Junaid AshIaq (09-TE-25), Saad Shahid (09-TE-01)
University oI Engineering and Technology, Taxila
Control Systems
28 November 2011
Components oI Modular Servo System with Respective Applications
The modular servo system is equipment designed to study the theoretical concepts and practice oI
automatic control systems. This is used to convert simulations and computer based programs over
hardware. It is used to analyse hardware implementations oI Control systems. It is used to demonstrate
control circuits and constructional techniques. It is used Ior training oI new employees and students
throughout the world. It is also very useIul to researchers. Modular Servo operates with PC-based digital
controller. The PC communicates with the position sensor and motor by an I/O board and the power
interIace. The I/O board is controlled by the real-time soItware which operates in the MATLAB/Simulink

('Figure 1: MSS mechanical construction¨)
1. Servo Potentiometer.
A Servo is a small device that has an output shaIt. This shaIt can be positioned to speciIic angular
positions by sending the servo a coded signal. As long as the coded signal exists on the input line, the servo
will maintain the angular position oI the shaIt. As the coded signal changes, the angular position oI the
shaIt changes.
So, how does a servo work? The servo motor has some control circuits and a potentiometer (a variable
resistor, aka pot) that is connected to the output shaIt. In the picture above, the pot can be seen on the right

side oI the circuit board. This pot allows the control circuitry to monitor the current angle oI the servo
motor. II the shaIt is at the correct angle, then the motor shuts oII. II the circuit Iinds that the angle is not
correct, it will turn the motor the correct direction until the angle is correct. The output shaIt oI the servo is
capable oI travelling somewhere around 180 degrees. Usually, its somewhere in the 210 degree range, but
it varies by manuIacturer. A normal servo is used to control an angular motion oI between 0 and 180
degrees. A normal servo is mechanically not capable oI turning any Iarther due to a mechanical stop built
on to the main output gear.
The amount oI power applied to the motor is proportional to the distance it needs to travel. So, iI
the shaIt needs to turn a large distance, the motor will run at Iull speed. II it needs to turn only a small
amount, the motor will run at a slower speed. This is called proportional control.
How do you communicate the angle at which the servo should turn? The control wire is used to
communicate the angle. The angle is determined by the duration oI a pulse that is applied to the control
wire. This is called Pulse Coded Modulation. The servo expects to see a pulse every 20 milliseconds (.02
seconds). The length oI the pulse will determine how Iar the motor turns. A 1.5 millisecond pulse, Ior
example, will make the motor turn to the 90 degree position (oIten called the neutral position). II the pulse
is shorter than 1.5 Ms, then the motor will turn the shaIt to closer to 0 degress. II the pulse is longer than
1.5ms, the shaIt turns closer to 180 degrees.

As you can see in the picture, the duration oI the pulse dictates the angle oI the output shaIt (shown
as the green circle with the arrow). Note that the times here are illustrative and the actual timings depend
on the motor manuIacturer. The principle, however, is the same. ('What`s a Servo?¨)
2. C motor with Tachogenerator.
A TACHOGENERATOR is a piece oI equipment which when coupled to a revolving body,
develops an output signal proportional to the angular velocity oI the body. The relationship between output
signal and angular velocity oI an ideal techogenerator is completely linear. In other words, conversion oI
mechanical energy to electrical energy is done by tachogenerator. The device works essentially as a
voltage generator, with the output voltage proportional to the magnitude oI the angular velocity oI the input

