M800S0 Ŷkesearch Methodo|ogy SYWŵ

MBA 5EME5TER III

MB0050 -Rcscarch Mcthndn!ngy- 4 CrcdIts
(Bnnk ID: B1206)

AssIgnmcnt 5ct- 2 (60 Marks)

Nntc: Each qucstInn carrIcs 10 Marks. Answcr a!! thc qucstInns


1. A. LxpIain lho ConoiaI chaiacloiislics of olsoivalion. | 5 naiksj
ß. Whal is lho UliIily of Olsoivalion in ßusinoss Rosoaich` | 5 naiksj

2. A. ßiiofIy oxpIain Inloivioving lochniquos in ßusinoss Rosoaich` | 5naiksj
ß. Whal aio lho piolIons oncounloiod in Inloiviov` | 5 naiksj

3. A. Whal aio lho vaiious slops in piocossing of dala` | 5 naiksj
ß. Hov is dala odiling is dono al lho Tino of Rocoiding of Dala` | 5 naiksj

4. A. Whal aio lho fundanonlaI of fioquoncy Disliilulion` | 5 naiksj
ß. Whal aio lho lypos and gonoiaI iuIos foi giaphicaI iopiosonlalion of dala`

5. SliiclIy spoaking, vouId caso sludios lo considoiod as scionlific iosoaich` Why
Oi vhy nol` |1O naiksj

6. A. AnaIyzo lho caso sludy and dosciiplivo appioach lo iosoaich. |5 naiksj.
ß. Dislinguish lolvoon iosoaich nolhods & iosoaich MolhodoIogy. |5 Maiksj





M800S0 Ŷkesearch Methodo|ogy SYWŶ

Ź. A. Fxpluln the 0enerul churucterlxtlcx of obxervutlon.
Ans:-
Gcncra! CharactcrIstIcs nf ObscrvatInn Mcthnd
Olsoivalion as a nolhod of dala coIIoclion has coilain chaiacloiislics.

1. Il is lolh a physicaI and a nonlaI aclivily: Tho olsoiving oyo calchos nany lhings lhal
aio piosonl. ßul allonlion is focusod on dala lhal aio poilinonl lo lho givon sludy.

2. Olsoivalion is soIoclivo: A iosoaichoi doos nol olsoivo anylhing and ovoiylhing, lul
soIocls lho iango of lhings lo lo olsoivod on lho lasis of lho naluio, scopo and
oljoclivos of his sludy. Ioi oxanpIo, supposo a iosoaichoi dosiios lo sludy lho causos
of cily ioad accidonls and aIso foinuIalod a lonlalivo hypolhosis lhal accidonls aio
causod ly vioIalion of liaffic iuIos and ovoi spooding. Whon ho olsoivod lho
novononls of vohicIos on lho ioad, nany lhings aio lofoio his oyos, lho lypo, nako,
sizo and coIoi of lho vohicIos, lho poisons silling in lhon, lhoii haii slyIo, olc. AII such
lhings vhich aio nol ioIovanl lo his sludy aio ignoiod and onIy ovoi spooding and
liaffic vioIalions aio koonIy olsoivod ly hin.

3. Olsoivalion is puiposivo and nol casuaI: Il is nado foi lho spocific puiposo of noling
lhings ioIovanl lo lho sludy. Il capluios lho naluiaI sociaI conloxl in vhich poisons
lohavioi occui. Il giasps lho significanl ovonls and occuiioncos lhal affocl sociaI
ioIalions of lho pailicipanls.

4. Olsoivalion shouId lo oxacl and lo lasod on slandaidizod looIs of iosoaich and such
as olsoivalion schoduIo, sociaI noliic scaIo olc., and piocision insliunonls, if any.





M800S0 Ŷkesearch Methodo|ogy SYWŷ

.Ź B. Whut lx the Utlllty of Obxervutlon ln Buxlnexx Rexeurch?
Ans:-
Usc nf ObscrvatInn In BusIncss Rcscarch:-

Olsoivalion is suilalIo foi a vaiioly of iosoaich puiposos. Il nay lo usod foi sludying
(a) Tho lohavioi of hunan loings in puichasing goods and soivicos.: Iifo slyIo,
cuslons, and nannoi, inloipoisonaI ioIalions, gioup dynanics, ciovd lohavioi,
Ioadoiship slyIos, nanagoiiaI slyIo, olhoi lohaviois and aclions,
(l) Tho lohavioi of olhoi Iiving cioaluios Iiko liids, aninaIs olc.
(c) IhysicaI chaiacloiislics of inaninalo lhings Iiko sloios, facloiios, iosidoncos olc.
(d) IIov of liaffic and paiking piolIons
(o) Movononl of naloiiaIs and pioducls lhiough a pIanl.

Olsoivalion noans vioving oi sooing. Olsoivalion nay lo dofinod as a syslonalic
vioving of a spocific phonononon in ils piopoi solling foi lho spocific puiposo of galhoiing
dala foi a pailicuIai sludy. Olsoivalion is cIassicaI nolhod of scionlific sludy. Olsoivalion as
a nolhod of dala coIIoclion has coilain chaiacloiislics. Olsoivalions nay lo cIassifiod in
diffoionl vays. Wilh iofoionco lo invosligaloi´s ioIo, il nay lo cIassifiod inlo
(a) pailicipanl olsoivalion and
(l) non-pailicipanl olsoivalion. In loins of nodo of olsoivalion, il nay lo cIassifiod
inlo
(c) Diiocl olsoivalion. Wilh iofoionco lo lho iigoi of lho syslon adoplod. Olsoivalion
is cIassifiod inlo
(o) ConlioIIod olsoivalion, and
(f) UnconlioIIod olsoivalion.

This doos nol invoIvo lho physicaI piosonco of lho olsoivoi, and lho iocoiding is dono
ly nochanicaI, phologiaphic oi oIoclionic dovicos, o.g. iocoiding cuslonoi and onpIoyoo
novononls ly a spociaI nolion picluio canoia nounlod in a dopailnonl of a Iaigo sloio. This
invoIvos slandaidizalion of olsoivalionaI lochniquos and oxoicisos of naxinun conlioI ovoi
oxliinsic and inliinsic vaiialIos ly adopling oxpoiinonlaI dosign and syslonalicaIIy
M800S0 Ŷkesearch Methodo|ogy SYWŸ

iocoiding olsoivalions. This doos nol invoIvo conlioI ovoi oxliinsic and inliinsic vaiialIos. Il
is piinaiy usod foi dosciiplivo iosoaich. Iailicipanl olsoivalion is a lypicaI unconlioIIod ono.








.ź A. Brlefly explulnx Intervlewlng technlquex ln Buxlnexx
Rexeurch?
Ans:-
IntcrvIcwIng tcchnIqucs In BusIncss Rcscarch
Tho inloiviov piocoss consisls of lho foIIoving slagos:
O Iiopaialion
O Inlioduclion
O DovoIoping iappoil
O Caiiying lho inloiviov foivaid
O Rocoiding lho inloiviov
O CIosing lho inloiviov

!rcparatInn
Tho inloivioving ioquiios sono piopIanning and piopaialion. Tho inloiviovoi shouId
koop lho copios of inloiviov schoduIo/guido (as lho caso nay lo) ioady lo uso. Ho shouId
havo lho Iisl of nanos and addiossos of iospondonls, ho shouId iogioup lhon inlo conliguous
gioups in loins of Iocalion in oidoi lo savo lino and cosl in liavoIing. Tho inloiviovoi shouId
find oul lho gonoiaI daiIy ioulino of lho iospondonls in oidoi lo doloinino lho suilalIo
linings foi inloiviov. Alovo aII, ho shouId nonlaIIy piopaio hinsoIf foi lho inloiviov. Ho
shouId lhink aloul hov ho shouId appioach a iospondonl, vhal nodo of inlioduclion ho
couId adopl, vhal silualions ho nay havo lo faco and hov ho couId doaI vilh lhon. Tho
inloiviovoi nay cono acioss such silualions as iospondonls, avoidanco, ioIuclanco, suspicion,
M800S0 Ŷkesearch Methodo|ogy SYWŹ

diffidonco, inadoqualo iosponsos, disloilion, olc. Tho invosligaloi shouId pIan lho slialogios
foi doaIing vilh lhon. If such piopIanning is nol dono, ho viII lo caughl unavaio and faiI lo
doaI appiopiialoIy vhon ho acluaIIy facos any such silualion. Il is possilIo lo pIan in advanco
and koop lho pIan and nind fIoxilIo and oxpoclanl of nov dovoIopnonl.

