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Bicrossproduct structure of the null-plane quantum Poincar´ algebra e

**Oscar Arratia 1 , Francisco J. Herranz
**

1

2

and Mariano A. del Olmo

3

Departamento de Matem´tica Aplicada a la Ingenier´ a ıa, Universidad de Valladolid. E-47011, Valladolid, Spain E. mail: oscarr@wmatem.eis.uva.es Departamento de F´ ısica, E.U. Polit´cnica, e Universidad de Burgos. E-09006, Burgos, Spain E. mail: fteorica@cpd.uva.es Departamento de F´ ısica Te´rica, o Universidad de Valladolid. E-47011, Valladolid, Spain E. mail: olmo@cpd.uva.es

3 2

Abstract A nonlinear change of basis allows to show that the non-standard quantum deformation of the (3+1) Poincar´ algebra has a bicrossproduct struce ture. Quantum universal R-matrix, Pauli–Lubanski and mass operators are presented in the new basis.

1.- The aim of this letter is to prove that the non-standard quantum deformation of the (3+1) Poincar´ algebra [1], the so-called null-plane quantum Poincar´ algebra, e e can be endowed with a structure of bicrossproduct [2]. After the proofs by Majid and Ruegg [3] that the (3+1) κ-Poincar´ algebra [4, 5, 6] has a bicrossproduct structure, e and more recently by Azc´rraga et al [7] that the q-Poincar´ in any dimension [8] a e has also this kind of structure, it only remains to study if the same bicrossproduct structure is exhibited by the (3+1) null-plane quantum Poincar´. In [9] it has been e showed that the (1+1) null-plane quantum Poincar´ [10] also shares this structure, e however, this lower dimensional case does not indicate the procedure for the (3+1) case, i.e., the nonlinear change of basis that allows to display the bicrossproduct structure. It is worthy to note that in all the three mentioned deformations the formal decomposition is the same, i.e., Uq (P(3 + 1)) = U(so(3, 1))β ⊲ α Uq (T4 ), ◭ following the same pattern of the classical algebra or group counterpart P (3 + 1) = SO(3, 1) ⊙ T4 , and with the sector of the translations deformed (diﬀerently in each case, of course) and the Lorentz transformation sector non-deformed. 2.- The generators of the (3+1) Poincar´ algebra P(3 + 1) in the so-called nulle plane basis [11] are {P+ , P− , Pi , Ei , Fi , K3 , J3 ; i = 1, 2}, (1)

where P+ , P− , Ei and Fi are expressed in terms of the usual kinematical ones {H, Pl , Kl , Jl ; l = 1, 2, 3} by P+ = (H + P3 )/2, F1 = K1 − J2 , P− = H − P3 , F2 = K2 + J1 , E1 = (K1 + J2 )/2, E2 = (K2 − J1 )/2. (2)

Hence, the Lie brackets of P(3 + 1) are (hereafter i, j = 1, 2): [K3 , Ei ] = Ei , [K3 , Fi ] = −Fi , [J3 , Ei ] = −εij3 Ej , [J3 , Fi ] = −εij3 Fj , [Ei , Fj ] = δij K3 + εij3 J3 , [F1 , F2 ] = 0, [Pµ , Pν ] = 0, [K3 , P+ ] = P+ , [J3 , Pi ] = −εij3 Pj , [Ei , Pj ] = δij P+ , [Fi , Pj ] = δij P− , µ, ν = +, −, 1, 2, [K3 , Pi ] = 0, [J3 , P− ] = 0, [Ei , P+ ] = 0, [Fi , P− ] = 0, [K3 , J3 ] = 0, [E1 , E2 ] = 0, (3) (4)

[K3 , P− ] = −P− , [J3 , P+ ] = 0, [Ei , P− ] = Pi , [Fi , P+ ] = Pi ,

(5)

where εijk is the completely skewsymmetric tensor. The semidirect product structure of the (3+1) Poincar´ group, isomorphic to e ISO(3, 1), can be clearly pointed out. The six generators {Ei , Fi , K3 , J3 } close the 2