shaIt. Measuring the voltage produced by a tachogenerator, you can easily determine the rotational speed
oI whatever it`s mechanically attached to. c Tachogenerators speciIications are: Current: Up to 200 Ma,
Speed up to 10000 rpm, Voltages 4V to 200V/1000 rpm. ('Tachogenerators¨)
In Servo System, a combination oI C motor and Tachogenerator is used Ior the purpose described
above. The speciIic type oI servo motor used in the servo system is known as dc-servo motors having
special set oI characteristics.
2.1 C Servo Motors
c servo motors are normally used as prime movers in computers, numerically controlled
machinery, or other applications where starts and stops are made quickly and accurately. Servo motors
have lightweight, low-inertia armatures that respond quickly to excitation-voltage changes. In addition,
very low armature inductance in these servo motors results in a low electrical time constant (typically 0.05
to 1.5 msec) that Iurther sharpens servo motor response to command signals. Servo motors include
permanent-magnetic, printed-circuit, and moving-coil (or shell) dc servo motors. The rotor oI a shell dc
servo motor consists oI a cylindrical shell oI copper or aluminium wire coils which rotate in a magnetic
Iield in the annular space between magnetic pole pieces and a stationary iron core. The servo motor
Ieatures a Iield, which is provided by cast AlNiCo magnets whose magnetic axis is radial. Servo motors
usually have two, Iour, or six poles.
c servo motor characteristics include inertia, physical shape, costs, shaIt resonance, shaIt
conIiguration, speed, and weight. Although these dc servo motors have similar torque ratings, their
physical Servo moLors are used ln closed loop conLrol sysLems ln whlch work ls Lhe conLrol varlableţ llgure 9Ŧ 1he
dlglLal servo moLor conLroller dlrecLs operaLlon of Lhe servo moLor by sendlng veloclLy command slgnals Lo Lhe
ampllflerţ whlch drlves Lhe servo moLorŦ An lnLegral feedback devlce (resolver) or devlces (encoder and
LachomeLer) are elLher lncorporaLed wlLhln Lhe servo moLor or are remoLely mounLedţ ofLen on Lhe load lLselfŦ
1hese provlde Lhe servo moLorƌs poslLlon and veloclLy feedback LhaL Lhe conLroller compares Lo lLs programmed
moLlon proflle and uses Lo alLer lLs veloclLy slgnalŦ Servo moLors feaLure a moLlon proflleţ whlch ls a seL of
lnsLrucLlons programmed lnLo Lhe conLroller LhaL deflnes Lhe servo moLor operaLlon ln Lerms of Llmeţ poslLlonţ and
veloclLyŦ 1he ablllLy of Lhe servo moLor Lo ad[usL Lo dlfferences beLween Lhe moLlon proflle and feedback slgnals
depends greaLly upon Lhe Lype of conLrols and servo moLors usedŦ See Lhe servo moLors ConLrol and Sensors
ÞroducL secLlonŦ
Three basic types oI servo motors are used in modern servo systems: ac servo motors, based on
induction motor designs; dc servo motors, based on dc motor designs; and ac brushless servo motors, based
on synchronous motor designs and electrical constants vary. In MSS, we have dc servo motor. ('C Servo
('Servo Motors¨)

3. Gearbox with output disk.

A gearbox, also known as a gear case or gearhead, is a gear or a hydraulic system responsible Ior
transmitting mechanical power Irom a prime mover (an engine or electric motor) into some Iorm oI useIul
output. It is reIerred to the metal casing in which a number oI gears are sealed.

A gearbox is also a set oI gears Ior transmitting power Irom one rotating shaIt to another. They are
used in a wide range oI industrial, automotive and home machinery application.

Gearheads are available in diIIerent sizes, capacities and speed ratios. Their main Iunction is to
convert the input provided by an electric motor into an output oI lower RPM and higher torque.

3.1 Functions oI a Gearbox
O A gearbox is precisely bored to control gear and shaIt alignment.
O It is used as a housing/container Ior gear oil.
O It is a metal casing Ior protecting gears and lubricant Irom water, dust and other
contaminants. ('Gears & Gear Boxes¨)
The gearbox that is speciIically used in Modular Servo System (MSS) is shaIt mounted gearbox as
it has an output disk mounted on one end.
ShaIt mounted gearbox is widely used in a large number oI industries Ior eIIicient power
transmission. Since the gearbox is directly suspended on the shaIt, it does not require a base Irame Ior
drive system.
These gearboxes can be directly mounted on to a shaIt thus eliminating the need oI Ioundation and
coupling. These industrial seed reducers are used Ior both Iorward and reverse motion.
Types oI ShaIt Mounted Gearbox
the Iollowing gearboxes are based on the shaIt mounting principle and they include:
O Parallel ShaIt Gearbox
O Helical Gearbox
O Planetary Gearbox
O Worm Gearbox
Advantages oI a ShaIt Mounted Gearbox
the gearbox is used in diverse Iields because oI the Iollowing reasons:
O Simple and neat conIiguration.
O Easy installation.
O Removes complexities related to shaIt alignment.
O Avoids costly machining oI mating surIaces.
O Space saving.
O Reduced angular backlash. ('ShaIt Mounted Gearbox¨)
4. Magnetic Brake.
The brakes used in servo system are electromagnetic breaks.

