1

MAGNETOSPHERIC CONSCIOUSNESS
Matti Pitk¨anen
K¨oydenpunojankatu D 11, 10900, Hanko, Finland
Contents
0.1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
0.2 Basic Ideas of TGD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
0.2.1 TGD as a Poincare invariant theory of gravitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1
0.2.2 TGD as a generalization of the hadronic string model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
0.2.3 Fusion of the two approaches via a generalization of the space-time concept . . 2
0.3 The five threads in the development of quantum TGD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
0.3.1 Quantum TGD as configuration space spinor geometry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2
0.3.2 p-Adic TGD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
0.3.3 TGD as a generalization of physics to a theory consciousness . . . . . . . . . . 3
0.3.4 TGD as a generalized number theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
0.3.5 Dynamical quantized Planck constant and dark matter hierarchy . . . . . . . . 7
0.4 Bird’s eye of view about the topics of the book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
0.5 The contents of the book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
0.5.1 PART I: Mother Gaia Hypothesis in TGD Universe . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
0.5.2 PART II: Mother Gaia Hypothesis and Human Consciousness . . . . . . . . . . 13
0.5.3 Part III: Crazy Stuff . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
I MOTHER GAIA HYPOTHESIS IN TGD UNIVERSE 23
1 Magnetospheric Sensory Representations 25
1.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
1.1.1 Are sensory representations at the personal magnetic body or at the magnetic
body of the Earth’s magnetic field? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
1.1.2 The relationship between Earth’s magnetic field and personal magnetic body . 26
1.1.3 Topics of the chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27
1.2 The structure of magnetic field of Earth and variation of cyclotron frequency scales . . 27
1.2.1 Magnetosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28
1.2.2 Z
0
magnetosphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33
1.2.3 Observations making bells ringing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35
1.3 General assumptions about sensory and motor representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36
1.3.1 Magnetosphere as a living organism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
1.3.2 Magnetospheric nervous system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37
1.3.3 Magnetospheric metabolism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38
1.3.4 General ideas about sensory representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39
1.3.5 What brain structure and fractality teaches about magnetospheric motor control? 42
1.3.6 Do the structures of nervous system and magnetosphere correspond to each
other fractally? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44
1.4 Resonant representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46
1.4.1 Hierarchy of sensory representations at magnetic Mother Gaia . . . . . . . . . 47
1.4.2 Endogenous frequency fixes the representation sphere . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48
1.4.3 Projector MEs as wave cavities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49
1.4.4 Sensory representations appear as night-day conjugate pairs . . . . . . . . . . . 51
1.4.5 Representations based on cavity resonances . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53
1.5 The hierarchy of magnetospheric representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
1.5.1 EEG and magnetospheric sensory representations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55
iii
iv CONTENTS
1.5.2 Do magnetospheric structures correspond directly to brain structures? . . . . . 59
1.5.3 How do the contributions of magneto-tail and inner magnetosphere to our con-
sciousness differ? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62
1.5.4 Some applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66
1.6 Fatima Marian Apparitions and TGD inspired theory of consciousness . . . . . . . . . 68
1.6.1 General TGD based model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69
1.6.2 The mystery of the buzzing sound . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72
1.6.3 Microwaves, consciousness, and life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73
1.6.4 Fatima apparition and microwave MEs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78
2 Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time 91
2.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
2.1.1 Questions and answers about evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91
2.1.2 Topics of the chapter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93
2.2 What is known about pre-biotic evolution? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
2.2.1 Some believed-to-be facts about the early history of life . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
2.2.2 Standard approaches are mechanistic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
2.2.3 The notion of primordial ocean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94
2.2.4 Urey-Miller experiment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
2.2.5 RNA world . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
2.2.6 How biochemical pathways and DNA-amino-acid code emerged? . . . . . . . . 96
2.2.7 Problems with the polymerization in primordial ocean . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96
2.2.8 The notion of protocell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
2.3 TGD based scenario about pre-biotic evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
2.3.1 Basic prerequisites . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98
2.3.2 TGD based vision about pre-biotic evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99
2.3.3 Pre-biotic chemistry and new physics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
2.3.4 DNA as a topological quantum computer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111
2.4 Physical model for genetic code and its evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118
2.4.1 RNA world . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119
2.4.2 Programming of bio-molecular self assembly pathways from TGD point of view 119
2.4.3 The archeology of tRNA molecules as a guideline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121
2.4.4 Recent genetic code as a fusion of singlet and doublet codes? . . . . . . . . . . 125
2.4.5 Is RNA era continuing inside cell nuclei? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128
2.4.6 Could nanno-bacteria correspond to predecessors of the triplet life-forms? . . . 129
2.5 Did life evolve in the womb of Mother Gaia? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131
2.5.1 Quantum version of Expanding Earth theory and Cambrian explosion . . . . . 132
2.5.2 Did pre-biotic life evolve in mantle-core boundary? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136
2.5.3 What conditions can one pose on life at mantle-core boundary? . . . . . . . . . 138
2.5.4 What about analogs of EEG? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142
2.6 Comparison of McFadden’s views with TGD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
2.6.1 General ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145
2.6.2 Enzyme action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
2.6.3 Quantum evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147
2.6.4 Plasmoid like life forms in laboratory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
2.7 Quantum version of Expanding Earth theory and Cambrian explosion . . . . . . . . . 163
2.7.1 The claims of Adams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
2.7.2 The critic of Adams of the subduction mechanism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165
2.7.3 Expanding Earth theories are not new . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
2.7.4 Summary of TGD based theory of Expanding Earth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
2.7.5 Did intra-terrestrial life burst to the surface of Earth during Cambrian expansion?168
CONTENTS v
II MOTHER GAIA HYPOTHESIS AND HUMAN CONSCIOUSNESS
179
3 Semi-trance, Mental Illness, and Altered States of Consciousness 181
3.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
3.2 Semitrance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
3.2.1 How societies of idiots can behave intelligently? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
3.2.2 Semitrance as basic mechanism of communication between collective conscious-
ness and individual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183
3.2.3 Various aspects of semitrance state . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188
3.3 Semitrance and mental disorders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
3.3.1 Schizophrenia and semitrance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191
3.3.2 Disorders of mood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196
3.3.3 Mental disease as communication disorder? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197
3.4 Semitrance, trance and altered states of consciousness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
3.4.1 Sleep, trance and dreams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198
3.4.2 Altered states of consciousness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199
3.4.3 Stephan’s case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200
3.4.4 Personal experiences about semitrance like states . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207
4 Semitrance, Language, and Development of Civilization 217
4.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217
4.2 How collective consciousness communicates with individual? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
4.2.1 How societies of idiots can behave intelligently? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
4.2.2 Semitrance as basic mechanism of communication between collective conscious-
ness and individual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219
4.3 Basic notions and ideas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
4.3.1 Jaynes’s and TGD based definitions of consciousness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225
4.3.2 Bicamerality according to Jaynes and TGD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
4.3.3 Bicamerality according to TGD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226
4.3.4 How the developing collective consciousness coped with its challenges? . . . . . 227
4.4 Development of language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229
4.4.1 General ideas about codes and languages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230
4.4.2 Prerequisites for the development of language . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233
4.4.3 Scenario for the development of primitive forms of spoken language . . . . . . . 233
4.5 Semitrance and the development of civilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
4.5.1 TGD based vision for the development of civilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236
4.5.2 Breakdown of bicamerality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239
4.5.3 Religion and bicamerality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241
4.5.4 Bicamerality in modern society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243
4.5.5 Are we really the first ones? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245
4.6 Semitrance and organisms as cell societies . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246
4.6.1 Semitrance and binary structures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247
4.6.2 Organism as cell civilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 248
4.6.3 Cell as a society . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249
4.6.4 DNA and the analogy with the development of language . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
III CRAZY STUFF 257
5 Crop Circles and Life at Parallel Space-Time Sheets: Part I 259
5.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
5.1.1 Strange phenomena associated with crop formations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
5.1.2 Model for the generation of crop circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259
5.2 Some aspects of TGD based vision about living systems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
5.2.1 Magnetic bodies and magnetosphere as a living system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260
5.2.2 Does a dark copy of Earth’s magnetic field exist? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
vi CONTENTS
5.2.3 Basic vision about living matter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261
5.2.4 The new view about genetic code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264
5.2.5 Dark matter hierarchy and big leaps in evolution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265
5.2.6 Plasmoids as primitive life forms associated with magnetic bodies . . . . . . . . 268
5.2.7 Field representations of information using codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269
5.3 Dark matter hierarchy, genetic machinery, and the un-reasonable selectivity of bio-
catalysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273
5.3.1 Two views about what dark atoms could be . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274
5.3.2 Spontaneous decay and completion of dark N-atoms as basic mechanisms of
bio-chemistry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277
5.3.3 The new view about hydrogen bond and water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278
5.4 Model for crop circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
5.4.1 Why crop circles cannot be hoax? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
5.4.2 Further facts about crop formations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283
5.4.3 Existing models for crop formations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284
5.4.4 TGD based interpretation of crop circles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286
6 Crop Circles and Life at Parallel Space-Time Sheets: Part II 299
6.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299
6.1.1 Do Chilbolton and Crabwood messages provide information about aliens? . . . 299
6.1.2 Where do the higher life forms live? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300
6.2 Chilbolton and Crabwood messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
6.2.1 Chilbolton message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 302
6.2.2 Crabwood crop formation as a representation of DNA-amino-acid codes? . . . . 306
6.2.3 ASCII code interpretation of the Crabwood message . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
6.3 What can one conclude about aliens? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317
6.3.1 Intra- or futuro-terrestrials? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318
6.3.2 Two guesses for the temporal distance of futuro-terrestrials . . . . . . . . . . . 319
6.3.3 Conditions on high-T life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 320
6.3.4 What IT life could look like? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 322
6.3.5 Where did those 223 genes pop up? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 326
6.3.6 Do Ts and ITs live in symbiosis? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 330
6.3.7 Some questions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 337
6.4 Number theoretical models for genetic codes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341
6.4.1 Three kinds of number theoretical models for the genetic code . . . . . . . . . 341
6.4.2 Does amino-acid structure reflect the product structure of the code? . . . . . . 342
6.4.3 Number theoretical model for the terrestrial genetic code . . . . . . . . . . . . 343
6.4.4 Capital letter code as a product code with broken T-C symmetry . . . . . . . . 351
6.4.5 T-C symmetric models for small letter plus special symbol code . . . . . . . . . 353
6.4.6 Imbedding of the amino-acid space into DNA space and the universal part of
the genetic code . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 358
6.4.7 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 359
A Appendix 367
A-1 Basic properties of CP
2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
A-1.1 CP
2
as a manifold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
A-1.2 Metric and K¨ahler structures of CP
2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 367
A-1.3 Spinors in CP
2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
A-1.4 Geodesic submanifolds of CP
2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 370
A-2 Identification of the electroweak couplings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 371
A-2.1 Discrete symmetries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 374
A-3 Space-time surfaces with vanishing em, Z
0
, K¨ahler, or W fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
A-3.1 Em neutral space-times . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 375
A-3.2 Space-times with vanishing Z
0
or K¨ahler fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 377
A-3.3 Induced gauge fields for space-times for which CP
2
projection is a geodesic sphere377
List of Figures
2.1 The structure of DNA hairpin (stem loop) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
2.2 The structure of tRNA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122
6.1 Chilbolton crop formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303
6.2 The counterpart of the Arecibo antenna in Chilbolton message which corresponds to
earlier crop formation brings in mind Earth’s magnetosphere and suggests the presence
of intra-terrestrial life. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 304
6.3 Crabwood crop formation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307
6.4 The chemical structure of amino-acids. The first group (ala,. ..) corresponds to non-
polar amino-acid side groups, the remaining amino-acids to polar side groups. The two
lowest groups correspond to acidic (asp, glu) and basic side groups. . . . . . . . . . . . 348
vii
0.1. Background 1
0.1 Background
T(opological) G(eometro)D(ynamics) is one of the many attempts to find a unified description of basic
interactions. The development of the basic ideas of TGD to a relatively stable form took time of about
half decade [16]. The great challenge is to construct a mathematical theory around these physically
very attractive ideas and I have devoted the last twenty-three years for the realization of this dream
and this has resulted in seven online books [1, 2, 4, 5, 3, 6, 7] about TGD and eight online books
about TGD inspired theory of consciousness and of quantum biology [10, 8, 9, 13, 11, 12, 14, 15].
Quantum T(opological)D(ynamics) as a classical spinor geometry for infinite-dimensional configu-
ration space, p-adic numbers and quantum TGD, and TGD inspired theory of consciousness have been
for last decade of the second millenium the basic three strongly interacting threads in the tapestry of
quantum TGD.
For few yeas ago the discussions with Tony Smith generated a fourth thread which deserves the
name ’TGD as a generalized number theory’. The work with Riemann hypothesis made time ripe
for realization that the notion of infinite primes could provide, not only a reformulation, but a deep
generalization of quantum TGD. This led to a thorough and extremely fruitful revision of the basic
views about what the final form and physical content of quantum TGD might be.
The fifth thread came with the realization that by quantum classical correspondence TGD predicts
an infinite hierarchy of macroscopic quantum systems with increasing sizes, that it is not at all clear
whether standard quantum mechanics can accommodate this hierarchy, and that a dynamical quan-
tized Planck constant might be necessary and certainly possible in TGD framework. The identification
of hierarchy of Planck constants whose values TGD ”predicts” in terms of dark matter hierarchy would
be natural. This also led to a solution of a long standing puzzle: what is the proper interpretation of
the predicted fractal hierarchy of long ranged classical electro-weak and color gauge fields. Quantum
classical correspondences allows only single answer: there is infinite hierarchy of p-adically scaled up
variants of standard model physics and for each of them also dark hierarchy. Thus TGD Universe
would be fractal in very abstract and deep sense.
TGD forces the generalization of physics to a quantum theory of consciousness, and represent TGD
as a generalized number theory vision leads naturally to the emergence of p-adic physics as physics
of cognitive representations. The seven online books [1, 2, 4, 5, 3, 6, 7] about TGD and eight online
books about TGD inspired theory of consciousness and of quantum biology [10, 8, 9, 13, 11, 12, 14, 15]
are warmly recommended to the interested reader.
0.2 Basic Ideas of TGD
The basic physical picture behind TGD was formed as a fusion of two rather disparate approaches:
namely TGD is as a Poincare invariant theory of gravitation and TGD as a generalization of the
old-fashioned string model.
0.2.1 TGD as a Poincare invariant theory of gravitation
The first approach was born as an attempt to construct a Poincare invariant theory of gravitation.
Space-time, rather than being an abstract manifold endowed with a pseudo-Riemannian structure,
is regarded as a surface in the 8-dimensional space H = M
4
+
CP
2
, where M
4
+
denotes the interior
of the future light cone of the Minkowski space (to be referred as light cone in the sequel) and
CP
2
= SU(3)/U(2) is the complex projective space of two complex dimensions [2, 18, 19, 5]. The
identification of the space-time as a submanifold [21, 22] of M
4
CP
2
leads to an exact Poincare
invariance and solves the conceptual difficulties related to the definition of the energy-momentum
in General Relativity [Misner-Thorne-Wheeler, Logunov et al]. The actual choice H = M
4
+
CP
2
implies the breaking of the Poincare invariance in the cosmological scales but only at the quantum
level. It soon however turned out that submanifold geometry, being considerably richer in structure
than the abstract manifold geometry, leads to a geometrization of all basic interactions. First, the
geometrization of the elementary particle quantum numbers is achieved. The geometry of CP
2
explains
electro-weak and color quantum numbers. The different H-chiralities of H-spinors correspond to the
conserved baryon and lepton numbers. Secondly, the geometrization of the field concept results. The
2 LIST OF FIGURES
projections of the CP
2
spinor connection, Killing vector fields of CP
2
and of H-metric to four-surface
define classical electro-weak, color gauge fields and metric in X
4
.
0.2.2 TGD as a generalization of the hadronic string model
The second approach was based on the generalization of the mesonic string model describing mesons
as strings with quarks attached to the ends of the string. In the 3-dimensional generalization 3-
surfaces correspond to free particles and the boundaries of the 3- surface correspond to partons in
the sense that the quantum numbers of the elementary particles reside on the boundaries. Various
boundary topologies (number of handles) correspond to various fermion families so that one obtains
an explanation for the known elementary particle quantum numbers. This approach leads also to a
natural topological description of the particle reactions as topology changes: for instance, two-particle
decay corresponds to a decay of a 3-surface to two disjoint 3-surfaces.
0.2.3 Fusion of the two approaches via a generalization of the space-time
concept
The problem is that the two approaches seem to be mutually exclusive since the orbit of a particle like
3-surface defines 4-dimensional surface, which differs drastically from the topologically trivial macro-
scopic space-time of General Relativity. The unification of these approaches forces a considerable
generalization of the conventional space-time concept. First, the topologically trivial 3-space of Gen-
eral Relativity is replaced with a ”topological condensate” containing matter as particle like 3-surfaces
”glued” to the topologically trivial background 3-space by connected sum operation. Secondly, the
assumption about connectedness of the 3-space is given up. Besides the ”topological condensate”
there is ”vapor phase” that is a ”gas” of particle like 3-surfaces (counterpart of the ”baby universies”
of GRT) and the nonconservation of energy in GRT corresponds to the transfer of energy between the
topological condensate and vapor phase.
0.3 The five threads in the development of quantum TGD
The development of TGD has involved four strongly interacting threads: physics as infinite-dimensional
geometry; p-adic physics; TGD inspired theory of consciousness and TGD as a generalized number
theory. In the following these five threads are briefly described.
0.3.1 Quantum TGD as configuration space spinor geometry
A turning point in the attempts to formulate a mathematical theory was reached after seven years
from the birth of TGD. The great insight was ”Do not quantize”. The basic ingredients to the new
approach have served as the basic philosophy for the attempt to construct Quantum TGD since then
and are the following ones:
a) Quantum theory for extended particles is free(!), classical(!) field theory for a generalized
Schr¨odinger amplitude in the configuration space CH consisting of all possible 3-surfaces in H. ”All
possible” means that surfaces with arbitrary many disjoint components and with arbitrary internal
topology and also singular surfaces topologically intermediate between two different manifold topolo-
gies are included. Particle reactions are identified as topology changes [23, 24, 25]. For instance,
the decay of a 3-surface to two 3-surfaces corresponds to the decay A → B + C. Classically this
corresponds to a path of configuration space leading from 1-particle sector to 2-particle sector. At
quantum level this corresponds to the dispersion of the generalized Schr¨odinger amplitude localized
to 1-particle sector to two-particle sector. All coupling constants should result as predictions of the
theory since no nonlinearities are introduced.
b) Configuration space is endowed with the metric and spinor structure so that one can define
various metric related differential operators, say Dirac operator, appearing in the field equations of
the theory.
0.3. The five threads in the development of quantum TGD 3
0.3.2 p-Adic TGD
The p-adic thread emerged for roughly ten years ago as a dim hunch that p-adic numbers might be
important for TGD. Experimentation with p-adic numbers led to the notion of canonical identification
mapping reals to p-adics and vice versa. The breakthrough came with the successful p-adic mass
calculations using p-adic thermodynamics for Super-Virasoro representations with the super-Kac-
Moody algebra associated with a Lie-group containing standard model gauge group. Although the
details of the calculations have varied from year to year, it was clear that p-adic physics reduces not
only the ratio of proton and Planck mass, the great mystery number of physics, but all elementary
particle mass scales, to number theory if one assumes that primes near prime powers of two are in a
physically favored position. Why this is the case, became one of the key puzzless and led to a number
of arguments with a common gist: evolution is present already at the elementary particle level and
the primes allowed by the p-adic length scale hypothesis are the fittest ones.
It became very soon clear that p-adic topology is not something emerging in Planck length scale
as often believed, but that there is an infinite hierarchy of p-adic physics characterized by p-adic
length scales varying to even cosmological length scales. The idea about the connection of p-adics
with cognition motivated already the first attempts to understand the role of the p-adics and inspired
’Universe as Computer’ vision but time was not ripe to develop this idea to anything concrete (p-adic
numbers are however in a central role in TGD inspired theory of consciousness). It became however
obvious that the p-adic length scale hierarchy somehow corresponds to a hierarchy of intelligences and
that p-adic prime serves as a kind of intelligence quotient. Ironically, the almost obvious idea about
p-adic regions as cognitive regions of space-time providing cognitive representations for real regions
had to wait for almost a decade for the access into my consciousness.
There were many interpretational and technical questions crying for a definite answer. What is the
relationship of p-adic non-determinism to the classical non-determinism of the basic field equations
of TGD? Are the p-adic space-time region genuinely p-adic or does p-adic topology only serve as an
effective topology? If p-adic physics is direct image of real physics, how the mapping relating them
is constructed so that it respects various symmetries? Is the basic physics p-adic or real (also real
TGD seems to be free of divergences) or both? If it is both, how should one glue the physics in
different number field together to get The Physics? Should one perform p-adicization also at the level
of the configuration space of 3-surfaces? Certainly the p-adicization at the level of super-conformal
representation is necessary for the p-adic mass calculations. Perhaps the most basic and most irritating
technical problem was how to precisely define p-adic definite integral which is a crucial element of any
variational principle based formulation of the field equations. Here the frustration was not due to the
lack of solution but due to the too large number of solutions to the problem, a clear symptom for the
sad fact that clever inventions rather than real discoveries might be in question.
Despite these frustrating uncertainties, the number of the applications of the poorly defined p-adic
physics growed steadily and the applications turned out to be relatively stable so that it was clear
that the solution to these problems must exist. It became only gradually clear that the solution of
the problems might require going down to a deeper level than that represented by reals and p-adics.
0.3.3 TGD as a generalization of physics to a theory consciousness
General coordinate invariance forces the identification of quantum jump as quantum jump between
entire deterministic quantum histories rather than time=constant snapshots of single history. The
new view about quantum jump forces a generalization of quantum measurement theory such that
observer becomes part of the physical system. Thus a general theory of consciousness is unavoidable
outcome. This theory is developed in detail in the books [10, 8, 9, 13, 11, 12, 14, 15].
Quantum jump as a moment of consciousness
The identification of quantum jump between deterministic quantum histories (configuration space
spinor fields) as a moment of consciousness defines microscopic theory of consciousness. Quantum
jump involves the steps
Ψ
i
→UΨ
i
→Ψ
f
,
4 LIST OF FIGURES
where U is informational ”time development” operator, which is unitary like the S-matrix charac-
terizing the unitary time evolution of quantum mechanics. U is however only formally analogous to
Schr¨odinger time evolution of infinite duration although there is no real time evolution involved. It is
not however clear whether one should regard U-matrix and S-matrix as two different things or not: U-
matrix is a completely universal object characterizing the dynamics of evolution by self-organization
whereas S-matrix is a highly context dependent concept in wave mechanics and in quantum field
theories where it at least formally represents unitary time translation operator at the limit of an in-
finitely long interaction time. The S-matrix understood in the spirit of superstring models is however
something very different and could correspond to U-matrix.
The requirement that quantum jump corresponds to a measurement in the sense of quantum field
theories implies that each quantum jump involves localization in zero modes which parameterize also
the possible choices of the quantization axes. Thus the selection of the quantization axes performed
by the Cartesian outsider becomes now a part of quantum theory. Together these requirements imply
that the final states of quantum jump correspond to quantum superpositions of space-time surfaces
which are macroscopically equivalent. Hence the world of conscious experience looks classical. At
least formally quantum jump can be interpreted also as a quantum computation in which matrix U
represents unitary quantum computation which is however not identifiable as unitary translation in
time direction and cannot be ’engineered’.
The notion of self
The concept of self is absolutely essential for the understanding of the macroscopic and macro-temporal
aspects of consciousness. Self corresponds to a subsystem able to remain un-entangled under the
sequential informational ’time evolutions’ U. Exactly vanishing entanglement is practically impossible
in ordinary quantum mechanics and it might be that ’vanishing entanglement’ in the condition for
self-property should be replaced with ’subcritical entanglement’. On the other hand, if space-time
decomposes into p-adic and real regions, and if entanglement between regions representing physics in
different number fields vanishes, space-time indeed decomposes into selves in a natural manner.
It is assumed that the experiences of the self after the last ’wake-up’ sum up to single average
experience. This means that subjective memory is identifiable as conscious, immediate short term
memory. Selves form an infinite hierarchy with the entire Universe at the top. Self can be also
interpreted as mental images: our mental images are selves having mental images and also we represent
mental images of a higher level self. A natural hypothesis is that self S experiences the experiences
of its subselves as kind of abstracted experience: the experiences of subselves S
i
are not experienced
as such but represent kind of averages ¸S
ij
) of sub-subselves S
ij
. Entanglement between selves, most
naturally realized by the formation of join along boundaries bonds between cognitive or material space-
time sheets, provides a possible a mechanism for the fusion of selves to larger selves (for instance, the
fusion of the mental images representing separate right and left visual fields to single visual field) and
forms wholes from parts at the level of mental images.
Relationship to quantum measurement theory
The third basic element relates TGD inspired theory of consciousness to quantum measurement theory.
The assumption that localization occurs in zero modes in each quantum jump implies that the world
of conscious experience looks classical. It also implies the state function reduction of the standard
quantum measurement theory as the following arguments demonstrate (it took incredibly long time
to realize this almost obvious fact!).
a) The standard quantum measurement theory a la von Neumann involves the interaction of brain
with the measurement apparatus. If this interaction corresponds to entanglement between microscopic
degrees of freedom m with the macroscopic effectively classical degrees of freedom M characterizing the
reading of the measurement apparatus coded to brain state, then the reduction of this entanglement in
quantum jump reproduces standard quantum measurement theory provide the unitary time evolution
operator U acts as flow in zero mode degrees of freedom and correlates completely some orthonormal
basis of configuration space spinor fields in non-zero modes with the values of the zero modes. The
flow property guarantees that the localization is consistent with unitarity: it also means 1-1 mapping
of quantum state basis to classical variables (say, spin direction of the electron to its orbit in the
external magnetic field).
0.3. The five threads in the development of quantum TGD 5
b) Since zero modes represent classical information about the geometry of space-time surface
(shape, size, classical K¨ahler field,...), they have interpretation as effectively classical degrees of free-
dom and are the TGD counterpart of the degrees of freedom M representing the reading of the
measurement apparatus. The entanglement between quantum fluctuating non-zero modes and zero
modes is the TGD counterpart for the m−M entanglement. Therefore the localization in zero modes
is equivalent with a quantum jump leading to a final state where the measurement apparatus gives a
definite reading.
This simple prediction is of utmost theoretical importance since the black box of the quantum
measurement theory is reduced to a fundamental quantum theory. This reduction is implied by the
replacement of the notion of a point like particle with particle as a 3-surface. Also the infinite-
dimensionality of the zero mode sector of the configuration space of 3-surfaces is absolutely essential.
Therefore the reduction is a triumph for quantum TGD and favors TGD against string models.
Standard quantum measurement theory involves also the notion of state preparation which reduces
to the notion of self measurement. Each localization in zero modes is followed by a cascade of self
measurements leading to a product state. This process is obviously equivalent with the state prepa-
ration process. Self measurement is governed by the so called Negentropy Maximization Principle
(NMP) stating that the information content of conscious experience is maximized. In the self mea-
surement the density matrix of some subsystem of a given self localized in zero modes (after ordinary
quantum measurement) is measured. The self measurement takes place for that subsystem of self for
which the reduction of the entanglement entropy is maximal in the measurement. In p-adic context
NMP can be regarded as the variational principle defining the dynamics of cognition. In real context
self measurement could be seen as a repair mechanism allowing the system to fight against quantum
thermalization by reducing the entanglement for the subsystem for which it is largest (fill the largest
hole first in a leaking boat).
Selves self-organize
The fourth basic element is quantum theory of self-organization based on the identification of quantum
jump as the basic step of self-organization [I1]. Quantum entanglement gives rise to the generation
of long range order and the emergence of longer p-adic length scales corresponds to the emergence of
larger and larger coherent dynamical units and generation of a slaving hierarchy. Energy (and quantum
entanglement) feed implying entropy feed is a necessary prerequisite for quantum self-organization.
Zero modes represent fundamental order parameters and localization in zero modes implies that the
sequence of quantum jumps can be regarded as hopping in the zero modes so that Haken’s classical
theory of self organization applies almost as such. Spin glass analogy is a further important element:
self-organization of self leads to some characteristic pattern selected by dissipation as some valley of
the ”energy” landscape.
Dissipation can be regarded as the ultimate Darwinian selector of both memes and genes. The
mathematically ugly irreversible dissipative dynamics obtained by adding phenomenological dissipa-
tion terms to the reversible fundamental dynamical equations derivable from an action principle can be
understood as a phenomenological description replacing in a well defined sense the series of reversible
quantum histories with its envelope.
Classical non-determinism of K¨ahler action
The fifth basic element are the concepts of association sequence and cognitive space-time sheet. The
huge vacuum degeneracy of the K¨ahler action suggests strongly that the absolute minimum space-time
is not always unique. For instance, a sequence of bifurcations can occur so that a given space-time
branch can be fixed only by selecting a finite number of 3-surfaces with time like(!) separations on the
orbit of 3-surface. Quantum classical correspondence suggest an alternative formulation. Space-time
surface decomposes into maximal deterministic regions and their temporal sequences have interpre-
tation a space-time correlate for a sequence of quantum states defined by the initial (or final) states
of quantum jumps. This is consistent with the fact that the variational principle selects preferred
extremals of K¨ahler action as generalized Bohr orbits.
In the case that non-determinism is located to a finite time interval and is microscopic, this sequence
of 3-surfaces has interpretation as a simulation of a classical history, a geometric correlate for contents
of consciousness. When non-determinism has long lasting and macroscopic effect one can identify it as
6 LIST OF FIGURES
volitional non-determinism associated with our choices. Association sequences relate closely with the
cognitive space-time sheets defined as space-time sheets having finite time duration and psychological
time can be identified as a temporal center of mass coordinate of the cognitive space-time sheet. The
gradual drift of the cognitive space-time sheets to the direction of future force by the geometry of the
future light cone explains the arrow of psychological time.
p-Adic physics as physics of cognition and intentionality
The sixth basic element adds a physical theory of cognition to this vision. TGD space-time decomposes
into regions obeying real and p-adic topologies labelled by primes p = 2, 3, 5, .... p-Adic regions obey
the same field equations as the real regions but are characterized by p-adic non-determinism since
the functions having vanishing p-adic derivative are pseudo constants which are piecewise constant
functions. Pseudo constants depend on a finite number of positive pinary digits of arguments just like
numerical predictions of any theory always involve decimal cutoff. This means that p-adic space-time
regions are obtained by gluing together regions for which integration constants are genuine constants.
The natural interpretation of the p-adic regions is as cognitive representations of real physics. The
freedom of imagination is due to the p-adic non-determinism. p-Adic regions perform mimicry and
make possible for the Universe to form cognitive representations about itself. p-Adic physics space-
time sheets serve also as correlates for intentional action.
A more more precise formulation of this vision requires a generalization of the number concept
obtained by fusing reals and p-adic number fields along common rationals (in the case of algebraic
extensions among common algebraic numbers). This picture is discussed in [E1]. The application
this notion at the level of the imbedding space implies that imbedding space has a book like structure
with various variants of the imbedding space glued together along common rationals (algebraics). The
implication is that genuinely p-adic numbers (non-rationals) are strictly infinite as real numbers so
that most points of p-adic space-time sheets are at real infinity, outside the cosmos, and that the
projection to the real imbedding space is discrete set of rationals (algebraics). Hence cognition and
intentionality are almost completely outside the real cosmos and touch it at a discrete set of points
only.
This view implies also that purely local p-adic physics codes for the p-adic fractality characterizing
long range real physics and provides an explanation for p-adic length scale hypothesis stating that
the primes p · 2
k
, k integer are especially interesting. It also explains the long range correlations
and short term chaos characterizing intentional behavior and explains why the physical realizations
of cognition are always discrete (say in the case of numerical computations). Furthermore, a concrete
quantum model for how intentions are transformed to actions emerges.
The discrete real projections of p-adic space-time sheets serve also space-time correlate for a logical
thought. It is very natural to assign to p-adic pinary digits a p-valued logic but as such this kind
of logic does not have any reasonable identification. p-Adic length scale hypothesis suggest that the
p = 2
k
−n pinary digits represent a Boolean logic B
k
with k elementary statements (the points of the
k-element set in the set theoretic realization) with n taboos which are constrained to be identically
true.
0.3.4 TGD as a generalized number theory
Quantum T(opological)D(ynamics) as a classical spinor geometry for infinite-dimensional configura-
tion space, p-adic numbers and quantum TGD, and TGD inspired theory of consciousness, have been
for last ten years the basic three strongly interacting threads in the tapestry of quantum TGD. For
few yeas ago the discussions with Tony Smith generated a fourth thread which deserves the name
’TGD as a generalized number theory’. It relies on the notion of number theoretic compactifiction
stating that space-time surfaces can be regarded either as hyper-quaternionic, and thus maximally
associative, 4-surfaces in M
8
identifiable as space of hyper-octonions or as surfaces in M
4
CP
2
[E2].
The discovery of the hierarchy of infinite primes and their correspondence with a hierarchy de-
fined by a repeatedly second quantized arithmetic quantum field theory gave a further boost for the
speculations about TGD as a generalized number theory. The work with Riemann hypothesis led to
further ideas.
After the realization that infinite primes can be mapped to polynomials representable as surfaces
geometrically, it was clear how TGD might be formulated as a generalized number theory with infinite
0.3. The five threads in the development of quantum TGD 7
primes forming the bridge between classical and quantum such that real numbers, p-adic numbers, and
various generalizations of p-adics emerge dynamically from algebraic physics as various completions of
the algebraic extensions of rational (hyper-)quaternions and (hyper-)octonions. Complete algebraic,
topological and dimensional democracy would characterize the theory.
What is especially satisfying is that p-adic and real regions of the space-time surface could emerge
automatically as solutions of the field equations. In the space-time regions where the solutions of
field equations give rise to in-admissible complex values of the imbedding space coordinates, p-adic
solution can exist for some values of the p-adic prime. The characteristic non-determinism of the
p-adic differential equations suggests strongly that p-adic regions correspond to ’mind stuff’, the
regions of space-time where cognitive representations reside. This interpretation implies that p-adic
physics is physics of cognition. Since Nature is probably extremely brilliant simulator of Nature, the
natural idea is to study the p-adic physics of the cognitive representations to derive information about
the real physics. This view encouraged by TGD inspired theory of consciousness clarifies difficult
interpretational issues and provides a clear interpretation for the predictions of p-adic physics.
0.3.5 Dynamical quantized Planck constant and dark matter hierarchy
By quantum classical correspondence space-time sheets can be identified as quantum coherence regions.
Hence the fact that they have all possible size scales more or less unavoidably implies that Planck
constant must be quantized and have arbitrarily large values. If one accepts this then also the idea
about dark matter as a macroscopic quantum phase characterized by an arbitrarily large value of
Planck constant emerges naturally as does also the interpretation for the long ranged classical electro-
weak and color fields predicted by TGD. Rather seldom the evolution of ideas follows simple linear
logic, and this was the case also now. In any case, this vision represents the fifth, relatively new thread
in the evolution of TGD and the ideas involved are still evolving.
Dark matter as large phase
D. Da Rocha and Laurent Nottale [26] have proposed that Schr¨odinger equation with Planck constant
replaced with what might be called gravitational Planck constant
gr
=
GmM
v
0
( = c = 1). v
0
is
a velocity parameter having the value v
0
= 144.7 ± .7 km/s giving v
0
/c = 4.6 10
−4
. This is rather
near to the peak orbital velocity of stars in galactic halos. Also subharmonics and harmonics of v
0
seem to appear. The support for the hypothesis coming from empirical data is impressive.
Nottale and Da Rocha believe that their Schr¨odinger equation results from a fractal hydrodynamics.
Many-sheeted space-time however suggests astrophysical systems are not only quantum systems at
larger space-time sheets but correspond to a gigantic value of gravitational Planck constant. The
gravitational (ordinary) Schr¨odinger equation would provide a solution of the black hole collapse (IR
catastrophe) problem encountered at the classical level. The resolution of the problem inspired by
TGD inspired theory of living matter is that it is the dark matter at larger space-time sheets which
is quantum coherent in the required time scale [D7].
Already before learning about Nottale’s paper I had proposed the possibility that Planck constant
is quantized [E9] and the spectrum is given in terms of logarithms of Beraha numbers: the lowest
Beraha number B
3
is completely exceptional in that it predicts infinite value of Planck constant. The
inverse of the gravitational Planck constant could correspond a gravitational perturbation of this as
1/
gr
= v
0
/GMm. The general philosophy would be that when the quantum system would become
non-perturbative, a phase transition increasing the value of occurs to preserve the perturbative
character and at the transition n = 4 → 3 only the small perturbative correction to 1/(3) = 0
remains. This would apply to QCD and to atoms with Z > 137 as well.
TGD predicts correctly the value of the parameter v
0
assuming that cosmic strings and their decay
remnants are responsible for the dark matter. The harmonics of v
0
can be understood as corresponding
to perturbations replacing cosmic strings with their n-branched coverings so that tension becomes
n
2
-fold: much like the replacement of a closed orbit with an orbit closing only after n turns. 1/n-
sub-harmonic would result when a magnetic flux tube split into n disjoint magnetic flux tubes. Also
a model for the formation of planetary system as a condensation of ordinary matter around quantum
coherent dark matter emerges [D7].
8 LIST OF FIGURES
Dark matter as a source of long ranged weak and color fields
Long ranged classical electro-weak and color gauge fields are unavoidable in TGD framework. The
smallness of the parity breaking effects in hadronic, nuclear, and atomic length scales does not however
seem to allow long ranged electro-weak gauge fields. The problem disappears if long range classical
electro-weak gauge fields are identified as space-time correlates for massless gauge fields created by
dark matter. Also scaled up variants of ordinary electro-weak particle spectra are possible. The
identification explains chiral selection in living matter and unbroken U(2)
ew
invariance and free color
in bio length scales become characteristics of living matter and of bio-chemistry and bio-nuclear
physics. An attractive solution of the matter antimatter asymmetry is based on the identification of
also antimatter as dark matter.
p-Adic and dark matter hierarchies and hierarchy of moments of consciousness
Dark matter hierarchy assigned to a spectrum of Planck constant having arbitrarily large values brings
additional elements to the TGD inspired theory of consciousness.
a) Macroscopic quantum coherence can be understood since a particle with a given mass can
in principle appear as arbitrarily large scaled up copies (Compton length scales as ). The phase
transition to this kind of phase implies that space-time sheets of particles overlap and this makes
possible macroscopic quantum coherence.
b) The space-time sheets with large Planck constant can be in thermal equilibrium with ordinary
ones without the loss of quantum coherence. For instance, the cyclotron energy scale associated with
EEG turns out to be above thermal energy at room temperature for the level of dark matter hierarchy
corresponding to magnetic flux quanta of the Earth’s magnetic field with the size scale of Earth and
a successful quantitative model for EEG results [M3].
Dark matter hierarchy leads to detailed quantitative view about quantum biology with several
testable predictions [M3]. The applications to living matter suggests that the basic hierarchy cor-
responds to a hierarchy of Planck constants coming as (k) = λ
k
(p)
0
, λ · 2
11
for p = 2
127−1
,
k = 0, 1, 2, ... [M3]. Also integer valued sub-harmonics and integer valued sub-harmonics of λ might
be possible. Each p-adic length scale corresponds to this kind of hierarchy and number theoretical
arguments suggest a general formula for the allowed values of Planck constant λ depending logarith-
mically on p-adic prime [C6]. Also the value of
0
has spectrum characterized by Beraha numbers
B
n
= 4cos
2
(π/n), n ≥ 3, varying by a factor in the range n > 3 [C6]. It must be however emphasized
that the relation of this picture to the model of quantized gravitational Planck constant h
gr
appearing
in Nottale’s model is not yet completely understood.
The general prediction is that Universe is a kind of inverted Mandelbrot fractal for which each
bird’s eye of view reveals new structures in long length and time scales representing scaled down copies
of standard physics and their dark variants. These structures would correspond to higher levels in self
hierarchy. This prediction is consistent with the belief that 75 per cent of matter in the universe is
dark.
1. Living matter and dark matter
Living matter as ordinary matter quantum controlled by the dark matter hierarchy has turned out
to be a particularly successful idea. The hypothesis has led to models for EEG predicting correctly the
band structure and even individual resonance bands and also generalizing the notion of EEG [M3].
Also a generalization of the notion of genetic code emerges resolving the paradoxes related to the
standard dogma [L2, M3]. A particularly fascinating implication is the possibility to identify great
leaps in evolution as phase transitions in which new higher level of dark matter emerges [M3].
It seems safe to conclude that the dark matter hierarchy with levels labelled by the values of
Planck constants explains the macroscopic and macro-temporal quantum coherence naturally. That
this explanation is consistent with the explanation based on spin glass degeneracy is suggested by
following observations. First, the argument supporting spin glass degeneracy as an explanation of
the macro-temporal quantum coherence does not involve the value of at all. Secondly, the failure
of the perturbation theory assumed to lead to the increase of Planck constant and formation of
macroscopic quantum phases could be precisely due to the emergence of a large number of new degrees
of freedom due to spin glass degeneracy. Thirdly, the phase transition increasing Planck constant has
concrete topological interpretation in terms of many-sheeted space-time consistent with the spin glass
0.3. The five threads in the development of quantum TGD 9
degeneracy.
2. Dark matter hierarchy and the notion of self
The vision about dark matter hierarchy leads to a more refined view about self hierarchy and
hierarchy of moments of consciousness [J6, M3]. The larger the value of Planck constant, the longer
the subjectively experienced duration and the average geometric duration T(k) ∝ λ
k
of the quantum
jump.
Quantum jumps form also a hierarchy with respect to p-adic and dark hierarchies and the geometric
durations of quantum jumps scale like . Dark matter hierarchy suggests also a slight modification of
the notion of self. Each self involves a hierarchy of dark matter levels, and one is led to ask whether
the highest level in this hierarchy corresponds to single quantum jump rather than a sequence of
quantum jumps. The averaging of conscious experience over quantum jumps would occur only for
sub-selves at lower levels of dark matter hierarchy and these mental images would be ordered, and
single moment of consciousness would be experienced as a history of events. The quantum parallel
dissipation at the lower levels would give rise to the experience of flow of time. For instance, hadron
as a macro-temporal quantum system in the characteristic time scale of hadron is a dissipating system
at quark and gluon level corresponding to shorter p-adic time scales. One can ask whether even entire
life cycle could be regarded as a single quantum jump at the highest level so that consciousness would
not be completely lost even during deep sleep. This would allow to understand why we seem to know
directly that this biological body of mine existed yesterday.
The fact that we can remember phone numbers with 5 to 9 digits supports the view that self corre-
sponds at the highest dark matter level to single moment of consciousness. Self would experience the
average over the sequence of moments of consciousness associated with each sub-self but there would
be no averaging over the separate mental images of this kind, be their parallel or serial. These mental
images correspond to sub-selves having shorter wake-up periods than self and would be experienced as
being time ordered. Hence the digits in the phone number are experienced as separate mental images
and ordered with respect to experienced time.
3. The time span of long term memories as signature for the level of dark matter hierarchy
The simplest dimensional estimate gives for the average increment τ of geometric time in quantum
jump τ ∼ 10
4
CP
2
times so that 2
127
−1 ∼ 10
38
quantum jumps are experienced during secondary p-
adic time scale T
2
(k = 127) · 0.1 seconds which is the duration of physiological moment and predicted
to be fundamental time scale of human consciousness [L1]. A more refined guess is that τ
p
=