IntrnductInn
Tho invosligaloi is a sliangoi lo lho iospondonls. Thoiofoio, ho shouId lo piopoiIy inlioducod
lo oach of lho iospondonls. Whal is lho piopoi nodo of inlioduclion` Thoio is no ono
appiopiialo univoisaI nodo of inlioduclion. Modo vaiios accoiding lo lho lypo of
iospondonls. Whon naking a sludy of an oiganizalion oi inslilulion, lho hoad of lho
oiganizalion shouId lo appioachod fiisl and his coopoialion socuiod lofoio conlacling lho
sanpIo innalos/onpIoyoos. Whon sludying a connunily oi a cuIluiaI gioup, il is ossonliaI lo
appioach lho Ioadoi fiisl and lo onIisl coopoialion. Ioi a suivoy oi uilan housohoIds, lho
iosoaich oiganizalions Iolloi of inlioduclion and lho inloiviovois idonlily caid can lo
shovn. In lhoso days of foai of oponing lho dooi foi a sliangoi, iosidonls coopoialion can lo
oasiIy socuiod, if lho inloiviovoi allonpls lo gol hin inlioducod lhiough a poison knovn lo
lhon, say a popuIai poison in lho aioa o.g., a sociaI voikoi.

Ioi inloivioving iuiaI iospondonls, lho inloiviovoi shouId novoi allonpl lo appioach
lhon aIong vilh sonoono fion lho iovonuo dopailnonl, foi lhoy vouId innodialoIy hido
lhonsoIvos, piosuning lhal lhoy aio loing conlaclod foi coIIoclion of Iand iovonuo oi
sulsciiplion lo sono govoinnonl lond. Ho shouId nol aIso appioach lhon lhiough a IocaI
poIilicaI Ioadoi, locauso poisons vho do nol loIong lo his paily viII nol coopoialo vilh lho
inloiviovoi. Il is ialhoi dosiialIo lo appioach lho iuiaI iospondonls lhiough lho IocaI loachoi
oi sociaI voikoi. Afloi golling hinsoIf inlioducod lo lho iospondonl in lho nosl appiopiialo
nannoi, lho inloiviovoi can foIIov a soquonco of piocoduios as undoi, in oidoi lo nolivalo
lho iospondonl lo poinil lho inloiviov:

1. Wilh a sniIo, giool lho iospondonl in accoidanco vilh his cuIluiaI palloin.
2. Idonlify lho iospondonl ly nano.
3. Dosciilo lho nolhod ly vhich lho iospondonl vas soIoclod.
4. Monlion lho nano of lho oiganizalion conducling lho iosoaich.
M800S0 Ŷkesearch Methodo|ogy SYWź

5. Assuio lho anonynily oi confidonliaI naluio of lho inloiviov.
6. LxpIain lhoii usofuInoss of lho sludy.
7. Lnphasizo lho vaIuo of iospondonls coopoialion, naking such slalononls as ¨You aio
anong lho fov in a posilion lo suppIy lho infoinalion¨. ¨Youi iosponso is invaIualIo.¨ ¨I
havo cono lo Ioain fion youi oxpoiionco and knovIodgo¨.

Dcvc!npIng Rappnrt
ßofoio slailing lho iosoaich inloiviov, lho inloiviovoi shouId oslalIish a fiiondIy ioIalionship
vilh lho iospondonl. This is dosciilod as ¨iappoil¨. Il noans oslalIishing a ioIalionship of
confidonco and undoislanding lolvoon lho inloiviovoi and lho iospondonl. Il is a skiII vhich
doponds piinaiiIy on lho inloiviovois connonsonso, oxpoiionco, sonsilivily, and koon
olsoivalion.
Slail lho convoisalion vilh a gonoiaI lopic of inloiosl such as voalhoi, cuiionl novs,
spoils ovonl, oi lho Iiko poicoiving lho piolalIo of lho iospondonl fion his conloxl. Such
iniliaI convoisalion nay cioalo a fiiondIy alnosphoio and a vain inloipoisonaI ioIalionship
and nuluaI undoislanding. Hovovoi, lho inloiviovoi shouId ¨guaid againsl lho ovoi
iappoil¨ as caulionod ly Hoiloil Hynan. Too nuch idonlificalion and loo nuch couilosy
iosuIl in laiIoiing iopIiod lo lho inago of a ¨nico inloiviovoi.¨ Tho inloiviovoi shouId uso his
disciolion in sliiking a happy nodiun.

CarryIng thc IntcrvIcw Fnrward
Afloi oslalIishing iappoil, lho lochnicaI lask of asking quoslions fion lho inloiviov
schoduIo slails. This lask ioquiios caio, soIf-iosliainl, aIoilnoss and aliIily lo Iislon vilh
undoislanding, iospocl and cuiiosily. In caiiying on lhis lask of galhoiing infoinalion fion
lho iospondonl ly pulling quoslions lo hin, lho foIIoving guidoIinos nay lo foIIovod:

O Slail lho inloiviov. Caiiy il on in an infoinaI and naluiaI convoisalionaI slyIo.
O Ask aII lho appIicalIo quoslions in lho sano oidoi as lhoy appoai on lho schoduIo
vilhoul any oIucidalion and chango in lho voiding. Ask aII lho appIicalIo quoslions
Iislod in lho schoduIo. Do nol lako ansvois foi gianlod.
O If inloiviov guido is usod, lho inloiviovoi nay laiIoi his quoslions lo oach iospondonl,
covoiing of couiso, lho aioas lo lo invosligalod.
M800S0 Ŷkesearch Methodo|ogy SYWŻ

O nov lho oljoclivos of oach quoslion so as lo nako suio lhal lho ansvois adoqualoIy
salisfy lho quoslion oljoclivos.
O If a quoslion is nol undoislood, iopoal il sIovIy vilh piopoi onphasis and appiopiialo
oxpIanalion, vhon nocossaiy.
O TaIk aII ansvois naluiaIIy, novoi shoving disappiovaI oi suipiiso. Whon lho
iospondonl doos nol nool lho inloiiuplions, doniaI, conliadiclion and olhoi
haiassnonl, ho nay fooI fioo and nay nol liy lo vilhhoId infoinalion. Ho viII lo
nolivalod lo connunicalo vhon lho alnosphoio is poinissivo and lho Iislonois
alliludo is non-judgnonlaI and is gonuinoIy alsoilod in lho iovoIalions.
O islon quiolIy vilh palionco and huniIily. Civo nol onIy undividod allonlion, lul aIso
poisonaI vainlh. Al lho sano lino, lo aIoil and anaIylic lo inconpIolo, non-spocific
and inconsislonl ansvois, lul avoid inloiiupling lho fIov of infoinalion. If nocossaiy,
jol dovn unolliusivoIy lho poinls vhich nood oIaloialion oi voiificalion foi Ialoi and
linoIioi pioling. Tho appiopiialo lochniquo foi lhis pioling is lo ask foi fuilhoi
cIaiificalion in such a poIilo nannoi as ¨I an nol suio, I undoislood fuIIy, is
lhis..vhal you noanl`¨
O oilhoi aiguos noi dispulo.
O Shov gonuino concoin and inloiosl in lho idoas oxpiossod ly lho iospondonl, al lho
sano lino, nainlain an inpailiaI and oljoclivo alliludo.
O ShouId nol iovoaI youi ovn opinion oi ioaclion. Lvon vhon you aio askod of youi
viovs, Iaugh off lho ioquosl, saying ¨WoII, youi opinions aio noio inpoilanl lhan
nino.¨
O Al linos lho inloiviov ¨iuns diy¨ and noods io-slinuIalion. Thon uso such
oxpiossions as ¨Uh-huh¨ oi ¨Thal inloiosling¨ oi ¨I soo¨ ¨can you loII no noio aloul
lhal`¨ and lho Iiko.
O Whon lho inloiviovoo faiIs lo suppIy his ioaclions lo ioIalod pasl oxpoiioncos,
iopiosonl lho slinuIus silualion, inlioducing appiopiialo quoslions vhich viII aid in
iovoaIing lho pasl. ¨Undoi vhal ciicunslancos did such and such a phonononon
occui`¨ oi ¨Hov did you fooI aloul il and lho Iiko.
O Al linos, lho convoisalion nay go off lho liack. ßo aIoil lo discovoi diifling, slooi lho
convoisalion lack lo lho liack ly sono such ionaik as, ¨you knov, I vas voiy nuch
inloioslod in vhal you said a nononl ago. CouId you loII no noio aloul il`¨
M800S0 Ŷkesearch Methodo|ogy SYW%

