. negotiator made the right move because they were on Russia's home territory. and trying to be accepting of the other culture. Positive aspects of free trade zones are lower priced products for consumers. 10. Developing a friendship is important to doing business with the Spanish and lacking decorum concerning important events could make that very difficult to do. he would have known the importance of what he was watching and understood that he should not make such comments. isolationism is impossible. Their negotiation tactics may change as some of them start introducing western business tactics. translating. the number of people participating in the negotiations. and more interaction between cultures in the world. lower-priced production for manufacturers. Negative aspects of free trade zones are countries with high production costs lose those positions to other countries. and outcome. Depending on how sensitive the Spaniards are the negotiations could be lost due to the self-esteem of the Spaniards being attacked. as it is very important to the Spaniards. the sale should be a lot easier 48 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Inc. Case 2 The salesman's faux pas was taking the bullfight in a nonchalant manner. The breaks are a show of power and control over the negotiations. depending on how similar or different the two cultures are.S. one breaks down ethnocentric barriers. and all the economies of the world are becoming more integrated. and work ethics. Being able to shift from one culture to another is also not necessarily instantaneous. These should be explained with examples. being trained by an interculturalist. Case 1 The Russians are in no hurry to make a deal and want to control the agenda. and relationship building. the use of time.S. Case 3 Becoming comfortable in another culture is easy for some and difficult for others. 9. By reading. publishing as Prentice Hall . how the contract is considered. The cultural implications for Japanese and Mexican negotiators would include the use of silence. and Japanese negotiating would include the use of silence. language (interpretation. second language). The U. the package deal model should be chosen because it considers the atmosphere of the negotiation as well as the background factors. If you have already built a relationship. process.

S. 4. It sounds as if they are both trying to force the other party to comply. Case 5 The two companies have resorted to legalistic means to settle their licensing disagreement. The cultural differences between South Korea and Japan are large. Trust is missing from the two sides. The Wall Street Journal. persons will feel as if the other did not understand how to do business. The Chamber of Commerce. Case 4 Since the expectations are different. publishing as Prentice Hall . The Chinese and the U.than for a beginner. Other books. include Cohen's Negotiating across Cultures and Moran and Stripp's Dynamics of Successful International Business Negotiations. 49 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Instructors may wish to suggest certain business journals or news magazines that typically feature articles on international business. and feeling. or Civitan group may be good sources of business people who would be willing to serve as members of a panel to discuss "Negotiating with the Japanese" or negotiating with persons of another culture. and Newsweek. and truth seems to be absent in this situation. person did not think it was necessary to sell him/herself or the company whereas that was very important to the Chinese. there will not be a contract given on the first meeting.S. fact.S. 2. in addition to those listed. 5. The strategy of truth should include faith. Axtell’s Do’s and Taboos around the World for Women in Business. Time. The Chinese did not understand that the U. you will have to build a relationship first. Both KE Electronics and JCP have filed legal actions in their own countries to halt sales of the other’s products. Inc. Students can use information in the chapter to prepare a "negotiation profile" for negotiating with someone from Mexico. person is not as future oriented as the Chinese but are instead oriented toward the task at hand. such as Fortune. and the two have fought many wars over the centuries leading to a condition of little trust. Martin and Chaney’s Global Business Etiquette or Passport to Success. Instructors may suggest the following references for finding information related to problems women may have when negotiating with Arabs: Foster's Bargaining across Borders. which could take a while and may delay your making a sale. The U. 3. and both would be correct. The U. Activities 1. If you are a beginner. Lions Club.S. person did not understand that the Chinese have to build a relationship and that time is not important as you learn to understand and trust each other.

and that consensus is the only way to reach an agreement would be much different than the normal view of negotiation from the U. they facilitate dialogue. Inc.S. Differences exist in negotiating with people who are group oriented. You would not bring legal people to the negotiation table. negotiation is ongoing. The limitation is everyone is an individual and may not fit the national culture stereotype. 6. The selection of players for the situation is important because they have to handle local introductions. and time would have to have an open end. and those who are individually 50 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. permits. explanations of cultural differences. The strategy to use in negotiating with people who believe no one should lose face. translations. and nonnegotiation tactics may be used. 8. France. England. 4. and India. 2. and substantive issues include the use and control of resources. If it is a hierarchical society it is important that the negotiating team come from the correct levels of seniority. Gender can have an impact on successful negotiation if the gender is viewed as not being equal to the other gender at the negotiation table. Israel.S. 3. The advantages of national culture stereotypes are they give us a view of ourselves from others’ viewpoints. 5. Switzerland. and gives us a rough idea of what people in another culture may value. Women are considered as equals at the negotiation table only in the U. The ability to identify the conflict is important.Chapter 11 Intercultural Negotiation Components Questions 1. Interpreters and translators play many roles in the negotiation process: they are the key to the culture. Many times both negotiators will see the conflict and some times only one will see a problem. With power comes the responsibility of taking action. You would need to be much more open-minded and realize they do have a very different way of looking at an agreement. 7. nor would you make direct accusations.. These issues can cause negotiations to breakdown or deadlock. Many times local consultants can be hired to help with these items. Power and authority affect negotiations by determining who has the influence over others (power) and by having the power you have the authority to give commands and make final decisions. publishing as Prentice Hall . Power can be an advantage or disadvantage depending on how it is used and the ethical behavior. may cause negotiators’ to be repetitive in their arguments. and they give social identity to the members at the table. and navigate the laws and customs of the country. point of view. such as the Japanese.