pτ gives
the dependence of the duration of quantum jump on p-adic prime p. By multi-p-fractality predicted
by TGD and explaining p-adic length scale hypothesis, one expects that at least p = 2-adic level is
also always present. For the higher levels of dark matter hierarchy τ
p
is scaled up by /
0
. One can
understand evolutionary leaps as the emergence of higher levels at the level of individual organism
making possible intentionality and memory in the time scale defined τ [L2].
Higher levels of dark matter hierarchy provide a neat quantitative view about self hierarchy and
its evolution. For instance, EEG time scales corresponds to k = 4 level of hierarchy and a time scale of
.1 seconds [J6], and EEG frequencies correspond at this level dark photon energies above the thermal
threshold so that thermal noise is not a problem anymore. Various levels of dark matter hierarchy
would naturally correspond to higher levels in the hierarchy of consciousness and the typical duration
of life cycle would give an idea about the level in question.
The level would determine also the time span of long term memories as discussed in [M3]. k = 7
would correspond to a duration of moment of conscious of order human lifetime which suggests that
k = 7 corresponds to the highest dark matter level relevant to our consciousness whereas higher levels
would in general correspond to transpersonal consciousness. k = 5 would correspond to time scale of
short term memories measured in minutes and k = 6 to a time scale of memories measured in days.
The emergence of these levels must have meant evolutionary leap since long term memory is also
accompanied by ability to anticipate future in the same time scale. This picture would suggest that
the basic difference between us and our cousins is not at the level of genome as it is usually understood
but at the level of the hierarchy of magnetic bodies [L2, M3]. In fact, higher levels of dark matter
hierarchy motivate the introduction of the notions of super-genome and hyper-genome. The genomes
of entire organ can join to form super-genome expressing genes coherently. Hyper-genomes would
result from the fusion of genomes of different organisms and collective levels of consciousness would
express themselves via hyper-genome and make possible social rules and moral.
10 LIST OF FIGURES
0.4 Bird’s eye of view about the topics of the book
The basic them of this book is the notion of magnetic body which is one of the most radical new
notions of TGD inspired theory of consciousness and quantum biology.
1. The concept derives from the topological quantization of fields implying also the notion of
topological light ray (”massless extremal”, ME) and quantization of electric flux. The notion
means that, in contrast to Maxwell’s ED, TGD allows allows to assign to a given material system
also field identity. Magnetic body as the intentional agent controlling biological body thus comes
the basic hypothesis of TGD inspired quantum theory of living systems.
2. TGD Universe is fractal containing fractal copies of standard model physics at various space-
time sheets and labeled by the collection of p-adic primes assignable to elementary particles
and by the level of dark matter hierarchy characterized partially by the rational value of Planck
constant labeling the pages of the book like structure formed by singular covering spaces of
the imbedding space M
4
CP
2
glued together along a four-dimensional back. Particles at
different pages are dark relative to each other since purely local interactions defined in terms of
the vertices of Feynman diagram involve only particles at the same page. p-Adic length scale
hypothesis and the assignment of dark matter with macroscopic quantum phases characterized
by a hierarchy of Planck constants allows to quantify the notion of magnetic body. One can
identify dark magnetic flux quanta relevant to biology as 4-surfaces at pages of the book for
which Planck constant is large.
3. All rational multiples of basic value =
0
of Planck constant are in principle allowed. The
multiples which corresponds to ratios of integers defining ruler and compass polygons are favored
by their number theoretical simplicity. There are indications that Planck constants comings as
2
11k
d
- multiples of the standard Planck constant are in in a special role in biology (this might
relate to proton electron mass ratio and to the fact that 2
11
appears as fundamental constant
in TGD Universe, as well as to the fact that the phases exp(i2π2
−k
d
) are number theoretically
simple). For instance, in B
end
= 2B
E
/5 = .2 Gauss cyclotron energy is above thermal threshold
at room temperature for k
d
≥ 4.
4. The notion of personal magnetic body (actually onion-like fractal hierarchy of them) is essential
for the TGD inspired model of living matter and predicts a hierarchy of generalized EEGs
associated with the magnetic bodies and responsible for the communications from biological
body or its part to the corresponding magnetic body. Since the size scale of magnetic flux
quanta at k
d
= 4 level of hierarchy is of order of Earth size, there is no reason to assume that
only personal magnetic bodies of living systems are relevant. Rather, the view about entire
magnetosphere as a conscious system controlling the behavior of biosphere emerges naturally.
In this book this vision is developed.
A brief summary about the contents of the book is in order.
1. In the first part of the book the first chapter is devoted to the idea about magnetosphere as
a conscious system perhaps defining in some respects a fractally scaled up version of biological
body and brain. At the first look this idea sounds completely crazy but in TGD Universe p-adic
fractality and the fractality associated with dark matter hierarchy make it look rather natural.
Second chapter represents a vision about evolution in many-sheeted space-time.
2. The second part of the book contains two chapters about the notion of semitrance. Semitrance is
based on quantum entanglement of subself of self, say subsystem of brain, with a remote system.
The idea that sub-systems of two unentangled systems can entangle and in this manner give rise
to a sharing and fusion of mental images (stereo vision would be the basic example) makes sense
only in many-sheeted space. A rigorous justification for the sharing of mental images comes
from the notion of finite measurement resolution - one of the fundamental notions of quantum
TGD.
The proposal is that semitrance could have been basic control and communication tool of col-
lective levels of consciousness during the period of human consciousness which Jaynes calls
bicamerality. Schizophrenics could be seen as modern bicamerals.
0.5. The contents of the book 11
The idea that human consciousness might have had totally different character for only few
millenia ago, finds additional support from the notions of super- and hyper genome implicated
naturally by the dark matter hierarchy and the notion of magnetic body. Super genome could
be seen as as a book having magnetic flux sheets as pages. Text lines would be defined by
genomes for sequences of nuclei. This would make possible coherent gene expression at the level
of organs. The text lines of hyper genome would consist of super genomes of different organisms,
not necessarily of same species. Hyper genome would make possible coherent gene expression
at the level of social group and society and give rise also to social rules. The identification of
memes as hyper genes looks rather attractive. The evolution of hyper genome could be seen as
the basic driver of the explosive evolution of human civilizations during last two millenia and
would also distinguish us from our cousins.
3. The two chapters of the third part of the book entitled ”Crazy Stuff” are devoted to a model of
crop circles: it is left to the reader to decide whether the chapters should be taken as miserable
crack-pottery, mental gymnastics with tongue in cheek, or as a fruit of a new brave vision about
us and the Universe. In the first chapter it is proposed that crop circles are due to intentional
action of magnetospheric higher level self or a higher level self using magnetosphere as a tool to
build them. In second chapter two special crop circles, Chilbolton and Crabwood crop circles,
are discussed in detail and the proposal that they provide information about the genomes of the
life forms responsible for the crop circles. Some candidates for these life forms are discussed:
the most science fictive identification allowed by TGD would be ourselves in distant geometric
future using time mirror mechanism to affect geometric past.
Most of the material of this book has been written much before the dark matter revolution and
formulation of the zero energy ontology and that I have only later added comments to the existing
text. I hope that I can later add new material in which the implications of the dark matter hierarchy
are discussed in more detail.
The seven online books about TGD [1, 2, 4, 5, 3, 6, 7] and eight online books about TGD inspired
theory of consciousness and quantum biology [10, 8, 9, 13, 11, 12, 14, 15] are warmly recommended
for the reader willing to get overall view about what is involved.
0.5 The contents of the book
0.5.1 PART I: Mother Gaia Hypothesis in TGD Universe
Magnetospheric sensory and motor representations
One can imagine two basic candidates for how our sensory and motor control are realized: the rep-
resentations at the personal magnetic sensory body and the representations on the magnetic flux
tubes structures of Earth, the magnetic body of Mother Gaia. Quite a long time I saw the problem
as the question ’Which of these options is correct?’. If our sensory and motor representations were
realized using magnetospheric representations alone, the consciousness of astronauts would differ in
a dramatic manner from the ordinary wake-up consciousness. This is not the case so that personal
magnetic bodies must give the basic contribution to our personal sensory representations and motor
control if the basic approach is correct. Because of the sharing of mental images also the sensory and
motor areas of the magnetic Mother Gaia making possible higher collective levels of consciousness are
however important for us and are perhaps responsible for memory and imagination. Therefore is of
importance to try to understand also the magnetospheric representations.
1. The basic element hypothesis is that some kind of resonance mechanism is involved. The simplest
possibility is that projector MEs (’massless extremals’, topological counterparts of light rays)
to the sensory canvas have length equal to the wavelength defined by the magnetic transition
frequency. Also the TGD counterpart of Alfven resonance (magnetic flux tube as string) might be
involved. In the simplest situation the length of the projector ME would be equal to the distance
to the activated point of the magnetic flux tube structure involved. Also the intersections of the
projector ME with magnetic flux tubes of Earth and some cavity resonance at larger space-time
sheet, such as Schumann resonance, could help to amplify the signal. Representations which do
12 LIST OF FIGURES
not satisfy this condition could of course contribute to our consciousness but the contribution
should be weak and masked by resonant contributions.
2. ’Personal’ sensory and motor representations are realized at the personal magnetic flux tube
structures by place coding: if the thickness of the magnetic flux tube increases linearly with the
length coordinate of the flux tube resonance condition is satisfied all along it. A similar depen-
dence is implied also by the homeopathic findings [K5] and by the requirement that magnetic
energy density per unit length is constant.
3. Magnetospheric sensory and motor representations are realized at the magnetic body of Earth
or ”dark” magnetic body accompanying it having field strength B
end
= 2B
E
/5 as suggested by
the model explaining the effects of ELF radiation in vertebrate brain, and could correspond the
personal consciousness of Mother Gaia. Also we could share part of her experience by fusion of
the mental images. Magnetospheric representations could be responsible for the transpersonal
and third person components of our consciousness, and also for memories and even imagination.
The weakening of Earth’s magnetic field (and its ”dark” companion B
end
= 2B
E
/5) provides the
fundamental distance coding via cyclotron frequency scale, which scales with distance as 1/r
3
in
the dipole approximation holding for small distances but differs radically from this behavior at
large distances, in particular inside magnetic tail. In magnetospheric case resonance condition
gives strong conditions on the representation and can be satisfied only inside plasma sphere.
4. There seems to be no upper bound for the size of the super-conducting magnetic web providing
the realization for the self hierarchy, and one can build precise quantitative models for this
hierarchy. For a Buddhist this vision does not come as a surprise but challenges all cherished
beliefs of brain scientist.
In this chapter this vision is developed quantitatively. The vision about magnetosphere as a
living organism allows to develop the view about sensory representations to a rather detailed level.
The intriguing observation that brain dynamics and iono- and magnetospheric physics seem to have
common characteristic time scales, can be understood in this framework and even the mysterious
5 second time scale associated with Comorosan effect finds a possible explanation. A TGD based
view about magnetosphere results as a by product and allows to topologize the phenomenological but
overall important notions of magnetohydrodynamics. In magnetohydrodynamics magnetic field lines
are treated as effective super-conductors: in TGD Universe magnetic flux tubes are super-conductors.
Also Alfven waves cease to be a phenomenological concept, and the super-conducting geodynamo
model is free of the difficulties of the standard model.
Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
The topics of the chapter has been restricted to those, which seem to represent the most well-
established ideas. There are many other, more speculative, ideas such as the strong form of the
hypothesis that plasmoid like life forms molecular life forms has evolved in ”Mother Gaia’s womb”,
maybe even in the hot environment defined by the boundary of mantle and core.
1. Basic facts about and TGD based model for pre-biotic evolution are discussed.
2. A model for the ATP-ADP process based on DNA as topological quantum computer vision, the
identification of universal metabolic energy quanta in terms of zero point kinetic energies, and
the notion of remote metabolism is discussed.
3. A model for the evolution of the recent genetic code (3-codons) as a fusion of codes for which
codons are nucleotides (1-codons) and di-nucleotides (2-codons) is discussed. The symmetries
of the genetic code, the observation that tRNA can be seen as a fusion of two hairpin like DNA
molecules, and the finding that the first nucleotides of 3-codon code for the reaction path leading
from a precursors of the aminoacid to aminoacids for hydrophobic/hydrohilic dichotomy, serve
as motivations of the model. 1- and 2-codes corresponding to the two forms of RNA (the exotic
2

−5

RNA and the usual 3

−5

RNA) would have prevailed in RNA world. Aminoacids would
have served as catalysts for the copying of RNA on one hand, and RNA molecules would have
catalyzed the formation of aminoacids from their precursors on one hand, meaning the presence
0.5. The contents of the book 13
of a positive feedback loop. In the transition to DNA-aminoacid era RNA began to be translated
to aminoacid sequences.
4. Cambrian explosion represents a rather mysterious period in biology: new highly developed
phylas emerged out of nowhere. A second strange finding is that continents would fit together
to form single super-continent covering entire Earth’s surface at time of Cambrian explosion
if the radius of Earth would have been one half of its recent value. This finding has inspired
Expanding Earth theories but it has not been possible to identify the mechanism causing the
expansion. The success of the standard tectonic plate theory requires that possible expansion
must have occurred in relatively short geological time scale. The hierarchy of Planck constants
implies that cosmic expansion has occurred in quantum leaps increasing the value of and
thus of quantum scales by factors which tend to be powers of 2. Cosmic expansion would have
occurred as jerks even in the case of planets. In the proposed model Cambrian explosion would
have accompanied the expansion of the Earth’s radius by a factor of 2: during this period an
outburst of highly developed life forms from underground seas to the surface of Earth would
have taken place.
5. The last section of the chapter compares TGD based view about the evolution of genetic code to
the views of McFadden. This section is a little bit out of date. For instance, the hypothesis that
magnetic body of DNA could induce mutations purposefully is not discussed. This hypothesis
is natural if one believes that magnetic flux tubes connecting bio-molecules play a key role in
bio-catalysis. This idea is discussed in the chapter devoted to protein folding.
0.5.2 PART II: Mother Gaia Hypothesis and Human Consciousness
The third part of the book contains two chapters about the notion of semitrance allowing to generalize
Jaynes’s notion of bicamerality.
Semitrance, mental illness, and altered states of consciousness
The book ”The origin of consciousness in the breakdown of the bicameral mind” of Julian Jaynes
provides, not only a fascinating scenario about the evolution of modern consciousness from the con-
sciousness of bicameral stone age man, but also a holistic view about schizophrenic consciousness. In
fact, Jaynes regards schizophrenic as a bicameral man receiving commands of ’God’ as auditory and
visual hallucinations.
Jaynes sees ’Gods’ as the right brain of the bicameral man. In TGD framework ’Gods’ represent
higher levels of the self-hierarchy. To put it in nutshell, TGD view about the relationship of human
consciousness to higher levels of self-hierarchy relies on the notion of semi-trance. During semitrance
parts of brain entangle with some higher level, say the self associated with the social group, and are
in trance and therefore unconscious. The remaining parts of brain are however conscious and receive
communications from the collective consciousness via the entangled region of brain as sensory hallu-
cinations, emotions and thoughts. Semitrance is absolutely essential for the self-narrative: without it
our consciousness would consist of memory fragments lasting only few seconds: higher level selves tell
us where we come from and were we are going. Bicameral man received the commands and advices
of the collective consciousness as auditory and visual hallucinations via regions of the right brain
hemisphere wherefrom they were communicated to the left hemisphere whereas modern man receives
these communications as thoughts (’internal speech’) in left brain semitrance and emotions in right
brain semitrance.
According to this view, schizophrenic spends in the bicameral state larger fraction of time than nor-
mal person and receives communications of the higher levels selves more often as sensory hallucinations
than as thoughs and emotions. Thus schizophreny can be seen as cognitive and emotional abnormality
and becomes illness in modern society relying crucially on cognitive and emotional self-narrative which
is much more refined than the self-narrative based on sensory hallucinations. In normal consciousness
left brain hemisphere inhibits the messages from right hemisphere, left and right hemispheres are to-
tally entangled a considerable fraction of time and the entanglement with higher level selves can also
involve the entanglement of entire brain leading to short periods of total trance. In this view negative
periods of schizophrenia correspond to the phases when right brain hemisphere is not entangled with
higher level selves and positive, psychotic periods to the phase when this entanglement occurs often.
14 LIST OF FIGURES
This vision generalizes also to manic-depressive and anxiety disorders and one can see mental illness
as disorder of communication between human brain and higher levels of self hierarchy.
Semitrance mechanism provides also more detailed understanding about various altered states of
consciousness and extrasensory perception (hypnotic state, telepathy, clairvoyance, some meditative
states, identification experiences). Semitrance mechanism provides considerable insights to ’Stephan’s
case’, which originally stimulated serious attempts to understand the communications between various
levels of the self hierarchy. I also apply semitrance mechanism to model my personal altered states of
consciousness.
Semitrance, language, and development of civilization
The book ”The origin of consciousness in the breakdown of the bicameral mind” of Jaynes provides a
highly original vision about the evolution of modern consciousness from the consciousness of bicameral
stone age man. TGD version about the cosmology of human consciousness relies on the notion of semi-
trance. During semitrance parts brain entangle with some higher level, say the self associated with the
social group, and are in trance and therefore unconscious. The remaining parts of brain are however
conscious and receive communications from the collective consciousness via the entangled region of
brain as sensory hallucinations, emotions and thoughts. Semitrance is absolutely essential for self
narrative and establishment of long term goals: without semitrance our consciousness would consist
of memory fragments lasting only few seconds. Higher level selves tell us where we come from and
were we are going.
The basic differences between Jaynes’s and TGD based version about evolution of civilization
relate to the interpretation of bicamerality and what really happened in the evolution of individual.
1. In TGD framework one could see bicameral man as a cognitive and emotional child character-
ized by the effective cognitive and emotional ages at which the cognitive and emotional self-
organizations of her left brain hemisphere stopped in the absence of external stimuli necessary
for self-organization (it is impossible to learn to write if civilization has not discovered written
language). Of course, there are several parameters differentiating between modern man and bi-
cameral man (sensitivity for semitrance, profile of semitrance, time fraction spent in semitrance,
right-left brain inhibition,..) and the identification of bicameral as a cognitive and emotional
child as we understand child is un-necessarily strong.
2. The ability to fall in semitrance was not lost during evolution but was transformed to a new
form. Not only linguistic but also sensory regions of the right brain hemisphere of bicameral man
entangled with higher level selves and the communications from right to left brain hemisphere
were not inhibited as they are in the brain of modern man. As left brain hemisphere differentiated
and memetic code gradually established itself, the guiding voice of God was transformed to
internal speech and emotions. Higher level selves began to express their will via emotions,
moods, planning and long term goals.
3. The differences between EEG:s of normal person and schizophrenic suggest that the fraction of
time spend by average modern man in semitrance is much shorter. A more general criterion of
bicamerality might be based on the fraction of time spend in semitrance state, be it sensory,
cognitive or emotional. It is plausible that thoughts (not all of course!) are communicated to
modern man via left brain hemisphere. If this is indeed the case, some regions of left brain
hemisphere of modern man should allow standing EEG waves.
The development of the language is an absolutely essential part of the development of civilization.
The syntactic structures of language emerged in parallel with the development of civilization. In TGD
framework the development of language can be seen as a gradual establishment of genetic and memetic
codes at new level and the emergence of symbol function. This could be also seen as an establishment
of a symbiosis between two life-forms: biological life and ’culture’ having as a physical correlate
electromagnetic life represented as topological quanta of em ELF fields and providing realization of
the memetic code.
Semitrance mechanism provides an extremely general communication mechanism between the lev-
els of the self hierarchy and could explain why ant nests, beehives, flocks of birds, packs of wolves, cell
societies, nuclei of brain, etc.. can behave as single organism and still consist of apparently randomly
0.5. The contents of the book 15
behaving individuals. Indeed, relevant biological structures (DNA double strand, double lipid layer
forming cell membrane, epithelial sheets) have binary structure analogous to two brain lobes and are
ideal candidates for ’bicameral’ structures.
The vision about the development of civilization generalizes to cell level. p-Adic fractality plus the
fact that the number of quantum jumps performed by selves is huge even at cellular and elementary
particle levels, inspires the hypothesis that various societies ranging from human civilization to cell
societies and protein-DNA societies are characterized by universal asymptotic self-organization pat-
terns. This provides important insights to the structure of the biological self-hierarchy and its relation
to the structure and functioning of organism and about how semitrance might allow bio-systems to
control and coordinate their behavior. Cell as a protein-DNA society together with parallel between
memetic and genetic codes provides a predictive vision about how genetic code might have estab-
lished itself and semitrance suggests that new kind of control and communication mechanisms based
on semitrance mechanism are at work.
The vision about the development of civilization generalizes to cell level. p-Adic fractality plus the
fact that the number of quantum jumps performed by selves is huge even at cellular and elementary
particle levels, inspires the hypothesis that various societies ranging from human civilization to cell
societies and protein-DNA societies are characterized by universal asymptotic self-organization pat-
terns. This provides important insights to the structure of the biological self-hierarchy and its relation
to the structure and functioning of organism and about how semitrance might allow bio-systems to
control and coordinate their behavior. Cell as a protein-DNA society together with parallel between
memetic and genetic codes provides a predictive vision about how genetic code might have estab-
lished itself and semitrance suggests that new kind of control and communication mechanisms based
on semitrance mechanism are at work.
0.5.3 Part III: Crazy Stuff
Crop circles and the life at parallel space-time sheets: part I
Crop circles as a hoax is one of the illusions of century created by the market economy media. That
this cannot be the case has been known for a long time. For instance, microwave induced explosions in
growth nodes of crops are regularly involved. Also meteoric material is often associated with the crop
formations but not to the region exterior to them: this is absolutely impossible if the formations were
made by human artists. Routine laboratory tests allow to judge whether the formation is man-made.
Models involving plasma flows from the ionosphere to the crop field formation have been developed.
The regions where the soil has a high content of calcium carbonate (chalk) helping to charge it
electrically are the places where the circles appear predictably from year to year. There is also
evidence suggesting that this interaction exists during the entire growth period so that there would
be a continual connection to the ionosphere.
Simplest crop circles have a form similar to plasma self-organization patterns. Small plasma balls
have been observed in the fields both before and after the appearance of the crop formation. There are
also irregular, ’non-geometric’, patterns of downing which must have been created by same mechanism
as crop circles involving the interaction with the ionosphere. These are ideal bits of data for developing
in detail hypothesis that any living system, even plants and plant populations, has a magnetic body,
and that also magnetosphere is a conscious and intelligent entity receiving information from and
controlling the bio-sphere.
Dark matter hierarchy leads to a quantitative vision about how magnetic body controls biological
body and receives sensory input from it, and this vision can be applied to crop circles interpreted as
an outcome of generalized motor actions of magnetic body. The resulting model supports the view
about crop circles as an attempt of (geo-, planeto-, helio-, or some other) magnetospheric conscious
entities to tell about their existence to us.
Crop circles and the life at parallel space-time sheets: part II
There are two especially fascinating crop circle formations: Chilbolton and Crabwood. Both forma-
tions suggests very strongly the interpretation as a message from an intelligent civilization perhaps
living at parallel space-time sheets in our solar system.
1. Genetic codes of aliens
16 LIST OF FIGURES
The interpretation of the Crabwood message as a representation for the genetic codes of alien
life forms is suggestive. If this interpretation is accepted, the crop circles allow to deduce a lot of
information about the genetic code and other bio-codes associated with these life-forms.
1. The message suggests strongly the existence of also doublet code besides two triplet codes and
this inspires a simple model for our genetic code allowing to see the code as resulting from much
simpler product code by a small symmetry breaking due to the interaction between singlets and
doublets. Also various alien codes results in the same manner. This has deep implications for
the theories how the life at the molecular level has involved.
2. The model suggests strongly that DNA triplets have resulted as a fusion of DNA singlets and
doublets defining simpler genetic codes. My bio-chemical knowledge does not allow to test this
hypothesis. It turns out that one can deduce surprisingly detailed information about the alien
genetic codes. In fact, almost unique codes result if one accepts the proposed model of the
genetic code having symmetries obeyed also by our genetic code.
3. The Chilbolton message tells that also silicon is of fundamental importance for this life-form
at DNA level. Crabwood message contains a variant of genetic code for which the simplest
interpretation is that DNA doublets of form XA are effectively doubled: perhaps doublets of
form XA
S
besides XA, where A
S
denotes a compound of A and silicon, have emerged. This
increases the number of DNA triplets from 64 to 80 and thus also the information content of
the genetic code. Same could have occurred to one member of the 7-plet composing aminoacids
and increased the number of amino-acid like molecules by three: this in turn would increase the
expressive power of the genetic code. The difference between man and ape is enormous although
genetic codes are almost identical. It is impossible to even imagine the level of intelligence of
these creatures as compared to that of us. The silicon insertions to the DNA and amino-acids
bring in mind symbiosis with a silicon-based nano-computers.
4. Chilbolton message contains two different DNA strands. This could have several interpretations.
DNA could indeed be asymmetric. Alternatively, there could be two genetic codes for the same
life-form: the 80 DNA-23 amino-acid code would involve silicon and could perhaps give rise
to a living arithmetic processor. The third option is that there are two separate life-forms
involved. 64-DNA code would be associated with the plasmoidic life-forms. The fact that
the Sun, whose convective zone contains a magnetic field of order Tesla making it an ideal
environment for this life-form, is described to be smaller than in Arecibo message, suggests that
this life-form populates also solar magnetosphere. The plasmoidic life-forms could serve as kind
of less intelligent medium like messengers, quantum entanglers, making possible a telepathic
sharing of mental images between members of different civilizations. The light balls observed
near crop formations would represent this life-form. Also UFOs could be identified as plasmoidic
life-forms inducing telepathic encounters with the alien life-forms. The biology of the more
intelligent life-form would be based on 80 DNA-23 amino acid code, which could live even
outside the solar system.
The very general symmetries deduced from our own genetic code fix the identification of the alien
codes highly uniquely. All these codes result by the same universal mechanism, and are characterized
by the same imbedding of the aminoacid space to the DNA space implying that a considerable part of
the code is universal. The symmetries are the exact A-G permutation symmetry and the almost exact
T-C permutation symmetry for the last base of the DNA triplet, and the approximate decomposition
to a product of codes associated with DNA doublets (the first two bases of triplet) and singlets (the
third base of triplet). The success of this model inspires the view that molecular life first evolved
to form DNA singlets and doublets coding for 2-plet resp. 10-plet of ’pre-aminoacids’. After that
DNA doublets and singlets fused to triplets coding for the ordinary aminoacids, which are perhaps an
outcome from the fusion of the two kinds of ”pre-aminoacids”. 2 10 dichotomy might relate to the
hydrophilic-hydrophobic dichotomy for the aminoacids.
2. Where do the messages arrive from?
The messages responsible for the crop circles should come from our solar system, perhaps from
terrestrial magnetosphere or solar magnetosphere. Time mirror mechanism allows to consider also
0.5. The contents of the book 17
the possibility (suggested by the time interval of year and one day between the messages) that the
messages arrive from a distant geometric future and tell about the genetic codes of future civilizations
living in the solar system.
3. Where do the life forms assignable to the genetic codes live?
One can consider several identifications of the biological life forms assignable to the codes us-
ing Chilbolton message as a hint. These life forms could live in Earth, Mars, Jupiter, perhaps as
intra-planetaries, say intra-terrestrials at various boundaries such as mantle-core and core-inner core
boundary. Even the photosphere of Sun could be populated.
The notions inspired by the dark matter hierarchy, in particular the notion of N-molecule, allow to
consider seriously the existence of biological life forms able to cope in high temperature environments,
and one can build rough view about what high-T life should look like. The experimental signature
of N-molecules are spectral lines of corresponding ordinary molecules in environments where they are
not thermally stable. In the solar photosphere the spectral lines of water and solid calcium ferrite
have been indeed observed. To sum up, without exaggerating one can say that the systematic search
of these spectral lines might revolutionize our world view.
Bibliography
Online books about TGD
[1] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Topological Geometrodynamics: Overview.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdview/tgdview.html.
[2] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Quantum Physics as Infinite-Dimensional Geometry.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdgeom/tgdgeom.html.
[3] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Physics in Many-Sheeted Space-Time.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdclass/tgdclass.html.
[4] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Quantum TGD.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdquant/tgdquant.html.
[5] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), TGD as a Generalized Number Theory.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdnumber/tgdnumber.html.
[6] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), p-Adic length Scale Hypothesis and Dark Matter Hierarchy.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//paddark/paddark.html.
[7] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), TGD and Fringe Physics.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//freenergy/freenergy.html.
Online books about TGD inspired theory of consciousness
and quantum biology
[8] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Bio-Systems as Self-Organizing Quantum Systems.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//bioselforg/bioselforg.html.
[9] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Quantum Hardware of Living Matter.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//bioware/bioware.html.
[10] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), TGD Inspired Theory of Consciousness.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdconsc/tgdconsc.html.
[11] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Mathematical Aspects of Consciousness Theory.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//genememe/genememe.html.
[12] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), TGD and EEG.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdeeg/tgdeeg/tgdeeg.html.
[13] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Bio-Systems as Conscious Holograms.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//hologram/hologram.html.
[14] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Magnetospheric Consciousness.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//magnconsc/magnconsc.html.
[15] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Mathematical Aspects of Consciousness Theory.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//magnconsc/mathconsc.html.
19
20 BIBLIOGRAPHY
References to the chapters of books
[C6] The chapter Was von Neumann Right After All of [4].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdquant/tgdquant.html#vNeumann.
[D6] The chapter TGD and Astrophysics of [3].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdclass/tgdclass.html#astro.
[E1] The chapter TGD as a Generalized Number Theory: p-Adicization Program of [5].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdnumber/tgdnumber.html#visiona.
[E2] The chapter TGD as a Generalized Number Theory: Quaternions, Octonions, and their Hyper
Counterparts of [5].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdnumber/tgdnumber.html#visionb.
[E3] The chapter TGD as a Generalized Number Theory: Infinite Primes of [5].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdnumber/tgdnumber.html#visionc.
[E9] The chapter Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe of [5].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdnumber/tgdnumber.html#tqc.
[I1] The chapter Quantum Theory of Self-Organization of [8].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//bioselforg/bioselforg.html#selforgac.
[J6] The chapter Coherent Dark Matter and Bio-Systems as Macroscopic Quantum Systems of [9].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//bioware/bioware.html#darkbio.
[K5] The chapter Homeopathy in Many-Sheeted Space-Time of [13].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//hologram/hologram.html#homeoc.
[L1] The chapter Genes and Memes of [11].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//genememe/genememe.html#genememec.
[L2] The chapter Many-Sheeted DNA of [11].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//genememe/genememe.html#genecodec.
[M3] The chapter Dark Matter Hierarchy and Hierarchy of EEGs of [12].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdeeg/tgdeeg/tgdeeg.html#eegdark.
Articles related to TGD
[16] Pitk¨anen, M. (1983) International Journal of Theor. Phys. ,22, 575.
Mathematics related references
[17] Eguchi, T., Gilkey, B., Hanson, J. (1980): Phys. Rep. 66, 6.
[18] Hawking, S.,W. and Pope, C., N. (1978): Generalized Spin Structures in Quantum Gravity.
Physics Letters Vol 73 B, no 1.
[19] Gibbons, G., W., Pope, C., N. (1977): CP
2
as gravitational instanton. Commun. Math. Phys.
55, 53.
[20] Pope, C., N. (1980): Eigenfunctions and Spin
c
Structures on CP
2
. D.A.M.T.P. preprint.
[21] Eisenhart (1964): Riemannian Geometry. Princeton University Press.
[22] Spivak, M. (1970): Differential Geometry I,II,III,IV. Publish or Perish. Boston.
[23] Milnor, J. (1965): Topology form Differential Point of View. The University Press of Virginia.
[24] E. C. Zeeman (ed.)(1977), Catastrophe Theory, Addison-Wessley Publishing Company.
[25] Wallace (1968): Differential Topology. W. A. Benjamin, New York.
BIBLIOGRAPHY 21
References related to physics anomalies
[26] D. Da Roacha and L. Nottale (2003), Gravitational Structure Formation in Scale Relativity,
astro-ph/0310036.
Part I
MOTHER GAIA HYPOTHESIS
IN TGD UNIVERSE
23
Chapter 1
Magnetospheric Sensory
Representations
1.1 Introduction
The general view about sensory an motor representations has been rather heuristic hitherto. By
some additional thought one can however build a more detailed picture about sensory and motor
representations.
1.1.1 Are sensory representations at the personal magnetic body or at the
magnetic body of the Earth’s magnetic field?
One can imagine two basic candidates for how our sensory and motor control are realized: the repre-
sentations at the personal magnetic sensory body and the representations on the magnetic flux tubes
structures of Earth, the magnetic body of Mother Gaia. Quite a long time I saw the problem as the
question ’Which of these options is correct?’.
If our sensory and motor representations were realized using magnetospheric representations alone,
the consciousness of astronauts would differ in a dramatic manner from the ordinary wake-up con-
sciousness. This is not the case so that personal magnetic bodies must give the basic contribution to
our personal sensory representations and motor control if the basic approach is correct. Because of
the sharing of mental images also the sensory and motor areas of the magnetic Mother Gaia making
possible higher collective levels of consciousness are however important for us and are perhaps partially
responsible for memory and imagination and third person aspect of our consciousness. Therefore is
of importance to try to defined and understand also the magnetospheric representations.
1. The basic element hypothesis is that some kind of resonance mechanism is involved. The simplest
possibility is that projector MEs (’massless extremals’, topological counterparts of light rays)
to the sensory canvas have length equal to the wavelength defined by the magnetic transition
frequency. Also the TGD counterpart of Alfven resonance (magnetic flux tube as string) might be
involved. In the simplest situation the length of the projector ME would be equal to the distance
to the activated point of the magnetic flux tube structure involved. Also the intersections of the
projector ME with magnetic flux tubes of Earth and some cavity resonance at larger space-time
sheet, such as Schumann resonance, could help to amplify the signal. Representations which do
not satisfy this condition could of course contribute to our consciousness but the contribution
should be weak and masked by resonant contributions.
2. What might be called personal sensory and motor representations are realized at the personal
magnetic flux tube structures by place coding: if the transversal area of the magnetic flux tube
increases linearly with the length coordinate of the flux tube, the resonance condition is satisfied
all along it. A similar dependence is implied also by the homeopathic findings [31] discussed in
[K5] and by the requirement that magnetic energy density per unit length is constant.
3. Magnetospheric sensory and motor representations are realized at the magnetic body of Earth
and correspond to the personal consciousness of Mother Gaia. Also we can share part of her
25
26 Chapter 1. Magnetospheric Sensory Representations
experience by fusion of the mental images and magnetospheric representations could be respon-
sible for the transpersonal and third person components of our consciousness, and also involved
with our memories and imagination. The weakening of Earth’s magnetic field provides the fun-
damental distance coding via cyclotron frequency scale, which scales with distance as 1/r
3
in the
dipole approximation holding for small distances but differs radically from this behavior at large
distances, in particular inside magnetic tail. In the magnetospheric case resonance condition
gives strong conditions on the representation.
4. There seems to be no upper bound for the size of the super-conducting magnetic web providing
the realization for the self hierarchy and one can build precise quantitative models for this
hierarchy. For Buddhist this vision does not come as a surprise but challenges the cherished
beliefs of brain scientist.
1.1.2 The relationship between Earth’s magnetic field and personal mag-
netic body
A dramatic clarification to the relationship between personal magnetic body and Earth’s magnetic
field came through a rather frustrating experience. For years I erratically believed that the magnitude
of the magnetic field assignable to the biological body is B
E
= .5 Gauss, the nominal value of the
Earth’s magnetic field. Probably I had made the calculational error at very early stage when taking
Ca
++
cyclotron frequency as a standard. I am grateful for Bulgarian physicist Rossen Kolarov for
pointing to me that the precise magnitude of the magnetic field implying the observed 15 Hz cyclotron
frequency for Ca
++
is .2 Gauss and thus slightly smaller than the minimum value .3 Gauss of B
E
.
This value must be assigned to the magnetic body carrying dark matter rather than to the flux quanta
of the Earth’s magnetic field. This field value corresponds roughly to the magnitude of B
E
at distance
1.4R, R the radius of Earth.
The understanding of the dark matter hierarchy leads to a detailed quantitative view about quan-
tum biology with several testable predictions [M3]. The applications to living matter suggests that the
basic hierarchy corresponds to a hierarchy of Planck constants coming as (k) = λ
k
(p)
0
, λ · 2
11
for
p = 2
127−1
, k = 0, 1, 2, ... [M3]. Also integer valued sub-harmonics and integer valued sub-harmonics
of λ might be possible. Each p-adic length scale corresponds to this kind of hierarchy.
Number theoretical arguments suggest a general formula for the allowed values of λ [C7] as λ = n
where n characterizes the quantum phase q = exp(iπ/n) characterizing Jones inclusion [C6]. The
values of n for which quantum phase is expressible in terms of squared roots are number theoretically
preferred and correspond to integers n expressible as n = 2
k

