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Introduction to SANs
Introduction to SANs
Data access can be implemented at several different levels within the SAN environment. Each of these has advantages and disadvantages. The level selected will be chosen for the particular needs of the customer’s SAN environment. Host level security offers a single point of management for a large data center. Hosts with many different operating systems can be managed by Open View Storage Area Manager, as clients. However, a host that lacks the software may be unaware of the disk allocations and may access and corrupt storage in the SAN. Switch level security may be more secure than host security, but can be constrained by the topology. Port zoning is very limiting for topologies that have many devices connected through hubs. Switch level zoning cannot separate LUN access for a given device. Device level security is highly secure, but may require time-consuming administration to implement. Not all devices have this function. Firmware changes on these devices may alter the security function, and can impact the availability of the device.
If the hba’s of the two operating systems see each other. Another example for creating zones is to secure devices from each other. data corruption can occur. You cannot zone down to the LUN level.21 4 . such as: payroll. engineering data. This is accomplished using Secure Manager or Selective Storage Presentation. 4.Introduction to SANs Brocade Zoning Overview – Brocade Zoning Product Microsoft Windows and HP-UX do not interact well on the same fabric. corporate finance. Rev.
access only one another. In addition.Introduction to SANs Brocade Zoning Zoning Example Zones may be configured dynamically. as an example. The number of zones and zone members are effectively unlimited. for enterprise backup and for normal work access. Rev. multiple configurations can be created. 4. therefore. depending on the number of Fabric connected devices and device locations. This is called “overlapping zones”. Zones vary in size and shape. A device not included in a zone is not able to access any devices devices. Zone members see only members in their zones and.21 5 . Devices may be members of more than one zone.
Introduction to SANs Brocade Zoning Rev. 4.21 6 .
either because of malfunction or malice. using the entries of the Simple Name Server to determine if the transaction is allowed. port zoning is enforced in the hardware. It is important to separate the enforcement from the format for zoning. Zoning is enforced by the ASIC.21 8 . The term “soft zoning” became used to mean the same thing as World-wide Name zoning. The zoning enforcement is implemented in the firmware. to access a device that it should not access. In the Brocade 2x00 Silkworm switches. Rev. What this means is if there is a server/HBA/Driver that will probe the ports on the switch. WWN zoning is software enforced. The members of the zones must be “good citizens”. In the Brocade 2x00 Silkworm switches. WWN zoning is also hard zoning. This terminology is no longer valid. WWN zoning can be hardware enforced. In the Brocade 3x00 Silkworm switches. The term “hard zoning” came to mean the same thing as “port zoning”. supports RSCN (Remote State Change Notification) and does not circumvent the Name Server for access to other ports. With the 3x00 Silkworm switches. A “bad citizen” is a node that probes the switch. It is not vulnerable to probing by a “bad citizen” node. Hard zoning Hard zoning is hardware enforced zoning. 4. A “good citizen” is a member that uses the Name Server.Introduction to SANs Brocade Zoning Zone Enforcement Soft zoning Soft zoning is software enforced Brocade zoning. that server/HBA/Driver would be able to talk to any device it found because it did not use the Name Server and behave properly.
Hardware enforced zoning is inherently more secure than software enforced zoning. this naming is no longer correct because of the changes in the 3x00 Silkworm switches. On the 2x00 Silkworm switches. may succeed in accessing a port outside its zone if it bypasses the Simple Name Server and probes directly for WWNs. 4. However.Introduction to SANs Brocade Zoning Brocade 2x00 zoning Zoning is enabled differently on the 2x00 family and the 3x00 family. Rev. through malice or malfunction.21 9 . A node. WWN zoning has been called “soft zoning” because of this implementation. The references to hard and soft zoning must be differentiated from those to port and WWN zoning. WWN zoning is enforced with software. Port zoning has been called “hard zoning” because of this implementation. relying on Simple Name Server entries for validation. Port zoning is enforced in the ASIC hardware.
The alias is then used as a member when defining the zone (pZone3). soft zoning is used to enforce World-wide Name zoning. In the examples shown. A zone can be defined using the domain and port reference (pZone2). However. the alias for port zoning defines the device associated with the alias name using the domain and port. aliases are not required. Soft Zoning In the 2x00 Silkworm switch. the alias for WWN zoning defines the device associated with the alias name using the world-wide name. A fourth zone is shown where the world-wide name is directly entered in the zone definition (pZone4) Mixed Configurations Where both port and WWN references are used in the configuration definitions. hard zoning is used to enforce Port zoning. In the examples shown. 4. The alias can then be used as a member when defining a zone (pZone1).21 10 . Rev. the enforcement will default to software zoning.Introduction to SANs Brocade Zoning 2x00 Silkworm Zoning Examples Hard Zoning In the 2x00 Silkworm switch.
Therefore. both Port and WWN zoning are “hard zones”. Rev.21 11 . The term “hard zoning” can no longer refer to port zoning.Introduction to SANs Brocade Zoning 3x00 Silkworm Zoning The 3rd Generation ASIC on the 3x00 Silkworm switches can enforce both Port and WWN zoning. 4.
21 12 .Introduction to SANs Brocade Zoning Rev. 4.
the device identified as “Host1a” is defined using port zoning in Zone1. Either definition alone would result in Hard zoning. when the device is defined in each zoning type within a single configuration.Introduction to SANs Brocade Zoning Soft porting In the example shown. 4. the switch will not be able to enforce zoning within the ASIC. Rev. Soft zoning will be used. and defined using its WWN in Zone3. However. instead.21 13 .
