Anal. Chem.

2004, 76, 3251-3262

Planar Chromatography
Joseph Sherma

Department of Chemistry, Lafayette College, Easton, Pennsylvania 18042
Review Contents History, Student Experiments, Books, and Reviews Theory and Fundamental Studies Chromatographic Systems (Stationary and Mobile Phases) Apparatus and Techniques Detection and Identification of Separated Zones Quantitative Analysis Preparative-Layer Chromatography and Thin-Layer Radiochromatography Literature Cited 3252 3253 3253 3254 3256 3257 3258 3258

This review covers the literature of thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) found by computer-assisted searching in Chemical Abstracts and the ISI Web of Science from November 1, 2001 to November 1, 2003. The literature search was augmented by consulting Analytical Abstracts, and the following journals publishing papers on TLC were searched directly: Journal of Chromatography (parts A and B and the bibliography issues), Journal of Chromatographic Science, Chromatographia, Analytical Chemistry, Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies, Journal of AOAC International, Journal of Planar Chromatography-Modern TLC, and Acta Chromatographica. No papers reporting new research on paper chromatography, the other main classification of planar chromatography, were considered to be important enough to be included in this review. Coverage is limited to the most significant papers representative of the current practice and significant advances in the field of TLC, with specific sections on history and literature, fundamental studies, methodology, equipment, and instrumentation. TLC continues to feature a broad range of applications, such as product development, quality control, process monitoring, medical, and environmental protection, but because of a prescribed limitation of approximately 200 references, there are no sections covering applications to particular compound classes, as in my reviews published prior to 2002. However, applications to specific compounds of many types are cited throughout the review, especially in the Quantitative Analysis section. The presentations at the symposium Planar Chromatography 2002, held in Heviz, Hungary in May 2002, and the papers contained in two special journal issues and a journal special section provide a contemporary picture of the important technique and application areas in TLC research. The symposium (1) included lectures on electrically driven TLC in a horizontal chamber, quality control of results for pharmaceuticals and herbal products, a new device for controlled drying of plates, ultrathin layers producing improved results, data evaluation in two-dimensional (2-D) TLC, overpressured layer chromatography (OPLC), digital autoradiog10.1021/ac0304166 CCC: $27.50 Published on Web 02/05/2004 © 2004 American Chemical Society

raphy (DAR), bioimaging techniques, bioautography, use of TLC for physicochemical studies, and wide-spectrum chemical analysis. There were posters at the symposium devoted to the analysis of plant components, pharmaceuticals, natural products, foods, fuels, industrial chemicals, pesticides, and metal complexes and to fundamental studies of the effects of electrical fields, determination of surface free energy, degradation of chemically bonded stationary phases, forced flow TLC, effects of temperature, and horizontal TLC. A recurring theme throughout was the importance of TLC in bioanalysis. The symposium was in held honor of Dr. Friedrich Geiss on the occasion of his 70th birthday. Dr. Geiss, author of the definitive book on the fundamentals and theory of TLC in 1987, received the Tswett Medal from the Russian Academy of Sciences in recognition of his services to chromatography in general and TLC in particular. A special issue on planar chromatography of the Journal of Chromatographic Science (2002, 40 (10)), edited by Kalasz, contained papers on stationary phases, effect of layer characteristics on lipophilicity determination of phenols and aniline derivatives, correlation between retention and 1-octanol-water partition coefficients of estrane derivatives in reversed-phase (RP)-TLC, plant drug analysis, uncertainty in quantitative TLC, metabolite analysis by TLC with radioactivity detection, combined TLC and mass spectrometry (MS) for screening pesticides in biological samples, and TLC-postsource decay-matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (TOF) MS of small drug molecules. Papers in a special section on TLC in the Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies (2002, 25 (10, 11)), edited by Sherma and Fried, included studies of the role of lateral analyte-analyte interactions in band formation of dicarboxylic acids; new detection reagents for phenolic drugs; new approaches in TLC-densitometry; analysis of nitroxidic derivatives of nicotinic acid by HPTLC-electronic paramagnetic resonance; advances in the analysis of natural pigments; review of natural and synthetic products analysis; analysis of vitamin B12 and related products; determination of flumequine in milk by TLC-bioautography; TLCfilm autoradiography determination of formaldehyde produced by metabolic N-demethylation; use of the iodine-azide procedure for detection of glycine, alanine, and aspartic acid; quantitative HPTLC determination of neutral lipids and phospholipids in cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni; quantification of triacylglycerols in sesame seeds; and quantification of lysine in dietary supplements by visible-mode densitometry. Papers in a special issue on TLC of the same journal (2003, 26 (16)), also edited by Sherma and Fried, had papers on single-channel and multichannel OPLC on nonsegmented sorbent bed using flowing eluent wall for operating segmentation; TLC of phytoecdysteroids; complexation TLC of monosulfides; separation of fatty acids on RP C-18 bonded silica gel (or silica) plates; separation of fluoroquinolines; identification
Analytical Chemistry, Vol. 76, No. 12, June 15, 2004 3251