n
F
s
n
, where F
s
= 2
2
s
+ 1 is Fermat
prime and each of them can appear only once. n = 2
11
obviously satisfies this condition. The lowest
Fermat primes are F
0
= 3, F
1
= 5, F
2
= 17. The prediction is that also n-multiples of p-adic length
scales are possible as preferred length scales. The unit of magnetic flux scales up as h
0
→h = nh
0
in
the transition increasing Planck constant: this is achieved by scalings L(k) →nL(k) and B →B/n.
B = .2 Gauss would corresponds to a flux tube radius L =
_
5/2 L(169) · 1.58L(169), which
does not correspond to any p-adic length scale as such. k = 168 = 2
3
37 with n = 5 would predict
the field strength correctly as B
end
= 2B
E
/5 and predict the radius of the flux tube to be r = 18 µm,
size of a large neuron. However, k = 169 with flux 2h
5
would be must more attractive option since it
would give a direct connection with Earth’s magnetic field. Furthermore, the model for EEG forces to
assume that also a field B
end
/2 must be assumed and this gives the minimal flux h
5
. Note that n = 5
is the minimal value of n making possible universal topological quantum computation with Beraha
number B
n
= 4cos
2
(π/n) equal to Golden Mean [E9].
This picture inspires several questions. Is the Earth’s magnetic field at k = 169 flux sheets
accompanied by n = 5 dark variant at which macroscopic quantum phases responsible for many
properties of living matter reside. How strongly the behavior of B
end
correlates with that of B
E
? For
instance, do perturbations of B
E
induce those of B
end
and is the average ratio B
end
/B
E
constant?
Unfortunately, I did not have a slightest idea about these questions when I wrote the first version
of this chapter and the implications of the new view about B
end
and its relationship to B
E
are not
discussed in the sequel.
1.2. The structure of magnetic field of Earth and variation of cyclotron frequency scales 27
1.1.3 Topics of the chapter
In this chapter the transpersonal, magnetospheric sensory and motor representations are the principal
objects of interest.
1. The basic vision inspired by fractality of consciousness is that the entire solar system is a
gigantic magnetic organism having planetary magnetospheres as sub-organisms. Magnetospheres
represent collective levels of consciousness and receive sensory input from biosphere and perform
also very high level bio-control. Like brain, also magnetosphere decomposes to two kinds of
regions. Relatively stable regions are optimal for the sensory representations. Unstable and self-
organizing transition regions are optimal for imagination and for a generalized motor control
in the planetary scale. Motor control could mean higher control at biochemistry level but also
social behavior could reflect the presence of this kind of control since we are in a well defined
sense cells (or perhaps neurons) of the magnetic Mother Gaia.
2. The structure of the magnetosphere predicts a hierarchy of magnetospheric selves bringing in
mind the chakra hierarchy of Eastern philosophies of consciousness. This hierarchy has coun-
terpart at the level of brain and corresponds to the 5-levelled hierarchy of cortex plus midbrain
and brain stem.
3. The resonance condition f
m
= c/L relating magnetic frequency to the length of the projec-
tor ME, is very natural for the magnetospheric sensory representations. The condition can
be satisfied only within the plasma sphere and for EEG frequencies above 8.6 Hz. Also cavity
resonances associated with various space-time sheets (inner core of Earth, the cavity below iono-
sphere, magnetosphere, ....) could give could be behind resonance frequencies. The predictions
are consistent with the basic facts about EEG.
4. The mysterious τ
C
= 5 second time scale associated with the Comorosan effect (the enhancing
effect of the laser light irradiation on the catalyst activity when irradiation time is a multiple
of 5 seconds) corresponds to several magnetic transition frequencies in ∼ 10 nT magnetic field
prevailing at plasma sheet. This kind of magnetic field is created also by magnetic particles in
lungs. This inspires the speculation that very high level electromagnetic bio-control from, say
plasma sheet and magnetic lobes is present.
A TGD based view about magnetosphere results as a by product and allows to topologize the
phenomenological but overall important notions of magnetohydrodynamics. In magnetohydrodynam-
ics magnetic field lines are treated as effective super-conductors: in TGD framework magnetic field
lines are replaced by magnetic flux tubes which could be genuine super-conductors (here the value of
Planck constant is expected to play the key role). Also Alfven waves cease to be a phenomenological
concept, and the super-conducting geodynamo model is free of the difficulties of the standard model.
What makes the proposed speculative picture so fascinating its its generality. Even meteors have
magnetospheres so that the generation of conscious life would be completely universal phenomenon
unavoidable for any magnetized objects in the vicinity of any star producing ionic wind! The crucial
prediction is that magnetospheres are living, self-organizing systems. There is indeed empirical support
for this prediction.
1.2 The structure of magnetic field of Earth and variation of
cyclotron frequency scales
It is interesting to try to relate the model for sensory representations to the structure of Earth’s
magnetosphere. To achieve this, I will provide a brief novice’s overview about the structure of mag-
netosphere. I will use partially TGD based language in which magnetic field lines are replaced by
magnetic flux tubes and the formation of the plasma corresponds to the leakage of the supra currents
from the magnetic flux tubes. I will also briefly consider TGD based qualitative models for the phe-
nomena, many of which are not well understood in Maxwellian theory. Examples of such phenomena
are Alfven waves which are not proven to result from Maxwellian theory, and magnetic dynamo of
Earth whose working mechanism is not really understood. Also the mechanism of auroras becomes
very concrete when field lines are replaced with flux tubes [J3].
28 Chapter 1. Magnetospheric Sensory Representations
1.2.1 Magnetosphere
Solar wind [37, 38, 28] determines the large scale structure of the magnetic field of Earth to a high
extent. The basic structural components are transition regions and regions between them.
1. At the bow shock the solar wind arriving at a supersonic velocity of 500 km/s encounters Earth’s
magnetic field and is transformed to a subsonic flow and dissipates energy inside magnetosheath
where the plasma is denser and hotter than in the solar wind. The distance of the bow shock is
roughly 12-14 R (R denotes Earth’s radius).
2. The shocked solar wind cannot penetrate Earth’s magnetic field and a cavity called magne-
tosphere is formed. Interplanetary magnetic field and and magnetosphere is separated by a
transition region called magneto-pause, which is accompanied by a plasma mantle. At the day
side magneto-pause is at distance of about 10 R but when solar wind is particularly strong in
can move down to 6-7 R. At the night side magnetosphere is stretched into long cylindrical
magneto-tail of length about 1000 R and radius about 20 R.
Magnetosphere consists of clearly separated regions with widely different densities and tempera-
tures. The main division is into inner and outer magnetosphere. In the inner magnetosphere magnetic
field lines are co-rotating with the Earth: in the outer magnetosphere they are stationary. Magneto-
pause contains an ionic current determined by the discontinuity of the magnetic field and orthogonal
to it.
Magnetic lobes
The outer magnetosphere at the night side, magneto-tail, consist of northern and southern magnetic
lobes which are cavities having very low ionic density of about .01 ions per cubic cm. The low density
can be understood as resulting from the absence of the solar wind in this region. By Maxwell’s
equations magnetic field is approximately constant in the region where the flow lines are parallel (if
sources can be neglected). According to [39] the value of the magnetic field is about 30 nT in the
interior of the lobes. The relatively strong magnetic field inside lobes serves as a magnetic energy
battery feeding energy to the plasma sheet.
Magneto-tail is a cylindrical structure with radius of order R
m
= 20R. Magnetic lobes extend up
to r ∼ 1000R. The magnetic field lines remain actually closed. In TGD framework this means the
existence of a closed supra-current circuitry formed by the magnetic flux tubes.
Plasma sheet and magneto-pauses
Magnetic lobes are separated by a plasma sheet in the equitorial plane consisting of hot (5 10
6
K),
low density plasma (.3-.5 ions/cm
3
as opposed to .01 ions/cm
3
inside lobes) with magnetic field ∼ 10
nT. Plasma sheet extends from 8R to about 60R and has thickness of order few R, and gets thinner
with increasing distance. Plasma sheet disappears at so called neutral point, where magnetic field
vanishes. In the plasma sheet the magnetic flux from southern lobe flows to the northern lobe. Near
the Earth plasma sheet reaches the high latitude auroral ionosphere. The value of the magnetic field
immediately above the magnetic sheet is 20 nT.
In TGD framework the plasma sheet can be seen as resulting from the leakage of the supra currents
from the magnetic flux tubes of Earth’s magnetic field to a larger space-time sheet. This supra-current
leakage is caused by the inertia of the ions and electrons in the region where the magnetic flux tubes
are highly curved. The leakage occurs also in the magneto-pause, where the tangential component of
the magnetic field is discontinuous and a surface current orthogonal to B generating the discontinuity
flows. In the magneto-pause the magnetic flux tubes of the inner and outer region are parallel. The
reconnection of the parallel flux tubes of the magnetic fields of Earth and Sun allows the transfer
of the ions of the solar wind to the magnetosphere. Magneto-pause is accompanied by a plasma
mantle, which could be partially due to the leakage of ions to larger space-time sheet accompanying
the reconnection process.
There is a convective flow of ions towards the plasma sphere along the plasma sheet. In TGD
framework this motion must take place at a larger space-time sheet or involve a hopping between
magnetic flux tubes: in both cases a breaking of super-conductivity is implied.
1.2. The structure of magnetic field of Earth and variation of cyclotron frequency scales 29
Plasma sheet has also a boundary layer in which the tangential component of the magnetic field is
discontinuous. This requires a surface current orthogonal to the axis of the sheet. This current results
when the ions from the magnetic flux tubes leak out from flux tubes to a larger space-time sheet by
their inertia in the highly curved portion of the flux tube caused by the tangential discontinuity.
Cusps
Southern and northern cusps are funnel-shaped regions which on the day side consist of closed highly
compressed flux tubes of dipole field and on the night side of almost open flux tubes stretched deep
into the magnetospheric tail. In this funnel magnetic field is orthogonal to the magneto-pause and
the magnetic flux tubes of the solar magnetic field can penetrate the magnetosphere. This implies
that solar plasma contained in the solar magnetic field lines penetrates deeply into the magneto-tail
by reconnecting with the field lines of Earth’s magnetic field near poles. This gives rise to auroras
[40].
Reconnection can be seen as resulting from the penetration of the solar magnetic flux tubes at the
upper boundary of the magneto-pause along the plasma sheet to a highly stretched flux tubes along
the boundary of the plasma sheet. The transformation to open flux tubes can happen only if the solar
flux tubes reconnect with the flux tubes of the solar magnetic field penetrated into the plasma sphere.
Thus auroras can be seen as a phenomenon involved with the boundary between plasma sheet and
lobes.
Cusps, and to some extent also plasma mantle, serve as a channel along which the solar wind
feeds ’magnetometabolic’ energy to the magnetosphere needed to run the geodynamo system [41] (the
notion of super-conducting geodynamo will be introduced later). The dipole field generated solely by
the convective currents in Earth interior would die out in few thousands of years. The field inside
lobes serves as a storage of magnetic energy and is recharged by the energy of the solar ions leaking
into the magnetic tail in the reconnection process. One could see the cusps also as a communication
channel between solar and Earth’s magnetic structures, kind of magnetic ’ears’ of magnetic Mother
Gaia.
Inner magnetosphere
Inner magnetosphere is a toruslike structure whose extension varies between 4R (day side) and 8R
(night side). In the inner magnetosphere the typical density is about 1 ion per cubic centimeter. Inner
magnetosphere is bounded by a transition layer of thickness of ∼ R (magneto-pause). In this region
the density of the ions drops rapidly.
Inner magnetosphere contains plasma sphere whose radius varies in the range 2R-4R at day side
and 2R-6R at night side. Plasma has a ionospheric origin. The density of the cold plasma consisting
mainly of protons ( T ∼ 1 eV) sphere varies in the range 10 −10
3
ions/cm
3
, whereas the temperature
is ∼ 5 10
3
K. The cold, dense plasma of plasma sphere is frozen around magnetic flux lines which
co-rotate with Earth. In TGD framework this means that flux tubes co-rotate and thus change shape.
In the equitorial plane the density of the plasma sphere drops sharply down to ∼ 1 ion/cm
3
at r = 4R.
This transition region is known as a plasma pause. During magnetic storms the outer radius decreases
since the pressure of the solar wind compresses the plasma sphere. The day-night variation of the
shape of the plasma sphere is rather small. Within this region the magnetic field has in a reasonable
approximation dipole shape with radiation belts forming an exception.
Radiation belts and ring currents
Plasma sphere contains the inner and outer van Allen radiation belts
[17] (extending from 2R to 4R at the day side and from 2R to 9R at the night side). Both the inner
and outer belts extend up to latitude of 60 degrees. The boundaries of the belts follow magnetic field
lines except in at the Northern and Southern tips. This region contains ring currents.
One of the functions of the radiation belts is to prevent the penetration of the biologically harmful
high energy cosmic rays to the ionosphere. In fact, the inner protonic belt results by the decay of the
cosmic ray neurons to protons. Second function (in TGD universe!) is to act as a part of a controlled
dynamo system giving rise to the magnetosphere of Earth (for the standard theory of geodynamo see
[41]).
30 Chapter 1. Magnetospheric Sensory Representations
It has been found that the energies of the ions in the radiation belts are much higher than one might
expect [23]. This might be understood if part of the ions runs as supra currents along the magnetic
flux tubes. Super-conductivity is broken only by the leakage of the supra currents from the magnetic
flux tubes. This could explain the success of magnetohydrodynamics based on the assumption of
effective super conductivity.
1. Inner radiation belts
There are actually two separate inner radiation belts: the one containing protons and the one
containing electrons. Protons in the inner belt have energies in 10-100 MeV range and readily penetrate
space crafts. The inner radiation belts are concentrated around equator in the range (1.1 − −3.3)R
(these numbers depend on the conventions used and should not be taken too literally). In the protonic
belt the maximum of the flux density is at 2R: in electronic belt the maximum flux density is at about
1.4R. The inner belts are relatively stable and there is no night-day difference. The inner belts feel
magnetic storms and vary with the 11 year period of solar activity.
What is interesting is that the inner belts are also sensitive to human technology. The inner belt
has lowered above the East Coast of US from 300 km to 10 km [40]: this process is associated with
power transmission along magnetic field line and the usage of the ionosphere-resonance frequency 60
Hz as the frequency of household current.
During the last decade two new belts have formed inside inner belts [40, 37]. The new electronic
belt has maximum electron flux at r ∼ 2R (earlier flux maximum was at r ∼ 1.4R). The second
newcomer consists mostly of O
+
ions but containing also He
+
. This process has been seen as a
part of magnetic re-self-organization process occurring in the scale of the entire helio-magnetophere
implying rapid changes of planetary magnetospheres [40].
2. Outer radiation belt
Outer belt contains mainly electrons with energies up to 10 MeV and is produced by the injection
of charged particles during geomagnetic storms. This makes outer belt much more dynamical than
the inner one. The cross section of the outer radiation belt is banana shaped. The outer belt ranges
from 3R to 6R (at night side). The maximum for the density of electrons above MeV energy occurs
at 4R.
3. Ring currents
Radiation belts contain ring currents. Electronic ring current rotates in the same direction as
Eearth whereas protonic current runs to the opposite direction. In the outer belt only electronic
current is present. Quiet time ring current in the inner electronic resp. protonic belts consists mainly
of hydrogen ions resp. electrons but during magnetic storms also O
+
ions are present (note however
the presence of the new O
+
belt). Ring current has the effect that magnetic field gets stronger at the
outer side of given belt and weaker at the inner side.
Super-conducting geodynamo?
The standard theory for Earth’s magnetic field assumes that the convective currents in the liquid
outer core of Earth generate the magnetic field [41]. It has been found that also planets which do not
possess liquid core can have magnetic field: this means a failure of the standard geodynamo theory.
Furthermore, planetary magnetospheres have very similar structure [33], and solar magnetosphere
has ’memory’ [16]. This suggests that magnetospheres are self-organizing systems having only few
asymptotic patterns. There is evidence that the changes of Earth’s magnetic field can be quite too
fast (several degrees per day!) to be caused by convective currents in the outer liquid core [24]. Also
the different orientations of the magnetic and rotational axis is not what one would make as the first
guess. This forces to think that standard dynamo theory might be somehow wrong.
The vision about solar and planetary magnetospheres as self-organizing systems inspires the idea
that the rotational electric field and ring currents could be an essential part of the dynamo system
generating, and perhaps even controlling, Earth’s magnetic field. Solar wind would provide the energy
needed for this purpose. This vision gets support from the findings of the last decades about dramatic
changes in the magnetospheres of some planets [40] (auroras in Saturn, polar shifts of Uranus and
Neptune, the doubling of the field intensity of Jupiter, rapid pole shifts of the geomagnetic field sug-
gesting the possibility of a geomagnetic field inversion in progress, significant growth of the recognized
1.2. The structure of magnetic field of Earth and variation of cyclotron frequency scales 31
geomagnetic anomalies). That solar magnetic activity has been also especially strong during this time
supports the view that solar wind controls these events to some extent.
1. Super-conducting geodynamo model
The notion of many-sheeted space-time leads to a modification of the dynamo theory.
1. The simplest TGD based model for a rotating astrophysical object predicts dynamo system
replacing black hole type solutions with singularity free space-time surfaces [D3]. The basic
characteristic of the models is the presence of the orthogonal magnetic and electric fields (this
follows from the assumption that CP
2
projection of the space-time surface is 2-dimensional).
2. The fields in question can be either magnetic or Z
0
magnetic. In the TGD framework ring
currents consist of the ions ’dropped’ from the magnetic flux tubes to a larger space-time sheet.
The dropped ions drift in an electric field whose field lines circle around the axis of the magnetic
field. Ring currents generate a weak magnetic field in a direction orthogonal to the plane of
the ring currents. This field, if sufficiently strong, could serve as a seed inducing a spontaneous
magnetization inside Earth’s outer or inner core. In standard physics this is not possible since
Earth’s core is very hot so that conductive currents as a source of the magnetic field are the
only possibility.
3. In TGD the situation is different. The interior of Earth contains besides atomic space-time
sheet also super-conducting space-time sheets at very low temperature. In particular, the flux
tubes of the magnetic fields generated by the ring currents are present. Since the temperature
is extremely low, electrons could bind to Cooper pairs with net spin J = 2 (ions would possess
relative angular momentum) as in high T
c
super-conductors [J1, J2, J3]. Bosonic ions could
form Bose-Einstein condensates. Exchange interaction favors magnetization parallel to the seed
field. This generates additional magnetic field in the direction of the magnetic field inside flux
tubes and leads to spontaneous magnetization and the amplification of the seed field. The same
trick could be applied also by living organisms to achieve magnetic homeostasis.
4. The energy needed to maintain the magnetic field would be much smaller than in the conventional
dynamo model since dissipative effects are small. The direction of the magnetic field could also
vary rapidly for the same reason. To some degree the direction of the magnetic field could be
controlled by the solar wind since it affects ring currents. An interesting question is whether
the solar wind could feed electrons to the Earth’s interior: first to the magnetic flux tubes of
Earth’s magnetic field in a reconnection process, and then to Earth’s core along flux tubes in
the outer radiation belt dipping near to the polar caps.
5. Only the magnetic flux tube structure containing the super-conducting matter rotates around
the magnetic axis. The small amount of super-conducting matter means that the change of the
direction for the magnetic field does not require huge energy and angular momentum transfers.
The rotation axis of the space-time sheet representing entire Earth could be different. There
could be similar dynamo also at this larger space-time sheet. In the simplest model this dynamo
would be Z
0
-magnetic.
6. The mechanism inducing the reversals of the magnetic field is at the topological level the same
as in the standard model of geodynamo (for an early TGD inspired model of the solar sunspot
cycle see [D7]). Magnetic flux tubes get strongly entangled during differential rotation and
sooner or later this leads to a reconnection process. Super-conductivity makes possible very
rapid reversals.
7. What distinguishes TGD model from geodynamo model is that the super-conducting magnetic
flux tubes are the primary dynamical system rather than the convective currents. This allows to
view the anomalies of the geomagnetic field as additional magnetic flux tube bundles (there are
four anomalous regions: Canadian, East Siberian, Brazilian, and Antarctic) having some role
in the control of the magnetodynamics. For instance, the feed of super-conducting electronic
or ionic Cooper pairs to the Earth interior would allow to intensify magnetization inside flux
tubes. Self-organization would explain why the magnetic field patterns are similar for all planets
possessing a detectable magnetic field. Self-organization would also explain the ’memory’ of the
solar magnetic field [16].
32 Chapter 1. Magnetospheric Sensory Representations
2. Dark matter as a hierarchy of phases with large values of Planck constant
In the original model it was assumed that space-time sheets carrying various Bose-Einstein con-
densates are at a very low temperature so that cyclotron energy scale is above thermal energy and
spontaneous magnetization as a source of magnetic field becomes possible instead of electric currents.
The hypothesis that dark matter corresponds to a hierarchy of phases with a large value of Planck
constant [C7] brings a new element to the model since magnetic interaction energies scale as and
for large enough value of can be above thermal threshold. Also dissipation rates are expected to
behave like 1/ and would thus be very small for large values of Planck constant.
Therefore macroscopically quantum coherent dark matter can generate spontaneous magnetization
even of magnetic flux sheets are at the same temperature as the visible matter. The TGD inspired
model of EEG [M3] relies on a hierarchy for favored values of Planck constant given by (k) = λ
k

0
,
λ = 2
11
. λ = 2
11
corresponds to a fundamental constant in TGD Universe [D7]. For k ≥ 4 cyclotron
energy for ions is above the thermal threshold at room temperature. For electrons this is true already
for k ≥ 3. At least the values of k satisfying k ≤ 7 are favored by the model for EEG predicting a
fractal hierarchy of EEGs.
3. Application to planetary magnetospheres
Consider now how the proposed model survives qualitative tests.
1. Five planets (Earth, Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, and Uranus) have detectable magnetic fields.
The rings of Saturn are an excellent candidate for the seed of the magnetic field. Also Jupiter
has a dense ring of condensed plasma rotating at its radiation belts.
2. Mercury is smallest of the terrestrial planets and rotates slowly (rotation period is 58.6 days) but
has weak magnetic field contrary to what the standard dynamo theory predicts [33]. Mercury
is also the planet nearest to the sun and solar wind is strong at this distance. This could mean
that the ring currents are sufficiently intense to generate the critical seed field inducing the
spontaneous magnetization.
3. Mars has extremely weak magnetic field. Magnetic field is crucial for life in TGD framework and
there is evidence that Mars has possessed life in past. It would be interesting to find whether
Mars has had magnetic field in the past. Earth’s magnetic field should vanish during two millenia
if it continues to decay with the recent rate. Those who like doomsday scenarios could of course
wonder whether the life in Earth might suffer the Martian fate and how much time our species
still has?
4. Also Venus has very tiny magnetic field. It has almost same radius as Earth and is also hot. The
rotation period is however very long (243 days) and in the standard model this is taken as an
explanation for the smallness of the magnetic field. In TGD framework one must assume that
the rotation velocities of the ions of the ring currents are proportional to the rotation velocity
implying that the seed magnetic field is below the critical value.
Magnetic transition frequencies in magnetic lobes and plasma sheet
The values of important magnetic transitions frequencies in various regions of the magnetosphere are
crucial if one wants to construct a general vision about sensory and motor representations at the
magnetic sensory canvas. In the inner magnetosphere dipole approximation allows to estimate the
spatial dependence magnetic transition frequencies.
In magnetosheet and magnetolobes the average values of the magnetic field are 10 nT and 30 nT
respectively. Immediately above the magnetosheet the value of the magnetic field is 20 nT. Magne-
tosheet could thus allow place coding by the magnetic transition frequency scale whereas magnetolobes
are not taylor made for this purpose. Note that the thickness of the magnetic flux tubes in the field
of 10 nT = 2
−9
B
e
, B
e
= 5 10
4
nT is from the quantization of magnetic flux equal to about 55 µm
and thus corresponds to a biological length scale. This length scale corresponds to the p-adic length
scale L(11, 16) (L
p
(n) = p
(n−1)/2
L
p
). Already this encourages to think that plasma sheet might be
involved with bio-control.
1.2. The structure of magnetic field of Earth and variation of cyclotron frequency scales 33
The strength of the interplanetary magnetic field depends on the intensity of solar wind and varies
between .2 −80 nT and has average of 6 nT. Interestingly, the maximum value 80 nT corresponds to
the p-adic length scale L(173) = 20 µm.
1. Proton
In the case of proton there are three especially interesting frequencies to be considered: cyclotron
frequency f
c
= eB/2πm
p
, spin flip frequency and the frequency of combined spin flip and ∆n = 1
transitions. The frequencies of these transitions in magnetic field of .5 10
−4
T are f
c
= 300 Hz,
f
flip
= 838 Hz, f
1
= 532 Hz and f
2
= 1138 Hz. In a field of 10 nT the values of the transition periods
T = 1/f are T
c
= 16.7 sec, T
flip
= 6 sec, τ
1
= 9.3 sec, and τ
2
= 4.4 sec. For a field of 30 nT the values
are obtained by dividing by three. Plasma sheet contains also He
++
and He
+
ions and for these
the cyclotron times are 2τ and 4τ. For O
+
ion which is also present cyclotron time varies between
1 min 20 s and 4 minutes. All these time scales are typical time scales of human consciousness. For
the interplanetary magnetic field protonic cyclotron times are 13.9 min, 27.8 sec, and 2.1 sec for the
minimum, average, and maximum respectively.
2. Electron
For electrons the cyclotron frequency is 282 Hz for 10 nT so that electronic cyclotron transitions
cannot represent ionic cyclotron transitions in brain (if they occur at the flux tubes of Earth’s magnetic
field!). Spin flip combined with cyclotron transition represents however an important exception. In
this case the non-vanishing transition frequency is due to the anomalous magnetic moment of electron
and the frequency in the reference field of .5 10
−4
T is 2255 Hz. This gives T(e) = 2.24 sec. Note
that also n = 3 protonic cyclotron transition gives rise to nearly the same period.
It is interesting to notice that these time scales are important time scales of human consciousness
and that both protonic spin flip time scale and T(e) nearly half of the 5 second time scale associated
with the Comorosan effect [52, 53] discussed in [J5]. If Earth’s magnetic field is accompanied by dark
flux sheets in entire magnetosphere carrying field B
end
= 2B
E
/5, then the value of T(e) would become
T(e) = 5 seconds for B
E
= 11.2 nT.
To sum up:
1. the average magnetic field in plasma sheet corresponds to a definite p-adic length scale;
2. the mysterious time scale of the Comorosan effect pops up as a basic magnetic transition time
in magnetic lobes and plasma sheet and is related to bio-control by enhancing catalytic rates:
it is however essential that the ”dark” counterpart B
end
= 2B
E
/5 of B
E
associated with living
matter is in question;
3. plasma sheet is found to be a complex self-organizing system with the velocity distribution of
ions representing complex features (such as ’eyes’ and ’wings’ !) [27].
These findings force to seriously consider the possibility that plasma sheet and magneto-pause and
perhaps even magnetic lobes might perform high level bio-control utilizing MEs and supra-currents
along magnetic flux tubes forming the extension of the endogenous magnetic circulation to the entire
magnetosphere.
1.2.2 Z
0
magnetosphere
Classical Z
0
fields are in a key role in TGD based model of living matter and chiral selection in the
living matter is one of the anomalous phenomena explained by the presence of classical Z
0
fields.
Therefore one expects that also Z
0
magnetosphere of Earth is crucial for the realization of sensory
representations and/or of motor control.
Clarification of basic notions
The original erratic view was that it is possible to speak about space-time sheets carrying only em or
Z
0
fields: hence the term of Z
0
magnetosphere. The notion of induced gauge field combined with field
equations however predicts strong constraints between various classical fields and it is not possible to
have a situation in which either em -, Z
0
-, or gluon field alone would be present as a classical field.
34 Chapter 1. Magnetospheric Sensory Representations
Hence it is quite possible that same space-time sheets define both magnetosphere, Z
0
magnetosphere,
and color magnetosphere.
For instance, for vacuum extremals with vanishing induced K¨ahler form classical em field γ and
Z
0
field satisfy
γ = −
sin
2

W
)
2
Z
0
· −
Z
0
8
for sin
2

W
) = .23. Note that classical γ and Z
0
fields are defined by vector potentials defined as
eA
em
and g
Z
A
Z
. For space-time sheets for which CP
2
projection is r = ∞ homologically non-trivial
geodesic sphere of CP
2
(see the appendix of the book) one has
γ = (
3
4

sin
2

W
)
2
)Z
0
·
5
8
Z
0
.
The induced W fields vanish in this case and they vanish also for all geodesic sphere obtained by SU(3)
rotation. For homologically trivial geodesic sphere a standard representative is obtained by using for
the phase angles of standard complex CP
2
coordinates constant values. In this case induced em, Z
0
,
and K¨ahler fields vanish but induced W fields are non-vanishing. One can say that for non-vacuum
extremals with 2-D CP
2
projection color rotations and weak symmetries commute. Note that neutral
and W MEs play a key role in the TGD based model of living systems.
What is true that ordinary particles at space-time sheets behave as if they had vanishing weak
charges with respect to long range gauge fields. TGD however predicts an entire hierarchy of scaled
up variants of standard model physics for which particles have scaled down mass spectrum. Also dark
matter hierarchy is predicted: in this case masses remain invariant in the scaling →λ, with λ · 2
11
in the physically most interesting situation, but Compton lengths and time and thus sizes of particle
space-time sheets are scaled up since they are proportional to . This makes possible macroscopic
quantum phases with light particles carrying weak and color charges. Even ordinary nuclei can carry
anomalous weak and thus also em charges. It seems that these exotic weak and em charges could be
central for the proper understanding of even ordinary condensed matter physics and in living matter
this exotic new physics would be of crucial importance.
Z
0
magnetic field of Earth
Consider first Z
0
magnetic field accompanying the Earth’s magnetic field.
1. If non-vacuum extremals with 2-D CP
2
projection are involved the Z
0
field strength satisfies
g
Z
B
Z
=
1
3
4

sin
2

W
)
2
eB ·
8
5
eB .
For B =
B
E Z
0
magnetic cyclotron frequency scale would be nearly the same as the magnetic
one with alpha band map scaled to ∼ 16 Hz so that the cyclotron spectrum of exotically ionized
nuclei would be in EEG range.
In this case the question arises, whether em or Z
0
flux quantization fixes the area of flux tubes.
For a rational value of sin
2

W
) it is possible to satisfy both flux quantization conditions if the
integers characterizing the flux quanta satisfy
n
γ
n
Z
=
Z
γ
Z
Z
(
3
4

sin
2

W
)
2
) .
2. If vacuum extremals with 2-D CP
2
projection or small perturbations of them are in question
the Z
0
field strength satisfies
g
Z
B
Z
= −
2
sin
2

W
)
eB · 8 eB ,
so that Z
0
magnetic field would dominate and one might think that Z
0
magnetic flux tubes
corresponds to almost vacuum extremals. Also in this case both flux quantization conditions
can be applied.
1.2. The structure of magnetic field of Earth and variation of cyclotron frequency scales 35
An interesting question is whether the Z
0
magnetic field forced by the CP
2
geometry alone should
have as its source rotating exotic particles carrying Z
0
charge. Exotically ionized nuclei are a natural
candidate in this respect.
Symmetry considerations favor the assumption that the overall topology of Z
0
magnetic field is
essentially the same as that of magnetic field. If some fraction of atomic nuclei are Z
0
ions they can
create Z
0
magnetic field, and it is plausible that Earth’s Z
0
magnetic field receives a large contribution
from the rotational motion of these nuclei so that the Z
0
-magnetic axis would most naturally be the
same as the rotation axis of Earth and not same as the axis of magnetic field so that different space-
time sheets would be in question. L(k = 173) next to L(169) associated with the Earth’s magnetic
field is the first guess for the p-adic length scale characterized Z
0
magnetic field of Earth. If almost
vacuum extremals are in question, Z
0
cyclotron frequency scale is by a factor 2/16sin
2