Soft zoning will be used to enforce the zoning for all zones. They point to configuration conditions which should be corrected for proper zoning function. A device is defined in a soft zone or in a loop (using AL-PA) and in a hard zone.Introduction to SANs Brocade Zoning Error / Warning Codes Some common error codes are shown here. HARDSOFTMIX(warning) . It is configured using WWN in a WWN zone and using the domain/port in a Port zone. WWNINPORT – Overlapping hard WWN and PORT zones. DRIVERERR – port-level detected unknown error NOMORECAM – port-level depleted hardware resource CHECKBADWWN – WWN probing detected Rev. 4. FAQLMIX – Overlapping hard WWN or PORT zones with QL or FA zones A device has been configured in a Fabric Assist or QuickLoop zone using the AL-PA. The same device is defined in another zone using either the WWN or the port. A device is configured in a 3x00 Silkworm switch.Overlapping SOFT/FA and HARD zones.21 14 . Soft zoning will be used to implement the zoning.
This example shows alternate paths in the zones. Port zoning cannot separate or individually identify zone members of a looplet. In the example there are two zones defined: the Orange Zone and the Green Zone. If the cable to a port is moved to another port. 4. like the XP family. Port zoning can be a disadvantage for consolidated storage devices. Rev. there will be no device access on that path. Access is allowed only through the specified port. If the port is down or disabled. All the LUNs accessed through the port belong to the zone. Port zoning logic is consistent with the HP-UX address and device file structure.21 15 . the device will be unavailable.Introduction to SANs Brocade Zoning Port Zoning Port zoning is defined within the Brocade switch by specifying the switch Domain and physical Port. All devices on the loop are defined in the zone by the port.
All devices on the loop are defined in the zone by the individual node WWNs. However. WWN zoning has been called “soft zoning” because it is enforced through software on the 2x00 Silkworm switches. This reference is no longer valid for 3x00 Silkworm switches which use hard zoning for WWN and port zones. On 3x00 Silkworm switches. there is some performance degradation while WWN zoning is initiated. The 3x00 Silkworm switch uses the ASIC to identify the hosts and targets.Introduction to SANs Brocade Zoning World-wide Name Zoning WWN zoning is defined within the Brocade switch by specifying the node World-Wide Name. on HP-UX. In the example there are two zones defined: the Orange Zone and the Green Zone. Usually the port WWN is specified. WWN zoning can separate or individually identify zone members of a looplet. 4.21 16 . The 2x00 Silkworm switch uses the Simple Name Server to identify the host and target devices. the target device now has a new devicefile name. Access is not limited to a specified port. the device will still be available. This example shows alternate paths in the zones. If the cable to a port is moved to another port. Performance will increase to normal after initialization. Rev.
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4.Introduction to SANs Brocade Zoning Rev.21 20 .
21 21 .Introduction to SANs Brocade Zoning Enters configuration information into SDRAM only. 4. Rev.
Introduction to SANs Brocade Zoning Flash memory gets updated on a cfgenable Rev.21 22 . 4.
Introduction to SANs Brocade Zoning Cfgdisable only disables the effective configuration. Rev.21 23 . 4.
Rev.Introduction to SANs Brocade Zoning Cfgclear does not clear the effective (active) configuration. 4.21 24 .
Introduction to SANs Brocade Zoning If you have issued a cfgclear and then a cfgsave the switch will now save the cleared SDRAM into flash and everything in the switch will be cleared. 4.21 25 . Rev.
Blue_Storage” cfgCreate “Day_Time”. Blue_Zone” cfgEnable “Day_Time” configUpload … Alternate forms of the commands: zoneCreate “Red_Zone” .5” Rev. Red_Storage” zoneCreate “Blue_Zone”. 4.6” aliCreate “Blue_Storage” .1. “Red_Server.6.Introduction to SANs Brocade Zoning Creating a Configuration Example The following sequence of commands creates and enables a configuration called Day_Time.“50:00:0b:00:00:07:d0:c8” zoneCreate “Blue_Zone” .5” zoneCreate “Red_Zone”. “1. “50:00:0b:00:00:07:d0:c8” aliCreate “Red_Storage” . which is made up of two zones. “Blue_Server. Red_Zone and Blue_Zone… aliCreate “Red_Server”. “10:00:00:00:c9:20:29:22” aliCreate “Blue_Server”. “1.”10:00:00:00:c9:20:29:22. “1.21 26 . “Red_Zone.
Rev.21 27 . If a zone configuration is enabled in the Fabric. the cfgShow command displays the same output on all switches in the Fabric. 4. then the same configuration becomes enables in the new switch.Introduction to SANs Brocade Zoning Changes to the Fabric Adding a new Switch/Fabric: A new switch is a switch that has not previously been connected to a Fabric with ZONING configured or adding a Fabric that has not previously had Zoning configured or. After this operation. all zone configuration data is immediately copied from the zoned Fabric into the new switch/Fabric. When a new switch or Fabric is connected to a zoned Fabric. including the new switch. been cleared by using the cfgClear command before connecting it to the Fabric.
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Introduction to SANs Brocade Zoning Rev.21 33 . 4.
………………………………………………………………………………………….Introduction to SANs Brocade Zoning Learning Check 1. 4.21 34 . Describe the relationship between zone members. …………………………………………………………………………………………. …………………………………………………………………………………………. Rev. 3. What is the process for merging two separate fabrics together as it pertains to zoning? …………………………………………………………………………………………. and zoning configurations. What is the difference between hard and soft zoning? …………………………………………………………………………………………. zones. …………………………………………………………………………………………. 2.
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21 36 .Introduction to SANs Brocade Zoning Rev. 4.
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