NC. The trends noted in my 2002 review toward using TLC for screening in surveillance programs and as a tool for combinatorial syntheses. Methods development workshops are offered periodically in Wilmington. TLC-MS for analyte identification. TLC-MS. A combined technology for the synthesis. 76. A review by Poole (7) identified the following technologies as having the potential to most influence the development of TLC over the next decade or so: forced flow or electroosmotically driven flow TLC with constant and optimum mobile-phase velocity (single and multiple development) with continuous on-line detection or image analysis. and off-line TLC-MS that was developed for fast evaluation of the purity of solid-phase synthesis products in combinatorial libraries was found to give results in good agreement with those obtained by HPLC-MS and HPLC-UV and was less expensive and easier (4). A large number of applications are listed and can be requested on the Camag website <http:// www. As mentioned above. An HPTLC method employing UV densitograms.. An HPTLC method for identification of Echinacea species and their common adulterants in herbal drugs using videodensitometric chromatogram images was developed according to the guidelines of the AOAC International Peer Verification Program (6).). and indoles. lipophilic vitamins. purification. and documentation. tropane and related alkaloids (A16). quantification of Sucralose in foods. Diverse information on TLC methods and products is available on-line by entering the phrase “thin layer chromatography”. A practical book on applied TLC aimed primarily at pharmaceutical and plant analysis (A4). other chromatographic methods as well as TLC are reviewed. herbal drugs. reagent. and study of the binding of nonionic surfactants to the corn protein zein. lipids. pharmaceuticals and drugs. thin-layer radiochromatography (TLRC). optimized layers for biopolymer separations. In addition to the already-cited chapters on different compound classes in the Handbook of Thin Layer Chromatography (A3). A general review article on the theory.of new phthalazine derivatives by TLC-Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry. gradient development. e. and analysis in the production of combinatorial libraries emphasized TLC-bioautographic/agar overlay screening methods for the testing of antimicrobial agents (3). In addition to a review of the literature and descriptions of new products. a book containing selective coverage of techniques and applications (A5). and practical application of TLC was published (A7). synthetic dyes. determination of betamethasone in tablets and its validation.g. plant steroids (A17). (March)). especially for quantitative analysis. analysis of amino acids in cercariae. “TLC”. sorbents and layers. improved analysis of skin lipids by automated multiple development (AMD). and determination of antibiotics in wastewater after biological treatment in the latest issue (2003. 12. materials. analysis of corrinoid compounds in fish sauce. hydrocarbons. 2-D TLC with in situ image analysis by videodensitometry. instrumentation. theory and mechanism. monitoring of proinsecticides (oxazolines) in biological samples. BOOKS. technique. preparative-layer chromatography (PLC). inorganics and organometallics. and chapters on amino acids and their derivatives. hydrophilic vitamins. detection. bioactivity monitoring for selective detection. and application of flame ionization detectors (FIDs) in part I on principles and practice. 2004 . drug preparations. rediae. pharmaceuticals (A11). Vol. the application of videodensitometry for analysis of herbal or botanical medicines and food supplements. selective determination of taurine and 3252 L-lysine hydrochloride in energy drinks and multi-vitamin syrup. plant saponins (A9). and medicines. substance. simple. Analytical Chemistry. and the emphasis on validation of results accelerated in the past two years and are illustrated by the following examples.camagusa. phenols. June 15. and a chapter on TLC in a book on chromatography (A6) were also published in the review period. antibiotics. natural pigments. information on applications is available in reviews devoted to the following compounds: tranquilizers in biological fluids (A8).com>. This service is available from Camag free of charge in paper format or on CD-ROM searchable by key word (author name. and very inexpensive screening method for ochratoxin A in green coffee at a control level of 10 µg/kg based on normal-phase (NP)TLC and visual estimation of fluorescence intensity under an ultraviolet (UV) lamp at 366 nm was validated by analysis of spiked samples. STUDENT EXPERIMENTS. HISTORY. and plant sterols in foods and vegetable oils (A19). AND REVIEWS The history of TLC and retrospectives on their personal contributions to the field were written by Sherma (A1) and Siouffi (A2). steroids. A rapid. Additional published review articles are cited in the pertinent sections below. nucleic acids and their derivatives. enantiomers. structure-driven computer-aided method development. comprehensive review of TLC applications to specific compound classes is not possible in this article because of space restrictions. lipophilicity of bile acids. peptides and proteins. instrumental aspects. lipids (A12). OPLC. In most of these articles. carbohydrates. pesticides (A14). terpenoid pigments in foods and food products (A18). and source of surrogate models for estimating biopartitioning properties. pesticides. or “planar chromatography” on a website search engine. No significant laboratory experiments involving TLC for high school or college students were published in the last two years. effective analysis of phospholipids and glycolipids in plant lecithins. polyamine cancer markers (A10). etc. and natural toxins in part II on applications. aromatic carboxylic acids. aflatoxins in food and animal feed (A13). screening. A bibliography service (CBS) is offered by Camag to keep subscribers informed about publications involving TLC. organometallic compounds (A15). in situ UV spectra. basic principles of optical quantification. issues of the Camag CBS contain a section on applications. determination of famotidine in tablets by videodensitometry. rapid analysis of indole alkaloids in tissue cultures. A comprehensive updated and expanded third edition of the Handbook of Thin Layer Chromatography (A3) contains 1016 pages with chapters on basic techniques. optimization. and metacercariae of Echinostoma caproni. TLC was used as a fast and inexpensive alternative to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry or other chromatographic methods for the detection of unexpected products in organometallic combinatorial catalysis (5). No. and apparatus. and favorable comparison was made to a quantitative immunoaffinity-high-performance column liquid chromatography (HPLC) method (2). by Camag Scientific Inc. identification.