O Whon lhoio is a pauso in lho fIov of infoinalion, do nol huiiy lho inloiviov. Tako il as
a nalloi of couiso vilh an inloioslod Iook oi a synpalholic haIf-sniIo. If lho siIonco is
loo pioIongod, inlioduco a slinuIus saying ¨You nonlionod lhal. Whal happonod
lhon`¨

AddItInna! 5IttIngs
In lho caso of quaIilalivo inloiviovs invoIving Iongoi duialion, ono singIo silling viII nol do,
as il vouId causo inloiviov voaiinoss. Honco, il is dosiialIo lo havo lvo oi noio sillings vilh
lho consonl of lho iospondonl.

RccnrdIng thc IntcrvIcw
Il is ossonliaI lo iocoid iosponsos as lhoy lako pIaco. If lho nolo laking is dono afloi lho
inloiviov, a good doaI of ioIovanl infoinalion nay lo Iosl. olhing shouId lo nado in lho
schoduIo undoi iospoclivo quoslion. Il shouId lo conpIolo and voilalin. Tho iosponsos
shouId nol lo sunnaiizod oi paiaphiasod. Hov can conpIolo iocoiding lo nado vilhoul
inloiiupling lho fioo fIov of convoisalion` LIoclionic liansciiplion lhiough dovicos Iiko lapo
iocoidoi can achiovo lhis. Il has olvious advanlagos ovoi nolo-laking duiing lho inloiviov.
ßul il aIso has coilain disadvanlagos. Sono iospondonls nay oljocl lo oi foai ¨going on
iocoid¨. ConsoquonlIy lho iisk of Iovoi iosponso ialo viII iiso ospociaIIy foi sonsilivo lopics.
If lho inloiviovoi knovs shoil-hand, ho can uso il vilh advanlago. Olhoiviso, ho can viilo
iapidIy ly alliovialing void and using onIy koy voids and lho Iiko. Hovovoi, ovon lho fasl
viiloi nay faiI lo iocoid aII lhal is said al convoisalionaI spood. Al such linos, il is usofuI lo
inloiiupl ly sono such connonl as ¨lhal soons lo lo a voiy inpoilanl poinl, vouId you
nind iopoaling il, so lhal I can gol youi voids oxaclIy.¨ Tho iospondonl is usuaIIy fIalloiod ly
lhis allonlion and lho iappoil is nol disluilod.
Tho inloiviovoi shouId aIso iocoid aII his piolos and olhoi connonls on lho schoduIo,
in liackols lo sol lhon off fion iosponsos. Wilh lho pio-codod sliucluiod quoslions, lho
inloiviovois lask is oasy. Ho has lo sinpIy iing lho appiopiialo codo oi lick lho appiopiialo
lox, as lho caso nay lo. Ho shouId nol nako nislakos ly caioIossIy iinging oi lickoling a
viong ilon. .


M800S0 Ŷkesearch Methodo|ogy SYW%

C!nsIng thc IntcrvIcw
Afloi lho inloiviov is ovoi, lako Ioavo off lho iospondonl lhanking hin vilh a fiiondIy sniIo.
In lho caso of a quaIilalivo inloiviov of Iongoi duialion, soIocl lho occasion foi dopailuio noio
caiofuIIy. AssonlIing lho papois foi pulling lhon in lho foIdoi al lho lino of asking lho finaI
quoslion sols lho slago foi a finaI handshako, a lhank-you and a good-lyo. If lho iospondonl
dosiios lo knov lho iosuIl of lho suivoy, nolo dovn his nano and addioss so lhal a sunnaiy
of lho iosuIl couId lo poslod lo hin vhon ioady.

EdItIng
Al lho cIoso of lho inloiviov, lho inloiviovoi nusl odil lho schoduIo lo chock lhal ho has askod
aII lho quoslions and iocoidod aII lho ansvois and lhal lhoio is no inconsisloncy lolvoon
ansvois. Alliovialions in iocoiding nusl lo iopIacod ly fuII voids. Ho nusl onsuio lhal
ovoiylhing is IogilIo. Il is dosiialIo lo iocoid a liiof skolch of his inpiossions of lho inloiviov
and olsoivalionaI nolos on lho iospondonls Iiving onviionnonl, his alliludo lo lho suivoy,
difficuIlios, if any, facod in socuiing his coopoialion and lho inloiviovois assossnonl of lho
vaIidily of lho iospondonls ansvois.







.ź B. Whut ure the problemx encountereJ ln Intervlew?
Ans:-
IntcrvIcw !rnb!cms
In poisonaI inloivioving, lho iosoaichoi nusl doaI vilh lvo najoi piolIons,
inadoqualo iosponso, non-iosponso and inloiviovois lias.

Inadcquatc rcspnnsc
ahn and CannoI dislinguish fivo piincipaI synplons of inadoqualo iosponso. Thoy aio:
O pailiaI iosponso, in vhich lho iospondonl givos a ioIovanl lul inconpIolo ansvoi
M800S0 Ŷkesearch Methodo|ogy SYWŵŴ

O non-iosponso, vhon lho iospondonl ionains siIonl oi iofusos lo ansvoi lho quoslion
O iiioIovanl iosponso, in vhich lho iospondonls ansvoi is nol ioIovanl lo lho quoslion
askod
O inaccuialo iosponso, vhon lho iopIy is liasod oi disloilod and
O 'oilaIizod iosponso piolIon, vhich aiisos on accounl of iospondonls faiIuio lo
undoisland a quoslion oi Iack of infoinalion nocossaiy foi ansvoiing il.

IntcrvIcwcr's BIas
Tho inloiviovoi is an inpoilanl causo of iosponso lias. Ho nay iosoil lo choaling ly
,cooking up dala vilhoul acluaIIy inloivioving. Tho inloiviovois can infIuonco lho
iosponsos ly inappiopiialo suggoslions, void onphasis, lono of voico and quoslion
iophiasing. His ovn alliludos and oxpoclalions aloul vhal a pailicuIai calogoiy of
iospondonls nay say oi lhink nay lias lho dala. Anolhoi souico of iosponso of lho
inloiviovois chaiacloiislics (oducalion, appaionl sociaI slalus, olc.) nay aIso lias his ansvois.
Anolhoi souico of iosponso lias aiisos fion inloiviovois poicoplion of lho silualion, if ho
iogaids lho assignnonl as inpossilIo oi soos lho iosuIls of lho suivoy as possilIo lhioals lo
poisonaI inloiosls oi loIiofs ho is IikoIy lo inlioduco lias.
As inloiviovois aio hunan loings, such liasing faclois can novoi lo ovoicono
conpIoloIy, lul lhoii offocls can lo ioducod ly caiofuI soIoclion and liaining of inloiviovois,
piopoi nolivalion and supoivision, slandaidizalion oi inloiviov piocoduios (uso of slandaid
voiding in suivoy quoslions, slandaid insliuclions on pioling piocoduio and so on) and
slandaidizalion of inloiviovoi lohavioi. Thoio is nood foi noio iosoaich on vays lo nininizo
lias in lho inloiviov.

Nnn-rcspnnsc
on-iosponso iofois lo faiIuio lo ollain iosponsos fion sono sanpIo iospondonls.
Thoio aio nany souicos of non-iosponso, non-avaiIaliIily, iofusaI, incapacily and
inaccossiliIily.