W
) · 1/2
smaller than the magnetic one.
Are Z
0
magnetic van Allen belts there?
The symmetry between magnetism and Z
0
magnetism would suggest that the Z
0
counterparts of van
Allen belts and ring currents are also there and form a controlling part of the Z
0
super-conducting
dynamo generating Earth’s Z
0
magnetic field. Exotically ionize ordinary ions and atoms would con-
tribute to the Z
0
ring currents.
4
He ions are abundant in solar wind and exotically ionized
4
He nuclei
are of special interest. In particular, tetra-neutron [18, 19] could be interpreted as an exotically ionized
He
2+
4
nucleus carrying two units of Z
0
and em charge in du type color bonds between nucleons [F8].
The lifetime of tetra-neutron is about 10
−7
seconds. A continual ionization of
4
He nuclei by dark
W MEs would make possible for tetra-neutrons to serve as a source of dark Z
0
magnetic field. The
interaction with biosphere could be responsible for the ionization if ring current flows along space-time
sheet serving as a magnetic body controlling biosphere.
Also dark variants of elementary particles carrying weak charges could contribute to the ring
current. Note that the protonic radiation belt is believed to result through the decay of highly
energetic cosmic ray neutrons to protons. Also Sun should have both magnetic and Z
0
magnetic belts
controlling to some extent the solar Z
0
magnetic dynamo. As already noticed, the TGD based model
for rotating astrophysical objects automatically predicts dynamolike structures. Planetary orbits
could carry the ring currents controlling solar magnetic and Z
0
magnetic fields and thus providing a
feedback mechanism. Indeed, in the model of the tritium beta decay anomaly one is forced to assume
that also Earth’s orbit is surrounded by a dark neutrino belt [F8].
1.2.3 Observations making bells ringing
Below I summarize some findings which turned out to be very useful in the attempts to understand
whether and how magnetosphere could be a self-organizing living system possibly performing also
bio-control.
Magnetospheres as self-organizing systems
The view that magnetospheres are self-organizing systems is supported by the observations accumu-
lated about the magnetic self-organization of the solar system during last decades reviewed in [40].
According to this report we are living a period of transition basically due to a penetration of highly
charged material from the interstellar space into the interplanetary space from an interstellar plasma
structure containing various kinds of magnetic structures.
This energy feed is inducing various kinds of processes affecting not only the atmo-, iono-, and
magnetospheres of Earth but also solar and other planetary magnetospheres. Also interplanetary
transmitting properties are affected. The Schumacher-Levy comet, which for few years ago collided
with Jupiter and among other things a induced plasmoid train and had dramatic effects on Jupiter’s
magnetosphere, is referred to as a ”Comet” SL-9 in [40]. I am not sure whether ”Comet” was meant
to suggest that SL-9 was actually a plasma magnetic structure from the interstellar space. There is
also evidence that we are moving to a similar temperature instability that occurred for 10.000 years
ago and which might have initiated the development of the bicameral society in turn leading to the
modern society much later.
36 Chapter 1. Magnetospheric Sensory Representations
This process could be also seen as a re-self-organization and evolution of consciousness in solar
length scale as a reaction to the encounter of heliospheric and interstellar magnetic intelligences.
The penetration of interstellar plasmoid like structures to the interplanetary space through the solar
magneto-pause could be interpreted as a failure of the magneto-inmmune system of the heliomagneto-
sphere. The interaction of the planetary magnetospheres with these intelligent (benevolent?) plasmoid
like structures would in turn induce the re-self-organization. Needless to say, the interaction of the
two intelligences might have far-reaching consequences for the evolution of the ordinary life.
Connection with the Comorosan effect
Comorosan effect means that the irradiation of living manner by visible light over a period which
is a multiple of τ
C
= 5 seconds implies enhanced catalytic activity [52, 53]. According to private
communication, this effect is not restricted to living or even organic matter. TGD explains the effect
[J5] but the deeper explanation of the time scale of τ
C
= 5 seconds has remained a longstanding
challenge.
The 5 second time scale associated with Comorosan effect is the spin flip time scale associated
with proton’s ∆n = 1 cyclotron transition in the field of B
end
= 13.32 nT (which could correspond to
the value of B
E
= 5B
end
/2 = 33.3 nT in magnetic lobes). τ
C
is also associated with proton’s ∆n = 3
cyclotron transition and the electronic cyclotron spin flip in the field of B
end
= 2/5B
E
= 11.2 nT
(plasma sheet).
Lungs contain magnetic particles giving rise to ∼ 10 nT magnetic field and thus for B
end
= 2B
E
/5
to n = 3 protonic cyclotron transitions and electronic cyclotron spin flips in 5.5 second scale, which is
very near to τ
C
. Perhaps Comorosan effect is used by the outer magnetosphere to affect the behavior
of living matter and lungs are involved with this process.
Plasma sheet as a ’microchip’
Plasma sheet should be a seat for magnetospheric sensory representations in theta and delta bands
and among other things provide a model of magnetospheric self. If plasma sheet has this kind of role,
it should manifest itself in its properties. Plasma sheet should be self-organizing, complex structure
rather than system near thermal equilibrium. Plasma sheet is also expected to perform bio-control.
There is a fascinating finding about the ’memory chip’ character of the organization of the ionic
velocity distribution in the plasma sheet [27]. The belief was that the distribution is a Maxwellian
thermal distribution but an complex organization of the number of ions as a function of speed and
direction relative to the direction of the local magnetic field has been detected [27]. By coloring the
bins representing small volumes of the velocity space, one finds that 3-dimensional features like ’eyes’
and ’wings’ appear! The proposed interpretation is that these features codes the history of ionic
currents. One cannot exclude the possibility that these ionic currents could reflect even our sensory
experiences. The prediction is that also other transition regions (in particular magneto-pause) should
exhibit similar complex self-organization patterns. The simplest possibility is that the velocity patterns
of ordinary electrons reflect the underlying pattern of dark matter at the dark magnetic flux tubes
forming perhaps some kind of sensory representations.
1.3 General assumptions about sensory and motor represen-
tations
If one believes that magnetosphere is a living organism, the first thing one can do to concretize
this belief, is an attempt to generalize the general wisdom about living organisms in the biosphere
to the new context. Thus the notions of metabolism, sensory representations, and motor control
should have magnetospheric counterparts. This might provide also new views about the physics of
magnetosphere. The physics of magnetosphere could also allow to develop new ideas about TGD
inspired quantum biology. The fact that also endogenous magnetic fields are of crucial importance
for the understanding of ordinary life in TGD framework, means that the basic distinctions might be
due to difference between scales.
1.3. General assumptions about sensory and motor representations 37
1.3.1 Magnetosphere as a living organism
Consider now the analogy between biological organisms and magnetosphere in more detail.
1. In the living matter magnetic flux tubes and corresponding supra currents define what might
be called magnetic circulation, kind of analog of the blood circulation, along which information
and energy is carried by the supra currents. At the quantum level the spatial variation of
the phase of the complex order parameter is a correlate for the supra current and the net
phase changes around closed loops (say loop around leg) coming as multiples of 2π characterize
these currents. One of the earliest TGD inspired ideas about bio-systems was that these almost
topological quantum numbers are ideal for the representation of biologically relevant information.
Phenomena supporting strongly the existence of this kind of topological quantum numbers are
known [16].
Also in the case of magnetosphere similar magnetic circulation should be present and the phase
increments around closed loops should represent ’magnetobiological’ information. For instance,
supra currents could circulate around the plasma sheet and magneto-pause. Since plasma sheet
is a self-organizing structure with very complex fractal structure, huge amounts of magnetobio-
logical information could be stored to these supra currents.
2. Magneto-pause would be kind of a magnetic skin insulating the magnetic organism from the
interplanetary magnetic field supra currents. Perhaps a similar insulation occurs also in the skin
of the biological organisms and prevents the penetration of harmful magnetic fields to the organ-
ism. This would mean the flow of supra currents along skin. Typically the current would rotate
around, say, leg and there is indeed evidence for the selection rules implied by the topological
quantum numbers associated with these kind of supra currents [16]. The recombination of the
flux tubes of solar magnetic field with those of Earth at the magneto-pause could give rise to a
’sensory input’ from the magnetic skin: certainly solar supra currents carry a lot of negentropy.
Polar cusps and caps would play the role of the parts of body which feed in the metabolic input
and feed out the metabolic waste.
3. Magnetic Mother Gaia has besides magnetic skin also a material skin, biosphere. Individual
organisms would act as sensory receptors. The notion of magnetospheric tactile senses mapping
entire biosphere to the magnetosphere seems very natural in the conceptual framework of TGD
inspired theory of consciousness.
1.3.2 Magnetospheric nervous system
One could also try to find whether the magnetospheric counterpart of the nervous system might make
sense. Of course, one must be very cautious in making this kind of associations. The first thing
to notice is that nervous system corresponds to the self-organizing and strongly dissipating parts
of organism. In magnetosphere the plasma rich regions certainly satisfy this criterion. The most
one can hope is that there is direct mapping between brain structures and magnetosphere such that
dominating EEG MEs in brain area project to the corresponding regions of the magnetosphere and
define magnetospheric sensory representations there.
1. One function of the nervous system is to build a sensory map of the material world. Thus
also the magnetospheric nervous system should process ’sensory’ information about biosphere.
This fixes naturally the order of the hierarchical structure: the larger the distance from Earth’s
center, the higher the hierarchy level. This also conforms with the fact that lower frequencies
must correspond to the higher levels of self hierarchy.
2. The interpretation for the magnetosphere would be as brains of Mother Gaia receiving sensory
input from biosphere with various organisms serving as sensory receptors. Outer magnetosphere
would correspond to the highest and most abstract level of information processing contributing
also to the brain consciousness via the sharing of mental images. Corresponding magnetic time
scales indeed correspond to brain time scales. Self-organization is maximal inside magneto-pause
and plasma sheets. Perhaps the identification as the counterpart of the cortex for either or both
of these structures is appropriate. Magnetic lobes, analogous to the brain cavities, certainly
serve as stores of magnetic energy. The low density of ions and approximate spatial constancy
38 Chapter 1. Magnetospheric Sensory Representations
of the magnetic field means that magnetic lobes are not taylor made for the sensory represen-
tations. Day and night sides of the magnetosphere are good candidates for the magnetospheric
counterparts of posterior (hind brain) and anterior (frontal lobes) parts of the cortex. It will be
found that resonant magnetospheric sensory representations come in two basic types depending
on whether the projector MEs from brain project to the same or the opposite side of the globe:
the asymmetries between these representations resemble the asymmetries between left and right
brain.
3. One can continue with the structural analogies. The inner magnetosphere could correspond to
the subcortical regions. The scales for the magnetic transition frequencies suggest that protonic
inner belts would perhaps be the counterparts of thalamus and hippocampus: representation of
our long term memories could be in question. Electronic inner belt might correspond to cere-
bellum characterized by higher EEG frequencies. The outer electronic belt could correspond to
basal ganglia and limbic brains (note the toruslike topology) and be involved with our imagi-
nation and planning of motor actions and also with speech production. Ionosphere, where also
the representations based on heavier ions are possible, would correspond to brain stem, spinal
chord, and the neuronal level. p-Adic length scale hypothesis and v = Lf scaling law [M2] give
a rather precise meaning for this correspondence.
Individual organisms could be seen as sensory receptors of Mother Gaia and would be accompa-
nied by their personal sensory magnetic canvases for which magnetic field strengths could be much
weaker, and perhaps directed along the direction of the local magnetic field and penetrating to the
interplanetary space. The simplest assumption is that the projector MEs to the personal magnetic
canvas intersect the flux tubes of Earth’s magnetic field and in this manner generate magnetospheric
sensory representations which might serve as memory representations.
The analogy with nervous system suggests that there is two-directional information transfer be-
tween magnetosphere and ordinary living organisms. Magnetospheric sensory representations and
magnetospheric ’motor control’ would correspond to this bi-directional information transfer.
1.3.3 Magnetospheric metabolism
Living systems are self-organizing systems in which highly negentropic energy flow enters the system,
delivers its negentropy, and leaves the system. Usually only the negentropy of the solar radiation is
considered as important. If magnetosphere is a living organism, also the negentropy feed by the ionic
supra-currents flowing along the magnetic flux tubes of the solar magnetic field should play a key role.
Plants get their ordered energy directly from solar radiation via photosynthesis. Magnetosphere
would in turn receive its energy and negentropy by breathing solar wind. The flow of ordered energy
would enter via the polar cusps and magneto-pause via the leakage of the magnetic flux tubes of
solar magnetic field to the magnetic lobes followed by a recombination with the flux tubes of Earth’s
magnetic field. Magnetic lobes might be seen as reservoirs of magnetic energy and information resulting
from the ’sensory’ input from solar wind and from Earth.
Magnetic storms transfer this energy along the plasma sheet down to radiation belts during mag-
netic storms and sub-storms. The incoming ionic flux should flow out back to the interplanetary space
somewhere. A good guess is that inertia forces the leakage of the supra current to a larger space-time
sheet at the highly curved tips of the outer radiation belts dipped towards the polar caps, and the ions
leak out to the interplanetary space along larger space-time sheet as Ohmic currents. The radiation
observed instrumentally at the polar caps could result in this process. The energy vacuum zero point
energy liberated in the process is about E
0
= π
2
/md
2
, where d is the thickness of the magnetic flux
tube determined by the flux quantization. This corresponds to energy of about 2 10
−9
eV which is
very small as compared to the energy of the ion.
The energy feed is utilized to pay the energy bills of the dissipative ionic flow along the plasma
sheet towards radiation belts and of the dissipative ring currents participating to the control of Earth’s
magnetic field by super-conducting dynamo mechanism. Also the ionic current flowing along circular
flux tubes of the magneto-pause needed to build the magnetic field inside magneto-tail uses the energy
of the solar wind. These circulating currents could be supra currents flowing along magnetic flux tubes
which correspond to some other, presumably longer p-adic length scale so that that the magnetic field
would be weaker.
1.3. General assumptions about sensory and motor representations 39
1.3.4 General ideas about sensory representations
Consider first what the minimal assumptions relating to the sensory representations might be.
Two basic types of representations
The crucial assumption is that neither ionosphere nor Earth’s surface can serve as a Faraday cage
for the MEs nor for the magnetic flux tubes possibly involved. This is as it should be if the notion
of many-sheeted space-time concept makes sense. If this assumption fails, a person in Faraday cage
would lose most of the contents of consciousness. This prediction is testable and there are claims
that the ELF radiation in alpha band can penetrate Faraday cage (the work of Dr. Andre Puharich):
unfortunately, it is not clear to me whether these stories are only modern city folklore or not.
1. Personal representations
The magnetic body consisting of vertical magnetic flux tubes associated with brain and body could
serve as a personal magnetic sensory and motor canvas. Since the flux tubes of Earth’s magnetic field
emerge from the surface of Earth almost vertically, vertical flux tube structures could emerge as
structures locally parallel to local Earth’s magnetic field from the brain and body. These structures
cannot however coincide with the field structures or Earth and flux tubes carrying magnetic field
much weaker than Earth’s magnetic field could be involved. For instance, eye contains static field of
about 10 pT and the magnetic particles of lungs give rise to magnetic fields of order 10 nT. Also brain
contains magnetic particles and they presumably give rise to net static magnetic field besides taking
care that sensory projectors are oriented parallel to magnetic field and thus define a fixed coordinate
frame for the sensory representations.
Ordinary magnetic fields with these typical intensities could be accompanied by dark magnetic
fields satisfying B
end
= 2B/5 and corresponding to n = 5 length of dark matter having flux tube radii
scaled up by factor n = 5 and perhaps making possible topological quantum computation in some
sense [E9].
The transversal surface area (thickness) of the magnetic flux tube would code for the distance of
the perceptive field or, more generally, some geometric property of a feature. The magnetic structures
associated with pyramidal cells and red blood cells could anchor the coordinate frame for the sensory
representations to the coordinate frame defined by the directions of Earth’s magnetic and gravitational
fields. Somehow the orientation of the ME projectors must be anchored to this frame and vertical
flux tube structures might allow to achieve this anchoring. The cellular magnetic dipoles should be
parallel to the local Earth’s magnetic field which suggests that vertical magnetic fields might have
different origin.
2. Magnetospheric representations
Is the notion of personal magnetic sensory canvas necessary? One could consider also the possibility
that everything is represented on the flux tubes structures of Earth’s magnetic (and Z
0
magnetic)
field.
1. If only the magnetic flux tube structures are used so that sensory representations mean sharing
of the brainy mental image with the mental image of Mother Gaia about position, one ends
up with problems relating to space traveller consciousness. For instance, the nearby magnetic
field around the moon traveller should differ dramatically from that at the surface of Earth so
that contents of consciousness should change dramatically. This is not the case. Thus it seems
that personal sensory magnetic canvas is there and codes at least for the sensory experience.
Magnetic Mother Gaia could however contribute to various third person aspects of consciousness
and also to memory.
2. TGD based explanation of near death experiences supports the notion of magnetic body remain-
ing after the ’physical death’ and this body could correspond to the vertical magnetic flux tube
structure or part of the magnetospheric sensory canvas.
3. Vertical magnetic flux tubes would also make possible a direct interaction between brain and
Earth’s magnetic field. Sharing and fusion of our mental images and the mental images of Mother
Gaia becomes possible. In particular, supra currents could flow between magnetic sensory canvas
of Mother Gaia and brain and allow the control of organisms.
40 Chapter 1. Magnetospheric Sensory Representations
Thus it would seem that it is best to be as general as possible. Personal magnetic canvases should
be there but also Mother Gaia is interested about what happens in our brain and contributes to our
consciousness by the sharing of mental images.
Place coding
Place coding is one of the key ideas of TGD based theory of sensory and motor representations. Place
coding relies on the observation that the local strength of the magnetic field determines which em
frequency induces magnetic transitions of the super-conducting particles residing at a given distance
along the magnetic flux tube having a varying thickness. Therefore it becomes possible to code
geometric information to frequency and translate it to a distance along the magnetic flux tube. Thus
the requirement that endogenous frequency equals to the magnetic transition frequency determines a
two-dimensional surface of the magnetosphere and in the case of personal sensory canvas point of the
magnetic flux tube.
Endogenous cyclotron frequency f
c
corresponds to ME with length with is multiple of the minimal
length L = c/f
c
, f
c
= qB/2πm, where q and m are the charge and mass of the charge carrier.
If this length equals to the distance from brain to the point of the sensory canvas, ME acts as a
waveguide amplifying the signal. This condition is very stringent and in the case of magnotosphere
allows only one-dimensional curves as its solution. In the case of the personal sensory canvas S ∝ L
condition for the transversal area S of the magnetic flux tube as function of its length L guarantees
resonance condition. In the case of magnetic mirrors, a further amplification results from the TGD
counterparts of Alfven waves representing oscillations of the magnetic flux tube and satisfying the
dispersion relation f
n
= nc/2L.
One must however notice the possibility that ME (and corresponding parallel magnetic flux tube
in the case of a magnetic mirror) only intersects Earth’s magnetic flux tube rather than ending to it.
in the case of ULF frequencies associated as magnetic transition frequencies with the magnetic lobes
carrying very weak magnetic fields one must indeed assume that MEs can be much longer than the
distance from Earth to the activated point of the sensory canvas. Meteor sounds provide support for
the existence for MEs having length λ = c/f, f ∼ 40 Hz.
1. Place coding for features inside brain
The presence of endogenous magnetic fields giving rise to a magnetic circulation analogous to blood
circulation is assumed. The strength of the endogenous magnetic field must be near to that of Earth’s
magnetic field. Endogenous place coding of the features by magnetic flux tube thickness is assumed
and there is evidence for this [45]. The genetically coded magnetic crystals inside pyramidal neurons
and haemoblobin molecules could serve as sources of magnetic fields. If endogenous magnetic fields
result from the self-organization of Earth’s magnetic field, one can understand why the flux quanta
of the complex endogenous magnetic fields have approximately the same thickness as those of Earth’s
magnetic field.
2. Place coding at the personal magnetic sensory canvas
The simplest hypothesis is that personal magnetic canvas consists of a magnetic flux tube bundle
defining an almost vertical cone and that each straight flux tube is accompanied by a parallel ME.
This structure will be referred to as magnetic mirror with the understanding that the ends of ME
intersecting the magnetic flux tube define the mirrors. A ME of length L acts naturally as a wave guide
amplifying frequencies, which come as harmnonics of the fundamental frequency f = c/L (whether
also f = c/2L might be considered: this depends on the boundary conditions).
ME could intersect the flux tube at any point of the tube. Alfven waves [25] correspond in TGD
framework to oscillations of magnetic flux tubes and have spectrum f
n
= nc/2L for fluxtube length
L. More general types of Alfven waves result if the magnetic flux tube has some kind discontinuity
or sharp gradient in which Alfven waves are reflected. The intersection of ME with flux tube (this is
the optimal situation) or a highly curved portion of the magnetic flux tube could serve as this kind
of discontinuity. Alfven waves or reflected Alfven waves can resonantly amplify the wave propagating
inside ME.
Since magnetic flux is quantized, the average intensity of the magnetic field inside the flux tube
is proportional to its transverse area S. Place coding by magnetic transition frequencies is achieved
if the transverse area S of the flux tube is proportional to the distance L along the tube: S ∝ L.
1.3. General assumptions about sensory and motor representations 41
This law can obviously hold true only above some threshold distance L
min
. An explicit form of the
resonance condition reads as
f =
c
L
= f
m
=
keB
m
= f
max
m
S
min
S
,
f
max
m
=
keB
max
m
. (1.3.1)
Here k is a numerical constant characterizing the particular magnetic transition frequency and f
max
m
is the maximum value of the endogenous frequency and S
min
corresponding flux tube thickness. This
implies
L =
c
f
max
m
S
S
e
=
m
keB
max
S
S
min
. (1.3.2)
For L > L
min
the surface of the flux tube is paraboloid. Note that there is separate flux tube for
each kind of magnetic transition frequency, in particular for each ion. Harmonics of a given cyclotron
frequency can be however coded by the harmonics of the fundamental frequency ME.
Certain findings about the imprinting of water frequencies [31] can be understood if the endogenous
magnetic flux tubes satisfy the L ∝ S law [K5]. Among other things this law also implies that the
energy density of the magnetic field per unit length is constant: this is very natural in equilibrium
situation.
MEs need not be straight cylinder like structures: the general solution ansatz allows also curved
MEs but it is not clear whether any curved magnetic flux tube could form a magnetic mirror with a
parallel ME. The magnetic flux tubes associated with the personal magnetic canvas need not be (only)
those of Earth’s magnetic field and the entire p-adic length scale hierarchy might be involved. For
instance, the static magnetic field associated with eye is about 10 pT and corresponds to electronic
cyclotron period about 8.87 seconds. If head is accompanied by a magnetic flux tube of thickness of
order 8 cm, flux quantization implies that the corresponding electronic cyclotron time is of order 30
minutes.
3. Place coding for magnetospheric representations
In the case of magnetospheric representations analogous place coding can be assumed for the
distances of the objects of the perceptive field and translates the distance to a cyclotron frequency
scale defined by Earth’s magnetic field. The thickness for the magnetic flux tube of Earth’s magnetic
field, varying as (r/R)
3/2
in dipole approximation, provides the place coding for the the distance of an
object of perceptive field. EEG ME with ionic cyclotron frequency generates cyclotron transition at
the magnetic flux tube of Earth and is assumed to create sensory self representing experienced position
(’feeling of existence’) entangled with various sub-selves of brain representing ’features’. This can be
also interpreted as a sharing and fusion of mental images: one of them possessed by the ’magnetic
Mother Gaia’ and the second one by the organism.
In the simplest model EEG MEs generate magnetic transitions at magnetic flux tubes amplified to
quantum phase transitions at and in this manner give rise to the sensory and other representations.
4. How projector EEG MEs are generated?
EEG MEs are generated by the dropping of ions from the atomic (or some larger) space-time sheets
to the magnetic flux tubes of endogenous magnetic fields having roughly the same strength as Earth’s
magnetic field. The dropping ion enters into a cyclotron state with a high value of magnetic quantum
number n, and this state decays by emitting ELF radiation at multiples of the cyclotron frequency.
These ELF photons or ELF em fields in turn can induce magnetic transitions at the magnetic flux
tubes of the appropriate magnetic structure.
This mechanism need not be realized only at the level of brain. Also the plasma rich transition
regions of the magnetosphere having interpretation as magnetospheric counterparts of brain structures
could communicate with other similar regions by the same mechanism. What is needed is that the
plasma ions return to high n cyclotron state at the magnetic flux tube, which then decays by emitting
cyclotron radiation having MEs are topological correlate. Magneto-pause, plasma sheet, the transition
region between inner and outer magnetospheres, and radiation belts are especially natural candidates
for regions communicating in this manner.
42 Chapter 1. Magnetospheric Sensory Representations
Hierarchy and modularity of representations
An entire hierarchy of sensory representations is predicted. Scaling law states that there is a mapping
of brainy p-adic length scales L to much longer p-adic length scales L
EEG
= λ
EEG
= (c/v) L, where
v is the typical conduction velocity for nerve pulses [M2]. The interpretation is that there is a physical
mechanism transforming of EEG frequencies to much higher endogenous frequencies
f
h
= c/L = (c/v)f
EEG
, (1.3.3)
and vice versa [K6].
Quantum entanglement between different levels of the hierarchy makes possible modularity. The
features assigned by quantum entanglement to a given point of the sensory canvas at given level can
be representations realized at some lower level canvas. For instance, simple geometric features like
triangles and circles could be represented at lower level canvas and associated with a point of higher
level sensory canvas by quantum entanglement.
Similar hierarchical structure and modularity is expected to hold true for the representations at
the magnetospheric sensory canvas. This applies also to the motor representations. This means
modulation hierarchy. The lower level in the hierarchy adds kind of a ripple to the long wave length
representation at the higher level. This applies also in the temporal domain. Thus rough control
commands from higher level are gradually detailed at the lower levels (motor action as carving of
4-dimensional statue by adding gradually increasingly finer details).
Also Z
0
magnetospheric representations could be there
Z
0
magnetic fields are crucial in the model of hearing and the memetic code believed to be behind the
spoken language [M6]. Cognitive neutrinos pairs could provide one realization of the memetic code
[M6]. Most importantly, classical Z
0
force could be strong in the biologically most relevant length
scales. Indeed, the p-adic length scales corresponding to k = 151, 157, 163, 167 are in the range 10-2500
nm. These primes correspond to Gaussian Mersennes (1 + i)
k
− 1 and are excellent candidates for
defining p-adic lengths scales associated with scaled down fractal copies of standard model physics.
The reason is that the known smaller Mersennes and Gaussian Mersennes correspond to physically
important length scales in the hitherto studied energy range (below TeV energies).
The work of Shnoll [51] demonstrates a correlation between fluctuations of radioactive and biolog-
ical rates and astrophysical periods. This encourages to think that quantum communications resp.
control based on Z
0
resp. W MEs could be present also at the level of solar system and even longer
length scales. The interpretation would be in terms of dark variants of weak bosons having very low
masses.
1.3.5 What brain structure and fractality teaches about magnetospheric
motor control?
The first bundle of questions relates to the idea that brain structure and fractality could teach some-
thing about magnetospheric motor control (and perhaps also vice versa!).
Can one identify magnetospheric motor and sensory areas?
The mapping of the brain structure to that of magnetosphere to be discussed later in detail leads to
the conclusion that day side outer magnetosphere very naturally corresponds to hind brain containing
associated sensory areas whereas night side outer magnetosphere would correspond to frontal brain
containing associative motor areas and association regions for high level planning. For the inner
magnetosphere the only sensible option is that the representations at the same side of the globe
correspond to sensory areas (otherwise one cannot realize 40 Hz sensory representations): those at
the opposite side of the globe could, but need, not to correspond to motor areas. Right and left brain
hemisphere in turn correspond to northern and southern magnetohemispheres.
The example of brain suggests that the lowest motor and sensory areas are relatively hard wired.
The higher areas responsible for the imagination and planning of the motor action should be less hard
wired. Thus the areas responsible for planning imagination should be initial value sensitive and near
1.3. General assumptions about sensory and motor representations 43
to criticality. This would suggest that in the case of magnetosphere transition regions are the regions
which are most natural candidates for sensory and motor areas. Bow shock, magneto-pause, plasma
sheet, the transition region between inner and outer magnetosphere, and inner and outer radiation
belts are good candidates for this kind of regions. Inner and outer radiation belts and the transition
region between inner and outer magnetosphere could correspond to primary, secondary and tertiary
sensory and motor areas whereas magneto-pause would correspond to sensory and motor associative
regions. Even bow shock might be involved.
The magnetosphere of Earth is part of the solar magnetosphere and if helio-magnetosphere controls
the behavior of the planetary magnetospheres, it must use those parts of the planetary magnetospheres
which it can affect. Note that the effect of the solar spot activity on the human sensory consciousness
(complex hallucinations) could be understood as being partially due to the effect of the solar wind on
the day side magneto-pause, which is the counterpart of the sensory associative areas.
How do the magnetospheric structures communicate?
Ionic supra currents are the most obvious means of communication and would be counterpart for the
corresponding communications at the level of brain a la TGD. Also Ohmic ionic currents in plasma
rich regions (the current along plasma sheet down to ionosphere, ring currents,...).
The topology of Earth’s magnetic field provides a good overall view about the ’neural circuitry’ of
Mother Gaia. There are ionic supra currents flowing along magnetic flux tubes around magnetosphere,
both inner and outer. In the case of magnetic lobe, which seems to extend to the distance 10
3
R these
currents are also present. Radiation belts contain besides ring currents also ionic supra currents
running back and forth along magnetic flux tubes. Josephson junctions between magnetic flux tubes
might be an overall important aspect of the communications.
There are also currents associated with the transition regions where the tangential component
of the magnetic field changes (magneto-pause, transition region between inner and outer magneto-
sphere, the boundary of the plasma sheet,...) running along the transition surface and orthogonal
to the discontinuity of the magnetic field. These currents might be also supra currents and make
possible horizontal communications inside these structures (magneto-pause would be the counterpart
of associative regions) analogous to the horizontal neural communications inside regions of brain.
The regions of magnetosphere could communicate also by ME projectors. Also resonance is possi-
ble. For instance, the day side magneto-pause (associative sensory regions) and night side magneto-
pause (associative motor regions) could communicate by projector MEs associated with the protonic
cyclotron transitions and electronic spin flip transition.
What is the counterpart of the thalamocortical circuitry?
One can also make questions about the counterpart of the thalamocortical resonance circuitry.
1. Inner and outer radiation belts turn out to be the magnetospheric counterparts of the primary
and secondary sensory (same side of the globe) and motor (opposite side of the globe) areas in
the mapping of the brain structures to magnetospheric structures. If the magnetic flux tubes
of Earth emanate also from brains as they should do, a direct interaction with brain with the
mediation of the supra currents becomes possible. Second form of control is based on ME
projectors, in particular Z
0
MEs.
2. Radiation belts do not only serve as radiation shield but would control the super-conducting
dynamo generating magnetosphere. Since radiation belts are strongly affected by cosmic rays
and solar wind, they indeed serve as kind of motor organ in very general sense. During solar
storms the ionic supra currents running back and forth in radiation belts can leak from the
magnetic bottle and end up to the the super-conducting dynamo in Earth interior and thus
modify the strength of magnetic field. This control would be the magnetospheric counterpart of
long term control of brain upon itself changing the very structure of brain.
3. Earth’s inner core takes the role of thalamus in the mapping between brain and magnetospheric
structures. This would suggest that Earth’s inner core serves as a relay station through which
the ionic supra currents run between regions of magnetospheric brain. Thalamocortical feedback
suggests a strong feedback from radiation belts to magnetospheric thalamus and the dipole
44 Chapter 1. Magnetospheric Sensory Representations
structure of the magnetic field guarantees this. This would however require that the super
conducting ions can leak from the magnetic bottle formed by the increasing strength of the
magnetic field inside magnetic tube toward northern and southern latitudes. Classically this is
achieved if the longitudinal kinetic energy of the charged particle is high enough so that it is not
completely transformed to the energy of the transversal motion before entering into the core. It
is known that the ions can have much higher energies than expected [23].
1.3.6 Do the structures of nervous system and magnetosphere correspond
to each other fractally?
Control levels corresponding to magnetic and Z
0
magnetic transition frequencies varying up to the
time scale of life cycle might be present and correspond to a hierarchy of motor canvases.If this is
the case, the hierarchy would continue to the length scale of light life. Z
0
magnetic structures more
or less resembling magnetic ones could be responsible for the hierarchy of motor canvases whereas
magnetic structures could represent sensory canvases. The resonance condition f = c/L fixes the
representational hierarchy practically completely by telling the distance at which given frequency is
representable resonantly.
The correspondence between sensory areas and the periods of the periodic table follows from the
p-adic length scale hypothesis and v = Lf scaling law [K6]. The model for the magnetospheric sensory
canvas gives hopes of understanding this hierarchy at a deeper level, and leads to a general vision about
how sensory experience, memory, and imagination correlate with the structure of the magnetosphere.
It must be emphasized that sensory representations of magnetic Mother Gaia are in question:
these representations might however be behind our memories and imagination. These representations
could result as a by-product of the representations at personal sensory canvas and magnetosphere.
The best one can hope that there is a detailed correspondence between brain structures and those of
magnetosphere induced by the projector MEs associated with the personal sensory canvas.
Representations in the ionosphere
For the representations in the lower ionosphere the transition frequencies would not differ appreciably
from those at the surface of Earth and the representing ion could be same as the endogenous ion.
10 per cent variation for the endogenous transition frequency would mean variation of 3.3 per cent
for distance so that the representations using same ions would make sense up from 1.01R to 1.04R
which means the height interval 80-190 km (note that the lower boundary of ionosphere is at about 80
km). Endogenous magnetic field should be at least about 1 percent lower than the external magnetic
field to guarantee that representation is above 80 km. Distance condition cannot be satisfied for these
representations if one assumes that MEs have length equal to the distance from the representation
point.
These representations would correspond to the lowest level representations associated with neurons,
spine, and brain stem, which have emerged first during the evolution and should emerge first also
during the development of individual. Also features could be represented using these low level sensory
canvases and entangled to the points of the higher level sensory canvases.
At higher heights the representations with A
I
< A are in principle possible and could form a
hierarchy. At r = 2R representing the upper boundary of ionosphere protonic cyclotron frequency is
37.5 Hz.
4
He
+
ion would have cyclotron frequency about 12 Hz at this height. Rather remarkably,
thalamocortical resonance frequency corresponds to the protonic radiation belt where the density of
ions is high and representation should be intense.
Inner magnetosphere does not allow representations in theta and delta bands
The resonance condition f = c/L stating that ME acts as a resonant wave, when applied at the
boundaries of the inner magnetosphere (4R at day side and 6R at night side), implies the lower bound
12.5 Hz resp 8.1 Hz for the frequencies representable at day side resp. night side. The conclusion is
that in day side only beta and gamma bands are representable whereas night side allows also alpha
band. This representation independent prediction is of utmost importance since at least our sensory
and cognitive consciousness involves mostly beta and gamma bands and during sleep and meditative
states theta and delta bands dominate.
1.3. General assumptions about sensory and motor representations 45
One could also wonder whether the first person aspect of consciousness corresponds to the inner
magnetosphere rotating with Earth and whether transpersonal consciousness (me experienced from
third person perspective as in OBE experiences) could correspond to the outer magnetosphere (which
does not rotate with Earth) plus plasma sheet. The frequencies near Schumann frequency would be
at the boundary of these two modes of consciousness. During hypnagogy which is between these two
modes, Schumann frequency indeed dominates EEG.
Protonic cyclotron transitions represent resonantly in the range 12.5 −100 Hz (note that the up-
per bound corresponds to the highest EEG frequencies) and maximum protonic flux in the protonic
radiation belt corresponds to frequencies around 40 Hz thalamocortical resonance band. The repre-
sentation at the same side of the globe would be responsible for immediate sensory memories and
the representation at the opposite side of the globe for symbolic, more long term memories. Also
electronic spin flip represents: the maximum of the electron density in the outer radiation belt corre-
sponds roughly to 12.5 Hz frequency. The deviation of the magnetic field from the exact dipole form
modifies this prediction somewhat. Electronic Z
0
spin flip frequency varies in the range 9.4 −25.0 Hz
and could represent symbolically motor skills (opposite side of the globe and alpha band) and motor
imagination occurring in a shorter time scale (the same side of the globe and beta band).
Plasma sheet and magneto-pause and consciousness in theta and delta bands
Because of their highly unstable character, both plasma sheet and magneto-pause accompanied by
plasma mantle might be seats of the magnetospheric imagination and very high level bio-control
realized using protons and electrons. Plasma sheet might also receive sensory input from the magneto-
pause.
Ionic density is a direct measure for the intensity of the contribution to the conscious experience
coming from given region of space and this is a natural criterion when one tries to understand the
possible roles of various magnetospheric structures for consciousness. Plasma sheet [21] indeed contains
a high density of ions and thus could act as a layer of effectively two-dimensional computer screens of
thickness of order R. In this region the intensity of magnetic field transforms from 10 nT to about 20
nT inside lobe immediately above plasma sheet. According to some sources the value of the magnetic
field is 30 nT inside the lobe: this might hold true in nearby region. The structure suggests a sensory
or a motor representation in which the vertical distance from the sheet represents the distance for the
object of perceptive field.
The resonance condition f = c/L (higher harmonics of fundamental frequency for ME are not
allowed) implies that only frequencies from 8.1 Hz down to .8 Hz, that is theta and delta band, can
be represented in plasma sheet whereas alpha, beta and gamma bands would be represented in the
inner magnetosphere at the night side. At the day side only beta and gamma bands are representable.
The higher harmonics of protonic cyclotron frequencies make it possible to satisfy this condition in
the plasma sheet (the distance of the representing surface varies as r/R ∝ 1/n). Various cyclotron
harmonics would be nicely ordered along the plasma sheet. Similar conclusion holds true in the case
of magneto-pause. Also electronic cyclotron spin flip frequency provides single representation.
The harmonics of the electronic Z
0
cyclotron frequency provide representations in this region. The
time scale is very slow: roughly Z
0
representation could be responsible for high level motor control,
perhaps for learned motor skills.
The electronic cyclotron spin flip frequency would be of order 1 cycle per 5 seconds whereas
protonic cyclotron frequency would be 1 cycle per 15 seconds. 5 second time scale is involved with
Comorosan effect. Furthermore, a 5 second delay that has been observed between the onset of a 1 to 2
mT magnetic field (about 40 times stronger than Earth’s magnetic field) and the first bursts of brain
activity responding to the magnetic field (Science 260 (11 June 1993),1590). A further fascinating
observation to be discussed later is that plasma sheet is a highly self-organizing structure containing
’features’ like ’eyes’ and ’wings’ [27].
For 10 nT magnetic field the cyclotron time scale is 16.7 seconds for protonic cyclotron transitions
and 8.9 ms (112 Hz) for electronic cyclotron transitions. For the latter time scale resonant amplification
is not possible. For Z
0
magnetic lobes cyclotron time scales are scaled up by a factor 800 to 3.7 hours
and 7.1 seconds for proton and electron respectively. For electron higher harmonics allow to satisfy
the resonance condition.
For endogenous Z
0
magnetic field the transition frequencies are around 10 Hz for all atoms and
molecules except hydrogen atom and much higher than Z
0
cyclotron frequencies in the magneto-
46 Chapter 1. Magnetospheric Sensory Representations
pause and plasma sheet. Z
0
motor control from the magneto-pause is possible if Z
0
MEs generate
endogenous sound waves by Z
0
piezoelectric effect, which in turn are transformed to electromagnetic
oscillations via the ordinary piezoelectric effect.
In light of these arguments, the idea that plasma sheet and magneto-pause could contribute to our
consciousness via the sharing of mental images might make sense. More detailed developments inspire
a very concrete mapping between brain structures and magnetospheric structures and plasma sheet
corresponds in this mapping to the magnetospheric self model located in insula whereas day side and
night side magneto-pauses correspond to sensory and motor association regions. By the sharing of
mental images also our self models are represented at plasma sheet.
Are magnetic lobes, magnetosheath, and solar magnetosphere involved?
The density in magnetic lobes is about .01 ions per cubic centimeter so that these regions are analo-
gous to the brain cavities containing white matter. Thus one might think they do not give a significant
contribution to our everyday consciousness. In TGD framework however also blood cells are excellent
candidates for defining sensory representations and this contribution to consciousness would corre-
spond to the bodily ’what it feels’ consciousness (proprioception) whereas neuronal consciousness
would represent the world as experienced from outside (seen and heard). Magnetic lobes and more
generally, all regions of the magnetosphere outside the transition regions, are good candidates for this
kind of sensory and motor representations.
According to [32] the asymptotic value of magnetic field (outside plasma sheet, r ≥ 100R) in lobes
is 9.2 nT. Second reference [39] reports 30 nT magnetic field in magnetic fields and presumably refers
to region r < 60R. The scale of frequencies is same as in plasma sheet and magneto-pause so that the
conclusions of the previous section apply.
Despite the low density of protons, the representations based on the harmonics of the cyclotron
frequency are in principle possible also inside lobes and the low intensity of experience might explain
why proprioception is an almost unconscious sense. The harmonics of the protonic cyclotron frequency
define a sequence of representation surfaces inside lobes. These representations result naturally if the
projector MEs associated with the personal sensory canvases intersect the magnetic flux tubes. The
endogenous magnetic transition frequencies would be associated with heavier molecules with mass
numbers around A ∼ 1500. If magnetic lobes contribute to our consciousness, they contribute most
probably to consciousness in meditative states. In certain sense ’cosmic’ consciousness would be in
question. The control from this level could be bio-control rather than control of the behavior of an
individual organism at conscious level.
In magnetosheath and solar magnetosphere the density of the ions is few ions per cubic centimeter
and thus much higher than inside magnetic lobes so that they are better candidates for the seats of
sensory representations. Possible are also the representations at the flux tubes of the interplanetary
magnetic field, where the density of ions is few ions per cubic centimeter and thus much higher than
inside magnetic lobes.
1.4 Resonant representations
In this section magnetospheric representations satisfying some kind of resonance condition are studied.
One can imagine several resonance mechanisms.
1. The first representation is based on the requirement that ME has length equal to the wavelength
corresponding to the magnetic transition frequency so that ME acts as a wave cavity.
2. In the case of magnetic mirror Alfven waves associated with the magnetic flux tube parallel to
ME could provide an additional resonant amplification.
3. The second representation utilizes cavity resonances (in particular Schumann resonances). Even
the representations at personal magnetic canvas could utilize this mechanism if personal projec-
tor MEs intersect the magnetic flux tubes of Earth’s magnetic field.
4. Also spherics associated with lightnings might act as amplifiers.
1.4. Resonant representations 47
1.4.1 Hierarchy of sensory representations at magnetic Mother Gaia
In principle the cyclotron transitions of a given ion with mass number A in brain could be represented
as transitions of any lighter ion with mass number A
I
carried by magnetic flux tubes of Earth’s
magnetic field. Thus one obtains a hierarchy of representations labelled by the pairs (A, A
I
), A
I
≤ A.
1. The magnetic sensory canvas defined by Earth’s magnetic field contains certainly protons. The
requirement that the ionic cyclotron frequency f
p
/A in brain equals to the protonic cyclotron
frequency f
p
at the magnetic flux tube of Earth’s magnetic field at distance r gives in dipole
approximation (implying 1/r
3
behavior) the constraint
r
R
= KF(Θ, θ) ,
F =
_
_
1 −6cos(Θ) + 9cos
2
(Θ)
_
1 −6cos(θ) + 9cos
2
(θ)
_
1/3
,
K = A
1/3
. (1.4.1)
The angle dependent factor F(Θ, θ), where θ denotes the polar angle for brain and Θ for the
point of magnetosphere, comes from polar angle dependence of the magnetic field. F(θ, Θ) varies
in the range [1/2, 2]. The sensory canvases associated with heavier ions are farther away. For
θ = Θ (vertical projection) one has r/R = A
1/3
and A = 20 gives r/R · 2.1 and A = 100 gives
r/R ∼ 4.6.
2. The magnetic flux tubes containing electrons provide second very natural sensory representation.
The formula for the distance reads now as
K = (m
p
/me)
1/3
A
1/3
. (1.4.2)
3. Any ion can serve as a representative ion at the sensory canvas and the distance is in general
case given by given by
K = (A/A
I
)
1/3
. (1.4.3)
The higher the mass number of representing ion at the canvas, the shorter is the distance to the
canvas. The increase of the mass of the ’brainy’ ion means the increase of the distance of the
representation.
4. The endogenous variation of flux tube thickness and the deviation of Earth’s magnetic field from
the exact dipole form implies the generalization of the formula
r
R
= K (B
e
/B(r, Θ)
1/3
. (1.4.4)
Here B
e
∼ .5 Gauss denotes the endogenous value of the Earth’s magnetic field whose variation
is essential for the frequency coding. B(r, Θ) denotes the value of the Earth’s magnetic field at
given point of magnetic flux tube.B
e
must be distinguished from dark magnetic field B
end
=
2B
E
/5 = .2 Gauss used to explain the findings of Blackman and others. The simplest assumption
is that the condition B
end
/B
E
= 2/5 is satisfied quite generally in magnetosphere.
48 Chapter 1. Magnetospheric Sensory Representations
5. Even the ions of macromolecules could drop on the magnetic flux tubes of the endogenous
magnetic field so that one could have an onion like hierarchy of sensory canvases labelled by
the atomic weight A of the ion. Cellular size is certainly the upper bound for the size of the
ionized structure and for water density this would give the upper bound r/R < 10
4
R ∼ 10
10
meters in protonic case, and r/R < 10
11
meters in electronic case, approximately the size of the
solar system. Small variations of the ionic cyclotron frequency in brain correspond to the small
variations of radial distance at the magnetic sensory magnetic canvas.
6. If one does not allow overlap of the regions of magnetic sensory canvases associated with different
ions in brain (mass number A) one must have
B
min
B
0