Lorentz subgroup SO(3, 1) (3), while the four remaining {P+ , P− , Pi } generate the abelian subgroup T4 (4). Therefore, as it is well known, ISO(3, 1) = SO(3, 1) ⊙ T4 . 3.- A triangular or non-standard quantum deformation of P(3+1) was introduced in [1] in the null-plane framework above mentioned, whose Hopf structure we rewrite here for sake of completeness and to clarify our main result. Let us denote the nullplane generators X displayed in (1), by X, and by z the deformation parameter. ˜ Coproduct: ∆(X) = 1 ⊗ X + X ⊗ 1, for X ∈ {P+ , Ei , J3 }, z ˜ ∆(Y ) = e−˜P+ ⊗ Y + Y ⊗ ez P+ , for Y ∈ {P− , Pi }, z ˜ ˜ ∆(F1 ) = e−˜P+ ⊗ F1 + F1 ⊗ ez P+ + z e−˜P+ E1 ⊗ P− − z P− ⊗ E1 ez P+ ˜ z ˜ ˜ +˜e−˜P+ J3 ⊗ P2 − z P2 ⊗ J3 ez P+ , z z ˜

z ˜ ˜ ∆(F2 ) = e−˜P+ ⊗ F2 + F2 ⊗ ez P+ + z e−˜P+ E2 ⊗ P− − z P− ⊗ E2 ez P+ ˜ z ˜ ˜ −˜e−˜P+ J3 ⊗ P1 + z P1 ⊗ J3 ez P+ , z z ˜ z ˜ ˜ ∆(K3 ) = e−˜P+ ⊗ K3 + K3 ⊗ ez P+ + z e−˜P+ E1 ⊗ P1 − z P1 ⊗ E1 ez P+ ˜ z ˜ ˜ +˜e−˜P+ E2 ⊗ P2 − z P2 ⊗ E2 ez P+ ; z z ˜

(6)

**Counit and Antipode: ǫ(X) = 0;
**

z z γ(X) = −e3˜P+ X e−3˜P+ ,

for X ∈ {P± , Pi , Ei , Fi , K3 , J3 };

(7)

Non-vanishing Lie brackets: [K3 , P+ ] = sinh z P+ ˜ , [K3 , P− ] = −P− cosh z P+ , [K3 , Ei ] = Ei cosh z P+ , ˜ ˜ z ˜ z [K3 , F1 ] = −F1 cosh z P+ + z E1 P− sinh z P+ − z 2 P2 W+ , ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ z [K3 , F2 ] = −F2 cosh z P+ + z E2 P− sinh z P+ + z 2 P1 W+ , ˜ ˜ ˜ ˜ [J3 , Pi ] = −εij3 Pj , [J3 , Ei ] = −εij3 Ej , [J3 , Fi ] = −εij3 Fj , sinh z P+ ˜ [Ei , Pj ] = δij , [Fi , Pj ] = δij P− cosh z P+ , (8) z ˜ [Ei , Fj ] = δij K3 + εij3 J3 cosh z P+ , ˜ [P+ , Fi ] = −Pi , 2 z ˜ ˜ ˜ [P− , Ei ] = −Pi , [F1 , F2 ] = z P− W+ + z P− J3 sinh z P+ ,

z where W+ is a component of the deformed Pauli–Lubanski vector deﬁned as

z W+ = E1 P2 − E2 P1 + J3

sinh z P+ ˜ . z ˜

(9)

4.- In the sequel we show that this quantum algebra has a bicrossproduct structure [2]. Let us consider the map deﬁned by: P+ = P+ , Ei = Ei , J3 = J3 , −˜P+ z −˜P+ z P− = e P− , Pi = e Pi , 3 z = 2˜, z

z F1 = e−˜P+ (F1 − z E1 P− − z J3 P2 ), ˜ ˜ z F2 = e−˜P+ (F2 − z E2 P− + z J3 P1 ), ˜ ˜ −˜P+ z K3 = e (K3 − z E1 P1 − z E2 P2 ). ˜ ˜

(10)

By applying (10) to the Hopf algebra Uz (P(3+1)), whose relations appear displayed ˜ in expressions (6)–(8), we get the Hopf algebra Uz (P(3 + 1)), characterized by the following coproduct, counit, antipode and commutation relations: ∆(X) = 1 ⊗ X + X ⊗ 1, X ∈ {P+ , Ei , J3 }, Y ∈ {P− , Pi}, ∆(Y ) = e−zP+ ⊗ Y + Y ⊗ 1, −zP+ ∆(F1 ) = e ⊗ F1 + F1 ⊗ 1 − zP− ⊗ E1 − zP2 ⊗ J3 , −zP+ ∆(F2 ) = e ⊗ F2 + F2 ⊗ 1 − zP− ⊗ E2 + zP1 ⊗ J3 , ∆(K3 ) = e−zP+ ⊗ K3 + K3 ⊗ 1 − zP1 ⊗ E1 − zP2 ⊗ E2 ; ǫ(X) = 0, X ∈ {P± , Pi , Ei , Fi , K3 , J3 };

(11)

(12)