Nnn-avaI!abI!Ity
Sono iospondonls nay nol lo avaiIalIo al hono al lho lino of caII. This doponds upon
lho naluio of lho iospondonl and lho lino of caIIs. Ioi oxanpIo, onpIoyod poisons nay nol lo
M800S0 Ŷkesearch Methodo|ogy SYWŵŵ

avaiIalIo duiing voiking houis. Iainois nay nol lo avaiIalIo al hono duiing cuIlivalion
soason. SoIoclion of appiopiialo lining foi caIIs couId soIvo lhis piolIon. Lvonings and
vookonds nay lo favoialIo inloivioving houis foi such iospondonls. If sonoono is avaiIalIo,
lhon, Iino iospondonls houis of avaiIaliIily can lo ascoilainod and lho noxl visil can lo
pIannod accoidingIy.

Rcfusa!
Sono poisons nay iofuso lo fuinish infoinalion locauso lhoy aio iII-disposod, oi
appioachod al lho viong houi and so on. AIlhough, a haidcoio of iofusaIs ionains, anolhoi
liy oi poihaps anolhoi appioach nay find sono of lhon coopoialivo. Incapacily oi inaliIily
nay iofoi lo iIInoss vhich piovonls a iosponso duiing lho onliio suivoy poiiod. This nay aIso
aiiso on accounl of Ianguago laiiioi.

InacccssIbI!Ity
Sono iospondonls nay lo inaccossilIo. Sono nay nol lo found duo lo nigialion and
olhoi ioasons. on-iosponsos ioduco lho offoclivo sanpIo sizo and ils iopiosonlalivonoss.

Mcthnds and AIms nf cnntrn! nf nnn-rcspnnsc
ish suggosls lho foIIoving nolhods lo ioduco oilhoi lho poiconlago of non-iosponso
oi ils offocls:
1. Inpiovod piocoduios foi coIIocling dala aio lho nosl olvious ionody foi non-
iosponso. Inpiovononls advocalod aio
(a) Cuaianloos of anonynily,
(l) Molivalion of lho iospondonl lo co-opoialo
(c) Aiousing lho iospondonls inloiosl vilh cIovoi oponing ionaiks and quoslions,
(d) Advanco nolico lo lho iospondonls.

2. CaII-lacks aio nosl offoclivo vay of ioducing nol-al-honos in poisonaI inloiviovs, as
aio iopoalod naiIings lo no-ioluins in naiI suivoys.

3. Sulslilulion foi lho non-iosponso is oflon suggoslod as a ionody. UsuaIIy lhis is a
nislako locauso lho sulslilulos iosonlIo lho iosponsos ialhoi lhan lho non-iosponsos.
M800S0 Ŷkesearch Methodo|ogy SYWŵŶ

ovoilhoIoss, lonoficiaI sulslilulion nolhods can sonolinos lo dosignod vilh
iofoionco lo inpoilanl chaiacloiislics of lho popuIalion. Ioi oxanpIo, in a fain
nanagononl sludy, lho fain sizo is an inpoilanl vaiialIo and if lho sanpIing is lasod
on fain sizo, sulslilulion foi a iospondonl vilh a pailicuIai sizo hoIding ly anolhoi
vilh lho hoIding of lho sano sizo is possilIo. .

Allonpls lo ioduco lho poiconlago oi offocls on non-iosponsos ain al ioducing lho lias
causod ly diffoioncos on non-iospondonls fion iospondonls. Tho non-iosponso lias shouId
nol lo confusod vilh lho ioduclion of sanpIod sizo duo lo non-iosponso. Tho Ialloi offocl can
lo oasiIy ovoicono, oilhoi ly anlicipaling lho sizo of non-iosponso in dosigning lho sanpIo
sizo oi ly conponsaling foi il vilh a suppIononl. Thoso adjuslnonls incioaso lho sizo of lho
iosponso and lho sanpIing piocision, lul lhoy do nol ioduco lho non-iosponso poiconlago oi
lias.



















M800S0 Ŷkesearch Methodo|ogy SYWŵŷ

.Ż. A. Whut ure the vurloux xtepx ln procexxlng of Jutu?
°sťŴ
McanIng nf Data !rnccssIng
Dala in lho ioaI voiId oflon conos vilh a Iaigo quanlun and in a vaiioly of foinals
lhal any noaningfuI inloipiolalion of dala cannol lo achiovod sliaighlavay. SociaI scionco
iosoaichos, lo lo voiy spocific, diav concIusions using lolh piinaiy and socondaiy dala. To
aiiivo al a noaningfuI inloipiolalion on lho iosoaich hypolhosis, lho iosoaichoi has lo piopaio
his dala foi lhis puiposo. This piopaialion invoIvos lho idonlificalion of dala sliucluios, lho
coding of dala and lho giouping of dala foi pioIininaiy iosoaich inloipiolalion. This dala
piopaialion foi iosoaich anaIysis is loanod as piocossing of dala. Iuilhoi soIoclions of looIs
foi anaIysis vouId lo a Iaigo oxlonl dopond on lho iosuIls of lhis dala piocossing.

Dala piocossing is an inloinodiaiy slago of voik lolvoon dala coIIoclions and dala
inloipiolalion. Tho dala galhoiod in lho foin of quoslionnaiios/inloiviov schoduIos/fioId
nolos/dala shools is noslIy in lho foin of a Iaigo voIuno of iosoaich vaiialIos. Tho iosoaich
vaiialIos iocognizod is lho iosuIl of lho pioIininaiy iosoaich pIan, vhich aIso sols oul lho dala
piocossing nolhods lofoiohand. Iiocossing of dala ioquiios advancod pIanning and lhis
pIanning nay covoi such aspocls as idonlificalion of vaiialIos, hypolholicaI ioIalionship
anong lho vaiialIos and lho lonlalivo iosoaich hypolhosis.

Tho vaiious slops in piocossing of dala nay lo slalod as:

O Idonlifying lho dala sliucluios
O Ldiling lho dala
O Coding and cIassifying lho dala
O Tiansciiplion of dala
O TaluIalion of dala.
O Idonlifying lho dala sliucluios


M800S0 Ŷkesearch Methodo|ogy SYWŵŸ

Tho idonlificalion of lho nodaI poinls and lho ioIalionships anong lho nodos couId
sonolinos lo a conpIox lask lhan oslinalod. Whon lho lask is conpIox, vhich invoIvos
sovoiaI lypos of insliunonls loing coIIoclod foi lho sano iosoaich quoslion, lho piocoduios foi
diaving lho dala sliucluio vouId invoIvo a soiios of slops. In sovoiaI inloinodialo slops, lho
holoiogonoous dala sliucluio of lho individuaI dala sols can lo hainonizod lo a connon
slandaid and lho sopaialo dala sols aio lhon inlogialod inlo a singIo dala sol. Hovovoi, lho
cIoai dofinilion of such dala sliucluios vouId hoIp in lho fuilhoi piocossing of dala.

EdItIng thc data

Tho noxl slop in lho piocossing of dala is odiling of lho dala insliunonls. Ldiling is a
piocoss of chocking lo dolocl and coiiocl oiiois and onissions. Dala odiling happons al lvo
slagos, ono al lho lino of iocoiding of lho dala and socond al lho lino of anaIysis of dala.

Data EdItIng at thc TImc nf RccnrdIng nf Data
Docunonl odiling and losling of lho dala al lho lino of dala iocoiding is dono considoiing
lho foIIoving quoslions in nind.
O Do lho fiIlois agioo oi aio lho dala inconsislonl`
O Havo ,nissing vaIuos loon sol lo vaIuos, vhich aio lho sano foi aII iosoaich
quoslions`
O Havo vaiialIo dosciiplions loon spocifiod`
O Havo IaloIs foi vaiialIo nanos and vaIuo IaloIs loon dofinod and viillon`

AII odiling and cIoaning slops aio docunonlod, so lhal, lho iodofinilion of vaiialIos oi Ialoi
anaIylicaI nodificalion ioquiiononls couId lo oasiIy incoipoialod inlo lho dala sols.