A
A+ 1
or
B
0
B
max

A
A+ 1
. (1.4.5)
For large values of A ∼ 100 this allows one percent variation of cyclotron frequency scale.
Actually larger variation is possible since only biologically important ions are involved with the
sensory representations.
1.4.2 Endogenous frequency fixes the representation sphere
The elegance of the place coding by magnetic transition frequency is that the excitation of the fre-
quency corresponding to a given distance automatically stimulates magnetic transition at a correct
distance at the sensory canvas. There is only weak dependence on the position of the observer at the
surface of Earth even when some fixed structure, say magnetosphere is used to realize the sensory
representations. Given frequency determines for given brain a two-dimensional surface (kind of com-
puter screen) of magnetosphere, actually two of them corresponding to different sides of Earth. In
some cases the number of this kind of surfaces might be larger.
A given endogenous cyclotron frequency
f
m
= k
eB
end
m
, (1.4.6)
where k is a numerical constant, in turn defines a 2-dimensional surface. The harmonics of endogenous
cyclotron frequency define a sequence of surfaces with increasing sizes. In the dipole approximation
B = B(R, φ = π/2)
R
3
r
3
(e
z
−3cos(Θ)e
r
) , (1.4.7)
the harmonics of the cyclotron frequency this sequence is given by
ke
m
B(R, π/2)
R
3
r
3

_
1 −6cos(Θ) + 9cos
2
(Θ) = f
end
= nf
m
, (1.4.8)
which are obtained by the scaling r →n
−1/3
r from n = n
min
surface. This scaling property holds quite
generally and for transitions involving spin flip the scaling factor changes from n
−1/3
to (n +∆)
−1/3
.
The distance between subsequent surfaces behaves as 1/n
4/3
and becomes small for large values of
n. Note however that finite range [n
min
, n
max
] of values for n is possible By varying the endogenous
magnetic field the scale of the cyclotron frequency can be varied.
In magnetic lobes and plasma sheet the dipole approximation fails badly. Inside plasma sheet
the representing surfaces are in a good approximation sheets parallel to plasma sheet. Magnetic field
strength varies B
E
from ∼ 10 nT to ∼ 20 nT from the interior of sheet to the exterior of sheet so that
one octave of frequencies is still representable also for B
end
by the basic assumptions. These sheets
appear as northern-southern degenerate pairs. This brings in mind the left-right degeneracy of the
sensory representations at the level of brain. The hypothesis that left and right brain hemispheres
project to opposite magneto-hemispheres is at least worth of studying. Resonance at the fundamental
1.4. Resonant representations 49
frequency of the projector ME is possible only if the representation is realized at very long distance:
for an electronic cyclotron spin flip the resonance distance would be 272R and for proton cyclotron
resonance 817R.
Note that also the representations below Earth’s surface must be considered since projector MEs
should be able to penetrate the Faraday cage defined by Earth’s surface (the cage is associated with
atomic space-time sheets only). These high frequency representations might be also relevant.
1.4.3 Projector MEs as wave cavities
EEG contains several resonances frequencies and the most natural explanation for them is as reso-
nances in a wave cavity defined by ME having length equal to the resonance wavelength defined by
the endogenous magnetic transition frequency. The nice aspect of this representation is the possibility
of resonant amplification of the EEG signal.
Resonance conditions
Projector MEs could be reflected from the flux tubes of Earth’s magnetic field at distance L, which at
resonance of n:th order is integer multiple nL
m
of the magnetic transition length L
m
= c/f
m
, where
f
m
represents a variable endogenous magnetic transition frequency:
L = nL
m
=
c
f
m
. (1.4.9)
Thus the sensory canvas for a given frequency is a subset of a brain centered sphere of radius L
m
[r −r
brain
[ = L = nL
m
. (1.4.10)
The intersection of this surface with the sphere surrounding the brain defines 1-dimensional curve
where the resonance occurs. For large values of L = nL
m
the conditions do not have any solutions at
all. This is clear from the fact that L behaves like r
3
whereas [r −r
brain
[ behaves as r and grows much
slower. Thus solutions can be found only for sufficiently high endogenous frequencies representable as
high harmonics of the cyclotron frequencies at the magnetic canvas.
1. The situation in which longitudinal momentum increment vanishes
If the magnetic transition is such that one can neglect the increment of the longitudinal momentum
of the representing particle, one obtains is a set of one-dimensional curves labelled by the pairs (n
c
, n)
of integers. Each harmonic n
c
of the cyclotron frequency gives rise to to closely space one-dimensional
curves on the corresponding sphere. The variation of the endogenous cyclotron frequency scale implies
that a set of two-dimensional surfaces close to each other is obtained. For large values of n this gives
quite good representation for the sensory canvas although the quantization of 3-dimensional volume
to 2-dimensional surfaces is unavoidable. From the point of view of information processing this
compression of information is desirable.
For a given cyclotron harmonic n
c
one can get a good grasp about the situation by solving n
c
from
the resonance condition when projector ME is vertical:
n
c
=
2πf
s
f
c
(r = R, θ)
x
3
x +

2πf
s
f
c
(r = R, θ)
x
2
, x →∞ . (1.4.11)
= ±1 refers to the representation at the same/opposite side of the globe. For large values of x one
has n
c
∝ x
2
so that the distance behaves like the radius of a Bohr orbit for a quantized harmonic
oscillator.
In the plasma sheet the time averaged magnetic field is constant equal to B
E
∼ 10 nT. The
harmonics of a given cyclotron frequency f
c
= qB/2πm define a series of octave wide representations
at the plasma sheet. The distance r associated with a given cyclotron frequency is given by the
resonance condition as
50 Chapter 1. Magnetospheric Sensory Representations
x ≡
r
R
= − +
k
n
c
, k ≡
2πf
s
f
c
, (1.4.12)
where f
s
= c/2πR = 7.8 Hz is Schumann frequency. = ±1 corresponds to the representations at the
same/opposide side of the globe. The condition 8 ≤ x ≤ 60 gives the bounds k/(60+) ≤ n
c
≤ k/(8+)
for n
c
. For instance, for proton the allowed range of harmonics is 13 ≤ n
c
≤ 90.
2. Taking into account the increment of longitudinal momentum
The previous discussion is oversimplified in that it does not take into account the increment of the
longitudinal momentum of the representing particle. The ions at the magnetic flux tubes have also
kinetic energy E = k
2
/2m, = 1 associated with the longitudinal motion (this is indeed the case for
the magnetic flux tubes of Earth’s magnetic field). The possibility that the longitudinal kinetic energy
of large number of ions changes in the magnetic quantum phase transition simultaneously brings in
an additional degree of freedom, which replaces the discrete curve associated with a given endogenous
frequency with a set of curves.
In this case the formula for n
c
(assuming that the projector is in the vertical direction) generalizes
to
n
c
=
_
2πf
s
1
x +

∆k
2
4πm
_
x
3
f
c
(r = R, θ)
. (1.4.13)
Clearly the variation of k allows variation of x characterizing the length of ME.
The effective continuity of the new degree of freedom is not guaranteed since the value of the
momentum k is quantized to the multiple of k
0
= π/l, where l is the length of the magnetic flux
tube, just as in the case of the Alfven waves so that one might expect a coupling of super-conducting
particles to Alfven waves to be present. The representation with a given endogenous frequency becomes
effectively continuous and thus two-dimensional if the condition
∆k
2
2m
·
2k∆k
m
¸nf
c
(1.4.14)
holds true. This implies that the representation obtained by varying the endogenous frequency be-
comes effectively 3-dimensional.
The quantization of the longitudinal momentum implies that the condition is not trivially satisfied
and requires
E
||
¸ πn
c
f
c
. (1.4.15)
For energetic ions and electrons the new degree of freedom is still more discrete than that associated
with cyclotron frequency (recall that cyclotron energy scale is extremely low).
For highly relativistic particles (say electronic Cooper pairs in outer radiation belt with energies
up to 10 MeV) with energy higher than the rest mass, the longitudinal kinetic energy is in a good
approximation given by E
||
= n
||
πc/l and in this case the effective condition reduces to l ¸ L,
which is satisfied in a reasonable approximation. Thus electronic radiation belts could give rise
to effectively 2-dimensional representations whereas nearby representations in the ionosphere and
protonic representations would be one-dimensional. In particular, 40 Hz protonic representations
would be one-dimensional.
Can one understand basic facts about sensory representations?
The basic prediction is that resonance representations are effectively three-dimensional if the increment
of the longitudinal kinetic energy of the ions is small in the magnetic transition and if the endogenous
frequency varies. If the increment of the longitudinal energy is not possible, the representations are
2-dimensional and reduce to 1-dimensional if endogenous frequency does not vary. In general case
1.4. Resonant representations 51
one obtains actually a sequence of representation surfaces with effectively quantize three-space to a
collection of 2-dimensional surfaces.
Brain indeed contains two-dimensional representations: consider only the somatosensory maps of
skin. Also the visual information from retina is two-dimensional and the objects of the visual field are
represented as two-dimensional surfaces. The 3-dimensional visual field could result as a high level
construct but it is not at all obvious whether genuinely three-dimensional representations are really
needed. The compression of information implied by discretization might be more useful than faithful
3-dimensional representation.
Many fundamental features (such as edges, lines, triangles, circles) in the sensory representations
of brain seem to be one-dimensional. Quantum entanglement between various levels in the hierarchy
of sensory representations allows modularity so that an object of a lower level representation can be
assigned to a point of a higher level sensory canvas. Low level representations, say 40 Hz represen-
tation at primary sensory areas are two- or one-dimensional depending on whether the endogenous
frequency varies or not. By quantum entanglement these one- or two-dimensional features might be
associated with higher level representations which might be non-resonant and thus genuinely two or
three-dimensional representation for the positions of the perceptive field.
Could also Alfven waves be involved?
A further interesting point is related to the Alfven waves. Alfven waves are a somewhat phenomeno-
logical concept based on the notion of field line resonance (FLR). The idea is to treat field line as
a system analogous to a violin string so that the frequencies of the modes are given by ω = nk
||
,
k
||
= nπ/L, where L is the length of the field line. Whether Maxwell’s equations really allow FLR
concept has been questioned [22].
Amusingly, it seems that Alfven’s intuition might have gone far beyond Maxwell’s theory. In TGD
framework FLR modes correspond to the oscillation modes of the magnetic flux tubes and are very
similar to the massless modes associated with strings (see the appendix). For straight flux tubes
parallel MEs with same length as the magnetic flux tube would couple to the FLR modes resonantly
and the ends of the magnetic flux tube would act as a pair of mirrors. This resonance mechanism
might be crucial for the representations at the personal magnetic sensory canvas.
Also curvilinear MEs are possible but it is not clear whether the general solution ansatz for MEs
allows also curvilinear MEs so that any flux tube would couple resonantly to parallel MEs. In this
case the resonance condition would state that the length from brain along the magnetic flux tube
to the representation point equals to the wavelength associated with the magnetic frequency at the
representation point. This would allow to widen the representational repertoire to lower frequencies.
1.4.4 Sensory representations appear as night-day conjugate pairs
MEs should penetrate the Faraday cages defined, not only by the low boundary of ionosphere, but
also by Earth itself. This means that it is possible to have sensory representations at the other side
of the globe. As found, resonance conditions for the representation points at the same side of the
globe do not have solutions for too low values of the magnetic transition frequency since the sphere
associated with the observer is so large that it does not intersect the magnetic transition frequency =
constant surface. One can however improve the situation by allowing the representation at the other
side of globe. Thus representations come as pairs: a high frequency representation at the same side
of Earth as the observer and a conjugate low frequency representation at the other side of the globe.
One can derive the lower bound for the resonance frequencies by simply noticing that the degenerate
cases for the sensory representations correspond to a situation in which the the vector r of the point of
the sensory canvas and the vector r−Re from the brain to the point of the sensory canvas are parallel.
In this case representation point is vertically above the brain and the length of the ME determined by
the endogenous transition frequency equals to the magnetic transition frequency in Earth’s magnetic
field. These two extremes define the frequency range which is representable for a given representative
ion with atomic weight A
I
and represented ion A.
In order to gain insight it is useful to study a simplified example idealizing Earth’s magnetic field
strength behaves strictly as 1/r
3
. If one requires that the length of the projector ME is same as the
distance of the activated magnetic flux tube from the surface of Earth, one obtains a condition for
the ratio A/A
I
. The vertical distance d from the surface of Earth to the flux tube would be given by
52 Chapter 1. Magnetospheric Sensory Representations
d = R((A/A
I
)
1/3
−) , (1.4.16)
whereas the length of ME is under simplest assumption cyclotron wavelength λ
c
= A/f
p
. = 1/ −1
holds true for the representation point at the same/oppposite side of the globe.
This gives the conditions
_
(A/A
I
)
1/3

¸
A

f
p
2πf
s
= 1 . (1.4.17)
Here = 1 corresponds to the representations at same side of globe and = −1 to the representations
at the opposite side of the globe. f
p
/2πf
s
· 6.1 holds true for B = .5 Gauss. The condition selects
proton (A
I
= 1) as optimal for the sensory representations.
Protonic and atomic cyclotron transitions
The numerical study of the condition of Eq. 1.4.17 in the case of proton demonstrates that the
protonically representable frequency range is 12.5 −100 Hz and thus contains beta and gamma bands
but not the lower bands. This conforms with the fact that only these bands seem to correlate directly
with our sensory and cognitive consciousness (note that these representations presumably correspond
to our memories). Na (A = 13) corresponds to the lower end of the spectrum and tritium (A = 3)
to the upper end of the spectrum. Li (A = 7) and possibly O
−−
(A/Z = 8) correspond to 40 Hz
resonance band. Of course, these considerations are only order of magnitude considerations and the
weak directional dependence of the magnetic field strength has been neglected. The homeostasis of
the endogenous magnetic field does not help to satisfy the condition since the replacement B → xB
only means the replacement A →A/x in the formula above.
Higher harmonics of the proton cyclotron frequency suggest a possibility to widen the representa-
tional repertoire to include alpha band perhaps even theta band. n = 3 cyclotron transition allows
the range (7.0 − 12.5) Hz ranging from Ca to Mg. In this case however the distances are of order
r = 6R so that dipole approximation fails and the conclusion about the representability of alpha band
are somewhat questionable.
4
He
++
(A
I
/Z = 2) ion provides a second candidate for sensory representation. This representation
allows ions with A ≤ 19 (F) and cyclotron frequencies above 15.8 Hz.
4
He
+
(A
I
/Z = 4) ion provides
a third candidate for sensory representation in this case oxygen (A=16) with cyclotron frequency 17.8
Hz is the heaviest representable molecule. It is obvious that when A
I
increases the molecular weight
of the heaviest representable molecule decreases.
Electronic transitions
Electronic cyclotron spin flip transition provides a second natural candidate for sensory representation.
Since the frequency is 902 Hz it corresponds to n = 3 cyclotron transition for proton and effectively
to A
I
= 1/3. In this case the representable frequency range is (8.6 − 18.8) Hz and contains also
alpha band. The lower end of the spectrum corresponds to Cl