all followers of Islam do not drink alcoholic beverages. 51 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. the Mexicans. and always give a great deal of respect to the person and their position. where one would have to speak French. anything that would render invalid assumptions the other negotiating team has made. publishing as Prentice Hall . you must be willing to invest a lot of time. however. Americans carry guns. Canadians are very loyal to Britain and think the American Revolution was wrong. For the most part. Inc. Media creates multicultural understanding and misunderstanding depending upon the culture and the cultural biases of the media people.S. You would also want to make sure you were not accusatory or offensive in any manner. contractual responsibilities. liking classical music as opposed to pop music. you would need to pay a little attention to the emotional gestures. When dealing with a consensus type of negotiation where everyone has to be satisfied with the end product. 9. Conflicting interest affects negotiations because it is not always easy to determine and includes payment.S. 12.S. Responses could deal with being group oriented in an individualistic society. and quality. The Japanese. Americans need to do a little research here to be sure they understand the Canadians. would not work when negotiating with someone who feels saving face is very important. The contract would have to be loose allowing for changes in the future should they be required. and the French-Canadians are more difficult due to the language and cultural differences. so it would be best to control any such feelings you might have. It would probably take a lot more negotiations to conclude a deal in Mexico or Japan than in Canada. Personal constructs are individual belief systems and attitudes. distribution. and the idioms do differ. Americans to negotiate with the Canadians. however. 10. Except for the French-Canadians.S. and to whom facts or details are not important and status is very important. If these constructs are so ethnocentrically oriented that they do not allow for the individual to adjust to other cultures during negotiations. perceptual grid. the English language is spoken. then conflicts will arise. such as the Germans. the meaning of all the words. Generally media presents other cultures through the bias of the U. being shy in an emotional culture or loud in a quiet culture. and that there are lots of cowboys in the U. In negotiating with people who are very emotional. 13.S. 11. Stereotypes as a result of the media are that all U. and the Japanese also like knowing whom they are dealing with very well. 14. Business as conducted in the U. realize that details will be considered as they arise. the slang. we have been allies over the years. not watching television.oriented.S. It is also necessary to realize they feel we are a bit pushy and loud. Generally it would be easier for the U. The Mexicans want a friendship as well as a business relationship. profits. U.

Make sure to read and research the people with whom you will be meeting so that you understand them.S.S. Case 2 52 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education.S. The strategy would be to win the Mexicans over as friends first.S. negotiators after they have relaxed with them prior to the beginning of the negotiations. you would want to avoid anything that might be construed as their losing face or putting them down. Culture is very important in this situation because the U. b.S. Females would be sure to have a male on the negotiating team as the spokesperson.S. bribes or payments in kind are in order which can be a problem for the U.S.S. d.Case 1 a. The Mexicans would have to believe that the U. negotiators would probably want to get right down to business and might be a little resentful of the time they would have to spend "vacationing.S. It would be best to learn some Spanish." However. this has to be overcome if the negotiations are to succeed. negotiators did their homework. The U. c. The negotiation situation would depend upon how well the Mexicans like the U. Mexicans tend to be very leery of the U. Power would be best if shared in this situation in order to build trust between the two companies. The Mexicans tend to talk louder than the U. In Mexico a handshake is a contract and many times more important than the written contract. has taken. As Mexican men are very proud. people. The environment would be home for the Mexicans and alien for the U. publishing as Prentice Hall .S. because of past actions the U. The Mexicans also like to do business with friends. Also in order to get things done in Mexico. The U. Inc. therefore. and it would be very important for the U.S. negotiators to accept graciously and to give graciously during the "courtship" before the negotiations actually begin. has tended to be disrespectful toward the Mexicans and their lifestyle. if the U. would be able to complete its production. was sincere in their best interests for Mexico. to genuinely get to know them and understand them.S. The English used would be limited to International Business English during the negotiations to help eliminate any misunderstandings.S. Courtesy and etiquette would be very important. they would simply go along and allow extra time. The Mexicans would be the perfect hosts in such a situation being sure to take you to all cultural and historic locations and being sure you would dine elegantly. Criteria for achievement would be a win-win situation in which Mexico would be able to utilize their facilities and the U. and Mexico have a history of conflict and wars.