an approximate linear relationship was obtained between RM values and the amount of organic modifier. Vol.5) mobile phase (C6). or a (1:1) mixture of these. including association and solvation effects. A new. The following are examples of the increasing number of published TLC studies involving chemically bonded stationary phases. atenolol. Molecular interactions were evaluated for test substances in adsorption TLC with mixed mobile phases. including thin layers. Layers other than unmodified silica that are being used currently for analyses are cited throughout this article. C-8. NH2-silica. The basic parameters and physicochemical aspects of micellar TLC for sulfophthaleins. and diol layers upon repeated (1-8) developments with mixed mobile phases comprising methanol. which were used to predict Rf values and zone widths in simulation of multiple development TLC in different modes and compare the calculated values to experiment values (B6). terpenes. or layers impregnated with a chiral selector: the β blockers (()-atenolol. polyacrylonitrile. including consideration of the dynamic and static modifications of stationary phases (C2). Application of the Soczewinski-type linear relationship was considered for estimation of molecular interactions in adsorption TLC systems. and reflectance densitometry was carried out at 295 nm (C7). the physical meaning of the slope of the relationship and the influence of solvent adsorption. Equilibrium partition processes were quantitatively estimated for acidic reagents of the xanthene and triphenylmethane series in the system water-micelle forming compound (sodium dodecyl sulfate)-thin layer. Polar bonded layers (silica. and phenylcarboxylic acids of the triphenylmethane series were described (B8).. Several calculation methods for molecular hydrophobicity (log P values) based on fragmental and atomic contributions were compared with experimental retention data for estradiol derivatives using RP-HPTLC and -HPLC with methanol-water and acetonitrilewater binary mobile phases. (()metoprolol. 2004 3253 . Catechin and epicatechin were determined in “cat’s claw” bark by HPTLC on CN. silanized silica) were characterized and compared by determination of surface free energy components using a thin-layer wicking method with diodomethane. No. diol-silica. thermogravimetry. with acetonitrilemethanol-water (16:4:0. for silver ion (or argentation) chromatography. to a lesser extent. and efficient ultrathin (10 µm) layer was described that is not composed of granular particles but has a monolithic structure based on a silica matrix and no binder. June 15. CN-silica. TLC is being applied to an increasing degree for resolution of enantiomeric compounds. 12. NH2. timolol. water. and unmodified silica layers and water-organic modifier (methanol. preferential solubilization of reagents in the surfactant micelles was demonstrated. L-(-)-threonine. sterols. and (()-propranolol on silica plates impregnated with L-aspartic acid as the chiral selector using acetonitrile-methanolwater mobile phases (C4). enantiomers of DL-amino acids on silica impregnated with optically pure (-)-quinine and developed with butanol-chloroform-acetic acid (3:7:5) (C5). Laboratory-made chiral plates prepared from a (1:2) mixture of tribenzoylcellulose and silica 60 GF were used for quantitative analysis of enantiomeric alcohols (e. CN. 76. elemental (combustion) analysis. and pheromones based on their degree of unsaturation (C1). Raman spectrometry. two equations based on different mechanisms. the mobile phase was ethanol-water (8:2). especially compounds of pharmaceutical interest. which is utilized for the analysis of fatty acids and triacylglycerols and. highly selective. partition coefficients were calculated. The retention behavior of cholic acid and 14 derivatives was studied in six RP and three NP systems using C-18 silica. Enantiomeric resolution of some cardiovascular agents (propranolol. verapamil) was achieved using synthetic polymers imprinted with (-)-(S)-timolol as the chiral stationary phase and methanol-acetic acid (99:1) as the mobile phase. The solvation parameter model was used to characterize retention properties of a varied group of solutes on silica layers and columns. water.g. The following papers are examples of analyses of enantiomers on chiral layers. CN silica. Thermal aromatization was monitored by HPLC with a diode array detector (DAD) for the same stationary phases heated at 170 °C (C10). Also reviewed was the use of surfactants as modifiers of mobile and stationary phases in micellar TLC and ion pair TLC. and formamide as mobile phases (B7). and C-18W (water wettable) bonded layers after sample preparation by C-18 solid-phase extraction (SPE) (C11).THEORY AND FUNDAMENTAL STUDIES The following are a selection of papers reporting theoretical and fundamental TLC studies that were chosen to illustrate some active research areas. the obtained statistical results showed that the Broto method of log P calculation had the best reliability (B5). and buffers of differing pH (C9). nifedipine. The retention of 19 amino acids and their homopeptides was determined on impregnated alumina layers using various mixtures of water-methanol as mobile phases. or acetone) binary mobile phases. thiochromanol and closely related benzoins). Retention of DNP derivatives of amino acids was described by equations based on polynomial and Snyder-Soczewinski models. nadolol. carotenoids. precoated NP silica TLC and HPTLC layers. solvent-solvent. A review article covered the use of topological indexes based on the adjacency and distance matrixes to predict Rf and RM values and the physicochemical properties of a variety of organic compounds (B1).and macropores. the method was used for quality control of the drugs (C8). An Analytical Chemistry. The great majority of reported analyses are still carried out using commercial. and differential scanning calorimetry were used to study hydrolytic cleavage of alkyl ligands from the surface of C-18. and 2-arylpropionic acid enantiomers using silica impregnated with L-(-)-serine. with the aim of developing a comprehensive model for structuredriven method development in NP separations (B3). and separation mechanisms were proposed on the basis of the results obtained (B4). with fine capillaries penetrating the layer (C3). and solute-solvent interac- tions on the slope were shown. lipophilicity and specific hydrophobic surface area were estimated from linear correlations between solute retention and methanol concentration (B2). dioxane. and theoretical conceptions were verified for several solutes and five binary mixed mobile phases (B11). The silica has meso. fluoresceins. CHROMATOGRAPHIC SYSTEMS (STATIONARY AND MOBILE PHASES) A review article was published on the preparation and properties of stationary phases. were verified experimentally (B10). imprinted layers. and energies of reagent transfer to the micelles and their adsorption energies at the stationary phase were calculated (B9).