Data EdItIng at thc TImc nf Ana!ysIs nf Data
Dala odiling is aIso a ioquisilo lofoio lho anaIysis of dala is caiiiod oul. This onsuios lhal
lho dala is conpIolo in aII iospocl foi suljocling lhon lo fuilhoi anaIysis. Sono of lho usuaI
chock Iisl quoslions lhal can lo had ly a iosoaichoi foi odiling dala sols lofoio anaIysis vouId
lo:
M800S0 Ŷkesearch Methodo|ogy SYWŵŹ

1. Is lho coding fiano conpIolo`
2. Is lho docunonlaiy naloiiaI sufficionl foi lho nolhodoIogicaI dosciiplion of lho sludy`
3. Is lho sloiago nodiun ioadalIo and ioIialIo.
4. Has lho coiiocl dala sol loon fianod`
5. Is lho nunloi of casos coiiocl`
6. Aio lhoio diffoioncos lolvoon quoslionnaiio, coding fiano and dala`
7. Aio lhoio undofinod and so-caIIod ¨viId codos¨`
8. Conpaiison of lho fiisl counling of lho dala vilh lho oiiginaI docunonls of lho
iosoaichoi.


CndIng and c!assIfyIng thc data

Tho odilod dala aio lhon suljocl lo codificalion and cIassificalion. Coding piocoss
assigns nunoiaIs oi olhoi synloIs lo lho sovoiaI iosponsos of lho dala sol. Il is lhoiofoio a pio-
ioquisilo lo piopaio a coding schono foi lho dala sol. Tho iocoiding of lho dala is dono on lho
lasis of lhis coding schono.
Tho iosponsos coIIoclod in a dala shool vaiios, sonolinos lho iosponsos couId lo lho
choico anong a nuIlipIo iosponso, sonolinos lho iosponso couId lo in loins of vaIuos and
sonolinos lho iosponso couId lo aIphanunoiic. Al lho iocoiding slago ilsoIf, if sono
codificalion voio dono lo lho iosponsos coIIoclod, il vouId lo usofuI in lho dala anaIysis.
Whon codificalion is dono, il is inpoialivo lo koop a Iog of lho codos aIIollod lo lho
olsoivalions. This codo shool viII hoIp in lho idonlificalion of vaiialIos/olsoivalions and lho
lasis foi such codificalion.

TranscrIptInn nf data

Whon lho olsoivalions coIIoclod ly lho iosoaichoi aio nol voiy Iaigo, lho sinpIo
infoioncos, vhich can lo diavn fion lho olsoivalions, can lo liansfoiiod lo a dala shool,
vhich is a sunnaiy of aII iosponsos on aII olsoivalions fion a iosoaich insliunonl. Tho nain
ain of liansilion is lo nininizo lho shuffIing piocoods lolvoon sovoiaI iosponsos and sovoiaI
olsoivalions. Supposo a iosoaich insliunonl conlains 12O iosponsos and lho olsoivalions has
M800S0 Ŷkesearch Methodo|ogy SYWŵź

loon coIIoclod fion 2OO iospondonls, a sinpIo sunnaiy of ono iosponso fion aII 2OO
olsoivalions vouId ioquiio shuffIing of 2OO pagos. Tho piocoss is quilo lodious if sovoiaI
sunnaiy lalIos aio lo lo piopaiod fion lho insliunonl. Tho liansciiplion piocoss hoIps in lho
piosonlalion of aII iosponsos and olsoivalions on dala shools vhich can hoIp lho iosoaichoi lo
aiiivo al pioIininaiy concIusions as lo lho naluio of lho sanpIo coIIoclod olc. Tiansciiplion is
honco, an inloinodiaiy piocoss lolvoon dala coding and dala laluIalion

Tabu!atInn nf data.

Tho liansciiplion of dala can lo usod lo sunnaiizo and aiiango lho dala in conpacl
foin foi fuilhoi anaIysis. Tho piocoss is caIIod laluIalion. Thus, laluIalion is a piocoss of
sunnaiizing iav dala dispIaying lhon on conpacl slalislicaI lalIos foi fuilhoi anaIysis. Il
invoIvos counling lho nunloi of casos faIIing inlo oach of lho calogoiios idonlifiod ly lho
iosoaichoi.

TaluIalion can lo dono nanuaIIy oi lhiough lho conpuloi. Tho choico doponds upon
lho sizo and lypo of sludy, cosl considoialions, lino piossuios and lho avaiIaliIily of soflvaio
packagos. ManuaI laluIalion is suilalIo foi snaII and sinpIo sludios.














M800S0 Ŷkesearch Methodo|ogy SYWŵŻ

µ.Ż B. Eow is Joto eJitinq is Jone ot tbe Time of RecorJinq of Boto?
°sťŴ
Tho noxl slop in lho piocossing of dala is odiling of lho dala insliunonls. Ldiling is a
piocoss of chocking lo dolocl and coiiocl oiiois and onissions. Dala odiling happons al lvo
slagos, ono al lho lino of iocoiding of lho dala and socond al lho lino of anaIysis of dala.

Data EdItIng at thc TImc nf RccnrdIng nf Data

Docunonl odiling and losling of lho dala al lho lino of dala iocoiding is dono
considoiing lho foIIoving quoslions in nind.

O Do lho fiIlois agioo oi aio lho dala inconsislonl`
O Havo ,nissing vaIuos loon sol lo vaIuos, vhich aio lho sano foi aII iosoaich
quoslions`
O Havo vaiialIo dosciiplions loon spocifiod`
O Havo IaloIs foi vaiialIo nanos and vaIuo IaloIs loon dofinod and viillon`

AII odiling and cIoaning slops aio docunonlod, so lhal, lho iodofinilion of vaiialIos oi
Ialoi anaIylicaI nodificalion ioquiiononls couId lo oasiIy incoipoialod inlo lho dala sols.












M800S0 Ŷkesearch Methodo|ogy SYWŵ%

.4.A. whut ure the funJumentul of frequency Ðlxtrlbutlon?
Ans:-
CnnstructInn nf Frcqucncy Tab!c

Iioquoncy lalIos piovido a ¨shoilhand¨ sunnaiy of dala. Tho inpoilanco of
piosonling slalislicaI dala in laluIai foin noods no onphasis. TalIos faciIilalo conpiohonding
nassos of dala al a gIanco, lhoy consoivo spaco and ioduco oxpIanalions and dosciiplions lo a
nininun. Thoy givo a visuaI picluio of ioIalionships lolvoon vaiialIos and calogoiios. Thoy
faciIilalo sunnalion of ilon and lho doloclion of oiiois and onissions and piovido a lasis foi
conpulalions.

Il is inpoilanl lo nako a dislinclion lolvoon lho gonoiaI puiposo lalIos and spocific
lalIos. Tho gonoiaI puiposo lalIos aio piinaiy oi iofoionco lalIos dosignod lo incIudo Iaigo
anounl of souico dala in convonionl and accossilIo foin. Tho spociaI puiposo lalIos aio
anaIylicaI oi doiivalo onos lhal dononslialo significanl ioIalionships in lho dala oi lho iosuIls
of slalislicaI anaIysis. TalIos in iopoils of govoinnonl on popuIalion, vilaI slalislics,
agiicuIluio, indusliios olc., aio of gonoiaI puiposo lypo. Thoy iopiosonl oxlonsivo ioposiloiios
and slalislicaI infoinalion. SpociaI puiposo lalIos aio found in nonogiaphs, iosoaich iopoils
and ailicIos and iousod as insliunonls of anaIysis. In iosoaich, vo aio piinaiiIy concoinod
vilh spociaI puiposo.

Conpononls of a TalIo

Tho najoi conpononls of a lalIo aio:
A HcadIng:
1. TalIo unloi
2. TilIo of lho TalIo
3. Dosignalion of unils

B Bndy
1. 1 Sul-hoad, Hoading of aII iovs oi lIocks of slul ilons
M800S0 Ŷkesearch Methodo|ogy SYWŵ%

2. 2 ßody-hoad: Hoadings of aII coIunns oi nain caplions and lhoii sul-caplions.
3. 3 IioId/lody: Tho coIIs in iovs and coIunns.