may wish to consult such references as CultureGrams. therefore. The firm needs to be large enough to take care of the volume of goods you plan to ship. Generally export companies know the laws. and arrogant. and which shipping lines to use. not trustworthy. publishing as Prentice Hall . Students may use material in the chapter for completing this activity and. Case 3 If it is a good firm. she would make the Saudis feel more comfortable and be more likely to attain her goal. it probably could not be accomplished in one meeting or in one week. language. however. it would be very difficult for the Saudis to feel comfortable dealing with a woman. Case 4 The Mexicans would have viewed the New Yorkers as pushy. Case 5 You would want to know that the Indians are a culture that likes to please. trade agreements. You would want to find out information on friendships in business. By allowing the man to do the negotiating. Women are to be covered from the top of their head to their feet. the New Yorkers thought their presentation had “sold” the Mexicans. If a woman is the responsible person. and the way business is to be conducted between the two countries. foods. Activities 1.The Saudi Arabians are not used to dealing with women. containerized. As the women do not eat with the men and do not discuss business. They should also be able to make suggestions as to how things should be packaged. Since this is an Islamic country. Mexicans will continue a meeting as long as is necessary and consider it rude to leave one meeting for another or to be “rushed for time. and attitude toward women in business in order to successfully complete a deal. and House et al. It would probably take a few meetings to finalize the agreement. they would have a hard time telling a superior that something could not be done when the superior had asked for it. She should also dress very conservatively so as not to embarrass her hosts. GLOBE Study. in addition. You would want to be sure that equals were doing the negotiating so that the superior-subordinate relationship issue would not be a problem because Indians see superiors as the people who should make the decisions.” Because the Mexicans sat quietly. they would know the culture. and documents that need to be completed in order to sell a product in a foreign country. eating styles. Not going through the business rituals that the Mexicans expected of including the Mexicans in the discussions rather than presenting everything to the Mexicans would have made the Mexicans feel as if they could not approach the New Yorkers. the woman is being disrespectful to the Islamic law in her dress. unfriendly. the Mexicans were only being polite. 53 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. she could bring a man to use as her spokesperson. Inc. Hofstede's Cultures and Organizations.

The instructor could ask students to choose one of the South American countries to avoid duplication. 6. Provide an abstract format for students to use in summarizing the role that gift giving plays when negotiating with the Japanese. Completion of the Negotiation Skills Self-Assessment Exercise should be followed by a discussion in class related to differences in negotiation styles. Inc. Other references to suggest for researching the role that nonverbal communication plays in negotiation include Foster's Bargaining across Borders and Hofstede's Cultures and Organizations. 5. In addition to Baldrige's book on etiquette. and obvious displeasure at food presentation. and Martin and Chaney’s Global Business Etiquette and Passport to Success. or it may be assigned as homework. 54 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. pressure to discuss business during the meal. Yager's Business Protocol. 3. failure to address Mexican team members by their titles. Refer students to sections in the chapter for preparing them for class discussion related to the role that bargaining plays when negotiating with persons in different cultures. and another country to avoid duplication of reports. Unacceptable behavior that students should have underlined in the scenario include: expressing a dislike for Mexican food.2. 7. The instructor may wish to make specific assignments related to trade agreements between the U. other references to suggest include Stewart's The New Etiquette. 4. assuming a relaxed manner of dress. including advantages and disadvantages of each style. Sabath’s International Business Etiquette. publishing as Prentice Hall . Students may be allowed class time for completing this activity.S.