CTAB-alcohol-water for separating indole from diphenylamine and p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde on silica gel (C38). Co(II). tylosin.and RP-TLC and densitometric quantification (D8). The retention behavior of six macrocyclic antibiotics (erythromycin. troleandomycin. No. rifamycin B. characterized by cross-polarization magic-angle spinning NMR spectrometry. Fe(II). The following are examples of modern sample preparation methods. Rotation planar extraction (RPE) is a new on-line exhaustive preparative forced flow method in which the solid phase to be extracted is placed in a closed circular chamber (column). and mixed CTAB-SDS solutions containing 1% ammonia for the antibiotics ofloxacin and ciprfloxacin on polyamide (C41). Raw wool was extracted with pressurized CO2 in the TLC-FID determination of lipid composition (D9). In addition. phenols. Mixed layers of silica G and barium sulfate developed with ethanol-water (8:2) mobile phase were used for the ion pair TLC separation of synthetic dyes (C26). APPARATUS AND TECHNIQUES Progress in forced flow TLC (D1) and chiral TLC principles and methods (D2) were reviewed. The following analyses were carried out on layers containing an inorganic ion exchanger: lysine and threonine in pharmaceutical preparations on stannic arsenate-cellulose (1:4) (C27). alkaline earth.N′cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) for transition metal cations on silica gel (C37). Ni(II). Separations using the following mobile phases were reported: water-oil microemulsion in complexation TLC of amino acids on silica layers impregnated with metal cations (C35). and cyanopropyl-bonded silica modified with Cu(II) and Ni(II) salts (C20). The automatic selection of mobile-phase strength for silica TLC was performed using LSChrom software. fecal. incorporating the Snyder theory and data about the adsorption of usual structural elements or functional groups. infrared (IR) spectrometry. TLC-FID) (D3). resolution. and Fe(III) cations (C19). Toluene-ethyl ether-chloroform (3:5: 2) was selected as the optimum mobile phase for the separation of N-alkylphenothiazine sulfones based on the maximum of the objective function [F(obj) ) 10. orange. cephalosporins on silica impregnated with Mn(II). A method based on ultrasound was described for extracting lipids from marine mucilage samples prior to TLC on rods with flame ionization detection (Iatroscan. and diatomaceous earth modified with γ-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane. characterized by the same methods plus thermal analysis (C15). various systematic optimization procedures have been proposed. and number of theoretical plates were compared for application of a dye mixture solution using a Desaga AS-30 applicator (as a spot and a band). vancomycin. and silica gel (C36). and liver samples (D5). nonionic poly(ethylene glycol) p-isooctylphenyl ether (Triton X-100) surfactant solutions for heavy metal cations (C39). and amines. Polar lipids were determined in sausage products by focused microwaveassisted Soxhlet extraction and quantitative TLC (D10). aminopropylbonded silica. 12. The following analyses on impregnated layers were reported: 5-HT1A receptor ligands on plates impregnated with synthetic peptides (C16). starch. and Cr(VI) on titanic silicate (C30). June 15. and linear flow of extraction solvent is accelerated by centrifugal force (D13). Rf values. Supercritical fluid extraction was used with CO2 in the identification of adulteration of black pepper by papaya seeds by TLC (D11) and with CO2 plus alcohol modifier in the determination of fat content in fish feed by TLC-FID (D12). neutral sugars on silica impregnated with alkali. ethanol. Fe. characterized by elemental analysis. C-18-SPE was used in the RP-TLC densitometric determination of tomato. and chromatographic testing (C14). Al(III). aminopropyl-SPE before 2-D TLC analysis of glycosphingolipids and neutral lysoglycosphingolipids Folch extracted from biological samples (D6). unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters on silica. peptides on alumina impregnated with paraffin oil (C18). directly by means of a micropipet. seven amines of azo dyes prohibited in Germany on silica plates impregnated with the crown ether 18-crown-6 with double development using benzene and then toluene (C22). The effects of pH and salts on the strength and selectivity of the binding of seven ring-substituted phenol derivatives to the corn protein zein were studied by RP-TLC carried out on zeinimpregnated cellulose layers.homologous series of fatty acids was found to be separated better on C-18 layers with a concentrating (preadsorbent) zone because more compact chromatographic bands were obtained (C12). 11 monosulfides on silica impregnated with Cu(II). measurement of specific surface area. and used to rapidly separate a mixture of tocopherol homologues and R-tocopherol acetate (C13).6110] (C34). and Cu(II) ions and by RPTLC (C21). rifampicin) was examined on polyamide 11F254 plates with five binary mobile-phase mixtures composed of water plus 0-100% methanol. 76. micellar solutions of N. such as the Prisma model incorporating Snyder’s selectivity groups. and metal cations on silica layers impregnated with tributyl phosphate. Ni(II). Cr(III). organic acids on bismuth tungstate (C29). The following new chemically bonded layers were described: C30 plates prepared by modification of silica with triacontyltrichlorosilane. and transition metal sulfates at different pH and concentrations (C17). which are being used to an increasing degree prior to TLC analysis in place of traditional solvent extraction and solvent partitioning and large-column cleanup methods. propanol. The method was 3254 demonstrated for substituted isoquinolines (C32) and tetrahydroisoquinolines (C33). alumina R modified with 1-octene. and marigold colors in food (D4) and the TLC analysis of radiolabeled steroids in blood. quantification by densitometry of trans fatty acids in butterfat on silica G layers containing silver ions (C23). Vol. and silica-SPE prior to silica TLC and gas chromatography (GC) in the analysis of esterified sterols in olive oils (D7). or tetrahydrofuran (THF) (C31). 2004 . and in a new system in which a given volume of sample solution is applied to triangle-shaped filter paper using a micropipet and the sample components are transferred to the layer from the paper tip by means of a mobile phase into which the Analytical Chemistry. Co. and Ni ions on stannic arsenate-silica gel G (C28). acetonitrile. alumina. mixed mobile phases containing dimethyl sulfoxide for amino acids on talc. using surfactant (Brij-35)-mediated mobile phases (C24). Co(II). An immunoaffinity column cleanup-based method for determining ochratoxin A in green coffee included NP. micellar solutions containing the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) for coinage metal cations on silica (C40). Mn(II). spectral mapping techniques and stepwise regression analysis were used (C25). Mobile phases are usually chosen after searching the literature and guided trial and error testing of solutions with appropriate strengths and selectivities relative to the mixture to be separated.