γ(X) = −X, X ∈ {P+ , Ei , J3 }, γ(Y ) = −ezP+ Y, Y ∈ {P− , Pi }, zP+ γ(F1 ) = −e (F1 + zP− E1 + zP2 J3 ), γ(F2 ) = −ezP+ (F2 + zP− E2 − zP1 J3 ), γ(K3 ) = −ezP+ (K3 + zP1 E1 + zP2 E2 ); [K3 , Ei ] = Ei , [K3 , Fi ] = −Fi , [J3 , Ei ] = −εij3 Ej , [J3 , Fi ] = −εij3 Fj , [Ei , Fj ] = δij K3 + εij3 J3 , [F1 , F2 ] = 0, [Pµ , Pν ] = 0,

−zP+

(13)

[K3 , J3 ] = 0, [E1 , E2 ] = 0,

(14) (15)

µ, ν = +, −, 1, 2,

1−e z 2 2 , [K3 , P− ] = −P− − (P1 + P2 ), z 2 [K3 , Pi ] = (e−zP+ − 1)Pi , [J3 , P+ ] = 0, [J3 , P− ] = 0, [J3 , Pi ] = −εij3 Pj , [Ei , P− ] = Pi , [Ei , P+ ] = 0, 1 − e−zP+ [Ei , Pj ] = δij , [Fi , P+ ] = Pi , [Fi , P− ] = −zPi P− , z z 2 2 [Fi , Pj ] = −zPi Pj + δij (e−zP+ P− + (P1 + P2 )). 2 [K3 , P+ ] =

(16)

Note that the translation generators {P+ , P− , Pi } deﬁne a commutative but noncocommutative Hopf subalgebra of Uz (P(3 + 1)) denoted Uz (T4 ), and the Lorentz sector is non-deformed at the algebra level. 5.- Let us consider now the non-deformed Lorentz Hopf algebra U(so(3, 1)) spanned by the generators {Ei , Fi , K3 , J3 } with classical commutation rules (3) and primitive coproduct: ∆(X) = 1 ⊗ X + X ⊗ 1. We deﬁne a right action α : Uz (T4 ) ⊗ U(so(3, 1)) → Uz (T4 ) as α(X ⊗ Y ) ≡ X ¡ Y := [X, Y ], X ∈ {P± , Pi }, 4 Y ∈ {Ei , Fi , K3 , J3 }; (18) (17)

explicitly z 2 e−zP+ − 1 2 , α(P− ⊗ K3 ) = P− + (P1 + P2 ), z−zP 2 α(Pi ⊗ K3 ) = (1 − e + )Pi , α(P+ ⊗ J3 ) = 0, α(P− ⊗ J3 ) = 0, α(Pi ⊗ J3 ) = εij3Pj , α(P− ⊗ Ei ) = −Pi , α(P+ ⊗ Ei ) = 0, −zP+ e −1 α(Pi ⊗ Ej ) = δij , α(P+ ⊗ Fi ) = −Pi , α(P− ⊗ Fi ) = zPi P− , z z 2 2 α(Pi ⊗ Fj ) = zPi Pj − δij (e−zP+ P− + (P1 + P2 )). 2 (19) Also we deﬁne a left coaction α(P+ ⊗ K3 ) = β : U(so(3, 1)) → Uz (T4 ) ⊗ U(so(3, 1)) by β(J3 ) = 1 ⊗ J3 , β(Ei ) = 1 ⊗ Ei , −zP+ β(F1 ) = e ⊗ F1 − zP− ⊗ E1 − zP2 ⊗ J3 , −zP+ β(F2 ) = e ⊗ F2 − zP− ⊗ E2 + zP1 ⊗ J3 , −zP+ β(K3 ) = e ⊗ K3 − zP1 ⊗ E1 − zP2 ⊗ E2 . (21) (20)

It can be shown that the right action α and left coaction β just introduced fulﬁll the compatibility conditions [2] in such manner (Uz (T4 ), α) is a right U(so(3, 1))module algebra and (U(so(3, 1)), β) is a left Uz (T4 )-comodule coalgebra. We summarize the previous discussion in the following theorem, which is the main result of this letter together with the nonlinear basis change (10). Theorem. The null-plane quantum Poincar´ algebra has the bicrossproduct struce ture Uz (P(3 + 1)) = U(so(3, 1))β ⊲ α Uz (T4 ). ◭ (22) 6.- We would like to stress that the map (10) is invertible, so: P+ = P+ , Ei = Ei , J3 = J3 , P− = ezP+ /2 P− , Pi = ezP+ /2 Pi , F1 = ezP+ /2 (F1 + z(E1 P− + J3 P2 )/2), F2 = ezP+ /2 (F2 + z(E2 P− − J3 P1 )/2), K3 = ezP+ /2 (K3 + z(E1 P1 + E2 P2 )/2). z = z/2, ˜ (23)