Electromagnetic brakes operate electrically, but unlike eddy current brakes, transmit torque
mechanically. This is why they also used to be reIerred to as electro-mechanical-7,08. Over the years,
EM brakes became known as electromagnetic, reIerring to their actuation method. Since the brakes started
becoming popular over sixty years ago, the variety oI applications and brake designs has increased
dramatically, but the basic operation remains the same.
Single Iace electromagnetic brakes make up approximately 80° oI all oI the power applied brake
applications. This article mainly concentrates on these brakes. ('Electromagnetic Brakes¨)
Magnetic brakes are silent and are much smoother than Iriction brakes, breaking power oI magnetic
breaks gradually increase due to which people on the ride do not experience rapid changes in deceleration
4.1 Features:
Zero backlash armatures available on some units: The armature is mounted to the hub by a special
leaI spring to provide minimal backlash and no armature rattle.
Automatic air gap available on some units: Clutch air gap automatically adjusts as the brake wears,
allowing Ior a consistent air gap that maintains a consistent time to stop.
Fast Response: The single Iriction plate design allows Ior a very Iast response in high cycle
Smooth, quiet operation: Whether automatic air gap or zero backlashes is chosen, brake armatures
engage smoothly, eliminating chattering noise, helping in sustaining quieter operation.
4.2 How It Works:

Engagement: Electromechanical brakes operate via an electric actuation, but transmit torque
mechanically. When voltage/current is applied, the coil is energized creating a magnetic Iield. This turns
the coil into an electromagnet that develops magnetic lines oI Ilux. The magnetic Ilux attracts the armature
to the Iace oI the brake. The armature and hub are normally mounted on the shaIt (customer supplied) that
is rotating. Since the brake coil is mounted solidly, the brake armature, hub and shaIt come to a stop in a
short amount oI time.
isengagement: When current/voltage is removed Irom the brake, the armature is Iree to turn with
the shaIt. In most designs, springs hold the armature away Irom the brake surIace when power is released,
creating a small air gap.

Cycling: Cycling: Cycling is achieved by turning the voltage/current to the coil on and oII.
Slippage should occur only during deceleration. When the brake is engaged, there should be no slippage
once the brake comes to a Iull stop. ('Ogura Features¨)
A disadvantage oI magnetic brakes is that they cannot completely stop a train, and as such cannot
be used as block brakes. They also cannot be conventionally disengaged like other types oI brakes. Instead,
the Iins or magnets must be retracted so that the Iins no longer pass between the magnets.
5. Inertia Load.
The primary purpose oI the AC servo system is to precisely control the motion
oI the load. The most Iundamental considerations in selecting the servo system are "reIlected" load inertia,
servo system maximum speed requirement, servo system continuous torque requirement, and servo system
peak torque requirement. The basic consideration that should be Iollowed in order to select the proper
Servo system.
ReIlected Load Inertia: The inertia oI everything attached to the servo motor driveshaIt needs to be
considered and the total "reIlected" inertia needs to be determined. This means that all elements oI any
mechanical transmission and load inertia need to be translated into an equivalent inertia as iI attached
directly to the motor driveshaIt. The ratio oI "reIlected" load inertia to motor inertia needs to be careIully
considered when selecting the servo system.
In general, applications that need high response or bandwidth will beneIit Irom
keeping the ratio oI load inertia to motor inertia as low as possible and ideally under 10:1. Systems with
ratios as high as 200:1 can be realized but corresponding lower bandwidth or responsiveness must be
accepted. The servo response including the attached load inertia is determined by the servo tuning.
Sure Servo¹ systems may be tuned manually, adaptively with measurement oI the
load inertia, or set with deIault tuning based on a programmed value oI load
inertia. ('Select and Apply Servo Systems¨)
The inertia ratio is the ratio oI load inertia (what gets coupled to the motor) to the inertia oI the
motor itselI. You can't just say X:Y ratio is good Ior all systems. It depends on the system. ('inertia ratio oI

Moment OI Inertia

J (g·m·)