chloroform-hexane-formic acid (69:30:0. flavonoids. e. and concentration of acetonitrile used as mobile-phase modifier (D16. Improved separation of cholesterol. separation of phenolic acids by utilizing the first development on a C-18W HPTLC plate followed in the perpendicular direction on a silica TLC plate (D25). rather than forced flow. and densitometry (D37).triangle base is immersed. Vol. and treatment of a developed plate by in situ elution to collect separated components in a receptor without scraping (D43). alkaloids. 12. D17) and modification of a commercial horizontal chamber for PEC (D18). egg phosphatidylcholine. A new flame photometric detector was integrated into the Iatroscan TLC-FID apparatus for determination of sulfur. uses capillary forces. and advantages were described (D42). the thin layer on the glass plate is divided into several zones and these zones are developed with different mobile phases (D23). C-18 SPE followed by OPLC on aluminumbacked silica layers with butanol-water-acetic acid mobile phase and on-line radioactive detection in a flow cell radioactivity detector or off-line by DAR was demonstrated to be a very valuable tool in metabolism research (D38).. p-Coumaric acid was quantified in medicinal plants on a diolmodified silica plate by multiple gradient TLC. and connection of plates (termed graft planar chromatography). fully on-line TLC/HPTLC with diode array detection and continuous development. inexpensive. Studies of temperature effects on the retention of aromatic hydrocarbons with polar groups in binary RP-TLC in a horizontal DS chamber showed that use of different temperatures can advantageously affect selectivity and development time (D27). application of a horizontal DS chamber to PEC (D21). June 15. identification. RPE (D13) and rotation planar chromatography (RPC) on cellulose plates were combined for the investigation of compounds in oak bark (D40). It was concluded that the filter paper method was simple. and essential oils (D35). saturated or unsaturated chamber conditions can also be selected (D26). A recent example is the HPLC separation and characterization of poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)-graft-poly(propylene oxide) polymer stabilizer formed in dispersion polymerization of styrene and acrylonitrile in polyether after determination of optimum separation conditions by TLC (D45). The pharmacopoeial classical TLC method for analysis of essential oils of wild thyme and seven chemotypes of thyme was shown to be significantly improved by incorporation of automated sample application. followed by densitometric quantification (D30). A novel technique. RPE performed with an ExtraChrom separation instrument prototype enabled efficient extraction with ethanolwater (8:2) of carbohydrates in dried onion samples.2). OPLC. the method principles.g. and evaporation of the mobile phase at the end of the plate to induce linear mobile-phase velocity. followed by zone detection with diazotized sulfanilic acid reagent and densitometry at 254 nm (D28). Multiple development silica gel OPLC with cyclohexanes-ethyl acetate-chloroform (2:1:1) mobile phase was shown to be superior to TLC. chloroform-hexanes-ethyl acetate-formic acid (63:27:10:0. No.2). Salting-out TLC with moderate to high concentration aqueous ammonium sulfate mobile phases and cellulose and alumina layers successfully separated several myorelaxants (D29). Three methods of coupling development and elution in TLC were described and compared: use of a new distributor and collector in descending development. Related papers described the enhancement of mobile-phase velocity in TLC by application of an external alternating field (D19). combination of NP and RP modes on a cyanopropyl-bonded layer by developing with a nonaqueous mobile phase (polar solvent in hexane) in the first direction and an aqueous phase (polar solvent in water) at right angles for separation of flavonoids and phenolic acids (D24). and GC for in-process purity testing of nandrolone (D36).5-V dc power supply (D15). A chamber was constructed for developing TLC plates by the ascending technique with controlled gradient or nongradient temperature conditions over a -20 to 60 °C range. Drugs containing tertiary and quaternary nitrogen atoms were separated in ion pair systems (water-inorganic electrolyte-alcohol) on silica gel layers (D32). 2004 3255 .and phosphoruscontaining compounds in high boiling point materials such as heavy oils and human serum lipids (D44). and quantification of compounds in complex samples. while medium-pressure solid-liquid extraction was unsuccessful (D41). AMD on silica with an acetonitrile-acetone-hexane gradient was applied to the quality analysis of alcoholic beverages for glycerol produced by yeasts (D33) and with a 17-step mobilephase gradient and densitometric scanning for determination of the major stratum corneum lipids in skin (D34). design of a prototype apparatus. concentration of the buffer salt. Results were reported for the use of AMD and OPLC for natural products analyses. and the effect of electric fields on solute migration and mixture separation in TLC with silica-methanol and aluminawater systems (D22). and very effective (D14). Three techniques for improvement of 2-D TLC results were published: before the second development.5 cm with each of three mobile phases. TLC and HPLC are often used in tandem for more complete separation. and their degradation products was achieved by double development on a C-18 layer with butanol-methanolwater-97% acetic acid (40:40:20:4) mobile phase. 76. in which the layer was developed in a horizontal DS chamber for a distance of 8. A microanodic sampler designed for applying samples of dental base alloys to microcrystalline cellulose layers is composed of a pure graphite clip in a PVC holder with a nylon fiber tip (2 × 15 mm) and a 4. anthocyanins. and chloroform-hexanes-ethyl acetate (59:25:15). Improved separation of a dye mixture on silica gel was shown to result from forced flow produced by simply raising the mobile-phase reservoir rather than using an OPLC instrument (D39). TLC continues to be used as a pilot method for HPLC. including magnitude of the applied electric field. HPLC. pH of the mobile phase. the mode in which the mobile phase is driven by electroosmotic flow. Ion pair RP-TLC on silica plates impregnated with CTAB was applied to the separation of benzoic acids (D31). detection as blue zones on a white background was by means of 4-methoxybenzaldehyde reagent. Illustrations are the high-throughput analysis of poppy for alkaloid content by use of multilayer OPLC and NP-HPTLC with densitometry plus RP-HPLC Analytical Chemistry. They discussed the variables that affect PEC with an aqueous mobile phase on a C-18 layer. including coumarins. preliminary results with horizontal planar dielectrochromatography (D20). AMD. use of a slope distributor and a collector with horizontal development. Nurok and co-workers published three studies on planar electrochromatography (PEC).