C NntatInns:
1. Ioolnolos, vhoiovoi appIicalIo.
2. Souico, vhoiovoi appIicalIo.


Frcqucncy DIstrIbutInn and C!ass Intcrva!s

'aiialIos lhal aio cIassifiod accoiding lo nagniludo oi sizo aio oflon aiiangod in lho
foin of a fioquoncy lalIo. In consliucling lhis lalIo, il is nocossaiy lo doloinino lho nunloi of
cIass inloivaIs lo lo usod and lho sizo of lho cIass inloivaIs.

A dislinclion is usuaIIy nado lolvoon conlinuous and disciolo vaiialIos. A
conlinuous vaiialIo has an unIinilod nunloi of possilIo vaIuos lolvoon lho Iovosl and
highosl vilh no gaps oi lioaks. LxanpIos of conlinuous vaiialIo aio ago, voighl, lonpoialuio
olc. A disciolo vaiialIo can havo a soiios of spocifiod vaIuos vilh no possiliIily of vaIuos
lolvoon lhoso poinls. Lach vaIuo of a disciolo vaiialIo is dislincl and sopaialo. LxanpIos of
disciolo vaiialIos aio gondoi of poisons (naIo/fonaIo) occupalion (saIaiiod, lusinoss,
piofossion) cai sizo (8OOcc, 1OOOcc, 12OOcc)

In piaclico, aII vaiialIos aio lioalod as disciolo unils, lho conlinuous vaiialIos loing
slalod in sono disciolo unil sizo accoiding lo lho noods of a pailicuIai silualion. Ioi oxanpIo,
Ionglh is dosciilod in disciolo unils of niIIinolois oi a lonlh of an inch.


C!ass Intcrva!s:
OidinaiiIy, lho nunloi of cIass inloivaIs nay nol lo Ioss lhan 5 nol noio lhan 15,
doponding on lho naluio of lho dala and lho nunloi of casos loing sludiod. Afloi noling lho
highosl and Iovoi vaIuos and lho foaluio of lho dala, lho nunloi of inloivaIs can lo oasiIy
doloininod.
M800S0 Ŷkesearch Methodo|ogy SYWŶŴ

Ioi nany lypos of dala, il is dosiialIo lo havo cIass inloivaIs of unifoin sizo. Tho
inloivaIs shouId noilhoi lo loo snaII noi loo Iaigo. Whonovoi possilIo, lho inloivaIs shouId
iopiosonl connon and convonionl nunoiicaI divisions such as 5 oi 1O, ialhoi lhan odd
division such as 3 lo 7. CIass inloivaIs nusl lo cIoaiIy dosignalod in a fioquoncy lalIo in such
a vay as lo olvialo any possiliIily of nisinloipiolalion of confusion. Ioi oxanpIo, lo piosonl
lho ago gioup of a popuIalion, lho uso of inloivaIs of 1-2O, 2O-5O, and 5O and alovo
vouId lo confusing. This nay lo piosonlod as 1-2O, 21-5O, and alovo 5O.
Lvoiy cIass inloivaI has a nid-poinl. Ioi oxanpIo, lho nidpoinl of an inloivaI 1-2O is
1O.5 and lho nidpoinl of cIass inloivaI 1-25 vouId lo 13. Onco cIass inloivaIs aio doloininod,
il is ioulino voik lo counl lho nunloi of casos lhal faII in oach inloivaI.
Anolhoi nolhod of consliucling a lvo-vay lalIo is lo slalo lho poiconl of
iopiosonlalion as a vilhin liackols loin ialhoi lhan as a sopaialo coIunn. Hoio, spociaI caio
has loon lakon as lo hov lho poiconlagos aio caIcuIalod, oilhoi on a hoiizonlaI iopiosonlalion
of dala oi as voilicaI
Ropiosonlalion of dala. Sonolinos, lho lalIo hoading ilsoIf piovidos a noaning as lo
lho nolhod of iopiosonlalion in lho lvo-vay lalIo.
















M800S0 Ŷkesearch Methodo|ogy SYWŶŵ

.4. B. Whut ure the typex unJ generul rulex for gruphlcul
reprexentutlon of Jutu?
Ans:-
In piosonling lho dala of fioquoncy disliilulions and slalislicaI conpulalions, il is
oflon dosiialIo lo uso appiopiialo foins of giaphic piosonlalions. In addilions lo laluIai
foins, giaphic piosonlalion invoIvos uso of giaphics, chails and olhoi picloiiaI dovicos such
as diagians. Thoso foins and dovicos ioduco Iaigo nassos of slalislicaI dala lo a foin lhal can
lo quickIy undoislood al lho gIanco. Tho noaning of figuios in laluIai foin nay lo difficuIl
foi lho nind lo giasp oi iolain. ¨IiopoiIy consliuclod giaphs and chails ioIiovo lho nind of
luidonsono dolaiIs ly poiliaying facls concisoIy, IogicaIIy and sinpIy.¨ Thoy, ly
onphasizing nov and significanl ioIalionship, aio aIso usofuI in discovoiing nov facls and in
dovoIoping hypolhosis.

Tho dovico of giaphic piosonlalion is pailicuIaiIy usofuI vhon lho piospoclivo ioadois
aio non-lochnicaI poopIo oi gonoiaI pulIic. Il is usofuI lo ovon lochnicaI poopIo foi
dianalizing coilain poinls aloul dala, foi inpoilanl poinls can lo noio offoclivoIy capluiod
in picluios lhan in lalIos. Hovovoi, giaphic foins aio nol sulslilulos foi lalIos, lul aio
addilionaI looIs foi lho iosoaichoi lo onphasizo lho iosoaich findings.

Ciaphic piosonlalion nusl lo pIannod vilh ulnosl caio and diIigonco. Ciaphic foins
usod shouId lo sinpIo, cIoai and accuialo and aIso lo appiopiialo lo lho dala. In pIanning lhis
voik, lho foIIoving quoslions nusl lo considoiod.

(a) Whal is lho puiposo of lho diagian`
(l) Whal facls aio lo lo onphasizod`
(c) Whal is lho oducalionaI IovoI of lho audionco`
(d)Hov nuch lino is avaiIalIo foi lho piopaialion of lho diagian`
(o) Whal kind of chail viII poiliay lho dala nosl cIoaiIy and accuialoIy`



M800S0 Ŷkesearch Methodo|ogy SYWŶŶ

Typcs nf Graphs and Gcncra! Ru!cs

Tho nosl connonIy usod giaphic foins nay lo gioupod inlo lho foIIoving calogoiios:
1. ino Ciaphs oi Chails
2. ßai Chails
3. SognonlaI piosonlalions.
4. Scalloi pIols
5. ßullIo chails
6. Slock pIols
7. Iiclogiaphs
8. Chosnokov Iacos

Tho gonoiaI iuIos lo lo foIIovod in giaphic iopiosonlalions aio:

1. Tho chail shouId havo a lilIo pIacod diioclIy alovo lho chail.
2. Tho lilIo shouId lo cIoai, conciso and sinpIo and shouId dosciilo lho naluio of lho dala
piosonlod.
3. unoiicaI dala upon vhich lho chail is lasod shouId lo piosonlod in an acconpanying
lalIo.
4. Tho hoiizonlaI Iino noasuios lino oi indopondonl vaiialIo and lho voilicaI Iino lho
noasuiod vaiialIo.
5. Moasuiononls piocood fion Iofl lo iighl on lho hoiizonlaI Iino and fion lollon lo lop on
lho voilicaI.
6. Lach cuivo oi lai on lho chail shouId lo IaloIod.
7. If lhoio aio noio lhan ono cuivos oi lai, lhoy shouId lo cIoaiIy diffoionlialod fion ono
anolhoi ly dislincl palloins oi coIois.
8. Tho zoio poinl shouId aIvays lo iopiosonlod and lho scaIo inloivaIs shouId lo oquaI.
9. Ciaphic foins shouId lo usod spaiingIy. Too nany foins doliacl ialhoi lhan iIIuninaling
lho piosonlalion.
1O. Ciaphic foins shouId foIIov and nol piocodo lho ioIalod loxluaI discussion.
M800S0 Ŷkesearch Methodo|ogy SYWŶŷ