trilateral governance which adds an arbitrator. 5. The Act of State Doctrine allows each nation to legally govern within its own boundaries. The four governance structures are market governance which is contract based. or acts that govern business within the foreign country with which you wish to conduct business. or you are a naturalized citizen of the country that you consider your home country. treaties. and unified governance in which nothing is negotiated in advance. The difference between home country laws and host country laws is that the home country laws are the laws. your parents are citizens of another country. A multinational corporation is governed by first its country of incorporation and second by all the countries in which it conducts business or has manufacturing or offices. or acts that govern business within your country of citizenship and those governing your business with other countries. 7. or most effective to achieve an objective. 8. Ethics differ around the world because people are culturally diverse. Practicality judgments are based on what is easiest. Ethics judgments are based on some standard of moral behavior as to right and wrong. Nonwritten laws are difficult to find out about before visiting a country because many countries determine the rules as they go or base the interpretation of the law on the situation versus the fine points of law. and only one party sets terms for both parties involved. Proof of citizenship may not be clear if you were born in another country. However. 3. maximum flexibility is provided. 55 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. The importance of citizenship has to do with your rights.Chapter 12 Laws Affecting International Business and Travel Questions 1. 6. while host country laws are the laws. all countries do not view citizenship equally. A citizen is vested with certain rights and duties as a native or naturalized member of a country. bilateral governance which may not spell everything out but has a strong recognition of a continuing relationship. It is important to have an attorney who is knowledgeable when conducting business in a foreign country so that you will adhere 2. A low-context country would view contracts as very rigid and detailed while a high-context country would view a contract as a guideline to be adjusted as needed. A passport is your proof of citizenship while a visa is a right to enter and stay in a country for a period of time for a specific purpose. publishing as Prentice Hall . 9. treaties. best. 4. Inc.

each nation determines its own laws as protected by the Act of State Doctrine. forced him to complete military training. utilitarianism. citizen due to birth. with the other country's laws being secondary. Since no international laws govern this issue. it is generally best for the litigation to take place in the country of production. detained him as a Russian citizen. could not take the form of direct cash but must be tied to the completion of the project on a timely basis. The form of thematization that would be used would be a combination of law. The contract should stipulate where litigation of disagreements should take place. Case 4 If the current supplier has not purchased or processed the commodity and are "good guys. Case 2 If it is a country in which such practices are considered legal.S. in order to get the plant completed on a timely basis the people would be compensated.S. Since the Foreign Corrupt Practices Act of 1977 requires U. The moral value and worth of an act is judged by what is produced--the utility. Although the U.S. and religion. The governance structure would be bilateral due to the relationship being long term. The act which prohibits a corporation or individual from circumventing the Arms Export Control Act of 1968 is the Antidiversion Requirement which states that the bill of lading and the invoice must clearly display that the carrier cannot divert the shipment to a country the U. manipulative. The compensation. or devious. They may have revoked his U. Case 1 Since his parents were born in both your country's exporting laws and the foreign country's importing laws.S. Inc. his being on Russian soil would make his release difficult if the Russians did not want to release him." they may not require the 56 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. and forced him to live in Russia because of their interpretation of his citizenship status. 10. however. would argue he was a U. government considers restricted. Politically people were released by exchanging someone the Russians wanted for someone the U. passport. wanted. caution would need to be exercised. the Russian government may have still considered them (and hence him) a Russian citizen. The players in the negotiation game and the environment in which the negotiators are operating help to determine whether the negotiators can justify being exploitative. however. companies to account for and report international transactions accurately and prohibits bribes that are used to gain a business advantage. publishing as Prentice Hall .S. Case 3 The laws of the country in which the plane is produced will govern the manufacturing of the plane first.S.

the purchasing agent is personally libel to take the product and pay for it. Instructors may wish to make the assignment country specific or may wish to restrict the assignment to references published during the past five 4.purchasing agent to pay. government will be receiving less revenue. Inc. Halliburton will not pay taxes to the United States on items that are sold to companies within the United States. and others. assign students specific countries. publishing as Prentice Hall . To avoid duplication of countries. An international lawyer in the community would be another option. If a substantial number of companies leave the United States. Critical incidents related to international law students bring to class could be found on local or national newscasts. from nationals. Students may find out about nonwritten laws of a country from an international lawyer. If the company has purchased or started processing the commodity. The purchasing agent can ask his company to purchase the product to which he committed. Since Dubai has a very favorable corporate tax rate. The companies they sell to will pay taxes. If the company refuses. Case 5 When Halliburton moves to Dubai. 5. 57 Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education. Activities 1. employees. Instruct students to use the bibliographical retrieval system of their library for compiling a list of books or journal articles related to international law. 6. Go to http://www. 3. If a law school is located in the community. So the U. Visa forms must be obtained from an embassy for the country students might select. Halliburton will pay less in taxes and will make more money to share with shareholders. this would be the best source for contacting a professor of international law to discuss cultural variations in contracts. they will pay taxes for their operations to the United Arab Emirates rather than to the United States. 2. the U.S. government will lose significant tax dollars with which to run the country.llrx.S. the purchasing agent is libel to take the product. The instructor may wish to secure passport forms from the local post office for distribution to the class.htm to check on the accuracy of the answers. or from people who have worked in the country.