4-hydroxyacetophenoneninhydrin for amino acids (0. The determination of dansyl derivatives of N-nitrosamines by silica gel HPTLC with hexane-diethyl ether-dichloromethane (10:3:2) mobile phase and fluorescence detection and scanning could be performed with five times lower detection limits (0. or UV absorption (fluorescence quenching on phosphor-impregnated layers) of chromatographic zones or on the use of various universal or selective chemical or biological detection reagents. various colors produced) (E5). 2004 . and the role of β-Dgalactofuranose in Leishmania major macrophage invasion (E23).1 µg detection limit. Identification is initially based on the correspondence of Rf values and detection characteristics between sample and standard zones but must be confirmed by other evidence. TLC-SERS was used to study the ingredients in the Chinese traditional medicine berberine. the antibiotics chloramphenicol. bromocresol green for carboxylate anions (0. and RP-HPLC-DAD (D47). Additives in polymers were separated by TLC and transferred on to a BaF2 salt plate for FT-IR microscopy via a special capillary technique (E26). 4-hydroxyacetophenone-isatin and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde-isatin for amino acids (0.09-1 µg detection limit. such as off. 76. and the induction of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) by means of Ag-sol was also investigated. development of a technique for direct determination of pharmaceutical compounds by TLC-MALDI-MS (E33). dicloxacillin. Folin-Ciocalteu phenol reagent for detection of hydroxylamine-related and guanidine-containing compounds (E3). and prostaglandin-synthesis inhibitors in leaf and root extracts (E14). including TLC (D30). a review of smallmolecule analysis by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) (D31). libraries of compounds to be tested were synthesized using the mix-and-split combinatorial chemistry approach (E25). study of side reactions in chain-end sulfonated polystyrene via TLC-MALDI-TOF-MS Analytical Chemistry. Important publications on TLC-MS include the following: a general review of MS in chromatography. and detection carried out on the same plate) (E12). aniline blue and brilliant green for 13 phenolic drugs (these were the best and most universal of 13 new reagents that were tested) (E8). A comparative study was carried out on the feasibility and efficiency of Raman spectrometric detection of amino acid zones (which scatter Raman radiation weakly) using four visible and near-IR (NIR) laser radiations (532-1064 nm) and three types of commercial TLC plates.8-tetracyanoquinodimethane for antidepressants (detection limits 240-480 ng mL-1 for plasma screening on silica gel) (E7). No.5-15 times greater than Dragendorff reagent) (E1) and for 21 different anions (20-50 ng detection limit) (E2). alanine.01% diphenyl-1-pyrenylphosphine. Detection by bioautography was used in the TLC determinations of the animal and human antibiotics flumequine and doxycycline in milk (cleanup. Other studies in which TLC-immunostaining analysis was used include anti-GT1 a IgG in Guillain-Barre syndrome (E19). A great advantage of TLC lies in the ability to use a number of detection methods and reagents in sequence on a single layer to increase the amount of information obtained. Phosphatidylcholine and choles3256 teryl linoleate hydroperoxides ranging from 0. selection of peptides that bind to the core oligosaccharide of R-form LPS from a phage-displayed heptapeptide library (E22). ganglioside expression in tissues of mice lacking β(2)-microglobulin (E21).1 to 0. the best results were obtained with a simple silica TLC plate and an NIR Nd:YAG laser generating normal Raman scattering of analyte zones (E28). benzylpenicillin. 7. DETECTION AND IDENTIFICATION OF SEPARATED ZONES Zone detection in TLC is based on natural color. The following studies of postchromatographic derivatization reagents for TLC zone detection were reported: citric acid-acetic anhydride for dimethylamphetamine and other abused tertiary amines (sensitivity 2.8.(D46) and determination of corticosteroids in cosmetic products using silica gel TLC. The optimization of conditions for culture of the test bacteria used for direct bioautographic TLC detection was studied for the Gram-positive test bacterium Bacillus subtilis (E15) and the Gram-negative test bacterium Escherichia coli (E16).01-0. 12. distinguishable colors formed with different acids) (E4). and aspartic acid (E10). on-line OPLC separation and electrospray (ES)MS and ES-tandem MS (ES-MS-MS) detection of glycolipids (520 pmol sensitivity) (E32). June 15.03 µg detection limit for butyrate) (E6). and iodineazide for picomole levels of thiouracils (E9) and of glycine.7. for this method. A method was developed to determine the false-positive effects of various aldehydes and amines on acetylcholinesterase inhibition in the TLC assay based on Ellman’s method (E24). a silica gel GF plate was developed with butanol-acetic acid-water (7:2:1) mobile phase. A flatbed scanner was modified by incorporation of a 254-nm light source and operated with Sorbfil scanning software for documentation and quantification of thin-layer chromatograms containing zones of famotidine and caffeine detected by fluorescence quenching (D48). and the zones were measured with a Nicolet FT-Raman 910 spectrometer after placing silver gel on the layer surface (E29).5 nmol were visualized as fluorescent zones on the blotted membrane by immersing the plate into a blotting solvent containing 0. The technique was applied successfully to monitor lipid peroxidation in human low-density lipoprotein in vitro (E17). concentration. A TLC enzymatic assay was described for screening a new class of bacterial cell wall inhibitors. Vol. direct TLC-MALDI-TOF-MS of tetracycline antibiotics using a graphite particle suspension matrix (E34). A blotting technique was developed to specifically detect lipid hydroperoxides on TLC plates. fluorescence.or on-line coupling of TLC with spectrometric methods. TLC and the Western blot technique were used in a study of monocytoid B cell lymphoma associated with antibodies to myelin-associated glycoprotein and sulfated glucuronyl paragloboside (E18).89 ng) when the plates were dipped in a nonionic surfactant fluorescence enhancer (polyoxyethylene-10lauryl ether) (E11). and erythromycin in cow’s milk (E13). the possibility of reducing xenoantigen levels with a novel Ga1 3′-sulfotransferase (E20).47-0. Microchannel TLC with in situ plate scanning microdiffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectrometry (micro-DRIFTS) detection on plain and polybutadiene-modified zirconia stationary phases was demonstrated for various dye mixtures. an instrument coupling micro-DRIFTS with a motorized stage that can profile the microchannel TLC plate was constructed (E27). separation. ampicillin. C-18 SPE. Research involving the combination of TLC with MS continued to be a very active area in the past two years.