J (g·m·)




¹ R·

M ÷ Mass in grams
R ÷ Radius in meters


Torque required oI motor


Load Torque


motor shaIt revolutions

gear or pulley ratio GR


load shaIt revolutions

Load Inertia

Inertia reIlected to motor




J eqv. (g·m·) ÷ MR·

Note: Be sure to include all load components. ('Inertia /Load¨)

6. igital Encoder.
An encoder is a device or circuit that converts inIormation Irom one Iormat or code to another.
There are two types oI encoders, rotatory and linear. In MSS, rotatory encoders are used which are also
known as shaIt encoders. Rotatory encoder is an electro-mechanical device that converts
the angular position or motion oI a shaIt to an analog or digital code.
ShaIt encoders are transparent discs with the angular position digitally coded on (in black), so that
by reading the code an optical sensor can determine the angular position oI the shaIt. In practice 12bit or
16 bit encoders will be used, giving high degrees oI position accuracy, oI approximately 0.1 deg and 0.05
deg resolution respectively. In our examples however we will use a 4 bit optical shaIt encoder, as shown in
the Figure 3. This is much less accurate than would be used in an industrial digital servo, but it is much
easier to explain the operation with just Iour bits. The disk shown in Iigure 3 is the type supplied with the
CE300. It is made Irom clear plastic with the Gray code shown in black. Gray coding is used because is
that there is only a one bit change between any two adjacent positions oI the encoder. This reduces the
possibility oI an error being introduced as the encoder is rotating. With alternative binary shaIt encoder all
the bits can change simultaneously between two adjacent positions. This introduces the possibility oI errors
occurring due to noise and timing diIIerences in the logic. For example, as shown in Table 1 going Irom
decimal 7 to decimal 8 causes all Iour bits to change in binary while only one bit changes in Gray code. OI
course noise and timing errors are present when using Gray code however because only one bit changes at
a time the chance oI an error occurring is signiIicantly reduced. The CE300 optical shaIt encoder uses 4
bits to encode the position oI the shaIt. With just these 4 bits we can only encode 16 positions, so that the
encoder resolution is 360/16÷22.5 deg. For use in a digital controller the output oI the shaIt encoder has to
be converted to binary. This allows Figure 3. CE300 Gray code shaIt encoder the error calculation to be
done in binary. Fortunately, as shown in the next section, the conversion oI a Gray coded position into
Binary coded position is simple. ('Servo Control System 2: igital servomechanism¨)

7. Backlash Module.
In mechanical engineering, backlash, (sometimes called lash or play) is clearance between mating
components, sometimes it is explained as the amount oI lost motion due to clearance or looseness when
÷ Rotor Inertia ¹ all J Loads
÷ Frictional and Forces