This fact can be applied to reproduce in the bicrossproduct basis the physically relevant operators introduced in [1] such as Casimirs, spin, Hamiltonians and position 2 operators. In particular, the deformed square of the mass Mz is now

2 Mz = 2P−

ezP+ − 1 2 2 − (P1 + P2 )ezP+ , z

(24)

**and the square of the Pauli–Lubanski operator Wz2 turns out to be
**

z z z z z z 2 z Wz2 = (W13 )2 + (W23 )2 + cosh(zP+ /2) W+ W− + W− W+ − z 2 Mz (W+ )2 /4, (25)

5

where

z Wi3 = K3 Pi ezP+ + Ei P− − Fi

+(−1)i J3 P3−i

ezP+ + 1 z z W− = (F1 P2 − F2 P1 )ezP+ + J3 P− + (E1 P2 − E2 P1 )P− ezP+ 2 2 z 2 2 + J3 (P1 + P2 )ezP+ , 2 sinh(zP+ /2) z . (26) W+ = (E1 P2 − E2 P1 )ezP+ /2 + J3 z/2 The second order Casimir (24) would give rise to a deformed Schr¨dinger equation o in the same way as in [1, 12], while the Pauli–Lubanski vector (26) would allow to derive quantum Hamiltonians and spin operators. However, it is clear that although the Hopf algebra structure of Uz (P(3 + 1)) is rather simpliﬁed in this new basis, the associated operators adopt a much more complicated form than the original ones. The map (10) resembles the one given in [13] which allowed to deduce a (factorized) null-plane quantum universal R-matrix: both mappings are related by the z ˜ interchange e−˜P+ ↔ ezP+ . Hence, the universal R-matrix reads now R = exp{zE2 ⊗ ezP+ P2 } exp{zE1 ⊗ ezP+ P1 } exp{−zP+ ⊗ ezP+ K3 } × exp{zezP+ K3 ⊗ P+ } exp{−zezP+ P1 ⊗ E1 } exp{−zezP+ P2 ⊗ E2 }. (27) Therefore, each basis seems to be useful for a speciﬁc purpose and we do not ﬁnd any privileged basis to express the whole quantum Poincar´ algebra together e its associated elements (universal R-matrix, quantum Casimirs, etc.). Finally to mention that the null-plane case in (2 + 1) dimensions [12] also exhibits this bicrossproduct structure. It looks interesting to proﬁt this bicrossproduct structure of the quantum algebras in order to study by duality the corresponding quantum groups. Work in this direction is in progress and will be published elsewhere.

ezP+ 2

ezP+ − 1 z + (E1 P1 + E2 P2 )Pi ezP+ z 2 −1 , i = 1, 2,

Acknowledgments

This work has been partially supported by the Direcci´n General de Ense˜ anza o n Superior (DGES grant PB95–0719) and by DGICYT (project PB94–1115) from the Ministerio de Educaci´n y Cultura of Spain. o

References

[1] Ballesteros A, Herranz F J, del Olmo M A and Santander M, 1995 Phys. Lett. B 351 137. 6

[2] Majid S, 1990 J. Algebra 130 17; Foundations of quantum group theory (Cambridge University Press, 1995). [3] Majid S and Ruegg H, 1994 Phys. Lett B 334 348. [4] Lukierski J, Nowicky A, Ruegg H and Tolstoy V, 1991 Phys. Lett. B 264 331. [5] Giller S, Koshi´ ski P, Kunz J, Majewski M and Ma´lanka P, 1992 Phys. Lett. n s B 286 57. [6] Lukierski J, Nowicky A and Ruegg H, 1992 Phys. Lett. B 293 344. [7] de Azc´rraga J A, del Olmo M A, P´rez Bueno J C and Santander M, 1997 J. a e Phys. A: Math. Gen. 30 3069. [8] Ballesteros A, Herranz F J, del Olmo M A and Santander M, 1994 J. Math. Phys. 35 4928; 1995 Lett. Math. Phys. 33 273. [9] de Azc´rraga J A and P´rez Bueno J C, 1996 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 29 6353. a e [10] Ballesteros A, Herranz F J, del Olmo M A, Pere˜ a C M and Santander M, 1995 n J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 28 7113. [11] Leutwyler H and Stern J, 1978 Ann. Phys. (N.Y.) 112 94. [12] Ballesteros A and Herranz F J, 1996 Mod. Phys. Lett. A 11 1745. [13] Ballesteros A, Herranz F J and Pere˜ a C M, 1997 Phys. Lett. B 391 71. n

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