amino acids in adults of E. Sophisticated computer-controlled instruments are commercially available in three types: slitscanning densitometers (Camag. and elution of the analytes with a strongly polar solvent to a target channel (E37).25 to 10 µg with a correlation coefficient of 0. elution. respectively (F18).5)] (F5). C-18. Four papers reported new methods for interfacing TLC with MS. and the second was the unmodified aluminum backing of a plate again formed by scraping off adsorbent. videodensitometers (Camag and Desaga). QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS Quantitative TLC and HPTLC can be carried out by comparing colored. and raffinose in infected snail whole bodies by densitometry at 515 nm on laned. 2004 3257 . the technique was demonstrated successfully with dye mixtures for both positive ion and negative ion mode detection (E41). June 15. and video densitometry was performed on the digital data obtained (F6). cellulose. and by optical scanning with a densitometer. choice of scanning mode. measurement at reflectance values smaller than 0. No. caffeine in tablets and capsules (F15). nadolol and pindolol [ethyl acetate-methanol-glacial acetic acid (49:49:2)] (F4). HPTLC-densitometry yields the most selective. A novel direct densitometry procedure without mobile-phase development was used to determine saponins in legumes. organic mixtures were separated and detected on-line using both techniques (E42). TLC-TOF-secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) characterization of the stability and retention behavior of zinc carboxylato mixed-ligand complexes by developing aluminum-backed C-18 layers with a methanol-water mobile phase. preadsorbent silica gel plates after detection as purple zones with R-naphthol-sulfuric reagent (F12).. antineoplastic compounds in Analytical Chemistry. and signal-to-noise ratios can be improved by wavelength bundling. Images of native fluorescence were recorded after TLC separation of a test dye. and a diode-array densitometer (J&M Analytische). 76. maltose. This scanner was evaluated by studies of linearization models for absorption and fluorescence quantification of caffeine and quinine in beverages (F8) and methods for reduction of errors in quantitative analysis (e. fleroxacin and sparfloxacin in pharmaceuticals on EDTA-impregnated silica gel by fluorescence scanning at 285 nm/400 nm (F20).8 and calibration using peak heights) (F9). the scanner allowed parallel recording of chromatograms and spectra between 197 and 612 nm. lipids and phospholipids in the cercariae of S. and precise results.g. Two interfaces developed to connect TLC with ES-MS consisted of (1) two bound optical fibers inserted into the C-18 bonded particles at the exit of a small TLC channel and (2) a small commercial TLC strip with a sharpened tip. Videodensitometry at 254 nm on silica gel 60F254 layers was used for validated analyses of pharmaceutical tablets for the analytes fluoxetine and paroxetine [benzene-acetone-ethanol15% aqueous ammonia mobile phase (9:7:2:1)] (F3). sensitive. fluorescent. and instrumentation for in situ photodensitometry were reviewed (F1). Two interfaces were tested for coupling TLC with TOF-SIMS MS: the first was formed by vacuum deposition of silver on to the layer and on to a track formed by scraping the layer from the glass plate. With this scanner. Shimadzu. evaluation and calibration methods. and measurement of the eluates using solution spectrometry or other analytical methods. Densitometers have also been constructed in the laboratory by modification of flatbed office scanners. In addition to the publications already cited in this review. without dependence of the spectra on analyte concentration in the 250-1000 ng/zone range (F11). and the relative standard deviation was <3% (F2). coupling of TLC and MALDI-FTMS for minimization of ganglioside fragmentation (E36). the silver-coated interface proved to be superior (E40). by scraping.(E35). or UV-absorbing sample and standard zones on a single plate visually (semiquantitative). Vol. Theoretical principles. and TLC-MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of phospholipids in brain tissue (E38). The scanner was used for quality evaluation of 27 St. A flatbed scanner was modified by inclusion of a 366-nm light source. validation of chromatographic processes. errors in quantitative evaluation. mansoni by silica gel HPTLC with visible mode scanning after detection by spraying phosphomolybdic acid and cupric sulfate reagents. coating the developed layers with silver from the vapor state. and fluoroquinolone derivatives [dichloromethane-methanol25% ammonia (7:5:1. accurate. A new scanner having the capability of quantifying TLC or HPTLC plates simultaneously at different wavelengths was developed with incorporation of fiber optics and special fiber interfaces in combination with a DAD. Saponin preparations were pretreated to remove nonsaponin components. and Desaga).99. and ion exchange resin layers and detection with ninhydrin reagent (F17). lutein in dietary supplements on C-18 layers by visiblemode scanning of natural yellow color (F13). John’s wort extracts according to phytochemical and pharmacological criteria with evaluation of HPTLC plates by multivariate data analysis (F10). assay of clozapine tablets (F14). caproni removed from the intestines of experimentally infected laboratory mice by visible mode scanning after separation on silica gel. The calibration curve was linear from 1. samples and soya saponin standards were spotted in a row on a layer. and loperamide hydrochloride in caplets (F16) by scanning fluorescence quenched zones on HPTLC silica gel-F plates. lysine in dietary supplement tablets and capsules by visible mode scanning after detection with ninhydrin (F19). the plate was treated with sulfuric acid detection reagent and heated. 12. Surface-assisted laser desorption/ionization (SALDI) MS was combined with TLC for porphyrin analysis with a 500-pg detection limit by use of a mixture of a micrometer-sized carbon powder and 13% sucrose/glycerol dissolved in an equal volume of methanol as the SALDI matrix for laser desorption MS (E39). A combined surface sampling probe/electrospray emitter was used for the direct readout of TLC plates by ES-MS. sophisticated chemometric plate evaluation using different regression models is possible. the following illustrate the wide variety of analytes and sample types to which different modes of densitometry have been applied: glucose. Quantification of 16 incompletely separated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in one track by scanning at suitable wavelengths was demonstrated (F7). and the resultant violet zones were scanned. fluorescent measurements can be made without filters or special lamps. Drugs were identified in urine samples by automatic measurement and computer-based comparison of in situ UV spectra with data from a compiled library of reference spectra using the cross-contamination function.