(A = 35) and the upper end to
O
+
(A = 16), which are thus only marginally representable. The representable frequency range
corresponds to frequencies above 18.8 Hz.
For the electronic cyclotron transitions for which one effectively has A
I
= m
e
/m
p
, the distance
from the point of the magnetic sensory canvas is in general much longer than the minimal length
of ME so that ME frequencies must correspond to higher harmonics of the fundamental frequency
c/L. The frequencies are above 2.7 kHz for r < 6R in dipole approximation. Electronic cyclotron
transitions could provide a representation of audible frequencies above kHz whereas cyclotron spin
flip frequencies would represent audible frequencies below 1 kHz.
One could consider also the possibility of a sensory representation based on magnetic flux tubes of
the interplanetary magnetic field. The strength of magnetic field varies in the range .2 −80 nT with
average value around 6 nT. For electronic cyclotron transition the corresponding frequency range is
2.4-960 Hz with the length of projector ME varying in the range 20.4−.05R. 6 nT corresponds to 7.2 Hz
corresponding to length 6.8R of projector ME. Thus also theta and delta band are included. Since the
1.4. Resonant representations 53
the average solar magnetic field is constant it should be possible to find a point outside magnetosphere
for which the resonance condition is satisfied. For protonic representations the frequency scales are
scaled down by a factor 2
−11
and could be also realized but now the distance range is scaled up by
a factor 2
11
and this means that distances are at east of order 100R. During sunspot maxima this
contribution to consciousness should be maximal but also shifted to frequencies higher than 7.2 Hz.
Thalamocortical resonance band and magnetospheric sensory representations
The sounds produced by meteors are in the thalamocortical resonance range 37.5 −43.0 Hz instead of
the expected range 20−210
4
Hz for sferics and much stronger than expected and strongly dependent
on position and the direction of meteor [20]. This encourages the explanation in terms of resonances
associated with the projector MEs at 40 Hz band emerging from brain and also from inorganic matter
(sounds were recorded also electronically) and acting as amplifying wave guides [J3]).
In light of this thalamocortical resonance band which is excellent candidate for the cyclotron
frequencies associated with the magnetospheric sensory representations at primary sensory areas.
The resonance range is indeed bounded by A = 8 and A = 7 cyclotron frequencies (37.5 Hz and 42.9
Hz). There are two options.
1. Thalamocortical representation could be associated with Cooper pairs of Li
+
ions having A = 7.
Endogenous magnetic fields would vary in the range (7/8, 1) B
0
, B
0
= .5 Gauss, for this
representation. The predicted 12.5 per cent variation is consistent with the general ∼ 10 per
cent relative variation of EEG frequencies. That lithium acts as an antidepressant might relate
to its role in generating sensory representations.
2. O
−−
ions or doubly ionized water molecules (A/Z = 8), perhaps resulting when the OH bonds
of a water molecule split, are second option. Note that doubly ionized oxygen is boson as is also
Ca
++
ion. In this case endogenous magnetic fields would vary in the range (1, 8/7) B
0
, which
means 14 per cent relative variation of the cyclotron frequency.
Both Li
+
and O
−−
could be involved and be related to the sensory representations of the interior
mileu (world as it feels) and external world (world as experienced in the third person perspective).
In [K6] it is suggested that these two representations are separated by blood-brain barrier and are
realized by sensory projectors emanating from red blood cells and pyramidal cells respectively (both
cells contain magnetic structures). O
−−
would be associated with red blood cells whereas Li
+
would
relate to the pyramidal cells.
1.4.5 Representations based on cavity resonances
Various resonances associated with the magnetosphere might help to amplify the cyclotron frequencies
represented by MEs. There is indeed a rich repertoire of various oscillation modes associated with
the magnetosphere. Being not a specialist, I can mention only the most obvious examples. Various
structures defined by Earth and magnetosphere define a hierarchy of space-time sheets and the cavity
resonances of the classical fields associated with are the most obvious candidates for amplification
purposes. Cavity resonance frequencies could be same or very nearly same for both classical em and
Z
0
fields. This is certainly the case if large space-time sheets can carry both electromagnetic and Z
0
fields simultaneously.
In many-sheeted space-time framework also the cavity resonances associated with the space-time
sheets of Earth and Earth’s inner and outer core plus possible other substructures such as ionospheric
cavity and the thin cavities defined by boundary layers must be considered since the matter is at the
atomic space-time sheets and the space-time sheets in question are practically empty of particles and
could be super-conducting. Effective surface resonances have higher overall frequency scale (by the
classical counterpart of Uncertainty Principle) than interior cavity resonances. Schumann resonances
(for a detailed treatment see the appendix) are almost surface resonances because the surface layer
involved is so thin. Also a well-defined dimensional reduction can occur. For Schumann cavity the
lowest frequency is 10.6 Hz, which is essentially the frequency of the alpha peak and quite near to the
basic frequency of the memetic code.
The hierarchy of space-time sheets would thus correspond to the hierarchy of potential resonance
frequencies in EEG corresponding to the radii of Earth’s inner core and outer cores, Earth’s radius,
ionosphere, the size of the magnetosphere, the sizes of the structures in the magneto-tail, etc...
54 Chapter 1. Magnetospheric Sensory Representations
Schumann resonances and resonances associated with inner and outer core of Earth
Schumann resonances are usually identified as cavity resonances associated with the cavity between
Earth’s conducting surface and the lower boundary of ionosphere. Also in TGD cavity resonances
should be very much like the resonances for the ordinary Maxwell fields. Coupling of MEs with
Schumann resonances provides a possible manner to achieve amplification even when the length of
ME does not satisfy the resonance condition.
The nominal values of the Schumann resonance frequencies are 7.8, 14, ...39, 45, ... Hz and many
of these frequencies are important resonant frequencies of EEG which suggests that this amplifica-
tion mechanism is indeed utilized. Numerical estimates demonstrate that radiation belts containing
the ring currents are especially interesting seats of representations amplified (also) by Schumann
resonance. Dipole approximation for the magnetic field should be reasonable at the distance corre-
sponding to the maximum of the ring current. Flux maxima are also good candidates for seats of
sensory representation.
1. The flux maximum for the protons in the inner belt is at 2R. The cyclotron frequency of proton
is 37.5 Hz at this distance and corresponds to the lower limit of 40 Hz thalamocortical resonance
band and is quite near to Schumann frequency 39 Hz. Note that in this case the resonance
condition based on the length of ME can be also satisfied.
2. At the outer electronic belt extending to 6R electronic ring current dominates and is maximum
at 4R: the cyclotron spin flip frequency for electron scales which is 902 Hz for B = .5 Gauss
scales down to 14 Hz, which corresponds to sleeping spindles, sensorymotor resonance frequency,
and to the second Schumann resonance, and is also near to the endogenous Na
+
cyclotron
frequency 13 Hz. In the electronic case the distance condition is not possible to satisfy unless
the representation is realized at the other side of the globe. Note that sleeping spindles could
also correspond to control action (now lullaby!) exercised from the outer radiation belt.
3. Also the endogenous cyclotron frequencies sufficiently near 7.8 Hz could be represented as pro-
tonic cyclotron transition using Schumann resonance. The lowest Schumann resonance is proba-
bly relevant for hypnagogic states. Personally I sometimes experience during hypnagogic periods
what it is to be quite another person. If Schumann resonance is in question, the interpretation
would be that magnetic Mother Gaia experiencing us as sub-selves and sharing of mental image
is in question. T
The distance for 7.8 Hz protonic cyclotron frequency is 3.4R in dipole approximation whereas the
length of ME would be 6.3R. For the representation at the opposite side the distance would be below
5.4R so that Schumann resonance is the only possible manner to achieve the amplification. For the
third harmonic of the protonic cyclotron frequency the lower bound for the resonant amplification
by ME is 8.6 Hz and rather near to the lowest Schumann resonance. The absence of the resonant
amplification by projector ME wave cavity could explain why hypnagogy is unmasked only when the
sensory input is absent. Note that the biologically important ions K and Cl have cyclotron frequencies
near the lowest Schumann resonance.
In many-sheeted space-time also the the cavity resonances associated with Earth’s inner and outer
core could be important. For the inner solid core of Earth having radius of 1200 km the counterpart
of the lowest Schumann frequency is 41.4 Hz. The outer liquid core has radius 2900 km and in
this case the lowest Schumann frequency is scaled up to 14.3 Hz, which is near to the sensorimotor
resonance frequency and sleeping spindle frequency. Both of these frequencies are important resonance
frequencies in EEG (and should be so in ZEG) and almost coincide with Schumann frequencies. Even
more, the mantle above the outer core divides into two parts. The boundary is at the depth of 1000
km: the corresponding cavity frequency is 9.25 Hz and in the accuracy used equal to the lower bound
of Z
0
cyclotron frequency varying in the range 9.3 −11.4 Hz.
Cavity resonances in the magnetic lobe
Various oscillation modes associated with cavities like the inner magnetosphere and entire magneto-
sphere could also serve as resonant amplifiers of the signals carried by the projector MEs involved
with sensory representations.
1.5. The hierarchy of magnetospheric representations 55
In particular, lobe cavity with length L ∼ 10
3
R gives rise to electromagnetic oscillation modes in
the direction of the lobes with the spectrum of frequencies having fundamental frequency of about
f = c/L = c/10
3
R ∼ 49 mHz. A repeated reflection between magneto-pause and magneto-tail
(r ∼ 20R) would give resonance frequency 2.45 Hz whereas the repeated reflection between the
opposite sides of magneto-pause (r ∼ 40R) would give 1.23 Hz resonance frequency. These are of
course only rough order of magnitude estimates. These modes might be involved with the amplification
of the frequencies in delta band.
The frequencies of the night side auroral Pc5 pulsations are quantized as multiples of 0.9, 1.3, 1.95, 2.6,
and 3.3 mHz [29]. They have been interpreted as field line excitations (FLR) excited by quantized
compressional modes. TGD inspired explanation for the Pc5 pulsations would be following. The
reconnection process excites the Alfven waves associate with the flux tubes of the solar magnetic field.
The distance to the Sun is L = 8 light minutes, that is L = 2.9 10
11
R. The fundamental frequency
is f = c/L = 1.1 mHz and indeed of the same order of magnitude as the frequencies assigned with
the compressional modes. If compressional waves are there, they could excite the FLR excitations of
the solar magnetic field or vice versa. If solar magnetosphere is conscious self it could control Earth
magnetosphere by exciting these modes (solar magnetosphere is known to have ’memory’: the complex
magnetic structure return to the original one after 11 year sunspot period [16]).
Delta band cavity resonances and epilepsy
Sferics are electromagnetic excitations associated with lightnings. Some authors define the frequency
spectrum of sferics roughly 20 − 2 10
4
Hz, which corresponds to the range of audible frequencies
(this is perhaps not an accident). Some authors define sferics as the frequency range 0 −2 10
4
Hz.
The spectrum of spherics defined in the latter sense has a maximum at 3 Hz and spectrum resembles
EEG spectrum in this region. A possible interpretation of the delta band peak is in terms of the cavity
resonances. The general scale of the inner magnetosphere is about 4R so that one would expect by
scaling from Schumann resonance frequency f ∼ 7.8/4 = 1.95 Hz for the fundamental frequency.
Also the previously mentioned resonances with frequencies are 1.25 Hz and 2.5 Hz (rough estimate)
associated with the radial degrees of freedom inside magneto-tail contribute to delta band. Since the
plasma sheet becomes thicker and the magneto-tail gets thinner near Earth, one expects that the
fundamental frequency increases for the local reflection modes from the rough estimate 2.5 Hz so that
also 3 Hz frequency should belong to the spectrum.
These cavity resonances could amplify delta band around 3 Hz. That petit mal begins with the
amplification 3 Hz EEG rhythm might relate to the resonant amplification by sferics. For proton 3 Hz
corresponds to r = 4.6R and for electron to r = 6.7R and resonance condition for ME gives the distance
d = 16R which is in the outer magnetosphere. Here higher harmonics of proton cyclotron frequency
would allow a resonant amplification. A loss of consciousness could result from the entanglement of
entire self. The alternative option is that only mental image is entangled so that consciousness is not
lost but that there is no memory representation about the conscious experience during the epileptic
seizure (the situation would be same in the case of sleep state).
1.5 The hierarchy of magnetospheric representations
In the sequel magnetospheric representations and their interpretation are discussed in a more detail.
The basic vision is that a hierarchy of selves extending up to the scales of lightlife can contribute to our
own conscious experience. The mechanism generating sensory and motor representations would be the
intersection of the magnetic mirrors associated with the personal sensory canvas with various magnetic
flux tube structures of the magnetosphere. An essential correction to the earlier representation is that
the frequencies correspond to B
end
= 2B
E
/5 (= .2 Gauss at Earth surface) rather than the Earth’s
magnetic field B
E
. There reasons for this are explained in the introduction.
1.5.1 EEG and magnetospheric sensory representations
Resonance condition at lowest order gives extremely strong restrictions on sensory representations.
These condition become even more stringent if one assumes that only the fundamental frequency
f = c/L of ME projector is of significance. The table below gives an overall view about how the
frequency depends on the length of ME and allows to understand the implications of these conditions.
56 Chapter 1. Magnetospheric Sensory Representations
An especially interesting consequence of the resonance condition is that that audible frequencies must
be represented inside brain as features and entangled to the sensory magnetic canvas rather than
being directly coded to em or Z
0
frequencies.
x = d/R 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 60 10
3
f/Hz 49.0 24.5 16.3 12.3 9.8 8.2 6.1 4.9 0.8 .05
y = r/R 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 60 10
3
f
p
/Hz 300 37.5 11.1 4.7 2.4 1.4 0.06 0.06 0.06 0.06
f(e)/Hz 902 112.8 33.4 14.1 7.2 4.2 0.18 0.18 0.18 0.18
f
e
(Z
0
)/Hz 707 88 26 11 5.7 3.3 0.14 0.14 0.14 0.14
Table 1. The first two rows give the dependence of the fundamental frequency f = c/d of ME
projector on its length d. The next rows give the dependence of of proton’s cyclotron frequency f
p
,
electron’s cyclotron spin flip frequency f(e), and electron’s Z
0
cyclotron frequency f
e
(Z
0
) on the
distance r from Earth’s center. On outer magnetosphere the consideration is restricted to the plasma
sheet. Earth’s nagnetic field of 10 nT is assumed in the plasma sheet above r = 8R and below
this distance dipole approximation neglecting polar angle dependence is used. Cyclotron frequencies
are calculated for endogenous magnetic field B
end
= 2B
E
/5: the reasons for a little bit strange
representation are discussed in introduction. Z
0
magnetic field is assumed to be related to magnetic
field by scaling g
Z
B
Z
= eB/16.
Magneto-tail represents delta and theta bands
If the higher harmonics of the fundamental frequency f = c/L of ME are not significant, one can
deduce following conclusions about the representations in the magneto-tail.
1. The range of frequencies representable for projector lengths d < L
t
= 60R, where L
t
corresponds
roughly to the distance to the tip of the plasma sheet (neutral point), contains frequencies
between f
min
= .8 Hz and f
max
= 8.1 Hz and thus covers delta and theta bands. Perhaps it is
not a mere accident that f
min
defines a natural lower boundary of the delta band.
2. The lowest frequency representable inside the magneto-tail (r < 10
3
R) is f
p,tail
= .049 Hz which
corresponds to a period of 20.4 seconds: f
p,tail
is rather near to the protonic cyclotron frequency
f
p
inside plasma sheet.
3. Higher harmonics of f
p
can be used to widen the representational repertoire at distances, where
f > f
p
condition holds true. The n:th harmonic of f
p,tail
defines an octave wide representation
and distance r
n
= r
max
/n. Same applies to the harmonics of the electronic Z
0
cyclotron
frequency f
e,tail
(Z
0
) = .14 Hz.
4. The frequencies which are lower than f
tail
must be represented as magnetic transition frequencies
in the heliosphere. Most naturally at the night side, where the solar magnetic field weakens with
distance.
Inner magnetosphere represents alpha, beta and gamma bands
The lowest frequency representable inside the inner magnetosphere (r ≤ 4R at the day side, r ≤ 6R
at the night side) is 12.5 Hz at day side and 8.6 Hz at night side: theta and delta bands are excluded
at the night side and at the day side also alpha band is excluded.
By applying the constraints for the representations at the same and opposite side of the globe to
the electronic case one obtains the following results: also proton and
4
He are included for the sake of
comparison.
1.5. The hierarchy of magnetospheric representations 57
f f
d
/Hz f
u
/Hz
f
p
12.5 100
f(e) and 3f
p
8.6 18.8
5f
p
7.0 12.5
7f
p
6.1 10.0
f4
He
15.8 75
f
e
(Z
0
) 9.4 25.0
The allowed electronic frequency bands and higher protonic cyclotron bands are rather narrow. For Z
0
cyclotron frequency higher harmonics allow to reduce the lower bound but n > 3 harmonics lead out
of the inner magnetosphere. Even harmonics are expected to define much weaker cyclotron quantum
phase transitions because of parity conservation in lowest order. The only exception is formed by
frequencies near the maximum frequency 902 Hz resp. 707 Hz representable locally: d ∼ 300 km ¸R.
For Z
0
electronic representation also harmonics can be represented.
Audible frequencies allow magnetospheric representation only if higher harmonics of ME
projector frequencies are allowed
Mother Gaia should also hear and speak so that auditory experience should have representation at
the sensory magnetic canvas and control of speech should be possible to some degree from magneto-
sphere. From the foregoing it is clear that the spectrum of audible frequencies does not allow resonant
magnetospheric representation unless one allows higher harmonics of the fundamental ME frequency
f = c/L.
The first possibility is that audible frequencies are represented as features inside brain and quantum
entangled to the points of both magnetospheric and personal sensory canvases. Also motor represen-
tations provided by sensory canvases could be high level representations involving only frequencies
below 26 Hz (roughly the limit of audible frequencies) and perhaps identifiable as internal speech.
This idea conforms with the view that motor actions are like four-dimensional fractal statues carved
quantum by quantum jump by adding further details in increasingly shorter time scales. TGD based
quantum model for hearing indeed assumes a local representation inside brain based on ’cognitive’
neutrinos: the model predicts correctly the upper bound of audible frequency range [M6].
The situation changes if higher harmonics for projector MEs are allowed. The range for audible
frequencies is 20 − 2 10
4
Hz. This frequency range corresponds to that of sferics [30] and sferics
might act as amplifiers of the signals between brain and Z
0
sensory canvas.
1. Place coding of frequencies of speech and sounds
Electron spin flip transition corresponds to frequency 33 Hz at r = 3R and varies up to 900 Hz
below this height. This would suggest that electron spin flip might place code for the frequency range
between 33 − 900 Hz. Also protonic spin flip, n = 3 protonic cyclotron transition, and protonic spin
flip plus cyclotron transition could be considered as translating sound frequencies to em frequencies
in this frequency range.
Only the representations as electronic cyclotron transitions is possible above 10
3
Hz. Electronic
cyclotron frequency is .564 MHz in the magnetic field of B
end
= .2 Gauss. The nagnetic field B
end
=
2B
E
/10 = 4 nT for B
E
= 10 nT at plasma sheet corresponds to a frequency of 112.8 Hz. At a distance
of r = 8R, where plasma sheet begins, the frequency is 1.1 kHz. At r = 3R it is 2 10
4
Hz. Thus the
audible frequencies above kHz could be represented as electron cyclotron frequencies inside the night
side inner magnetosphere at personal magnetic body with B
end
= 2B
E
/5.
From the foregoing it is clear that the frequency of 1 kHz is in a special role. This frequency is a
remarkable frequency also in many other aspects.
1. The duration of single bit of the memetic code word is near to one millisecond.
2. The sound wavelength corresponding to 1 kHz is corresponds to the head size: above these
frequencies sounds can be treated using geometric acoustics and below this frequency diffraction
effects are important: for instance, the mechanism allowing to decide the direction of sound is
different above and below 1 kHz.
3. ∼ 1 kHz is also the frequency neuronal synchrony.
58 Chapter 1. Magnetospheric Sensory Representations
2. Memetic code and speech
The harmonics of electron’s Z
0
cyclotron frequency could be involved with the motor control of
speech. The same mechanism provides an alternative coding of speech frequencies below ∼ 1 kHz.
1. With the assumptions made about Z
0
magnetic field (g
z
B
Z
= eB/16), the representable range
for f
e
(Z
0
) is (.14 −707) Hz, if only the lowest cyclotron harmonic is allowed. These transitions
might relate to the control of speech using memetic code. The resonantly representable frequency
range (9.4, 25) Hz indeed contains memetic code frequency and r = 4.2R corresponds to the
frequency 9.9 Hz: this distance corresponds to the maximum of the electronic flux.
2. All atomic (hydrogen atom forms an exception) and molecular Z
0
cyclotron frequencies are in
the range (9.4, 11.3) Hz in endogenous Z
0
magnetic field. That the lower bound is same as
for resonantly representable frequencies is to some degree a miracle. Z
0
MEs from Z
0
mag-
netospheric motor area could thus be responsible for the generation of speech. The fact that
the cyclotron frequencies of all atoms and molecules are nearly identical might make possible
effective amplification of Z
0
signal in the body and head to internal speech and possible even
real sound by Z
0
piezo-electric effect. In accordance with the earlier speculations, Z
0
MEs could
be also responsible for internal speech which would be analogous to an imagined motor action.
3. The harmonics of ∼ 10 Hz frequency defining the duration of memetic codon are natural can-
didates for the frequencies appearing in the representation of the memetic codewords as fast
amplitude modulation of the basic frequency ∼ 10Hz. What this means that higher harmonics
add a small ripple to the basic oscillation. The higher harmonics of the cyclotron frequency
f
e
(Z
0
) ∼ 10 Hz up to 126
th
harmonic would provide the coding of the memetic code words of
duration .1 seconds representing basic information units of speech (perhaps phonemes). The
duration of a single bit is of order one millisecond and coincides with the typical duration of the
nerve pulse. Actually the number of harmonics needed is vanishingly small as compared to the
maximum number 126 since the number of phonemes is much smaller than the maximal number
2
126
∼ 10
38
. Hence brain utilizes only vanishingly small part of the resources allowed by the
memetic code.
What looks nice is that the difference between inner speech and actually heard speech would reduce
to the difference between em and Z
0
interactions. These considerations raise the question who is really
expressing itself when I am speaking: me or Mother Gaia or some of its many sub-selves? To speak
fluently is to let it go and it might be that magnetospheric selves are also expressing themselves when
this happens.
What the emergence of the oxygen belt could mean?
Interestingly, during the last decade two sub-belts have emerged inside the inner radiation belt [40].
The first belt is electronic and at r ∼ 2R. The second newcomer contains mainly O
+
ions. If the
O
+
flux has maximum at r = 2R, this would mean the appearance of new strongly represented
cyclotron frequency of about f
O
+ = 2.3 Hz for B
end
, and perhaps a new delta band contribution to
the magnetospheric consciousness (and perhaps even to our consciousness in some altered states).
Resonance condition cannot be satisfied for ME projectors from brain but could be satisfied for ME
projectors from the magneto-tail so that one can imagine the possibility of radiative magnetospheric
brain circuit connecting these two levels. Note also that cavity resonances inside magnetotail might
serve as amplifiers of the cyclotron frequencies in delta band.
What makes the situation interesting is that DNA and presumably also mRNA sequences have a
constant charge density [42] so that the value of the cyclotron frequency does not depend on the length
of the sequence. mRNA cyclotron frequency is very near to the cyclotron frequency f(O
+
) = 2.3 Hz
of O
+
ions at r = 2R as the following argument shows. The nucleotide pairs in DNA have atomic
weights 260 (C-G) and 261 (A-T) and the average weight of the DNA triplet is A = 781. DNA and
presumably also mRNA sequence has constant charge density of 5.88 charges per triplet [42], which
means cyclotron frequency f
mRNA
= 2.26 Hz in the field of B
e
= .2 Tesla. This holds true irrespective
of the length of DNA or mRNA. The question is whether a chart about active mRNA sequences might
be generated to the O
+
belt and provide kind of a 3-dimensional out-of-body hologram about organism.
1.5. The hierarchy of magnetospheric representations 59
A little summary before continuing
For the benefit of the reader it is worthwhile to collect the basic consequences of the proposed model.
1. Inner ”endo”-magnetosphere in principle allows representation of frequencies above 8.6 Hz, that
is alpha, beta and gamma bands. The EEG spectrum in the range 12.5 −100 Hz is resonantly
representable using proton ic cyclotron frequency in the inner magnetosphere, where dipole field
approximation is reasonable. The third harmonic of the protonic cyclotron frequency allow to
reduce the lower bound for the representable frequencies to 8.6 Hz which is near to the lowest
Schumann resonance frequency. Representations come as conjugate pairs corresponding to the
representations at the same and opposite side of the globe.
2. Theta and delta bands are representable in the plasma sheet using higher harmonics of cyclotron
frequencies and representations are octave wide. This might explain why they are not involved
with sensory representations directly conscious-to-us requiring strong intensity in order to be
not masked by the sensory input. If non-sensory memories are represented by theta and alpha
bands symbolically, this would also explain why memories are usually symbolic rather than
concrete re-experiences. Only linear written language like representations by the harmonics
of cyclotron frequency make sense inside lobes where the average magnetic field is constant.
Symbolic coding could allow to achieve reliability even when the signals are too weak to yield
sensory representations not masked by the background noise.
3. Electrons allow the representation of audible frequencies if the higher harmonics of the funda-
mental frequency of ME are allowed. The representation of audible frequencies at the level of
brain using cognitive neutrinos and quantum entanglement is favored. This means also that com-
munications and motor control from the magnetosphere should take place at frequencies which
are in EEG range. Kind of high level commands would be in question and perhaps experienced
as internal speech.
1.5.2 Do magnetospheric structures correspond directly to brain struc-
tures?
p-Adic fractality characterizes the long range correlations of real physics. p-Adic and real space-time
sheets are glued together along common rationals, and typically p-adically short scale corresponds
to long scale in the real sense and vice versa. Henec the p-adic local physics defined by the p-adic
variants of the basic field equations would reduce the p-adic fractality of real physics to mere p-adic
smoothness and continuity [E1]. This allows also a more precise view about the origins of p-adic
length scale hypothesis.
If one takes seriously the origins of the p-adic fractality, the idea that magnetosphere could contain
fractally scaled up representations of structures like brain, does not look so weird anymore. As a matter
fact, infinite hierarchy of fractal copies of these structures are expected to be there and provide space-
time realization for the universe as a hologram.
Protonic and electronic radiation belts [34] are optimal candidates for the magnetospheric sensory
and motor representations since the densities of protons and electrons are exceptionally high inside
belts. The working hypothesis is that from our point of view magnetospheric sensory representations
correspond to various kinds of memories (sensory and symbolic memories). Motor representation in
turn would correspond to higher level motor control (motor imagination and motor skills).
Inner radiation belt is rather stable unlike the outer radiation belt and there is no night-day
variation involved. Inner radiation belt is therefore optimal for the representation of sensory memories
whereas outer belt is better suited for the representation of verbal memories using memetic code.
What is the magnetospheric counterpart of the left-right asymmetry of brain function-
ing?
The decomposition of living systems into pairs of almost similar members such that the second member
tends to entangle with the external world and the second member remains autonomous and un-
entangled system is basic implications of TGD inspired theory of consciousness [K6, N6, N5] .
This division of labor seems to occur already at DNA level in the sense that the apparently passive
conjugate strand entangles whereas the strand busily expresses itself. At brain level this asymmetry
60 Chapter 1. Magnetospheric Sensory Representations
corresponds to the left-right asymmetry. This asymmetry should have a counterpart also at the level
of the magnetospheric consciousness and would mean that ’right’ and ’left’ magneto-hemispheres are
magneto-anatomically different similar but the ’right’ one is more able to entangle.
Northern and southern lobes are indeed very similar magneto-anatomically and plasma sheet in
the equitorial plane separates the northern and southern hemispheres also naturally. Plasma sheet
could be a counterpart for the region through which the axonal bundles connecting left and right
hemispheres run through: axons are now replaced with magnetic flux tubes. Frontal lobes would
correspond to the magneto-pause at the night side and hindbrain would correspond to the day side.
There indeed exists a seed of a functional North-South asymmetry in the sense that the flux tubes
of the solar magnetic field are antiparallel (parallel) to the magnetic flux tubes inside the lobe at the
northern (southern) magneto-pause. This implies that reconnection process occurs asymmetrically.
Since reconnection makes possible entanglement with helio-magnetosphere, this asymmetry might
imply that either northern or southern lobe quantum entangles with the helio-magnetosphere with a
higher probability.
Magnetospheric counterparts of subcortical structures?
The identification of the counterparts for the structures of the middle brain can be based on the
requirement that the typical EEG frequencies associated with a given structure are same as the cavity
resonance frequencies of the magnetospheric counterpart.
1. Magnetospheric thalamus
There are several good reasons for identifying the space-time sheet of Earth’s inner core as the
magnetospheric counterpart of thalamus.
1. The characteristic property of thalamus is that it acts a neuronal relay station feeding sensory
input to practically all parts of brain and receiving strong feedback. Since the magnetic flux
tubes from the inner core of Earth can reach any point of the magnetosphere, the identification
of the inner core as the magnetic relay station is uniquely fixed.
2. The space-time sheet of the inner core of Earth corresponds quite closely to 40 Hz cavity res-
onance frequency in accordance with the requirement that the counterparts of thalamus and
primary sensory areas (protonic radiation belt) resonate at this frequency.
3. If the magnetospheric representations above ionosphere correspond to cortical representations,
it would seem that the only possible identification for the magnetothalamus is as the inner core
of Earth.
Magnetothalamus has even some nuclear structure in the sense that are two pairs of magnetic anoma-
lies (Canada-East Siberia at northern hemisphere and Antarctis-Brazil and southern hemisphere).
This suggests that supra currents must have a crucial role in the transfer of information.
2. Magnetospheric basal ganglia
Basal ganglia responsible for motor control correspond naturally to frequency of about 14 Hz, which
is the basic sensorimotor beta rhythm. The space-time sheet defined by the liquid outer core has this
frequency as cavity frequency. Note that the magnetospheric thalamus is topologically condensed at
the magnetospheric basal ganglia. Therefore it is perhaps more natural to identify the brain structure
in question as that containing thalamus and basal ganglia.
3. Magnetospheric pineal gland
Earth’s mantle decomposes to two layers such that the sheet associated with the inner sphere has
cavity resonance frequency 9.3 Hz. This frequency is the lower bound for the nuclear Z
0
frequency
defined by the duration of the memetic code word presumably involved with the symbolic represen-
tation of memories. Pineal gland seems to correspond to a frequency ∼ 10 Hz defining a biological
clock and might correspond to the sphere defined by the inner layer of the mantle.
4. Magnetospheric limbic brain
Schumann frequency 7.8 Hz and its harmonics are associated with the space-time sheet of the
entire Earth with ionosphere possibly included. Strong resonant input to the tertiary sensory and
1.5. The hierarchy of magnetospheric representations 61
motor areas should characterize the counterpart of this brain structure. Perhaps a magnetospheric
counterpart of hypothalamus, amygdala, and other parts of the limbic brain is in question. This
identification is consistent with the fact that Schumann resonance has strong emotional effects.
5. Magnetospheric hippocampus
The lowest cavity resonance frequency corresponds to the top of ionosphere (r = 2R) is 3.9 Hz.
Hippocampus is characterized by the so called hippocampal theta ranging from about 4 Hz up to 12
Hz. Thus it would seem that hippocampus corresponds to the highest structure in the subcortical
brain, which by definition contains also the structures below as topologically condensed space-time
sheets, so that also higher cavity frequencies are included. A strong input to the association areas
should characterize the corresponding brain structure and hippocampus indeed has input to the entire
cortex.
Magnetospheric counterparts of the sensory areas?
The next task is to identify the magnetospheric counterparts of the primary, secondary, and tertiary
sensory areas of the cortex. These areas should correspond to a gradually decreasing frequency scale for
resonant representations. The higher odd harmonics of cyclotron frequency indeed have this property
(even harmonics couple weakly to cyclotron quantum phase transitions). For proton the two lowest
harmonics have range above 8.6 Hz and correspond to the inner magnetosphere (with plasma sheet
excluded).
The protonic inner radiation belt could define somatosensory representations of Mother Gaia such
that single organism takes the role of neuron. Anatomically the protonic inner belt would correspond
primary sensory areas. The primary sensory areas correspond to 40 Hz thalamocortical sensory
representations and correspond to the maximum of protonic flux at at the inner belt. Here also 40 Hz
cavity resonance associated with the inner core of Earth and analogous to Schumann resonance might
help (note that Earth as conducting solid body exists only at the atomic space-time sheets!). That
thalamus is regarded as a generator of 40 Hz resonance frequency conforms with this correspondence.
Secondary sensory and motor areas could define magnetospheric sensory representations covering
frequencies down to 8.1 Hz defining the boundary of the night side inner magnetosphere. The de-
creasing density of protons poses a strong limitation. Schumann resonances could help to increase the
intensity at the upper boundary of the protonic belt, where the protonic supra-current is weakest so
that also alpha band could be represented. Hippocampal theta is only partially representable: the
genuinely theta like part of the hippocampal theta must be represented in the plasma sheet.
Because of the low intensity of supra currents, the representations had better to be symbolic
rather than direct images. The coding of EEG features with the duration varying in the interval
determined by the range of alpha band by fast and weak amplitude modulation using harmonics of
alpha frequency could code these representations. Alpha frequency would code for the position and
the higher frequencies would assign features associated with the lower level sensory canvases with this
point.
Tertiary sensory and motor areas would correspond to magnetospheric sensory representations at
the transition region between inner and outer magnetosphere. This region is just plasma sheet at the
night side magneto-tail (, which is identifiable as the counterpart of the frontal brain). Plasma sheet
defines an octave wide sensory representation for the harmonics of the protonic and electronic Z
0
magnetic frequencies. There are reasons to believe that the self representations in brain reside at the
inner surfaces of the left and right brain hemispheres in frontal cortex (insula). This would suggests
that plasma sheet which in a well defined sense is between internal and external world (rotating inner
and non-rotating outer magnetosphere), is responsible for the magnetospheric self representation. This
would also mean that plasma sheet is kind of a primus motor of the magnetosphere. This is consistent
with the high level of self-organization (later the discovery about ’features’ represented in the plasma
sheet [27] will be described).
Plasma sheet and magneto-pause as counterparts of association regions?
Associations and imagination represent higher level mentality than sensory experience. Sensory asso-
ciations are generated at the junction OPT of occipital, parietal and temporal lobes whereas frontal
lobes could be seen as the seat of highest level mentality like imagination and planning.
62 Chapter 1. Magnetospheric Sensory Representations
Magneto-pause is self-organizing unstable structure and thus ideal for imagination, planning and
associations. Occipito-parietal-temporal association regions would be mapped to the day side magneto-
pause and frontal association regions to the night side magneto-pause having much higher represen-
tative power (the frequency spectrum extends to much lower frequencies). Outer magnetosphere is in
a direct contact with this region as are also tertiary sensory areas with various association regions so
that the identification is consistent with the continuity requirement.
In the magnetic case day side (shorter cyclotron time scale) perhaps corresponds to sensory imagi-
nation whereas night side would correspond to symbolic memories. In the Z
0
magnetic case night side
would correspond to motor programs and day side to motor imagination. Communications between
magneto-pause and plasma sheet could occur mainly via ME projectors since direct supra currents
are not possible unless perhaps during magnetic storms and sub-storms. This is possible since cy-
clotron frequency scales are essentially same. Note that also entanglement between magneto-pause
and plasma sheet making possible the generation of shared and fused mental images is possible. Hence
plasma sheet is indeed an ideal candidate for the carrier of self model. Horizontal communications
inside magneto-pause are made possible by surface (supra?)currents orthogonal to the discontinuity
of the magnetic field.
1.5.3 How do the contributions of magneto-tail and inner magnetosphere
to our consciousness differ?
The study of the magnetospheric sensory representations leads to considerable insights concerning the
differences between sensory, verbal, and motor memories, and imagination. An explanation for the
distinction between sleep and awake emerges, and ageing could be understood as a gradual shift of
control from magneto-tail to the inner magnetosphere.
The difference between sleep and awake
Essentially entire EEG above 8.1 Hz is covered by the inner ”endo”-magnetosphere. If the inner
magnetosphere is responsible for daytime memories, one could understand why we do not possess
memories from the period of sleep (we could be still conscious and the identification of plasma sheet
as counterpart of self system in brain suggests this!). The dominance of the inner magnetosphere over
the outer one should distinguish wake-up state from sleep state and the transition wake-up-to-sleep
might be partially controlled by magnetosphere (sleeping spindles). During wake-up the dominance
of the inner protonic belt over outer electronic belt would in turn distinguish high sensory alertness
from a more inwardly oriented state. Non-autonomous and autonomous parts of the nervous system
could correspond roughly to the inner and outer radiation belts. Autonomous system would be mostly
unconscious to us because of the low density of protons and thus low rate of the cyclotron quantum
phase transitions.
As already proposed, magneto-tail could correspond to frontal lobes and thus motor imagination
and planning. This would mean that sleeping periods would involve kind of virtual world training of
motor skills, which indeed seems very natural. Learned motor skills represent one type of memory
and the magnetospheric electronic representations would have interpretation as this kind of memories.
In Z
0
sector magneto-tail would correspond to higher level control of speech and verbal imagination:
also speech faculties might be trained during sleep. Plasma tail would be responsible for the highest
level of control as the magnetospheric self system.
Ageing as a gradual shift of consciousness from magneto-tail to inner magnetosphere
Delta band gets weaker during ageing and sleeping disorders increase during the old age. Delta band
dominates in the EEG of infants and shifts gradually to become eventually alpha band. Thus ageing
could be seen as a gradual shift of the consciousness from the outer magnetosphere to the inner
magnetosphere. That motor skills and speech develop by trial and error during the first years of life,
conforms with the fact that motor consciousness must be highest during this period.
It would seem that ageing means gradual stepping down along the ladder of consciousness and
that Buddhist teachings about Karma’s cycle might make sense in quite precise sense. This might be
an illusion: the strong delta contribution in the EEG of infant could reflect strong higher level motor
control and ageing might mean learning to survive without the advice and control from this level.
1.5. The hierarchy of magnetospheric representations 63
One could also see life as carving of a 4-dimensional statue and transition to the higher frequencies
would mean concentration to increasingly finer temporal details.
The ability to generate new memories gets poorer during ageing whereas childhood memories
are rather stable. This is contrary to what neuroscience models for the long term memory tend to
predict but in consistency with TGD based mirror mechanism. This difference does not relate to the
assumptions of a particular model but to the basic philosophy about time.
Motor and verbal memory representations would be stored to electronic belts whereas sensory
memories would reside in the inner protonic belt. Highest level memory representation in a form of
self narrative would be stored in the plasma sheet.
In this picture one could understand why we do not have long term memories from the age before
4 years as being due to the absence of ME projectors needed to generate the magnetospheric memory
representations. The shift of the control downwards in the magnetosphere could explain why the
ability to generate new memories becomes poorer at the older age. During sleep we could enjoy
magneto-tail consciousness but would remember what it is to be conscious during sleep only during
sleep. Infants could be in this mode of consciousness all the time.
Magnetospheric consciousness evolves
The strength of Earth’s magnetic field has reduced by a factor of order two during the last thousand
years whereas Schumann resonances must have remained same all the time. For 10
3
years ago the
positions of the flux maxima have corresponded to frequencies which are twice the recent frequencies
37.5 Hz, 14 Hz, and 7.8 Hz. The ionic flux intensity at the distance corresponding to these frequencies
has been weaker than today since the distance corresponding to these frequencies is scaled up by a
factor 1.26. This might have had dramatic effects on the character of the magnetospheric consciousness
and also to that of ours.
If sensory memories are represented protonically in the inner magnetosphere (r < 4R), the increase
in the intensity of the ionic fluxes involved with the memory representations could correlate with the
development of science and the emergence of the high tech civilization. Also the vision of Jaynes [37]
about bicameral man who received commands and advices from collective levels of consciousness and
gradually gained long term memory and self model during the last 10
4
years could be seen as a self-
organization at the level of the magnetosphere, in particular as an evolution of plasma sheet leading
to a magnetospheric model of self. This conforms with the fact that the anatomy of brain has not
changed during this period appreciably and explains also the huge differences between chimpanzees
and humans despite the fact that genomes are almost identical. An interesting question is whether
the known temporary lowering of the temperature by several degrees for 10
4
years ago correlates
with the magnetospheric dynamics and whether it might have initiated an evolutionary process in the
magnetosheet with profound consequences.
Plasma sheet, imagination, dreams, and hallucinations
It would be rather strange if brains would be out of use almost half of the lifetime. Rather, one would
expect that the magnetic Mother Gaia uses our brains for information processing purposes during
sleep. Imagination and the construction of self model is the most plausible guess for the information
processing involved. Dreams could be seen as sensory representations for this imagination.
It has become clear that dreams are cognitive activities involving frontal lobes in an essential
manner. A considerable portion of dreams is known to be simulation of the situations encountered
during the wake-up state. During daytime the information flow is dominantly from the sensory areas
to the frontal lobes but during dreaming the direction is opposite. Brain stem makes dreaming
possible but does not dictate the contents of dreams. Translating this to the level of magnetosphere
one ends up with the conclusion that dreams and hallucinations are indeed communications from the
magnetospheric self to the level of individual self. This view is completely consistent with the general
vision of Jaynes [37] formulated in TGD framework using the notion of semitrance (which is essentially
sharing of mental images by quantum entanglement).
As opposed to the relatively relatively high stability of the inner magnetosphere making it suitable
for sensory and memory representations, the dynamics of the plasma sheet is rather unstable and
self-organizing. This is indeed what imagination requires. The gradual loss of spontaneity and ability
to imagine during ageing could in this framework be understood as the gradual shift of the control
64 Chapter 1. Magnetospheric Sensory Representations
from outer magnetosphere to the inner one. This would mean also gradual fixation of the self narrative
when person ’finds herself’: or equivalently ending up to an asymptotic self-organization pattern also
at the level of local plasma sheet self-representation. Imagination should not interfere with sensory
input and also this condition is satisfied in the plasma sheet.
Moon has also a magnetosphere, and during the period (three days), when the moon is inside
the magneto-tail of Earth, the conscious magnetospheres of moon and Earth interact. Perhaps this
interaction could provide a justification to the belief that the phase of the moon has strong effects on
consciousness of some sensitive persons.
Are the magnetospheric counterparts of brain circuits possible?
Brain is filled with circuits and there is a heavy feedback from cortex to midbrain and connections
between various regions of brain. Also this circuitry should have a magnetospheric counterpart.
Magnetic flux tubes define in a natural manner the counterpart of the neural circuitry (magnetic
circulation should be present also in brain and represent the deeper quantum control level of neural
signalling). Supra– and also ohmic currents running through, say, plasma sheet would provide a
representation for their previous history. Even the quantum level counterparts of nerve pulses as
solitons propagating along a pair of magnetic flux tubes connected by Josephson junctions realized as
join along boundaries contacts are possible.
The supra currents emerging at Northern and Southern latitudes from the inner core, which is
the magnetospheric counterpart of thalamus, are especially interesting since the flux tubes can lead
anywhere in the magnetosphere. An interesting question is whether the leakage of ions in the polar
regions could be somehow analogous to what happens when nerve pulse is transferred from neuron to
another one. One can also wonder whether two parallel magnetic flux tubes with join along boundaries
bonds between them defining Josephson junctions could carry soliton sequences associated with the
phase difference of the super-conducting order parameters. These soliton sequences represent the
deeper control signal giving rise to nerve pulse conduction in TGD based model of EEG and nerve
pulse [M2]. If so, then even the quantum counterpart of nerve pulse conduction might make sense at
magnetospheric level.
The finding that plasma sheet indeed contains what might be called features [27], supports the
view that this kind of representation mechanism might be involved. Similar findings are predicted at
magneto-pause. Supra current circuits would be optimal in this respect. Higher harmonics of proton
cyclotron frequency generated by transitions in the plasma sheet and magneto-pause could induce the
feedback to the inner magnetosphere and even the resonance condition f
m
= c/L might be satisfied.
This mechanism could also allow communications between various areas of the magnetospheric brain.
The communication at 40 Hz frequencies between inner core and inner protonic radiation belt would
be the magnetospheric analog of thalamocortical resonance.
Fractality inspires some speculations about the general structure of the magnetic circulation. For
instance, does thalamus act as the magnetic dipole core of the nervous system? In particular, do the
cortical neural loops from thalamus correspond to closed dipole lines at the day side and do the axons
to the body define the thalamic counterparts of the magneto-tail? Do all nuclei of brain correspond
to magnetic dipoles and does the neural circuity follow field lines in reasonable approximation?
Plasmoids as living magnetic creatures?
Dipole type magnetic field is of course a huge idealization. For instance, plasmoids carry torus like
magnetic flux configurations. In TGD Universe these structures could be regarded as higher level
electromagnetic life forms. The flux tubes of magnetic field can form extremely complex knotted and
linked structures. This topology provides almost enormous representational capacity and one can
wonder whether the opportunistic Nature could really have failed to notice this opportunity.
Perhaps the simplest plasmoids (even ball lightning!) might be regarded as the magnetic coun-
terparts of the simplest monocellulars. Note that small plasmoids should be generated also when
supra-currents in bio-matter leak out from the magnetic flux tubes. Neural circuits might be ac-
companied by plasmoids responsible for the self-organization of the ordinary matter around them.
Microwaves are effectively the ’food’ of plasmoids and if magnetic flux tubes carry a magnetic field
of order .2 Tesla, the cyclotron transitions of electrons generate microwaves at the upper limit 2.4
GHz for microwaves hearing, so that these plasmoids could generate their ’food’ themselves. Sun has
1.5. The hierarchy of magnetospheric representations 65
magnetic field of order .1-1 Tesla in the convective zone and might be ideal place for the plasmoid like
life forms of this kind.
Also the dropping of ions from k = 151 space-time sheet to larger space-time sheets generates
microwaves (zero point kinetic energy), and this process is probably part of self-organization as sug-
gested by the scaling law of homeopathy and the model of microwave hearing based on the scaling
law f
h
/f
l
= c/v = 2
137−k
2 10
11
giving v = 6 m/s for k = 151 (alpha wave phase velocity at the
surface of skull).
Sun generates plasmoids, especially so during magnetic storms. plasmoids consist of closed mag-
netic flux tube structures and can be seen as conscious creatures leaving heliomagnetosphere and
entering into the interstellar space. Also the plasma sheet of Earth’s magnetosphere generates plas-
moids which would become thus magneto-ETs containing as its crew sensory representations about
ordinary living organisms at Earth. Perhaps also solar plasmoid like structures could provide living
documents about solar magnetospheric history and contain similar sensory representations. Sharing
of the plasmoid mental images by quantum entanglement would make possible for the magnetospheres
of Sun and Earth to extend their senses to the entire cosmos.
Also ET experiences might have interpretation as a sharing of mental images induced by encounters
with the plasmoids generated during the tectonic activity. The visible pseudo UFO itself could be the
plasmoid generated by the leakage of supra currents from magnetic flux tubes, when the flux tubes in
the stream of magnetic flux from the spot of the tectonic activity reconnect with the flux tubes of the
personal sensory magnetic canvas or with those of Earth’s magnetic field. Also genuine UFOs might
be plasmoid structures emitted from the plasma sheet of some planet of a distant stellar system which
have managed to penetrate through the cusp region of the magneto-pause of Earth, which serves as
a magneto-immune system preventing the penetration of solar and other interplanetary magnetic life
forms inside magnetosphere!
The somewhat ghostly crew of a magneto-UFO could consists of magnetospheric sensory repre-
sentations for the inhabitants of this planet but this would not diminish the reality of the experience.
Space travel of mental images would not require transfer of huge amounts of fuel through cosmos and
light velocity would not be a limitation for the communications. There are good reasons to believe
that higher levels of the self hierarchy have discovered mental space travel long ago if even we have
been able to invent it!
There is however evidence for ’metallic’ UFOs too. TGD based model [G2] for the strange anti-
gravity like effects observed in rotating magnetic systems [54] leads to a mechanism which might be
behind flying saucers. The basic idea is that the space-time sheet of rotating magnet is connected
to the space-time sheet carrying Earth’s gravitational field by join along boundaries bonds, one can
visualize them as threads connecting the rotating system to the environment. Along these threads the
gravitational flux created by the magnet flows to Earth’s space-time sheet and these threads mediate
the gravitational interaction.
Rotation causes the entanglement of the threads and when the rotational speed becomes high
enough, the threads begin to split. This means that the ends of the split threads become carriers
of negative and positive gravitational mass. Effectively the gravitational mass of the magnet system
remains to the Earth’s space-time sheet and the mass of magnet system itself decreases and angular
momentum conservation implies an acceleration of the spinning motion (pirouette effect). If the
inertial mass is equal to the gravitational mass as Equivalence Principle requires, one gets a system
which is light as a feather!
One can wonder whether this could provide a mechanism making possible flying saucers. For
instance, the rotating system could liberate some of its chemical energy to generate a very fast motion.
It could also accelerate and change direction of motion very quickly. The strange properties of UFOs
suggest that if they are really flying saucers, a reduction of the inertial mass is indeed involved. Thus
one might think of the possibility that plasmoid like structure and a more rigid structure accompany
each other in some cases. The rotating magnet system involves also plasma near its outer boundary
and would in this case be due to acceleration of ions in radial electric field generate by the rotating
magnet. Plasmoid like structures indeed involve magnetic flux tubes and this suggests that they could
rotate rapidly and in this manner reduce their gravitational mass.
What about abduction experiences? Could they be mere quantum telepathy or do they represent
real encounters with plasmoid like life forms? And what about the claimed Roswell case involving a
’traffic accident’ of UFO and dead bodies of aliens? The TGD based model for crop formations [N2, N3]
suggests that parallel space-time sheet do not only carry supra currents but could be inhabited!
66 Chapter 1. Magnetospheric Sensory Representations
Plasmoid like life forms would be much like ordinary life forms with DNA and proteins at magnetic
flux tubes. The Chilbolton and Crabwood crop circles allow to even deduce rather precise information
about the genetic codes of these life forms, and the second genetic code involves 80 DNAs and 23
aminoacids. This would mean that the civilization in question might be at a much higher evolutionary
level that we are, and could have developed antigravity technology for long time ago. This forces to
consider the possibility that abduction experiences are real interactions between life forms living at
different space-time sheets.
Plasmoids in laboratory
It seems that one of the most craziest predictions of TGD inspired theory of consciousness has been
realized at laboratory. Quite recent report tells about plasmoids generated in a simple diode involving
plasma generator creating plasma column between itself and the positively charged anode [72]. The
plasmoids are self-organizing structures able to evolve in a period of few microseconds. They possess
many properties that life forms are expected to have. Plasmoids
1. grow from micrometer size up to cm size,
2. replicate by simply dividing into two pieces,
3. have an outer negatively charged surface separating the positively charged interior from the
environment and obviously analogous to the cell membrane. Hence the plasmoid is analogous to
a capacitor, and the exchange of matter with the environment could correspond to a di-electric
breakdown essential for qualia in TGD based model of the sensory receptor,
4. possess a metabolic cycle involving the transfer of matter between the interior of the plasmoid
and environment. This cycle is seen as a periodic generation of visible light at specific frequencies:
the light balls are typically found to be red or yellow. The frequency of metabolic oscillations is
at 25-45 kHz frequency range,
5. are able to communicate by generating electromagnetic radiation by inducing vibrations in the
receiving plasmoid at the same frequency.
These findings give valuable hints concerning the more detailed modelling the ”biology” of plasmoids.
Plasmoids are in a key role in the TGD inspired model of pre-biotic evolution discussed in [L4].
For instance, one can ask whether the preferred colors might be interpreted in terms of quantized
increments of zero point kinetic energies liberated when atoms or ions (such as C, N, and O) drop
from the hot k = 131 space-time sheets (temperature being of the order of the zero point kinetic
energy) to larger space-time sheets.
1.5.4 Some applications
Also applications provide tests for a theory and below some tests for the notion of magnetospheric
consciousness are discussed.
Space traveller consciousness
The understanding of the basic facts about EEG on basis of resonance condition suggests that magne-
tospheric representations are there. The resonant magnetospheric representations cannot however be
the whole story since this would mean spectular effects on the sensory consciousness of space travellers.
Long distance space travelling might be even impossible without dramatic effects for consciousness.
The distance to the moon corresponds to d ∼ 60R and in the interstellar space moon travellers should
have experienced these effects. The fact that moon and space travellers have survived (although some
of them have reported strange experiences and Edgar Mitchell has even founded Noethic Institute for
the study of consciousness!) forces to consider the notion of resonance very critically.
The most realistic assumption is that our sensory representations are realized on personal mag-
netic bodies rather than that of Earth. This magnetic body would follow the space traveller. The
representations at the magnetic sensory canvas defined by Earth’s magnetic field are there but con-
tribute mainly to the consciousness of the magnetic Mother Gaia and other higher level selves. These
representations contribute also to our consciousness via the sharing of the mental images. The fact
1.5. The hierarchy of magnetospheric representations 67
that B
end
= 2B
E
/5 corresponds to the magnetic field strength explaining the effects of ELF em fields
on matter supports this hypothesis.
Obviously, the study of consciousness of space travellers should provide valuable information about
the importance of the magnetospheric contribution to the consciousness.
NDEs and OBEs
The distinction between out-of-body experiences and ordinary sensory experiences is a challenge for
any model of sensory representations. Out-of-body experiences are associated with NDE experiences
during which sensory input is absent and standard neuroscience suggest that brains do not contribute
to the conscious experience. The characteristic aspect of out-of-body experience is third person aspect.
This supports the naive conclusion that personal sensory magnetic canvas is not responsible for OBES
but that third person perspective involves entanglement with the mental image of the magnetic Mother
Gaia about us. We would share the mental image of Mother Gaia about us. Even in the case that our
personal sensory magnetic canvas ceases to exist, the magnetospheric representations would continue
to exist. Also the deceased relatives encountered during NDEs could be magnetospheric mental images
about them.
An interesting little sidetrack is perhaps allowed here. Stopping of breathing is the crucial step in
the process leading to the physical death. The magnetic particles in lungs generate magnetic field with
strength of order 10 nT: a magnetic field of same strength prevails also in plasma sheet and night side
magneto-pause so that magnetic mirror communications at protonic cyclotron harmonics are possible
between lungs and plasma sheet. The rhythm of breathing is in delta range which belongs to the range
of frequencies representable in magneto-tail. Could it be that there are direct ME projections from
plasma sheet to lungs at delta band and that the control of breathing involves these MEs and that the
command leading to the physical death is sent from plasma sheet? Could it be that the ’primitive’
association of soul with breathing might carry some deep truth in it?
Relating the model to personal experiences
My personal altered states of consciousness have been a continual source of inspiration and challenge
during the development of TGD inspired theory of consciousness. In the following I propose a model
for the flow experience, which I have practically always when I close my eyes.
1. The experience
Especially inspiring has been the visual experience about complex background flow which becomes
visible when eyes are closed. This experience does not seem to correlate with the sensory input
although in light illumination the flow is brightly colored and the color varies in an unpredictable-by-
me manner. The flow is most intense when I am in a calm state of mind and especially strong under
creative periods of theory building. The flow contains in its ’unexcited’ state a ’third eye’ component,
kind of a tunnel, to which the flow seems to converge. This sink can temporarily transform to a
source. The disk like sink can also transform to a slit like sink. In a more aroused mental state
the flow becomes very complex containing sources and sinks. The flow becomes also rotational: in
particular, the flow whirls to the sink or from the source as a vortex.
I experience the background flow also at night time and there seems to be no sharp night-day dif-
ference. During night time immediately after wake-up I can also see very clear and beautiful organized
abstract geometric patterns (like lattices) which vary very slowly. During my ’great experience’ the
flow served as a background for vivid hallucinations. The hallucinatory contributions were superposed
to the ordinary sensory input and these contributions were more or less independent from each other.
The complex, unstable background flow carries high resemblance to an incompressible hydrody-
namic flow. Also magnetic field satisfies condition analogous to the incompressibility condition for the
hydrodynamic flow (∇ B = 0). Hence the question has been whether this flow actually represents
hydrodynamical flow, endogenous or exogenous magnetic field and supra current flow along its flux
tubes, or whether it is a representation for a background neuronal activity which is usually not so
strong.
2. The explanation
68 Chapter 1. Magnetospheric Sensory Representations
The most plausible interpretation for the experience is based on the observation that the back-
ground flow is best visible when eyes are lightly closed. This means that there is probably some
amount of 40 Hz activity without definite sensory input and that alpha band dominates.
1. The flow represents alpha signal from the sensory canvas to brain mediated by Schumann reso-
nances and is so weak because 40 Hz resonance is weak with closed eyes. The signal is masked
by visual input when eyes are open. This mechanism explains also dreams and hallucinations as
communications from various levels of magnetosphere via brain to the inner radiation belt and
conforms with the semitrance model of bicameral consciousness.
2. The flow represents electronic supra-current flow running parallel to the magnetic flux tubes of
the outer radiation belt. This flow could in turn represents the magnetic state of brain or body.
The ’third eye’ contribution could represent the supra currents converging to the spinal cord.
Or the vision could represent cortical magnetic flux tube structure converging to the thalamus
serving as the basic dipole core of the brain’s magnetic field. Higher level selves might in fact
represent it more or less automatically.
3. The presence of the hallucinatory component during great experience could be interpreted as
additional communication from the magnetic sensory canvas via brain to the inner radiation
belt. The simultaneous presence of both 40 Hz and alpha band vision would differentiate this
period of a very intense brain activity from the experiences in which only alpha or gamma vision
is present.
4. Also hypnagogic experiences which are sometimes transpersonal (I experience of being genuinely
someone else) occur when alpha band dominates. This encourages to think that the amplification
mechanism is based on Schumann resonance made possible by unusually strong coupling between
magnetosphere and personal magnetic canvas: this coupling would become strong during creative
periods. The correlation of the alpha band dominance with creativity is standard folk wisdom
at least. Also this supports the view that communication from the outer radiation belt to brain
and from brain to the first radiation belt is involved.
Besides the lowest 7.8 Schumann resonance also the second 14 Hz sleeping spindle Schumann
resonance might be involved: I am often told that I have been sleeping when I have been sitting
and thinking for a long time (I disagree strongly!). 14 Hz sleeping spindle Schumann resonance
corresponds to n = 3 protonic cyclotron resonance and the electronic spin flip resonance at the
electronic flux maximum r = 4R in the outer radiation belt.
5. The night time vision about highly symmetric slowly varying lattice like structures might in turn
correspond to a situation in which the self-organization pattern in plasma sheet is is projected
to brain in theta or delta band and from brain to the first radiation belt. Also now the lattice
like patterns in plasma sheet might represent the state of brain or body.
1.6 Fatima Marian Apparitions and TGD inspired theory of
consciousness
The MARIAN Project is an acronym form Multicultural Apparitions Research International Academic
Network. Its funded on the data and results obtained by the trilogy books by the Portuguese historians
Fina d