movement is reversed and contact is re-established. For example, in a pair oI gears, backlash is the amount
oI clearance between mated gear teeth.
Backlash is the amount by which the width oI a gear`s tooth space exceeds the thickness oI an engaging
tooth measured at the pitch circle oI the gears. Backlash, sometimes termed slop, lash, free-play, or simply
play, is an angular quantity due to the gear`s circular geometry. This can be termed clearance backlash
Backlash is necessary Ior clearance to accommodate manuIacturing errors, provide space Ior lubrication
and allow Ior thermal expansion oI components. The most critical aspect oI backlash is allowance Ior
manuIacturing errors. Second is that it provides the clearance Ior a lubricating Iilm between the meshing
teeth. The combination oI manuIacturing errors and/or incorrect lubrication is detrimental to the value oI
backlash in operation. Poor manuIacturing quality results in smaller contact areas oI the meshing teeth,
resulting in high contact pressure on the components. This pressure may exceed the allowable pressure oI
the lubrication, which leads to metal-to-metal contact, resulting in high wear.
7.1 Proper lubrication minimizes backlash
esigns with gear teeth oI proper hardness, surIace Iinish, and quality level allow the lubrication
Iilm to be maintained which eliminates metal to metal contact and wear.
Lubricants are essential to minimizing backlash and the appropriate choice oI lubricant is application
speciIic. Oil is superior to grease in its allowable contact stress capacity, heat dissipation and Iilm Iorming
characteristics, which permit it to penetrate tight clearances between precision gears.
7.2 Measuring backlash
In servo-mechanical transmissions, backlash is measured at the output shaIt oI the gearhead while
holding the input shaIt rigid. The ambiguity in published values Ior backlash Irom various manuIacturers is
due to the Iact that there is no standard process Ior measuring backlash. Is the speciIied value the
maximum value or average? Is it a plus or minus value or the total? Is any Iorce used to rotate the output in
order to insure Iull-Iace contact on the gears and the bearing rollers?
Quality manuIacturers will apply some amount oI torque when measuring backlash and call the
result Torsional Backlash. This is where the terminology gets conIusing. Because a Iorce is applied, some
manuIacturers will call torsional backlash lost motion because it involves rotating the output with no
rotation at the input. The lost motion includes the deIlection oI the gear teeth Ior Iull-Iace contact, motion
as a result oI bearing clearances, as well as Iriction and clearance backlash. Torsional backlash is
synonymous with lost motion and common sense tells us that the amount oI Iorce applied will greatly
aIIect the values oI lost motion or torsional backlash.
The manuIacturing quality oI the gearhead and the shape oI the teeth are the major determinants oI
torsional backlash. ManuIacturing irregularities result in unequal tooth load distribution and skewed tooth
engagements,resulting in deIlections that aIIect the torsional backlash or lost motion values.
Some manuIacturers claim zero backlash in their gearboxes due to the negative connotation
associated with backlash. It is important to point out that this zero backlash claim is in regard to the actual
Iree-play and much diIIerent than the torsional backlash. However, one may ask, 'Can any mechanical
device be manuIactured with zero clearance or Iree play? NO. ('Backlash vs. Lost Motion¨)
7.3 Backlash Models

Backlash models or gear play is a common non-linear behaviour in mechanical systems. According
to the place where the backlash occurs, it will behave diIIerently in the system. epending on the
mechanical surroundings and the machine`s operating conditions, diIIerent mathematical models must be
7.4 Physical Model Ior Backlash
A physical system, that consists oI an inertia-Iree shaIt with a backlash gap 2¸, a spring with
elasticity ks and viscous damping cs, is modelled, see Fig.

The exact expression Ior the torque T is given by:
T ÷ ks0 s ¹ cs 0 s ÷ ks(0 d 0 b) ¹ cs(0d 0b)
0s ÷ 0d 0b
Where 0s represents the shaIt twist, 0d is the diIIerence angle oI the motor and the load side and
0b represents the backlash angle, 0b ·÷ , u ,.

Work Cited
'Figure 1: MSS mechanical construction¨ dspŦvschLŦczŦ uSÞŦ nŦdŦ WebŦ Ŧ novŦ 011Ŧ
'What`s a Servo?¨Seatlerobotics.org. Seattle Robotics Society. n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2011.
'Tachogenerators¨ allaboutcircuits. All About Circuits. n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2011.
'C Servo Motors¨ electricmotors.machinedesign. Electric Motors. 2011. Web. 28 Nov. 2011.
'Servo Motors¨ electricmotors.machinedesign. Electric Motors. 2011. Web. 28 Nov. 2011.
'Gears & Gear Boxes¨ sourcing.indiamart. Indiamart. 2011. Web. 28. Nov. 2011.

'ShaIt Mounted Gearbox¨ sourcing.indiamart. Indiamart. 2011. Web. 28. Nov. 2011.
'Electromagnetic Brakes¨ Wikipedia. Wikipedia. 2011. Web. 28. Nov. 2011.
'Ogura Features¨ ogura-clutch. Electromagnetic gears and cluthes. Ogura Industrial corp. n.d. Web. 28.
Nov. 2011.
'Select and Apply Servo Systems¨ sureservo. Sure Servo. n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2011.
'inertia ratio oI servo¨ control.com. Control.com. 19 ec. 2008. Web. 28 Nov. 2011.
'Inertia/ Load¨ smallmotors. CK. ec 2006. Web. 28 Nov. 2011.
'Backlash vs Lost Motion¨ wittenstein-us. WITTENSTEIN. 2011. Web. 28. Nov. 2011.
'Servo Control System 2: igital servomechanism¨ control-systems-principles.co.uk. Control-systems.
n.d. Web. 28 Nov. 2011.

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