but forced flow development (OPLC and centrifugal or rotation planar chromatography) provides higher resolution and shorter retention times.. I. and its application 3258 Analytical Chemistry. He is currently John D. A horizontal DS chamber was adapted to allow PLC to be performed with temperature control in the range of 20-40 °C. O. Vol. The best performance was obtained for the new Mallinckrodt-Baker highperformance preparative layer with 4.0 mg/zone. Salo. M. 2002. 14C. The use of this configuration of OPLC was described for micropreparative separations on adsorbent layers. books. L. flow cell solid scintillation radioactivity detection.D. and phosphor imaging analyzers.chemotherapeutic infusion bags by silica gel TLC and scanning of fluorescence quenched zones (the analysis required 30 min compared with >2 h by HPLC. TLC 2002. and scanning at 320 nm (F23).. LITERATURE CITED (1) Davies. . J.S. Agr. A. and Journal of Liquid Chromatography & Related Technologies. a multi-functional prototype equipped with an extraction chamber. Five commercial PLC plates with 1-mm silica layers were compared on the basis of theoretical plate number (N) and resolution (R) by developing a test dye mixture over a constant distance with dye loadings of 1. Part B. significant separation efficiency increases for a test dye mixture were demonstrated at higher temperatures (G5). Planar Chromatogr. (3) Williams. The stationary phase was silica gel and the mobile phase methanol-ethyl acetate-THF at selectivity point P-s ) 111 with 1% formic acid as modifier (G6).-Mod. 32P. Pertovaara. silica gel 60 TLC of the extract. E. Isolation and purification of coumarins from fruits were accomplished by RP-PLC on a C-2 bonded silica layer developed with methanol-water (9:1) and NP-PLC on silica gel using multiple development with mobile phases of different selectivities (G3).. autoradiography and liquid scintillation counting continue to be applied for qualitative and quantitative TLRC. the steps optimized were the mode of application of the sample band to the layer. Acta Chromatographica. ranitidine in urine by dichloromethane extraction after basification. NJ in 1955 and a Ph. Salomies. Sherma independently and with others has written or edited over 575 papers. J. 12. Comb. Larkin Professor Emeritus of Chemistry and continues to supervise undergraduate students in analytical method development and interdisciplinary analytical chemistry-biology research. With one exception. 240-243. Food Chem. chapters. Capillary flow development is usually used. detection with vanillin reagent. A PLC strategy was investigated using the quaternary alkaloid fraction from plant roots as a model mixture. while preparative separations (5-500 mg) are done with less resolution on layers of 0. TLC 2001. P. and red cabbage color in 45 commercial foods using C-18-TLC and scanning in the 370-700-nm range (F27). He has been editor for residues and trace elements of the Journal of AOAC International for more than 20 years and is on the editorial boards of the Journal of Planar Chromatography-Modern TLC. M. M. and effective for analyses in metabolism research (G14). techniques. K. the N and R values of the other layers correlated with their particle size (G8). A. 2004 to the isolation of high-purity ascorbigen from cabbage extract was demonstrated (G7).5-5. ionophore antibiotics in feed and animal tissues using silica gel plates. R. (4) Salo. Dr. The PLC of biologically active taxoids from plant material was done on silica developed with both aqueous methanolic (pseudo-reversed-phase system) and nonaqueous (normal-phase system) mobile phases (G4). Modern instruments for the position-sensitive detection of β and γ particles emitted from radiolabeled compounds containing isotopes such as 3H. East Orange. amino acids in sanguine plasma by use of a dual-wavelength flyingspot scanner (F26). saturates in heavy liquids derived from co-pyrolysis of biomass and plastics by TLC on unmodified or berberineimpregnated silica gel plates and fluorescence scanning (F24). vanillin detection reagent. one reason being that radioactivity detectors can measure the chromatograms more successfully than can optical slit scanners. multichannel array detectors. An example is the use of 2-D cellulose TLC for the analysis of 14C-sugars and -amino acids in the study of stimulation of glycolysis in anaerobic elongation of pond weed turions (G9). 243-247. In addition. 15. 76. and 125I include multiwire proportional counters. and scanning at 500 nm (F25). Planar Chromatogr. He joined the faculty of Lafayette College in 1958. TLC combined with X-ray film autoradiography was used to analyze the formaldehyde dimedone adduct (formaldemethone) produced during the rat liver microsomal metabolism of (-)-deprenyl (G10). D. and reviews covering chromatographic and analytical methods. 2-D TLC is more widely used for the separation of radioactive compounds than for nonlabeled compounds. (2) Pittet. A new method for determination of thiopurine-S-methyltransferase phenotype utilizing quantitative radioactivity scanning was developed and validated for day-to-day variance (G13). was less expensive. Infusion-transfusion OPLC allows both on-line and off-line separation and detection plus overrun (continuous) development.0-5. in chemistry from Upsala College. Nitroglycerin was used as a model compound to evaluate applications of OPLC coupled on-line or off-line with the radioactivity detection methods DAR. J. Rapid quality control testing of the radiochemical purity of 99Tc(m)-tetrofosmin on silica instant TLC sheets with 2-butanone mobile phase (G11) and TLC analysis of cholesterol-derived hydroperoxides in studies of intermembrane transfer (G12) made use of detection and quantification by phosphorimaging. Bergersen. No. 223-232. Principles.. H. and the effects of concentration overloading and the volume of sample applied on the resolution of neighboring bands (G2). and phosphor imaging. Joseph Sherma received a B. June 15. five oleane derivatives in stem bark extract of Terminalia arjuna by silica gel TLC. 318-321. and did not require a conditioning step as with HPLC) (F21). economical.. K.5-4-mm thickness. V. 2003. and applications of PLC have been reviewed (G1).5-µm spherical particles. Chem. the number of unidimensional multiple developments. The techniques were shown to be rapid.. Journal of Environmental Science and Health. A. 14.-Mod. J. 5. With a silica gel layer and binary mobile phases (ethyl acetateheptane and methyl ethyl ketone-heptane). PREPARATIVE-LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHY AND THIN-LAYER RADIOCHROMATOGRAPHY Micropreparative separations (∼2-25 mg sample size) have been carried out on TLC and HPTLC plates. Kostiainen. 50. in analytical chemistry from Rutgers University in 1958. and Frances H. Royer. The RPC of parasorboside and gerberin from Gerbera hybrida (Asteraceae) was performed using an Extrachrom R instrument. and scanning at 640 nm (F22).

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