.S. Strlctly xpeuklng, woulJ cuxe xtuJlex be conxlJereJ ux
xclentlflc rexeurch? Why or why not?
°sťŴ
Caso sludios aio a looI foi discussing scionlific inlogiily. AIlhough ono of lho nosl
fioquonlIy usod looIs foi oncouiaging discussion, casos aio onIy ono of nany possilIo looIs.
Many of lho piincipIos discussod loIov foi discussing caso sludios can lo gonoiaIizod lo olhoi
appioachos lo oncouiaging discussion aloul iosoaich olhics. Casos aio dosignod lo confionl
ioadois vilh spocific ioaI-Iifo piolIons lhal do nol Iond lhonsoIvos lo oasy ansvois. Caso
discussion donands ciilicaI and anaIylicaI skiIIs and, vhon inpIononlod in snaII gioups, aIso
foslois coIIaloialion (IinpIo, 2OO2). ßy pioviding a focus foi discussion, casos hoIp liainoos lo
dofino oi iofino lhoii ovn slandaids, lo appiocialo aIloinalivo appioachos lo idonlifying and
iosoIving olhicaI piolIons, and lo dovoIop skiIIs foi anaIyzing and doaIing vilh haid
piolIons on lhoii ovn. Tho offoclivo uso of caso sludios is conpiisod of nany faclois,
incIuding: appiopiialo soIoclion of caso(s) (lopic, ioIovanco, Ionglh, conpIoxily)nolhod of caso
piosonlalion (voilaI, piinlod, lofoio oi duiing discussion)foinal foi caso discussion (LnaiI oi
Inloinol-lasod, snaII gioup, Iaigo gioup)Ioadoiship of caso discussion (choico of discussion
Ioadoi, ioIos and iosponsiliIilios foi discussion Ioadoi)oulconos foi caso discussion (ansvois
lo spocific quoslions, ansvois lo gonoiaI quoslions, viillon oi voilaI sunnaiios)Rosoaich
nolhods don'l soon so inlinidaling vhon you'io faniIiai vilh lho loininoIogy.
This is inpoilanl vholhoi you'io conducling ovaIualion oi noioIy ioading ailicIos
aloul olhoi sludios lo incoipoialo in youi piogian. To hoIp vilh undoislanding, hoio aio
sono lasic dofinilions usod. 'aiialIo: Chaiacloiislics ly vhich poopIo oi lhings can lo
dosciilod. Musl havo noio lhan ono IovoI, in olhoi voids, lo lo alIo lo chango ovoi lino foi
lho sano poison/oljocl, oi fion poison lo poison, oi oljocl lo oljocl. Sono vaiialIos, caIIod
alliilulos, cannol lo nanipuIalod ly lho iosoaichoi (o.g., socioocononic slalus, IQ scoio, iaco,
gondoi, olc.). Sono vaiialIos can lo nanipuIalod lul aio nol in a pailicuIai sludy. This occuis
vhon suljocls soIf-soIocl lho IovoI of lho indopondonl vaiialIo, oi lho IovoI is naluiaIIy
occuiiing (as vilh ox posl faclo iosoaich).ManipuIalion: Randon assignnonl of suljocls lo
IovoIs of lho indopondonl vaiialIo (lioalnonl gioups).

M800S0 Ŷkesearch Methodo|ogy SYWŶŸ

Indcpcndcnt varIab!c:
Tho lioalnonl, facloi, oi piosunod causo lhal viII pioduco a chango in lho dopondonl
vaiialIo. This is vhal lho oxpoiinonloi liios lo nanipuIalo. Il is donolod as "X" on lho
hoiizonlaI axis of a giaph. Dopondonl vaiialIo: Tho piosunod offocl oi consoquonco iosuIling
fion changos in lho indopondonl vaiialIo. This is lho olsoivalion nado and is donolod ly "Y"
on lho voilicaI axis of a giaph. Tho scoio of "Y" doponds on lho scoio of "X."IopuIalion: Tho
conpIolo sol of suljocls lhal can lo sludiod: poopIo, oljocls, aninaIs, pIanls, olc. SanpIo: A
sulsol of suljocls lhal can lo sludiod lo nako lho iosoaich piojocl noio nanagoalIo. Thoio
aio a vaiioly of vays sanpIos can lo lakon. If a Iaigo onough iandon sanpIos aio lakon, lho
iosuIls can lo slalislicaIIy siniIai lo laking a consus of an onliio popuIalion--vilh ioducod
offoil and cosl. Caso Sludy: A caso sludy is conduclod foi siniIai puiposo as lho alovo lul is
usuaIIy dono vilh a snaIIoi sanpIo sizo foi noio in-doplh sludy.
A caso sludy oflon invoIvos diiocl olsoivalion oi inloiviovs vilh singIo sul jocls oi
singIo snaII sociaI unils such as a faniIy, cIul, schooI cIassioon, olc. This is lypicaIIy
considoiod quaIilalivo iosoaich. Iuiposo: LxpIain oi Iiodicl Typo of Rosoaich lo Uso:
RoIalionaI Sludy In a ioIalionaI sludy you slail vilh a iosoaich hypolhosis, lhal is, is vhal
you'io liying lo "piovo."
Examp!cs nf rcscarch hypnthcscs fnr a rc!atInna! study:
Tho oIdoi lho poison, lho noio hoaIlh piolIons ho oi sho oncounlois. 4-H nonlois
allonding 4-H sunnoi canp slay onioIIod in 4-H Iongoi. Tho gioaloi lho nunloi of nonoy
nanagononl cIassos allondod, lho gioaloi lho anounl of annuaI savings achiovod. Typos of
ioIalionaI sludios incIudo coiioIalion sludios and ox posl faclo sludios.Co ioIalionaI Sludy: A
co ioIalionaI sludy conpaios lvo oi noio diffoionl chaiacloiislics fion lho sano giound of
poopIo and oxpIains hov lvo chaiacloiislics vaiy logolhoi and hov voII ono can lo piodicl
fion knovIodgo of lho olhoi. A concuiionl co ioIalionaI sludy diavs a ioIalionship lolvoon
chaiacloiislics al lho San poinl in lino.
Ioi oxanpIo, a sludonl's giado poinl avoiago is ioIalod lo his oi hoi cIass iank. A
piodiclivo co ioIalionaI sludy couId piodicl a Ialoi sol of dala fion an oaiIioi sol. Ioi oxanpIo,
M800S0 Ŷkesearch Methodo|ogy SYWŶŹ

a sludonl's giado poinl avoiago nighl piodicl lho sano sludonl's giado poinl avoiago duiing
sonioi yoai. A piodiclivo co ioIalionaI sludy couId aIso uso ono chaiacloiislic lo piodicvhal
anolhoi chaiacloiislic viII lo al anolhoi lino. Ioi oxanpIo, a sludonl's SAT scoio dosignod lo
piodicl coIIogo fioshnan giado poinl avoiago. Lx Iosl Iaclo (Afloi lho Iacl) Sludy: An ox posl
faclo sludy is usod vhon oxpoiinonlaI iosoaich is nol possilIo, such as vhon poopIo havo soIf-
soIoclod IovoIs of an indopondonl vaiialIo oi vhon a lioalnonl is naluiaI occuiiing and lho
iosoaichoi couId nol "conlioI" lho dogioo of ils uso. Tho iosoaichoi slails spocifying a
dopondonl vaiialIo and lhon liios lo idonlify possilIo ioasons foi ils occuiionco as voII as
aIloinalivo (iivaI) oxpIanalions such confounding (inloivoning, conlaninaling, oxlianoous)
vaiialIos aio "conlioIIod" using slalislics.
This lypo of sludy is voiy connon and usofuI vhon using hunan suljocls in ioaI-
voiId silualions and lho invosligaloi conos in "afloi lho facl." Ioi oxanpIo, il nighl lo
olsoivod lhal sludonls fion ono lovn havo highoi giados lhan sludonls fion a diffoionl lovn
allonding lho sano high schooI. WouId jusl "loing fion a coilain lovn" oxpIain lho
diffoioncos` In an ox poifoclo sludy, spocific ioasons foi lho diffoioncos vouId lo oxpIoiod,
such as diffoioncos incono, olhnicily, paionl suppoil, olc. Il is inpoilanl lo iocognizo lhal, in a
ioIalionaI sludy, ¨causo and offocl" cannol lo cIainod. AII lhal can lo cIainod is lhal lhal
lhoio is a ioIalionship lolvoon lho vaiialIos.