Armada and Joaquim Fernandes, since 1982 to 2002 [56]. There is also a book by Vallee [60]
about Fatima apparition phenomenon.
The Project will take a deep look into a few clues, such as:
1. Identities and differences among human extraordinary experiences, i.e. OBEs, NDEs, AASs
(Alien Abduction Scenarios) and MAs (Marian Apparitions), from the narrative, hermeneutic
and sociopsychological levels and also cultural/religious backgrounds;
2. Neurophysiological details and all experimental elements that could be tested in laboratory, as
the very common ”buzzing” sounds heard by several witnesses at Fatima spot near the oak
contact only when the Lady, according to Lucia, was speaking with her. This is the most hard
clue ever depicted for a case of an hypothetic geomagnetic variables influence (very low magnetic
fields?) tested in lab. by Michael Persinger and his team in Laurentian University [29].
1.6. Fatima Marian Apparitions and TGD inspired theory of consciousness 69
In the sequel I shall comment Fatima Marian Apparation from the point of view of TGD inspired
theory of consciousness. I base the discussion on what I learned about Fatima Marian Apparation via
email exchanges with Joaquim Fernandes and some web sources. The basic data items used in the
sequel are following.
Three children, Lucia, Fransisco, and Jacinta met a brilliantly effulgent lady whome they identified
as the Virgin Mary. This occurred six times at 13th of each month. The so called Sun miracle was
witnessed by people in a large area measured about 20-30 miles (it is estimated that about 70.000
people congregated in the vicinity of Cova de Ira to witness the predicted miracle!).
The witnesses reported a light tunnel and little image of Mary at its center. Also reported were
heat waves with sudden drying of clothes, healings, fall of white filaments (”hair angle”), and a strange
auditory sensation defined by some witnesses as a ”buzzing of bees within a vase”. This sound was
heard only when the seer Lucia told that ”the Lady was talking to her without moving the lips”. Also
glowing globe-shaped vehicle appeared suggesting a similarity with UFO experiences.
1.6.1 General TGD based model
The TGD based model for Fatima Marian Apparition relies on the notion of self hierarchy allowing
identify the entity ’Maria’ as a collective higher level self, a real conscious field entity receiving infor-
mation from human brains by TGD counterparts of EEG waves, realized perhaps in magnetosphere.
The visions and also some experiences of witnesses could involve in an essential manner quantum
entanglement with ’Maria’ allowing sharing and fusion of mental images: no classical communication
is needed. Quantum entanglement is the basic mechanism of remote mental interaction and remote
healing: the occurrence of healings during Fatima apparitions were indeed reported. Microwave static,
known to correlate with taos hum phenomenon involving sometimes also buzzing sounds [65], is a pos-
sible candidate for the inducer of TGD counterparts of intense EEG waves by a general mechanism
to be discussed. Also tectonic activity could have generated microwaves. Microwave static explains
the buzzing sound as microwave audition [46]. The presence of a plasmoid like structure serving as a
relay station entangling with both seer and ’Maria’ could have generated light at visible and infrared
frequencies and induces effects like heating and drying.
Self hierarchy and collective levels of consciousness and ’Maria’ as a conscious field entity
The basic notions of TGD inspired theory of consciousness are quantum jump between quantum
histories identified as a moment of consciousness and self, which is essentially a pile of quantum
jumps integrated to single experience. The sequence of quantum jumps corresponds to subjectively
experienced time which is in principle separate from the geometric time of physicist.
The preservation of self identity means that self does not generate bound state entanglement
with the external world and remains thus quantum autonomous system during the subjective time
development by quantum jumps. The generation of entanglement leads to a loss of consciousness: one
can say that everything is conscious but consciousness can be lost. Selves form a hierarchy having
the hierarchy of space-time sheets as a geometric correlate. Fusion of two space-time sheets by join
along boundaries bond is the geometric correlate for the generation of entanglement. Sub-selves of two
separate selves can entangle and this results in a fusion and sharing of a common mental image. This
mechanism provides a general explanation of various remote mental interactions, such as telepathy,
remote healing, and collective experiences. Also phenomena like apparitions and UFO experiences
can be explained in terms of remote mental interactions.
In TGD universe any system has besides the visible, physical, body also field (magnetic) body,
which has much larger, actually astrophysical size in the case of humans. What I call personal sensory
representations are realized at the personal magnetic body of astrophysical size. Second type of
sensory representations (third person view) would be realized at the magnetosphere of Earth and
would give rise to multi-brained electromagnetic selves representing collective levels of consciousness.
Amazingly, plasma sheet at the night side of Earth’s magnetosphere is known to be a highly self
organizing structure and the ionic velocity distributions represent features like ’eyes’ and ’wings’ [27].
Even religions could represent to collective levels of consciousness having a rich repertoire of mental
images like Maria and saints.
The simplest working hypothesis is therefore that the entity ’Maria’ is self, a completely real
conscious entity, at a higher level of self hierarchy. In TGD framework any self defines a mental
70 Chapter 1. Magnetospheric Sensory Representations
image of higher level self having it as a sub-self. The conscious entity ’Maria’ could communicate with
humans using quantum entanglement making possible telepathic sharing and fusion of mental images.
1. The most obvious identification of ’Maria’ is as a mental image of a collective multi-brained
consciousness realized at the magnetosphere and having only the field body. This would explain
the cultural, standardized aspects of the vision.
2. One can consider also the hypothesis that the luminous ’Maria’ was analogous to UFO and in
TGD framework identifiable as plasmoid, electromagnetic life form in TGD Universe, in the
lower atmosphere, perhaps generated by tectonic activity. The physical effects associated with
Sun miracle indeed suggest the involvement of a plasmoid like structure. The identification
as Virgin Maria would thus reflect only the cultural background. It is however not obvious
how plasmoid like primitive conscious entity could have predicted the occurrence of Sun miracle
beforehand.
3. A compromise of this views is that plasmoid like structure was involved and served as a relay
station entangling with both seer and ’Maria’, just like in TGD based model of UFO experiences.
This option gives better hopes of explaining the physical effects involved and allows a lot of
freedom in the identification of ’Maria’: even the identification as an extraterrestrial becomes
possible.
Many-sheeted space-time, topological field quantization, and extraordinary experiences
In TGD Universe space-times are 4-dimensional surfaces of certain 8-dimensional space-time. Many-
sheeted space-time is the basic prediction of TGD and means roughly that various structures that
we see in various length scales correspond to space-time sheets with outer boundary glued by tiny
wormhole contacts to larger space-time sheets representing larger structures containing them.
Topological field quantization distinguishes between TGD and Maxwell’s electrodynamics. What
happens is that em field and classical fields in general decompose into flux quanta represented by
space-time sheets. For instance, radiation field decomposes into cylindrical structures carrying em
fields propagating with light velocity. These structures (’massless extremals’, MEs [J4]) are ideal for
classical communications: classical signal propagates with light velocity inside a cylindrical tube and
without weakening making high precision targeted communication possible, and the non-determinism
of the associated vacuum current propagating also with light velocity allows a coding of arbitrary
signal. At quantum level MEs serve as field bridges making possible quantum entanglement allowing
sharing and fusion of mental images among other things. The mirror mechanism of long term memory
relies on MEs allowing entanglement between geometric past and now and resulting in sharing of
mental images.
Magnetic flux tubes and their electric counterparts represent also general solution families to field
equations [I4, I5]. The flux tubes of Earth’s magnetic field are super-conductors in TGD Universe and
this super-conductivity is crucial for life. Closed magnetic flux tubes plus ions and their electric duals
(involved with bio-electrets and liquid crystals and also with cell membrane) are the fundamental
electromagnetic life forms around which ordinary bio-matter self-organizes.
Magnetic flux tubes are an essential element of the model of sensory representations on magnetic
sensory canvas. Schumann resonances transmit horizontal communications between brains and could
make possible collective shared experiences characteristic for Fatima case. Hypnagogic states give also
rise to analogous experiences and probably involve Schumann resonances. The nodes of the super-
conducting circuitry formed by the magnetic flux tubes could be of special importance for phenomena
involving communications with higher levels of self hierarchy. Therefore special geomagnetic features
chould characterize the places were apparitions occur.
Water has an especially complex many-sheeted space-time structure and the proposal of A. Brodziak
[57] is that the spring water associated with places were apparitions have occurred plays some impor-
tant role. We ourselves consist mostly of highly self-organized water and it would not be surprising
if water would have varying degree of self-organization depending on external parameters such as
the structure of the local magnetic field. Perhaps highly self-organized water helps to generate the
quantum entanglement.
There are strong resemblances between TGD based models for UFO experiences, NDE experiences
and Marian apparitions. Also in the case Fatima apparition structures which might have been in-
terpreted as UFOs in our cultural context appeared and even ’Maria’ could have been interpreted as
1.6. Fatima Marian Apparitions and TGD inspired theory of consciousness 71
UFO in modern cultural context. The TGD based model of UFO experiences discussed involves in
an essential manner quantum entanglement between conscious electromagnetic entities (plasmoids),
and unifies Persinger’s theories [29] with the view that ETs are real, although not in the sense usually
thought. Plasmoids could be seen as advanced counterparts of spaceships having a rather ghostly
crew consisting of mental images (sub-selves) entangled with the magnetosphere of some distant as-
trophysical object serving asi its telesensory system and able to entangle also with the person having
UFO experience. Translating directly to this case this would mean that plasmoid like structure in the
vicinity of the apparition place would have served a role of relay station entangling with both seer
and entity ’Maria’, which could have been even extraterrestrial intelligence.
Did ’Maria’ communicate quantally or classically?
Taking seriously the idea about ’Maria’ as a collective conscious entity and a mental image of some
collective self communicating from magnetosphere, one is led to ask how this communication could
have occurred.
1. If the communication occurred purely quantally just by entangling collective mental image/self
’Maria’ with the mental image of the receiver, the topologcal field quanta of EEG would have
acted only as entanglers but not as carriers of classical information. This mechanism is extremely
robust since there is no need to code information to a classical signal. TGD based model of long
term memories relies on this mechanism. Very metaphorically: to have a long term memory
from moment two years ago is to look at quantum mirror at distance of one light year. The
attribute ’quantum’ means a telepathic sharing of mental images between sender and receiver.
No storage of memories of past to recent moment of geometric time is needed. The immediate
implication is that length scales of order light life are relevant for human consciousness: against
this background magnetic sensory canvas hypothesis does not look so radical.
In this case the task is to generate topological field quanta of EEG which are intense enough
to generate sufficiently stable and long lasting bound state entanglement between ’Maria’ and
receiver making possible sharing of mental images by quantum entanglement. This requires
only that a sufficient amount of energy is transformed to the energy of EEG MEs at definite
resonance frequencies so that the mechanism is very robust. plasmoid like structure could have
served as kind of relay station entangling with both seer and ’Maria’ and perhaps also inducing
at also visible radiation inducing heat waves and drying effects. Microwaves are not plausible
candidates for causing heat waves since they might have caused too much biological damage.
2. One can imagine also classical, non-telepathic communication in which topological field quanta
(topological light rays) carry classical signals regenerating the sound percepts in the brain of the
receiver. This model raises many challenges: what is the code of communication for the classical
signals, how the sender can resolve the problems caused by the fact that this code probably
depends on receiver (by feedback one might hope), etc... Clearly, Occam’s razor does not favor
this option.
What was ’real’ and what was ’hallucinatory’ ?
The basic question relates to what reported effects had local physical correlates and which represented
shared mental images. The microwaves possibly explaining the buzzing sound should have been real.
The buzzing sounds themselves could have been purely endogenous. The reported glowing globe-
shaped vehicle might have identification as a real plasmoid like structure. Even what was identified
as ’Maria’ could correspond to a plasmoid like structure in the vicinity of the place of apparition. The
’Sun turning around’ is an excellent candidate for a plasmoid like structure. The radiation responsible
for effects like heat waves and drying of clothes must have been real and perhaps induced by plasmoid
like structure emitting at least visible light resulting in ionization of the atoms of atmosphere.
Collective sharing of mental images with plasmoid like structure entangled with ’Maria’ could
explain the collective ’hallucinatory’ aspects of the experience. These self-organizing conscious struc-
tures could reside also in the outer magnetosphere, say in the plasma sheet at the night side of Earth
[21]. The reports about light tunnel with the image of little Mary at the center and about pouring of
flower petals would suggest a collective experience based on the sharing of mental images.
72 Chapter 1. Magnetospheric Sensory Representations
Healing effects
TGD provides a general theory of remote healing relying on quantum entanglement occurring even
in astrophysical length scales and involving collective selves [H9]. There is support for the view that
remote healing is possible even when the healer does not know the patient personally or where the
patient lives. As if there would be a third party involved, a collective multi-brained higher level self,
for whom the data, which is insignificant for healer, makes sense. Also the well documented healing
effects of prayer and meditation groups can be understood if their is this third party. In this case this
collective self would be ’Maria’.
1.6.2 The mystery of the buzzing sound
The witnesses of Fatima Marian Apparition report buzzing sounds like bees in a vase. It would be
interesting to determine the frequency spectrum of the buzzing sound produced by bees: presumably
it results from the periodic motion of wings. Also one could test how strongly the sensation depends
on the average frequency and to what degree the shape and phase relationships of Fourier spectrum
are responsible for the sensation.
Meteor sounds, taos hum, and physiophonic sounds
The buzzing sound might relate to several other strange sound phenomena like meteor sounds, taos
hum, and physiophonic sounds. These exotic sound phenomena are discussed in [M1].
1. A strange finding supporting the TGD view about sensory representations is that, contrary to
expectations, the sounds generated by em fields of meteors have fundamentals around 40 Hz
thalamocortical resonance band responsible for sensory representations [20]. This sound is like
’pop’, not buzzing, but frequency spectrum might be nearly the same. One might check whether
40 Hz frequency band is involved also with the buzzing sound produced by bees.
2. Taos hum [65] is a strange phenomenon which might relate to the microwave audition. No source
for this sound, which has frequency spectrum in the range 40-80 Hz, has been identified. Taos
hum seems to be an endogenous sound generated by classical em or Z
0
field which does not
penetrate outside the body. Buzzing sound is also sometimes associated with taos hum. If the
buzz has the character of taos hum, this would require that sounds heard also by the witnesses
were endogenous and not recordable by microphones. There is strong correlation between taos
hum and so called microwave static having poorly understood biological origin [65].
3. Physiophonic sounds are endogenous sounds produced by electric stimulation of skin. One can
transform speech to electric signals applied to skin and experienced as comprehensible speech.
Physiophonic sounds are probably closely related to taos hum.
Microwave hypothesis
It has been proposed [56] that so called microwave audition [46] could be involved with the mysterious
buzzing sounds reported by witnesses of the Fatima Marian Apparitions. There exists a standard
physics explanation for microwave audition based on thermal effects caused by microwaves inducing
small pressure pulses [46]. This explanation is however subject to objections to be discussed later and
TGD suggests an alternative mechanism.
According to [56] French and Canadian researchers have found interesting results using a source
of microwaves on the subjects heads: one of the sounds type heard was a ”buzzing”. The source was
between 200 and 3000 MHz with a mean intensity of from 0.4 to 2 mW/cm
2
to a density level of above
300 mW/cm
2
. The modulating frequencies ranged from 200 to 400 Hz. According to [56], the insect
sounds resulting from the motion of wings could be put between that interval. An order of magnitude
for the resonance frequency of body guessing the sound velocity to be v = 300 m/s in body and body
to have a size of order L = 1 m is f ∼ v/L = 300 Hz. Microwaves could correspond to microwave
static of biological origin [65] or be generated by plasmoid like structures.
Microwaves has been proposed as an explanation for the other physical effects reported in Fatima
apparitions, namely those associated with the so-called Sun miracle when the people saw the ”Sun”
turning around itself and produce a heat wave that dry the soil that moments before has been wet by
1.6. Fatima Marian Apparitions and TGD inspired theory of consciousness 73
a sudden rain, as well the clothes of people in the spot, also wet. The problem with this explanation
is that microwaves with the required intensity might have had drastic physiological effects: there is no
known evidence for this. A more plausible explanation is that the plasmoid like structure playing the
role of entanglement relay station induced these physical effects at visible and infrared wave lengths
and was erratically identified as Sun. Ionization of atmosphere would have indeed induced emission
of visible light.
Most importantly, microwaves could accompany EEG MEs by a mechanism to be discussed later:
these topological field quanta in turn make possible quantum entanglement and sharing of mental
images. Topological field quanta corresponding to 40 Hz resonance band are especially interesting
candidates in this respect since in TGD based model they are responsible for sensory representations
at magnetic sensory canvas.
1.6.3 Microwaves, consciousness, and life
The TGD counterparts for strong EEG waves are topological field quanta (electromagnetic bridges
or topological light rays connecting seer with ”Maria”) generating quantum entanglement making
possible the sharing of mental images. Also witnesses could participate in the vision (image of Mary
in the center of the cylindrical light tunnel, Sun turning around). Microwaves received by the brain
and possibly by the body of the seer and also witnesses (creating sensation of buzzing sound) could
have generated topological field quanta of EEG waves and induce as a byproduct also microwave
hearing [46] responsible for the sensation of buzzing sounds.
Support for the importance of microwaves
Microwaves span the wavelength range 1 mm -30 cm corresponding to the frequency range 300- 1
GHz. Note that the size of the dots in X-ray film was of order one 1 milli-meter and corresponds to
the upper limit of 300 GHz for microwave. There is support for the importance of microwaves for
living systems coming from various anomalous phenomena involving microwaves.
1. Microwaves in GHz range are found to be involved with water memory and homeopathy [31]. Mi-
crowave frequencies are accompanied by ELF frequencies such that the high and low frequencies
f
high
and f
low
are related by the scaling law to be discussed later.
2. Microwave hearing [46] is a phenomenon in which microwaves in the frequency range .2-3 GHz
(wavelength range 150-10 cm) induce a hearing sensation. There is evidence that ears are
not involved with the microwave hearing [50]. The average pressure of the radar wave at the
threshold of hearing is roughly three orders of magnitude less than the average pressure of a sine
wave in air at the threshold of hearing air waves. Second, the location of the most sensitive area
for hearing radar is remote from the ears, on top of the head. Third, the subjective frequency
spectrum seems to include higher frequencies for radar hearing than for normal hearing of air
waves. Fourth, the direction from which sound seems to come does not change as the head is
turned about in the radar field.
3. Microwave static of biological origin having strong correlation with taos hum [65] and taos hum
could be seen as a particular case of microwave hearing [M1].
4. The proposal of Joaquim Fernandez [56] that microwave hearing would also explain the strange
buzzing sounds reported by the witnesses of the Fatima apparitions served as a clue to the
TGD based model of this phenomenon. The model led to the realization that quite a many
apparently unrelated phenomena rely on a general mechanism of remote mental interactions in
which microwave MEs propagate like mass-less particles inside ELF MEs, which generate the
entanglement between remote subjects and thus make possible sharing of mental images and
remote realization of intentions. Microwave MEs in turn induce self-organization at the end of
the receiver. The same mechanism is involved also with the endogenous realization of intentions
and remote healing.
74 Chapter 1. Magnetospheric Sensory Representations
Breaking of super-conductivity in many-sheeted space-time and microwaves
The transfer of charged particles between space-time sheets is possible provided so called join along
boundaries bonds connecting the boundary of a smaller space-time sheet to the boundary of a larger
space-time sheet are generated [J3]. Particles simply flow along this bond connecting the space-time
sheet to the larger space-time sheet, say magnetic flux tube, and also vice versa. This mechanism leads
to the breaking of super-conductivity since super-conducting matter from the magnetic flux tubes,
which can be at extremely low temperature, flows to the atomic or possibly some other space-time
sheets.
Microwave radiation could generate join along boundaries bonds. The energies of microwave
photons in the wavelength range 1-100 mm are in the range 10
−5
− 10
−3
eV and correspond to the
temperature range .1-10 K. The critical temperatures for low temperature super-conductors are in
this range. One can interpret this by saying that super-conductivity is not destroyed by the heating of
the magnetic flux tubes but by the generation of the join along boundaries bonds with bond energy of
order of the gap energy causing the leakage of the supra current to non-super-conducting space-time
sheets and thus inducing dissipative effects.
Microwaves and biological control circuitry
The basic vision of the TGD inspired theory of consciousness [H1] is that everything is conscious and
consciousness can be only lost. This philosophy naturally leads to the view that plasma structures
consisting of closed magnetic flux tubes plus atomic space-time sheets containing plasma ions represent
primitive life forms. All life forms metabolize. In the case of plasmoid like life forms micro-waves induce
a primitive metabolic cycle in which ions are transferred from the magnetic flux tubes to atomic or
some other space-time sheets, where they dissipate and induce ionization and UV and visible light
and then ”drop” back to the magnetic flux tubes. If the intensity of the magnetic field is about .2
Tesla, which by the quantization of magnetic flux, corresponds to p-adic prime k = 157 and p-adic
length scale of 80 nanometers), electronic cyclotron transitions generate microwaves with frequency
of about 2.4 GHz and the system can thus generate its ”food” itself.
Microwaves can also ”kick” ions from magnetic flux tubes to k = 151 space-time sheets since the
zero point kinetic energies for k = 151 correspond to microwave frequencies. It seems that the process
involves at least the following space-time sheet: k = 137 (atomic), k = 151 (cell membrane), k = 157,
and k = 169 (magnetic flux tubes of Earth’s magnetic field). UFOs are often observed near the lines
of the tectonic activity could represent this kind of life form using the energy of microwaves of tectonic
origin (quartz crystals are piezoelectrics and can ampify wide range of microwaves) as their ”food”
and therefore following the microwave beam emanating from the spot of tectonic activity. Also the
UFO like structures associated with the Fatima apparition could be plasmoid like life forms.
In the living matter the same simple biological Karma’s cycle has developed to an extremely com-
plex many-sheeted circuitry in ionic flow equilibrium and controlling the homeostasis [K5]. Microwaves
radiated in the conformational transitions of proteins and possibly amplified by the rotational transi-
tions of water molecules and clusters of them mimicking the rotational spectra of molecules generate
bridges connecting super-conducting space-time sheets and atomic space-time sheets and thus sustain
the dynamical circuitry. If some protein fails to be expressed genetically, this implies the absence of
certain microwave frequencies so that corresponding bridges are not present and erratic functioning
of the current circuitry result. Medicines and homeopathic remedies in which water clusters mimic
the rotational spectrum of the medicine molecules generate the microwave spectrum of the proteins,
which are not expressed.
The average number of the bonds per say area element is the natural measure for the effectiveness
of the bridge, and the increase of the microwave radiation intensity at some frequency increases the
effectiveness of the corresponding bond and thus modifies the homeostatic equilibrium. Electromag-
netic radiation in microwave range is known to be lethal to micro-organisms: this could be due to
the transformation of the biological current circuitry induced by the radiation. Too high leakage of
supra-currents to atomic space-time sheets might be also fatal. Personal computers and travel phones
produce microwave radiation and this raises interesting questions about their role in modifying many-
sheeted current circuitry and thus modifying the homeostasis. One can also wonder about the role of
this radiation in electric allergies.
1.6. Fatima Marian Apparitions and TGD inspired theory of consciousness 75
Microwaves and the mechanism of remote intentionality
TGD based model of remote mental interactions is discussed in [H9]. The model is based on the notion
of bound state quantum entanglement having as a geometric correlate the formation of so called join
along boundaries bonds. Magnetic flux tubes as well as topological field quanta of radiation (”mass-less
extremals”, or briefly MEs [J4]) could act as such bonds. Many-sheeted space-time makes in principle
entanglement possible in even astrophysical time scales. Also time-like entanglement is possible by
the non-determinism of the basic variational principle and is provides quantum mirror mechanism of
long term memory [H6]). Essential is also the notion of adjunct serving as a kind of relay station
entangling any two subjects during remote mental interaction, say healer and healed, and inducing
sharing and fusion of mental images and making possible also classical communications. An object
possessed by the healer or healed is one example of an adjunct.
The entanglement is generated by mass-less extremals having a length, which is a multiple of
the wavelength of the radiation involved and therefore the frequencies involved are typically ELF
frequencies. On the other hand, the work done after developing this model has shown that also
microwave MEs are probably involved. Human intention could be able to generate microwave MEs
giving rise to the bonds between magnetic flux tubes and atomic space-time sheets also outside the
body. Brain and body certainly generate microwaves (GHz frequency scale corresponds to protein
and DNA conformational dynamics and water’s rotational transitions), and the intention could be
remotely realized as these microwaves if the system is sensitive to the microwaves. The problem is to
understand how ELF MEs and microwave MEs are related to each other.
How microwave MEs and ELF MEs are related?
The existing TGD based model for remote mental interactions is based on ELF (extremely low fre-
quency) MEs serving as field bridges between sender and receiver and inducing entanglement. Also
microwaves must relate closely to the remote realization of intentions. The question is how these two
aspects of remote mental interactions are related.
1. ELF MEs are crucial for the sensory representations at the personal magnetic canvas and on the
magnetic flux tubes structures in magnetosphere. The simple ”feeling of existence” is generated
by cyclotron transitions and the most effective manner to generate these is to ”kick” super-
conducting ions first to the atomic or some other space-time sheet. The ions having large zero
point kinetic energy can ”drop” back to high n cyclotron states at the magnetic flux tubes and
decay by emitting a large number of ELF photons. Microwaves might be responsible for gener-
ating the bridges making this flow of ions to the atomic space-time sheets possible. Microwaves
could also ”kick” ions from magnetic flux tubes to k=151 space-time sheets and the ”dropping”
of ions back by photon emission would generate further microwaves.
2. Magnetosphere is expected to contain plasmoid like life forms defining sensory representations
getting input from biosphere. Microwaves are the ”food” of the plasmoid like life forms and the
question is where these life forms get their food from: from biosphere or from brains perhaps?
3. The so called scaling law [K5] predicting that high and low frequency MEs somehow accompany
each other, helps to understand the situation more clearly. The scaling law abstracted from the
findings summarized in [31] reads as
f
high
= (c/v) f
low
, c/v = 2
137−k
2 10
11
.
Here v is some velocity associated with the system transforming low frequency waves to high
frequency waves and vice versa and k is prime of power of prime defining so called p-adic prime
p · 2
k
, labelling the space-time sheets of the many-sheeted space-time and characterizing their
sizes. k = 137 corresponds to the space-time sheets of atomic size and gives c/v = 2 10
11
.
k = 151 corresponds to the cell membrane length scale and gives v · 6 m/s, the phase velocity
of alpha waves at the surface of skull.
TGD allows to understand the mechanism behind the scaling law: f
high
(k) corresponds to zero
point kinetic energy of an ion at the space-time sheet labelled by k, and flow to cyclotron frequency
at the magnetic flux tube of Earth’s magnetic field: both these energies are inversely proportional to
76 Chapter 1. Magnetospheric Sensory Representations
the mass of the ion. k refers to the space-time sheet from which the ion ”drops” to the magnetic flux
tube. The value of c/v is inversely proportional to the local value of Earth’s magnetic field and thus
varies somewhat. In the case of k = 151 this could explain the variation of the nerve pulse conduction
velocity and EEG phase velocity.
The problem is to understand how EEG MEs and microwave MEs are related. It has been already
hypothesized that they implicate each other and TGD provides mechanisms for how this is possible.
A more detailed hypothesis is that the ELF MEs serve as entangling em bridges along which the
microwaves MEs propagate like mass-less particles to the magnetic sensory canvas to be used by the
plasmoid like life forms. The ions are ”kicked” by microwaves to the atomic or possibly also other
space-time sheets and ”drop” back to high n cyclotron states which then decay by cyclotron radiation
in ELF energy range. This self-organization process generates the simple ”feeling of existence” mental
image at magnetic sensory canvas entangled with more complex mental images in brain.
Microwave hearing
The previous findings encourage to think that microwave hearing involves the transformation of mi-
crowaves to EEG waves responsible for entangling brain with the magnetic sensory canvas. It might
be that microwave beam actually induces the transfer of ions from magnetic flux tubes to atomic
space-time or cell membrane space-time sheet (say), which then ”drop” back and in the latter process
induce also cyclotron radiation at EEG frequencies generating the auditory experience. Interestingly,
for k = 151 the zero point kinetic energies of ions are in microwave range and the ”dropping” of ions
from cell membrane space-time sheets to magnetic flux tubes of Earth could be involved with the
amplification of both microwaves and generation of EEG waves by cyclotron transitions at magnetic
flux tube. The velocity parameter v corresponds in this case to alpha wave phase velocity at the
surface of skull. The lowest Schumann resonance at 7.8 Hz is in alpha band and there are reasons to
believe that it is closely related to the UFO experiences and thus also to Fatima apparition.
In TGD universe these EEG MEs would project directly to the auditory magnetic canvas and
generate the experience. Of course, one could argue that the modulation of EEG wave by a frequency
higher than EEG wave does not make sense. There is actually however no reason forbidding ”fast
modulation” analogous to small ripples on sea waves and this kind of representation has been proposed
to give rise to ”features” [43] in alpha band [M1]. The fast modulation could also occur with respect
to subjective time: the fast modulation of the number of EEG MEs with respect to subjectively
experienced time (defined by quantum jump sequence) is also possible: in this case there would be
no modulation with respect to the geometric time. If the space-time sheet associated with brain and
various brain structures (the sizes are correct!) serve as a receiving microwave antennae they could
also act as active emitting antennae.
The amplification of microwaves could be seen as a maser like mechanism in which ions are pumped
to k = 151 space-time sheet by microwaves. The existing microwave photons stimulate the dropping
of ions back and thus also the generation of new microwave photons.
If the ”dropping” of ions from k = 151 space-time sheet amplifies the microwaves, microwave
hearing is predicted possible from 3.75 Hz (He cyclotron frequency 75 Hz) down to frequencies .16
GHz corresponding to delta band (1.5 Hz cyclotron frequencies possible for heavy ions). Delta band
dominates during deep sleep and the model of magnetospheric sensory representations predicts that
brains can entangle with the plasma sheet by EEG MEs at delta band. This could correlate with
the appearance of microwave static at nighttime [65]. Perhaps delta waves entangle sleeping brains
with magnetospheric selves and microwaves feed energy to the corresponding mental images. The
plasma sheet at the night side of the magnetosphere is indeed known to contain self-organizing plasma
structures with ionic velocity distributions representing features like ”eyes” and ”wings” [27]. The
prediction is that heavy ions should play important role in the generation of EEG during sleep.
The resulting unification would be rather economical. The formation of sensory representations,
remote mental interactions, homeostasis, and homeopathy would all rely on the same basic mechanism:
high frequency MEs propagating as mass-less particles along low frequency MEs. Low frequency MEs
would induce quantum entanglement and high frequency MEs would force self-organization at the end
of the receiver.
1.6. Fatima Marian Apparitions and TGD inspired theory of consciousness 77
Do electromagnetic life forms ”eat” microwave energy?
In the case of UFO experiences, and perhaps also in the case of Fatima Marian apparition, microwaves,
possibly generated by the tectonic activity, could have also a further important function besides
entangling brains with the conscious entity involved. According to the TGD based proposal, so called
plasmoids consisting of closed magnetic flux tube structures carrying supra currents plus atomic
and k = 151 (at least) space-time sheets associated with them, are good candidates for primitive
electromagnetic life forms, in particular plasmoids identified as UFOs. Ordinary bio-matter is assumed
to self-organize around these structures and nerve circuit represents a good example of a structure
resulting in this manner.
Plasmoids from outer space could leak into the magnetosphere mostly through pole gaps, where
the magnetic field of Earth is weak: elsewhere magneto-pause serves as a magneto-immune system,
which does not allow the penetration of the external magnetic life forms to compete about energy
sources. In accordance with magneto-immune function, planetary magnetospheres are known to be
self-organizing structures and the fact that Mars does not possess magnetosphere might relate to the
disappearance of Martian life. Also the magnetic field of Earth is getting weaker and the change of
the polarity expected to occur within two thousand years might have rather dramatic consequences
for the life as we know it.
Also the magnetic life forms need energy feed to self-organize and stay awake. Plasmoids could
populate magnetosphere and only wait for energy sources to self-organize. The basic metabolic mech-
anism would be the same as in the case of living matter [K6]. Energetic super-conducting ions must
be somehow driven from the magnetic flux tubes to the atomic space-time sheets, where they collide
with atoms, ionize them, and generate visible light in the atomic transitions giving thus rise to the
observed luminous phenomena interpreted as UFOs (perhaps as the luminous entity ’Maria’ in Fatima
case). The ions would eventually ’drop’ back to super-conducting space-time sheet and liberate the
zero point kinetic energy as a quantum of metabolic energy defining what is often referred to as a uni-
versal energy currency. Essentially identical energetic cycle of Karma would be realized also in living
matter but involve a complex molecular organization and many-sheeted current circuitry responsible
for the control of homeostasis. For the proton the quantum is predicted to be of order .5 eV liberated
also when a single molecule of ATP is used.
The realization of this primitive metabolic cycle requires the breaking of super-conductivity: some
mechanism must generate join along boundaries bonds serving as bridges connecting magnetic flux
tubes with atomic space-time sheets along their boundaries so that supra current leakage becomes
possible. Microwave radiation could generate the required join along boundaries bonds to k = 151
space-time sheets and pre-existing IR MEs could be responsible for the bridges between k = 151 and
atomic space-time sheets. The energies of microwave photons in the wavelength range 1-100 mm are in
the range 10
−5
−10
−3
eV and correspond to the temperature range .1-10 K. The critical temperatures
for low temperature super-conductors are in this range (note that the temperature at the magnetic flux
tubes would be much lower). One can interpret this by saying that super-conductivity is not destroyed
by the heating of the magnetic flux tubes but by the generation of the join along boundaries bonds
with bond energy of order of the gap energy causing the leakage of the supra current to non-super-
conducting space-time sheets and thus inducing dissipative effects, The dropping of protons and ions
from k = 151 cell membrane space-time sheet generates also microwave radiation.
This suggests that microwave photons could induce these bridges, break super-conductivity, and
induce energy feed and self-organization. A similar breaking of super-conductivity might be also
involved with the driving of the super-conducting ions to the k = 151 space-time sheets in the living
matter. Proteins could generate the needed microwave photons by coherently occurring conformational
transitions. Also rotational transitions of clusters of water molecules could emit microwaves and
perhaps mimic and amplify the microwaves generated by proteins. IR photons of .5 eV produced
metabolically ”kick” protons to atomic space-time sheets. The MEs with electrical potential difference
of .5 eV define the classical correlate for this process as acceleration of proton in electric field in full
consistency with the existing model of ADP-ATP process.
Plasmoids, being extremely light structures, could easily follow the energy beam flowing from the
spot of tectonic activity, and the random variation of the beam direction could explain the random
butterfly like motion of UFOs often observed and very difficult to understand if UFOs are structures
built of steel and copper. The strange motion assigned with Sun in the case of Sun miracle can indeed
be interpreted as an example of this kind of rapid random motion of plasmoid possible following
78 Chapter 1. Magnetospheric Sensory Representations
microwave beam of tectonic or some other origin.
One can also imagine that plasmoids generate partially their microwave ’food’ themselves via the
cyclotron transitions of electrons. This would require that the magnetic flux tubes in question carry
a magnetic field of about .2 Tesla: the p-adic length scale in question corresponds to the thickness of
the cell membrane. Solar convective zone contains magnetic fields with this strength.
1.6.4 Fatima apparition and microwave MEs
In the case of Fatima apparition the interaction of microwave MEs accompanied by ELF MEs would
generate entanglement between the brains of people seeing the visions, plasmoid like life forms serving
in the role of medium, and conscious entity ”Maria”. Same mechanism applies to UFO and ET
experiences in general.
What was the source of microwaves?
The buzzing sound heard only when Maria talked with closed lips might be understood as follows.
Buzzing sound would be due to microwave hearing. Facial expression is important part of commu-
nications, especially so when one cannot speak loudly. When microwave energy feed was near the
threshold of the microwave hearing, ”Maria” had to use also facial expression in order to become
better understood. This explanation however implies that the strength of microwave radiation was
not under the control of the sender of the message or that the control was only partial.
The microwaves could correspond to the so called microwave static having biological origin and
correlating strongly with taos hum: also taos hum can involve buzzing sound sensations [65]. This
microwave static appears at evening and ceases in the morning hours at definite local time. One
plausible source of microwaves are transitions associated with protein conformations for which the
time scale of dynamics is around .1 nanoseconds. It would be interesting to know what time of day
the apparitions appeared. The occurrence of the event at 13
t
h of every month is suggestive of both
external intelligence and a biorhythm giving rise to especially intense microwave static with a period
of month.
The possible biological origin of the microwave static raises the question whether the oak was the
source of the microwave static. Oaks are holy trees in many ancient cultures: perhaps their ability to
induce apparitions by strong microwave static could explain this partly. Some people (including me
in very calm state of mind) are able to experience what might be called ’a silent conscious presence’
of trees. The energy scale for the rotational excitations of molecules is in the microwave region. In
particular, rotational transitions of water molecules and clusters of them can generate microwave
radiation effectively. Quartz crystals, piezo-electrics used both in clocks and for healing purposes,
could amplify the microwaves using the energy provided by the tectonic activity. If the dominating
contribution of the microwave energy is of tectonic origin, the strange motion of Sun experienced
by many wittnesses during Sun Miracle could correspond to the motion of a plasma ball following
tectonic microwave beam. Of course, this is not the only possibility. The reported healings during
apparitions suggest that microwave photons directed from the plasmoid to the brains and bodies of
the witnesses were involved. If plasmoids carrying magnetic fields of order .2 Tesla for which electron
cyclotron frequency is 3 GHz were involved, they could have generated these microwave photons. Also
the model for crop circle formations requires plasmoids with similar magnetic field strength [59] [N2]
and light balls are frequently observed near crop formations.
The heat wave causing drying of soil and cloths could have been caused by visible and possibly
also infrared light generated by the plasmoid like structure, when highly energetic super-conducting
ions flowing to the atomic space-time sheets dissipated their energy by colliding with the atoms of
atmosphere and by ionizing them.
Connection with Schumann resonance
If microwave hearing involves the ”dropping” of ions from k = 151 space-time sheet and liberation of
zero point energy as microwaves propagating along EEG MEs one could understand the connection
with the Schumann resonance at 7.8 Hz in alpha band.
a)As a cavity resonance Schumann resonance prevails in entire Earth size scale, and is in TGD
based model of magnetospheric sensory representations responsible for horizontal communications
1.6. Fatima Marian Apparitions and TGD inspired theory of consciousness 79
between different brains, and more generally, between various conscious entities. For instance, during
hypnagogy alpha band dominates and could by the sharing of mental images give rise to the strange
experiences in which one experiences of being another person. Alpha band is also associated with
creativity: perhaps our ideas are not completely ours.
b)The velocity parameter v predicted by the scaling law for k = 151 (cell membrane space-time
sheet) is the velocity of alpha waves at the surface of skull which suggests that alpha waves are
generated in the process. For K
+
and Cl

ions cyclotron frequencies are 7.5 Hz and 8.5 Hz respectively
and near to Schumann frequency and these ions are important for brain functioning: their cyclotron
radiation could resonate with Schumann resonance (note that the local value of Earth’s magnetic
field in brain could be subject to homeostatic control). Thus the ”dropping” of these ions from cell
membrane space-time sheet could be crucial for the quantum entanglement with the conscious entity
Maria.
Angel hair
The mysterious angel hair might result when ions from magnetic flux tubes flow to atomic space-time
sheets. Perhaps the process creates chemical compounds in molten state which then cool and solidify.
Hair like appearance might reflect the geometry of magnetic flux tubes (whose thickness is about 2.5-5
micrometers for Earth’s magnetic field). Many crop formations are known to contain magnetized iron
[59] as well as small glass balls consisting of SiO
2
, that is quartz [56]. Meteoric iron could come from
the ionosphere along magnetic flux tubes. Si ions or quartz could flow along magnetic flux tubes
from the spot of the tectonic activity to the plasmoid, and become heated to high temperature when
entering to atomic space-time sheets and colliding with oxygen atoms of the atmosphere. This in turn
would give rise to glass balls. An analogous mechanism might be give rise to angel hair.
Were the ”vehicles” real?
There is some anecdotal evidence suggesting that UFOs are more than mere plasma balls, and this
kind of objects might have been involved also with the Marian apparition. Many-sheeted space-time
concept predicts a mechanism leading to the reduction of inertial and gravitational masses of spinning
magnetic systems [G2]. These objects are predicted to be accompanied by plasma. There is laboratory
evidence for this kind of phenomenon [54]. Hence some UFOs could be space crafts possessing almost
vanishing gravitational and inertial masses and the vehicles observed by witnesses in the case of Marian
apparition could be also genuine space crafts of this kind.
Healing phenomena and apparitions
Healings and water with special healing properties are also associated with Marian apparitions [57].
Microwave hypothesis provides understanding also about this aspect, and somewhat unexpectedly,
about the mechanism of homeopathic healing.
In [K5] it was proposed that the clusters of water molecules forming liquid crystals can mimic the
rotational spectrum of various molecules, and that the ability to reproduce the rotational frequency
spectrum of the medicine molecule is an essential element of homeopathic healing. The level of self-
organization of water would thus be measured by how complex mimicry it is able to perform.
Why rotational microwave energy spectrum is so important for healing, can be understood as
follows. The many-sheeted current circuitry, involving atomic space-time sheets and magnetic flux
tubes and also other space-time sheets, is extremely complex control structure [I4, I5]. The continual
regeneration of bridges between say atomic space-time sheets and magnetic flux tubes by microwaves
emitted by proteins is necessary to sustain this circuitry. An important category of diseases is due
to the failure to generate the bridges between super-conducting and atomic space-time sheets so that
this control circuitry suffers shortcuts. Perhaps the genetic expression of some proteins responsible
for the microwaves generating particular bridges fails. The medicine or its homeopathic counterpart
would help to generate (or even re-establish the generation of) the microwave spectrum responsible
for the generation of the lacking bridges in the circuitry.
This would allow to understand why spring water with special healing properties seems to be a
correlate of apparition places [57]. Just like the homeopathic remedy, the spring water would mimic
the rotational energy spectrum of some medicine molecules and would induce the same healing effects
(I am grateful for A. Brodziak for emphasizing the importance of the homeopathic aspect).
80 Chapter 1. Magnetospheric Sensory Representations
In present case the healing would require the feed of microwave energy to the healed. It could be
the energy is transferred via the mediation of the self-organizing plasmoidic life form and has tectonic
origin.
Appendix
1. Schumann resonances
Schumann resonances [34] represent resonant excitations of the Earth’s electromagnetic field in the
cavity defined by the spherical cell bounded by the Earth’s surface and the lower edge of the ionophere
located at the height of roughly 100 km. The lowest Schumann resonance frequencies have nominal
values 7.8, 14, 20, 26, 33, 39, 45 Hz with a temporal variation of ±.5 Hz.
It is often said that Schumann resonance frequencies characterize the cavity modes associated with
the d ∼ 100 km thick spherical shell below ionosphere acting effectively as a waveguide bounded by
Earth and ionosphere acting as conductors. This is not the case since the cutoff frequency for this
waveguide would be in a good approximation f = c/d which is about f = 3 kHz and much higher than
Schumann resonance frequencies. The only manner to understand Schumann resonance frequencies is
to assume that boundary conditions analogous to those used for half-open system, such as organ pipe.
This amounts to requiring that the field modes vanish at the surface of Earth or the lower edge of the
ionosphere but not both. Schumann resonances would be selected by a boundary condition stating
essentially that the energy does not leak out from the system at the upper edge of the ionosphere.
It seems that the web contains a lot of confusion related to the Schumann resonances and the
motivation to write my own view came with the realization that also my own understanding about
Schumann resonance was rather misty. My sincere hope is that my unprofessional, TGD inspired
ponderings do not increase the already existing confusion. The article ”Schumann resonances and
human psychobiology” by Richard and Iona Miller [63] is recommended for a reader who wants to
gain an overall view about various aspects of the phenomenon.
1.1 Schumann frequency spectrum
Consider now the calculation of Schumann frequency spectrum by taking into account the finite
thickness of the Schumann cavity neglecting the complications caused by spin of photon. For scalar
wave equation the wave equation in radial variable for solution proportional to spherical harmonic Y
l
m
reads as
_
−∂
2
r