Ioi lhal nalloi, vaiialIos lhal aio conpIoloIy unioIalod couId, in facl, vaiy logolhoi
duo lo nolhing noio lhan coincidonco. Thal is vhy lho iosoaichoi noods lo oslalIish a
pIausilIo iosoaich hypolhosis foi vhy lhoio nighl lo a ioIalionship lolvoon lvo vaiialIos
lofoio conducling a sludy. Ioi inslanco, il nighl lo found lhal aII foollaII loans vilh lIuo
unifoins von Iasl vook. Thoio is no IikoIy ioason vhy lho unifoin coIoi had any ioIalionship
lo lho ganos' oulconos, and il coilainIy vas nol lho causo foi vicloiy. SiniIaiIy, you nusl lo
caiofuI aloul cIaining lhal youi Lxlonsion piogian vas lho "causo" of possilIo iosuIls.



M800S0 Ŷkesearch Methodo|ogy SYWŶź

.6 A. Anulyze the cuxe xtuJy unJ Jexcrlptlve upprouch to
rexeurch.
°sťŴ
Casc 5tudy and dcscrIptIvc apprnach tn rcscarch:
Dosciiplivo iosoaich, aIso knovn as slalislicaI iosoaich, dosciilos dala and
chaiacloiislic aloul lho popuIalion oi phonononon loing sludiod. Dosciiplivo iosoaich
ansvois lho quoslion vho, vhal, vhoio, vhon and hov...AIlhough lho dala dosciiplion is
facluaI, accuialo and syslonalic, lho iosoaich cannol dosciilo vhal causod a silualion. Thus,
Dosciiplivo iosoaich cannol lo usod lo cioalo a causaI ioIalionship, vhoio ono vaiialIo affocls
anolhoi. In olhoi voids, dosciiplivo iosoaich can lo said lo havo a Iov ioquiiononl foi
inloinaI vaIidily. Tho dosciiplion is usod foi fioquoncios, avoiagos and olhoi slalislicaI
caIcuIalions.
Oflon lho losl appioach, piioi lo viiling dosciiplivo iosoaich, is lo conducl a suivoy
invosligalion. QuaIilalivo iosoaich oflon has lho ain of dosciiplion and iosoaichois nay
foIIov-up vilh oxaninalions of vhy lho olsoivalions oxisl and vhal lho inpIicalions of lho
findings aio. In shoil dosciiplivo iosoaich doaIs vilh ovoiylhing lhal can lo counlod and
sludiod. ßul lhoio aio aIvays iosliiclions lo lhal. Youi iosoaich nusl havo an inpacl lo lho
Iivos of lho poopIo aiound you o.g. finding lho nosl fioquonl disoaso lhal affocls lho chiIdion
of a lovn. Tho ioad of lho iosoaich viII knov vhal lo do lo piovonl lhal disoaso lhus, noio
poopIo viII Iivo a hoaIlh Iifo. Dosciiplivo iosoaich doos nol fil noalIy inlo lho dofinilion of
oilhoi quanlilalivo oi quaIilalivo iosoaich nolhodoIogios, lul insload il can uliIizo oIononls of
lolh, oflon vilhin lho sano sludy. Tho loin dosciiplivo iosoaich iofois lo lho lypo of iosoaich
quoslion, dosign, and dala anaIysis lhal viII lo appIiod lo a givon lopic.
Dosciiplivo slalislics loII vhal is, vhiIo infoionliaI slalislic liios lo doloinino causo and
offocl. A caso sludy is a iosoaich nolhod connon in sociaI scionco. Il is lasod on an in-dopl.
invosligalion of a singIo individuaI, gioup, oi ovonl. Caso sludios nay lo dosciiplivo
oxpIanaloiy. Tho Ialloi lypo is usod lo oxpIoio causalion in oidoi lo find undoiIying
piincipIos. Thoy nay lo piospoclivo, in vhich ciiloiia aio oslalIishod and casos filling lho
ciiloiia an incIudod as lhoy locono avaiIalIo, oi ioliospoclivo, in vhich ciiloiia aio
M800S0 Ŷkesearch Methodo|ogy SYWŶŻ

oslalIishod foi soIocling. Casos fion hisloiicaI iocoids foi incIusion in lho sludy. Ralhoi lhan
using sanpIos and foIIoving a iigid piolocoI (sliicl sol of iuIos) lo oxanino Iinilod nunloi of
vaiialIos, caso sludy nolhods invoIvo an in-doplh, IongiludinaI (ovoi a Iong poiiod of lino)
oxaninalion of a singIo inslanco oi ovonl: a caso.
Thoy piovido a syslonalic vay of Iooking al ovonls, coIIocling dala, anaIyzing
infoinalion, and iopoiling lho iosuIls. As a iosuIl lho iosoaichoi nay gain a shaiponod
undoislanding of vhy lho inslanco happonod as il did, and vhal nighl locono inpoilanl lo
Iook al noio oxlonsivoIy in fuluio iosoaich. Caso sludios Iond lhonsoIvos lo lolh gonoialing
and losling hypolhosos .Anolhoi suggoslion is lhal caso sludy shouId lo dofinod as a iosoaich
slialogy, an onpiiicaI inquiiy lhal invosligalos a phonononon vilhin ils ioaI-Iifo conloxl. Caso
sludy iosoaich noans singIo and nuIlipIo caso sludios, can incIudo quanlilalivo ovidonco,
ioIios on nuIlipIo souicos of ovidonco and lonofils fion lho piioi dovoIopnonl of lhooiolicaI
pioposilions. Caso sludios shouId nol lo confusod vilh quaIilalivo iosoaich and lhoy can lo
lasod on any nix of quanlilalivo and quaIilalivo ovidonco. SingIo-suljocl iosoaich piovidos
lho slalislicaI fianovoik foi naking infoioncos fion quanlilalivo caso-sludy dala











M800S0 Ŷkesearch Methodo|ogy SYWŶ%

.6. B. Ðlxtlngulxh between rexeurch methoJx & rexeurch
MethoJology.
°sťŴ
DIstInctInn bctwccn rcscarch mcthnds and rcscarch Mcthndn!ngy:
Rosoaich Molhods Rosoaich MolhodoIogy
Rosoaich nolhods aio lho vaiious piocoduios, schonos,
aIgoiilhns, olc. usod in iosoaich. AII lho nolhods usod ly a
iosoaichoi duiing a iosoaich sludy aio loinod as iosoaich
nolhods. Thoy aio ossonliaIIy pIannod, scionlific and vaIuo-
nouliaI. Thoy incIudo lhooiolicaI piocoduios, oxpoiinonlaI
sludios, nunoiicaI schonos, slalislicaI appioachos, olc.
Rosoaich nolhods hoIp us coIIocl sanpIos, dala and find a
soIulion lo a piolIon. IailicuIaiIy, scionlific iosoaich
nolhods caII foi oxpIanalions lasod on coIIoclod acls, noan
suio non sand olsoivalions and nol on ioasoning aIono.
Thoy ac- copl onIy lhoso oxpIanalions vhich can lo voiifiod
ly oxpoiinonls.
Rosoaich nolhodoIogy is a
syslonalic vay lo soIvo a piolIon.
Il is a scionco of sludying hov
iosoaich is lo lo caiiiod oul.
LssonliaIIy, lho piocoduios ly
vhich iosoaich oisgo aloul lhoii
voik of dosciiling, oxpIaining and
piodicling phononona aio caIIod
iosoaich nolhodoIogy. Il is aIso
dofinod as lho sludy of nolhods ly
vhich knovIodgo is gainod. Ils ain
is lo givo lho voik pIan of iosoaich.

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