2
r

r
+
l(l + 1)
r
2
_
F
l
= ω
2
F
l
. (1.6.1)
By writing F
l
= G
l
/r this equation can be cast into the form
_
−∂
2
r
+
l(l + 1)
r
2
_
G
l
= ω
2
G
l
. (1.6.2)
The term proportional to angular momentum term varies very little in the thin Schumann cavity.
Therefore it is reasonable to separate the constant part from the small variation by writing the equation
in the form
_
−∂
2
r
+l(l + 1)(
1
r
2

1
R
2
)
_
G
l
= EG
l
,
ω
2
= E +
l(l + 1)
R
2
. (1.6.3)
Here E, playing the role of energy in the analog with Schr¨odinger equation, can be also negative
implying that omega is below the alpha peak frequency for l = 1.
1.6. Fatima Marian Apparitions and TGD inspired theory of consciousness 81
The Schumann frequency spectrum should be continuous since the only sensible boundary condi-
tions correspond to organ pipe type boundary conditions requiring that the G vanishes at the surface
of Earth (or, less probably at the lower edge of the ionosphere).
One can use the analogy with one-dimensional Schr¨odinger equation for particle with mass 2m = 1
( = 1) and energy E at half-line r > R in order to understand the spectrum. The angular momentum
term defines the potential function as
V (r) = l(l + 1)
_
1
r
2

1
R
2
_
,
V (r) = ∞ for r ≤ R (1.6.4)
The potential function vanishes at origin origin and approaches to V (∞) = −l(l + 1)
1
R
2
at infinity.
There are no classical bound state solutions since the force f(r) = −∂
r
V = 2l(l + 1)/r
3
drives the
particle to infinity.
The spectrum satisfies the condition
E ≥ V (∞) = −l(l + 1)
1
R
2
,
ω
2
≥ 0 . (1.6.5)
In accordance with the expectation that the spectrum of Schumann frequencies is continuous.
1.2 The identification of Schumann resonance frequencies
In order to identify the Schumann resonances from the continuum one should apply some natural
boundary condition. The vanishing of G at r = R+d is certainly not a natural condition. Schr¨odinger
equation however suggests an analogy. The radial probability current is proportional to ∂G
l
. In
resonance this current should vanish at r = R +d so that one would have

r
G(r)
r=R+d
= 0 . (1.6.6)
This condition determines the possible values of f for resonances. When d varies, also Schumann
resonance frequencies vary. That the lowest Schumann frequency should be f
c
= 1/(2πR) = 7.5 Hz in
a good approximation can be understood from the idea that in resonance ELF light rays move along
geodesics of the sphere having length λ = 2πR defining the frequency as f
c
= c/λ. This would suggest
that at least the lowest Schumann resonance frequence does not appreciably depend on the thickness
of the Schumann cavity.
1.3 Dimensional reduction of Schumann cavity to a sphere and alpha peak frequency
In the case radially very slowly varying modes dimensional reduction of the thin Schumann cavity
to sphere occurs and wave equation reduces to that on sphere with radius R and the solutions are
spherical harmonics. This allows to immediately write the frequency spectrum as
f
l
=
_
l(l + 1)f
c
,
f
c
=
c
2πR
. (1.6.7)
where f
c
= 7.5 Hz is the lowest Schumann resonance frequency and l = 1, 2, 3, ..., characterizes the
angular momentum quantum number of the spherical harmonic.
The following observations are rather interesting as regards to the interaction between magneto-
sphere and brain.
1. The lowest frequency of this kind corresponding to l = 1 is f
1
= 10.6 Hz. This is the peak alpha
frequency and essentially the frequency of the memetic code! Note that this frequency does
not depend on the thickness of the Schumann cavity at all. The lowest Schumann resonance
frequency f
c
· 1/2πR · 7.5 Hz is by a factor

2 lower than the peak frequency of alpha band.
82 Chapter 1. Magnetospheric Sensory Representations
2. The higher frequencies are f
2
= 18.4 Hz, f
3
= 26.0 Hz, f
4
= 33.5 Hz, f
5
= 41.1 Hz. The
appearence of 26 Hz and 41 Hz, which are resonance frequencies of EEG, suggests a connection
between alpha wave band and Schumann frequencies for almost radially constant modes. The
comparison with the spectrum the spectrum 7.5, 14, 20, 26, 33, 39 Hzof Schumann frequencies
shows that the two frequency spectra resemble each other.
Alpha wave peak and possibly also higher peak frequencies of EEG spectrum could correspond
to zero modes, which are very slowly varying with respect to the radial coordinate.
3. The cutoff frequency for genuine Schumann cavity solutions is f = c/d and for d = 100 km
one has f = 3 kHz (note however that the values for d vary from 80 − 100 km. The time for
the light ray to move forth and back in radial direction is .67 ms and only slightly shorter than
the duration τ = .78 for the bit of the memetic codon. If the corresponding ME is parallel
to curvilinear magnetic flux tube turning back at the lower edge of the ionosphere, the time is
longer. This could easily explain the discrepancy.
1.4 Coupling of the magnetospheric cavity modes with Schumann cavity frequencies
One can also consider the field modes associated with the space-time sheet representing a ball of
radius R
1
vanishing at the boundary. The solutions of the radial wave equation for F
l
already written
explicitly can be constructed in terms of spherical Bessel functions for which one can derive explicit
expressions in terms of elementary functions. The lowest l = 0 mode regular at origin is
F
0
(r) =
sin(u)
u
.
1. The vanishing of F
0
(r) at the surface of Earth gives f
0
= c/R = 2πf
s
giving f
0
= 47.2 Hz.
The lowest Schumann resonance frequency of the core-inner core boundary is around this value
assuming that geometric argument holds true, and one can consider the possibility that a com-
munication analogous based on the coupling between these modes is occurring.
2. It is also interesting to look for the cavity modes for the inner magnetosphere. The boundary
of the inner magnetosphere is located in the interval [4R, 6R] which corresponds to the range
[7.86, 11.8] Hz for f
0
covering alpha band. For the lowest zeros of f
1
and f
2
the corresponding
ranges are [22.5, 33.7] Hz and [28.8, 43.3] Hz. This suggests that discrete frequencies in alpha
band and also higher EEG bands in Schumann cavity couple to the cavity modes associated with
the space-time sheet of the inner magnetosphere. The erranous identification of this frequency
as Schumann resonance frequency is possible. Also cyclotron frequency of proton at r · 4R
crucial for magnetospheric sensory representations is in alpha band.
This would imply a direct coupling between solar wind and brain: the solar wind would affect
the size of the inner magnetosphere, in turn affecting the over all scale of the corresponding
cavity frequency band in turn affecting the alpha band in Schumann cavity in turn affecting
brain. Strong solar wind would compress the magnetosphere and tend to the discrete frequency
in the alpha band. This could explain the negative effects of the solar wind on the mood of
sensitive persons.
1.5 Variation of the Schumann frequency with time
The measured lowest Schumann resonance frequency varies with time. There is a variation of ±.5
Hz but also claims about variation up to 11 Hz. The argument allowing to understand geometrically
the lowest resonance frequency suggests that the varying thickness of the Schumann cavity does not
affect the lowest Schumann resonance frequency. One can imagine several explanations for the claimed
wandering.
1. Due to the coupling of the Schumann cavity modes to the modes associated with the space-time
sheet of the inner magnetosphere (with radius varying in the range [4R, 6R]) to be discussed
below in detail, the wandering frequency identified as the lowest Schumann resonance frequency
could actually be the cavity frequency of the inner magnetosphere. In this case quite wide
variation range is possible.
1.6. Fatima Marian Apparitions and TGD inspired theory of consciousness 83
2. The second option is that the boundary conditions stating the vanishing of field components
fail to be satisfied at the surface of Earth. Physically this would mean the generation of an
oscillating surface current and a surface charge density defined by the tangential discontinities
of magnetic and electric fields of the resonance modes. The simplest possibility is that there
is a surface current parallel near to the surface of Earth with the rotational motion of Earth,
which generates magnetic field discontinuity in the direction of longitudes and the discontinuity
of electric field in the radial direction. This current would be oscillatory and might perhaps be
seen as a parallel mirror image of the ionic current at the lower edge of the ionosphere of Earth:
this real mirror current would cause Earth to effectively act like a conductor.
The lower edge of the Earth’s crust at depth of 30-60 km is roughly a almost mirror image for the
lower edge of the ionosphere and could be the seat of the mirror current. In the ideal situation the
contributions of the two currents to the oscillating magnetic field at the surface of Earth would be of
opposite sign and cancel but the variation for the height of the lower edge of the ionosphere would
imply asymmetry, and the breaking of the standard boundary condition at the surface of Earth in
turn changing the Schumann frequency.
2. Alfven waves, magnetic flux tubes, cosmic strings, and hadronic strings
In TGD framework Alfven waves correspond to the geometric oscillations of the magnetic flux tubes.
The understanding of these oscillations represents a horrible mathematical problem and it is not even
obvious that effectively massless modes are possible. It is however possible to understand magnetic
flux tubes as a member of an extremely general family of solutions containing as special cases cosmic
strings, hadronic strings and magnetic flux tubes. That Alfven waves would be mathematically very
similar to the excitations of strings gives a glimpse about the mathematical beauties of the actual
physics lurking behind such a simple looking thing as Earth’s magnetic field.
One can in principle construct magnetic flux tube like solutions as deformations of cosmic string
solution X
2
D
2
, where X
2
is any minimal surface and D
2
is piece of the geodesic sphere S
2
of CP
2
.
By allowing the M
4
coordinates transversal to X
2
to depend on D
2
coordinates so that one has field
theory in X
2
S
2
with the transversal M
4
coordinates taking the role of fields. A static flux tube
is obtained when X
2
is a piece of two-dimensional hyperplane M
2
⊂ M
4
. Thus an infinitely thin
string representing projection to M
4
spreads to a magnetic flux tube. The general stringy solutions
X
2
D
2
describe excitations travelling with light velocity along string. If the deformation inherits this
property, one can say that the oscillations of the flux tube propagate with light velocity and f = c/L
dispersion relation holds true apart from effects caused by the deviation of the induced metric from a
flat metric.
Thanks to the progress in the understanding of the spectrum of the extremals of the K¨ahler action
it is now possible to construct rather explicitly the deformations of ”cosmic strings” to magnetic flux
tubes. The construction demonstrates that the massless transverse modes of string indeed become
Alfwen waves [D1, I5].
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(1992), Fieldline resonance associated with MHD waveguides in the magnetosphere Geophys. Res.
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science/news/stories/s237849.htm. .
[31] D. D. Sentman (1995), Schumann Resonances, in Handgbook of Atmospheric Electrodynamics,
(ed. Volland), Vol. 1, 267-295, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 1995.
[32] Slavin et al (1985), JGR 10, 875.
[33] Nick Strober (2001), Magnetic fields,
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[34] S. N. Virani et al(2000) The Chandra X-Ray Observatory’s Radiation Environment and the AP-
8/AE-8 Model. astro-ph/0004177.
[35] M. Neugebauer, E. J. Smith, A. Ruzmaikin, J. Feynman, and A. H. Vaughan (2000) The solar
magnetic field and the solar wind: Existence of preferred longitudes, Journal of Geophysical
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[36] E. Lozneanu and M. Sanduloviciu (2003) Minimal-cell system created in laboratory by self-
organization, Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, Volume 18, Issue 2, October, p. 335.
See also Plasma blobs hint at new form of life, New Scientist vol. 179 issue 2413 - 20 September
2003, page 16.
[37] Space Physics textbook. http://www.oulu.fi/
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spaceweb/textbook/.
[38] D. P. Stern and M. Peredo (2000), The Exploration of the Earth’s Magnetosphere.
http://www-spof.gsfc.nasa.gov/Education/.
[39] Space Physics handout 2: The Earth’s magnetosphere and ionosphere http://www.sp.ph.ic.
ac.uk/
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mkd/Handout2.PDF.
[40] T. L. Hansen (2001), The northern lights-what are they?, http://geo.phys.uit.no/articl/
theaurora.html.
[41] Geodynamo, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Geodynamo.
BIBLIOGRAPHY 89
Biology, brain science, consciousness
[42] W. M. Gelbart et al(2000), DNA Inspired Electrostatics, Physics Today, vol 53, issue 9.
[43] W. J. Freeman (2001), Making sense of brain waves: the most baffling frontier in neuroscience,
http://sulcus.berkeley.edu.
[44] Julian Jaynes (1982), The origin of consciousness in the breakdown of the bicameral mind, Prince-
ton University Press.
Effects of em fields on living matter
[45] R. O. Becker (1990), Cross Currents, Penguin Putnam Inc., New York.
[46] J. C. Lin, S. Sales-Cunha, J. Battocletti, A. Sances, (1980), The Microwave Auditive phenomenon,
proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 68, #1.
[47] R. Miller and I. Miller (2003), Schumann’s Resonances and Human Psychobiology, to be published
in Nexus Magazien, http://www.nexusmagazine.com.
[48] C. Smith (2001), Learning From Water, A Possible Quantum Computing Medium, talk in
CASYS’2001, 5th international conference on Computing Anticipating Systems held in Liege,
Belgium, August 13-18. Abstract book published by Chaos.
[49] M. Persinger (1999), The tectonic strain theory as an explanation for UFO phenomena
http://www.laurentian.ca/www/neurosci/tectonicedit.htm.
M. Persinger (1987) Neuropsychological Bases of God Beliefs, Praeger Publishers.
M. A. Persinger and S. Krippner (1989), Dream ESP experiments and geomagnetic activity, The
Journal of the American Society for Psychical Research, Vol. 83.
[50] C. E. Ingalls (2002), Sensation of Hearing in Electromagnetic Fields,
http://www.angelfire.com/or/mctrl/ingalls.htm.
Anomalies, etc...
[51] S. E. Shnoll et al (1998), Realization of discrete states during fluctuations in macroscopic pro-
cesses, Uspekhi Fisicheskikh Nauk, Vol. 41, No. 10, pp. 1025-1035.
[52] S. Comorosan(1975), On a possible biological spectroscopy, Bull. of Math. Biol., Vol 37, p. 419.
[53] S. Comorosan, M. Hristea, P. Murogoki (1980), On a new symmetry in biological systems, Bull.
of Math. Biol., Vol 42, p. 107.
[54] V. V. Roshchin, and S. M. Godin, An Experimental Investigation of the Physical Effects in a
Dynamic Magnetic System, New Energy Technologies Issue #1 July-August 2001.
[55] G. Vassilatos (2001), Nocturnal Disturbances and the Infrasonic ”HUM”,
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[56] F. Armada and J. Fernandez (1982), Extraterrestrial Intervention in Fatima –the Apparitions
and the UFO phenomena. Amadora, Livraria Bertrand.
Ibid. (1995), The Fatima Apparitions and the UFO Phenomenon. Lisboa, Editorial Estampa.
Ibid. (2002), Fatima – behind the Secret. Lisboa,
ˆ
Ancora Editora.
[57] A. Brodziak (1999), ”Luka szczescia - kompletowanie sensu” (Publishing Hous ”Kos”,http://
www.kos.compl/, Katowice, Poland. The book is online at http://salve.slam.katowice.pl/
KSILUK.htm. Ideas about spring water and apparitions are presented shortly in English at
http://salve.slam.katowice.pl/Gap.htm
and http://salve.slam.katowice.pl/dejanews.htm.
90 BIBLIOGRAPHY
[58] E. Haselhoff (2002),Mysterious Glass Spheres in Crop Circles: A Mystery Solved?, http://www.
dcccs.org/glass_spheres.htm.
[59] W. C. Levengood and J. A. Burke (1995), Semi-Molten Meteoric Iron Associated with a Crop
Formation, Journal of Scientific Exploration, Vol 9, No. 2, pp. 191-199.
http://www.bltresearch.com/published.html.
W. C. Levengood (1994), Anatomical Anomalies In Crop Formation Plants, Physiologia Plan-
tarum, 92:356-363.
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http://www.bltresearch.com/published.html.
[60] J. Vallee (1998), Dimensions. A Casebook of Alien Contact. Chicago/New York, Contemporary
Books.
Chapter 2
Evolution in Many-Sheeted
Space-Time
2.1 Introduction
This chapter was originally about prebiotic evolution but gradually extended so that it became natural
to drop the attribute ”prebiotic” away. Of course, a collection of ideas rather than detailed history of
life is in question.
If was already early that the notion of many-sheeted space-time could allow to understand many
puzzles related to the pre-biotic evolution [58, 61]. There are many constraints on the models for
pre-biotic evolution. The models have also many difficulties [46, 55].
TGD replaces materialistic view about universe with a continual re-creation in which classical
universe in 4-dimensional sense is replaced by a new one in each quantum jump. p-Adic length scale
hypothesis allows to formulate the notion of evolution precisely as a generation of increasingly larger
space-time sheets characterized by preferred p-adic primes. A second aspect is the emergence of new
levels in dark matter hierarchy making possible macroscopic quantum coherence and inducing great
leaps in evolution. Also a hierarchy of dark weak bosons and gluons becomes an essential part of
the physics of living matter. The notion of field/magnetic body carrying dark matter is a further
key element in the model and has become increasingly important during years, and the vision about
DNA-cell membrane system as a topological quantum computer utilizing braids defined by magnetic
flux tubes connecting nucleotides to lipids meant a breakthrough in the understanding of the real
function of DNA in information processing.
2.1.1 Questions and answers about evolution
A good manner to introduce the essentials of the TGD inspired model for the prebiotic evolution is
by a sequence of questions and answers relating to evolution.
Q: Is life as we know it result of an accident?.
A: Quantum TGD predicts a genuine cosmic evolution occurring by quantum jumps for which
dynamics is characterized by Negentropy Maximization Principle [H2]. The generalization of the no-
tion of space-time implies dark matter hierarchy with levels characterized by arbitrarily large values of
Planck constant so that macroscopic quantum coherence is possible even in astrophysical length scales.
Even astrophysical systems are analogous to atomic systems which implies a strong standardization of
planetary system so that Earth like planets are abundant. There are also other good reasons for why
the evolution of life would not have been accident in TGD Universe and life should appear everywhere
in TGD Universe.
Q: What were the most primitive living systems?
A: The notion of magnetic body brings to biology several completely new elements. Magnetic
flux quanta containing dark charged matter and quantum controlling ordinary matter in plasma
phase is perhaps the simplest system which can develop characteristics of a living system. The
braiding of magnetic flux tubes makes possible topological quantum computation and a fundamental
representation of memories and its presence could be even taken as a definition for what it is to be
91
92 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
living. Tqc programs correspond to asymptotic self organization patterns for liquid flows inducing
braidings and are non-trivial in presence of external energy feed.
Q: How metabolic machinery emerged?
A: Many-sheeted space-time concept predicts a hierarchy of universal metabolic energy quanta as
differences of zero point kinetic energies for space-time sheets characterized by different p-adic length
scales. What remains is to understand how chemical energy storage and utilization mechanisms
developed.
Q: What is behind biocatalytic machinery?
A: The magnetic flux tubes connecting bio-molecules imply long range correlations between molecules.
The reduction of Planck constant for magnetic flux tubes implying their shortening provides a mech-
anism making possible for bio-molecules to ”find” each other in a very selective manner, and explains
also why molecules end up to precisely defined conformations necessary for a selective bio-catalysis.
Q: How symbolic dynamics emerged?
A: The notion of N-atom suggested by the fractionization of electron quantum numbers for dark
matter hierarchy brings in a candidate for a symbolic dynamics assigning to molecules ”names” which
need not correlate very strongly with the chemical properties of the molecule but would dictate to a
high degree its biochemical behavior. Molecular ”sex” emerges in the sense that molecules labeled with
”names” and ”co-names” tend to pair. The model of DNA as tqc assumes a 4-coloring of braid strands
realized by an assignment of DNA nucleotides to quarks and anti-quarks. Also this means symbolic
dynamics since only molecules connected by colored braids have high probability to participate in
same biochemical reaction and do it in a very specific manner. Since the quarks involved with braid
strands can have fractional charges, molecular sex can be realized also in this manner.
Q: What selected the bio-molecules during chemical evolution?
A: The proposed symbolic dynamics based on the notions of colored braids and N-atom poses very
strong constraints on the subsets of bio-molecules that can react with considerable rates.
Q: How biochemical pathways emerged?
A: It is now possible to realize in practice sequences of arbitrarily complex self-catalyzing biochem-
ical reactions utilizing DNA hairpins. The mechanism generalizes to more complex molecules. At a
given step of the reaction sequence the structure formed during the previous steps acts as a key fitting
to a lock represented by some hairpin in the solution, and opens it to a linear molecule and in this
manner makes it a key. The braids between reactants make it possible for the key and lock to find
each other.
Q: How genetic code evolved?
A: The symmetries of the third codon of the genetic code allow in DNA as tqc model an inter-
pretation as isospin and matter antimatter symmetries for quarks and antiquarks assigned with DNA
nucleotides and representing 4-color of braid strands. These symmetries together with the study of
the detailed structure of tRNA lead to a model for the evolution of the genetic code as a fusion of a
non-deterministic 1-code and one-to-one 2-code corresponding to the conjugation of mRNA molecules.
During RNA era two kinds of RNAs, call them RNA
1
and RNA
2
, were present and played the roles
of mRNA and aminoacid sequences. 2-code resp. 1-code mediated the analog of replication resp.
translation using hairpin like molecules tRNA
1
and tRNA
2
to bring in RNA nucleotides and RNA
doublets to the growing RNA
i
sequence. Amino-acids attached to the stem of tRNA
2
acted as cat-
alysts. The transition to RNA-aminoacid era took place via a fusion of the tRNA
1
and tRNA
2
to
the ordinary tRNA and instead of sequences of two kinds of RNAs were replaced by aminoacid se-
quences were formed. After a period of symbiosis involving all these three tRNAs a transition to
DNA-RNA-aminoacid world took place as an aminoacid sequence acting like reverse transcriptase
emerged.
Q: Did RNA world precede the life as we know it?
A: The model for the evolution of the genetic code forces to conclude tha RNA world [52] preceded
the recent biology and allows also to deduce that the nucleotides involved with second form of RNA
where A,T,U,I(nositol). The exotic RNA in question could have been 2

, 5

form of RNA rather than
3

, 5

RNA produced also in the classical experiments of Leslie Orgel [100].
Q: Does the notion of protocell make sense?
A: The model of DNA as tqc involves essentially the magnetic flux tubes connecting DNA nu-
cleotides and cell membrane. Since topological quantum computation should have taken place also
during the RNA era, some kind of cell membrane consisting of exotic RNA should have been present.
2.1. Introduction 93
It has been found that DNA indeed forms membrane like structures which are liquid crystals consist-
ing of sequences of DNA nucleotides with length up to 20 nucleotides [96] and same might be true in
the case of exotic RNA.
Q: How life could evolve in the harsh primordial environment? Does
the notion of primordial ocean make sense?
A: Evolving life had to cope with the grave difficulties due to the irradiation by UV light and
meteoric bombardment. A simple solution of these problems is to evolve in the interior of Earth,
say in underground lakes. This idea conforms nicely with the observation that continents would have
formed a single super continent at time of Cambrian explosion provided the radius of Earth at that
time was by a factor 1/2 smaller than now. TGD predicts that cosmic evolution does not occur
continuously but by quantum jumps in which the Planck constant of appropriate space-time sheet
increases. A phase transition of this kind increasing the radius of Earth during a relatively short time
interval would have led to a burst of life from underground lakes to the surface of Earth. This would
also explain the sudden emergence of a huge variety of highly developed life forms during Cambrian
explosion.
2.1.2 Topics of the chapter
The topics of the chapter has been restricted to those, which seem to represent the most well-
established ideas. The topics of the article have been restricted to those, which seem to represent
the most well-established ideas about evolution in TGD Universe. There are many other, more spec-
ulative, ideas such as the notion of N-atom based on fractalization of electron charge and strong form
of the hypothesis that some life forms has evolved in ”Mother Gaia’s womb”, maybe even in the hot
environment defined by the boundary of mantle and core.
1. Basic facts about and TGD based model for pre-biotic evolution are discussed.
2. A model for the evolution of the recent genetic code (3-codons) as a fusion of codes for which
codons are nucleotides (1-codons) and di-nucleotides (2-codons) is discussed. The symmetries
of the genetic code, the observation that tRNA can be seen as a fusion of two hairpin like DNA
molecules, and the finding that the first nucleotides of 3-codon code for the reaction path leading
from a precursors of the aminoacid to aminoacids for hydrophobic/hydrohilic dichotomy, serve
as motivations of the model. 1- and 2-codes corresponding to the two forms of RNA (the exotic
2

−5

RNA and the usual 3

−5

RNA) would have prevailed in RNA world. Aminoacids would
have served as catalysts for the copying of RNA on one hand, and RNA molecules would have
catalyzed the formation of aminoacids from their precursors on one hand, meaning the presence
of a positive feedback loop. In the transition to DNA-aminoacid era RNA began to be translated
to aminoacid sequences.
3. Cambrian explosion represents a rather mysterious period in biology: new highly developed
phylas emerged out of nowhere. A second strange finding is that continents would fit together
to form single super-continent covering entire Earth’s surface at time of Cambrian explosion
if the radius of Earth would have been one half of its recent value. This finding has inspired
Expanding Earth theories but it has not been possible to identify the mechanism causing the
expansion. The success of the standard tectonic plate theory requires that possible expansion
must have occurred in relatively short geological time scale. The hierarchy of Planck constants
implies that cosmic expansion has occurred in quantum leaps increasing the value of and
thus of quantum scales by factors which tend to be powers of 2. Cosmic expansion would have
occurred as jerks even in the case of planets. In the proposed model Cambrian explosion would
have accompanied the expansion of the Earth’s radius by a factor of 2: during this period an
outburst of highly developed life forms from underground seas to the surface of Earth would
have taken place.
4. The last section of the chapter compares TGD based view about the evolution of genetic code
to the views of McFadden [62]. This section is a little bit out of date. For instance, the
hypothesis that magnetic body of DNA could induce mutations purposefully is not discussed.
This hypothesis is natural if one believes that magnetic flux tubes connecting bio-molecules play
a key role in bio-catalysis. This idea is discussed in the chapter devoted to protein folding [L8].
94 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
2.2 What is known about pre-biotic evolution?
In the following the basic facts and ideas about pre-biotic are summarized.
2.2.1 Some believed-to-be facts about the early history of life
The following basic facts allow to get rough view about the time scales of the pre-biotic evolution.
1. The origin of Earth occurs roughly 4.5 Ga (Ga=billion years ago). Bombardment phase, that is
the period of large scale impacts, ended roughly 4-3.8 Ga.
2.
12
C enrichment is seen as a signature of photosynthesis. By this criterion the oldest known micro-
fossils date back to 3.5 Ga and are found in volcanoes. There is a hot debate going on about
whether these micro-fossils are really genuine micro-fossils. For instance, they are accompanied
by complex quartz structures and this does not conform with what one might expect.
3. Levels of atmospheric oxygen began to increase during second half of precambrian era (2 Ga)
and reached 10 per cent level at the eon’s end at 1 Ga.
4. There are not many fossils or fossil bearing rocks from the precambrian eon. The simplest
explanation is that the precambrian fossils have been soft bodied. Abundant fossils appear at
Cambrian period which started .55 Ga. Cambrian explosion meant emergence of extremely rich
spectrum of various life-forms.
5. The time interval between bombardment phase and the emergence of the first micro-fossils is
only .3 billion years. This means that the time window for the life to develop on the surface
of Earth is surprisingly narrow, and one can ask whether the primordial life could really have
developed spontaneously in the environement provide by the surface of young Earth.
2.2.2 Standard approaches are mechanistic
Various hard science approaches to the pre-biotic evolution share a common philosophy dating to the
beginning of the previous century. This philosophy is reductionistic materialism according to which
life can be explained as a purely mechanistic phenomenon which just happened to occur by change
(”change and necessity” using the phrase in the title of the classic of Monod). This view is highly
questionable and certainly in dramatic conflict with more modern views relying on macroscopic and
even astrophysical quantum coherence as basic elements.
At the experimental level the failure of mechanistic approach is easy to see. The components of
cell inside test tube do not form a living system. The numerical simulations using computer models
have demonstrated convincingly that spontaneous emergence of life is not possible. Empirical facts
support completely different conclusion: the emergence of life is unavoidable and occurs everywhere
in the universe, and there are good reasons that it has some universal characteristics. The challenge
is to develop the conceptual framework so that it can explain this naturally.
2.2.3 The notion of primordial ocean
The following discussion uses basic facts which I have learned from articles of Chris King [58] repre-
senting updated view about facts and theories about pre-biotic evolution as well as articles criticing
the existing theories [46, 55].
The generation of biomonomers requires the presence of C, H and O. During 1920

s Oparin and
Haldane independently proposed that life, or its chemical precursors including amino-acids, formed
spontaneously under the conditions associated with primordial atmosphere. Genetic code was not
yet known, and both Oparin and Haldane believed that life evolved from proteins, and that life’s
precursors including amino-acids were formed spontaneously in a reducing atmosphere whose principal
components where CH
4
and/or CO
2
, NH
3
, and H
2
O.
Oparin suggested that methane served as the source of carbon whereas Haldane believed that the
source was CO
2
. Oparin also suggested that what he called coacervatives were precessors of the cell.
Haldade thought that the gradual increase in the complexity of pre-biotic molecules in the presence
of UV radiation led automatically to the generation of a protocell.
2.2. What is known about pre-biotic evolution? 95
The assumption that the atmosphere is reducing is essential: the presence of oxygen would be
fatal for the biomonomers. This assumption can be however questioned. The primordial atmosphere
was due to the outgassing associated with volcanic eruptions but aund volcanic fumes the atmosphere
is oxidizing which means that biomonomers would have been rapidly destroyed by oxidation. In-
terestingly, the photographs of Earth taken during the Apollo 16 mission allow to conclude that a
gigantic cloud of hydrogen, extending 40,000 miles into space surrounds the Earth. The only source
of hydrogen can be water vapour, bombarded by high energy UV light rays above ozone layer [71]. If
this water has been there during the primordial period, the atmosphere must have contained oxygen
so that the basic assumption would be wrong.
Even if the atmosphere was reducing, one encounters a problem. There would have been no shield
against UV radiation which according to [46] would have dissociated COOH whereas CH
4
and heavier
hydrocarbons would have polymerized forming an oil slick 1-10 deep over the surface of the Earth.
Ammonium would have photo-dissociated into nitrogen and hydrogen so that the conditions of the
experiments of Miller [63] and others to be discussed below would not been satisfied.
2.2.4 Urey-Miller experiment
Urey-Miller experiment [63] meant a dramatic step of progress on the experimental side, and for a
along time it was believed to be conform the vision of Oparin and Haldane. The experiment involved
a reducing atmosphere and electric sparks simulating the effect of lightnings. In the later experiments
19 of 20 amino-acids were identified. Also nucleosides A, G were produced. Cyanoacetaldehyde
together with urea believed to be accumulated to primordial ponds, allowed to generate U and C
as was discovered by Miller 40 years after his classical experiment. These impressive results were
interpreted as a support for the view about primordial ocean as a ”dilute soup” of organic molecules
which precipitated out of the atmosphere.
For a long time it was believed that the synthesis of ribose necessary for the generation of RNA
was impossible in these circumstances. It turn out that ribose was generated from glyseralhehyde
phosphate in presence of COOH [48]. Glyseraldehyde phosphate was generated also in Miller’s ex-
periments. In case of deoxiribose necessary for DNA no plausible synthesis mechanism has been
identified.
Organic compounds (in particular A, U, C, G) and even membrane forming products are present in
carbonaceous chondrites (meteorites). Chondrites are essentially what the Earth is made of. Galactic
gas clouds contain sugars, amino-acids, nucleic acids. In an experiment of Dworkin and his colleagues
[47] thin ice at temperature of 10 K containing H
2
O, ammonia, CO, CO
2
methanol was located in
vacuum and bombarded by UV radiation to mimick the situation prevaling in the interstellar space.
Contrary to expectations, hundreds of different complex organic molecules appearing also in meteorites
were generated. Thus it seems that the molecules generated by pre-biotic evolution appear everywhere
in cosmos but ironically, the environment provided by the surface of young Earth’s does not seem to
favor the pre-biotic evolution.
2.2.5 RNA world
One of the basic questions in theorizing about pre-biotic evolution is which came first: proteins, nucleic
acids or both or possibly something else. The vision known as RNA world [52, 54] is dominating the
stage at this moment. It is assumed that RNA polymers serve all the basic functions associated
with DNA, RNA and amino-acids. These functions are based on genetic and catalytic capacity of
RNA. Later a genetic takeover occurred involving the emergence of DNA and genetic code in which
amino-acids replaced RNA somehow.
One can represent good experimental justifications for the RNA world vision (for the summary
and for references the article of Chris King [58] is recommended warmly).
1. Ribose can be synthetized in the same circumstances as amino-acids and nucleosides. The
presence of kaolinite clays and volcanic magmas stabilizes RNA polymerization. When mont-
morillonite, a positively charged clay believed to exist copiously in young Earth, was added to
a solution of negatively charged amino-acids, a solution of RNA nucleotides gave rise to RNA
10-15 nucleotides long [49]. These chains attached to the surface of the clay, and when more nu-
cleotides were feeded by washing them with the solution, they grew up to 55 nucleotides long. It
96 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
seems that reversible dehydration in a medium containing phosphates, bases and sugars provides
the routes to polynucleotide formations. Besides water, Mg
++
plays a key role in stabilizing
mono- and oligonucleotides by compensating the negative charges of the phosphates.
2. RNA can form double helices and has 3-dimensional tertiary structures analogous to that of
proteins so that one might expect the ability to act as catalyst. The discovery of spontaneous
splicing of RNAs in living systems is possible meant a breakthrough in this respect [106]. Second
crucial finding was that these RNAs could act as catalysts in transesterifications crucial for the
protein synthesis [54]. Even high fidelity complementary replication of arbitrary short RNA
sequences has been demonstrated [56]. Simple biological RNAs have shown to have autocat-
alytic self-assembling capacity. The catalytic activity hinges on various forms of proton transfer
(perhaps the leakage of protons between space-time sheets is involved). RNA appears to be
the agent of peptide-bond synthesis in the modern ribosome [53] and modified ribozymes are
able to act as amino-acyl esterases [66]. Thus RNA seems able to serve synthetizing, transfer,
messenger and ribosomal functions so that it can guide both its own replication and ordered
polymerization of proteins.
3. Support for the RNA world pictures comes also from the fact that the ancient fossil nucleotide
coenzymes including ATP, NAD, coenzyme A and vitamin B12 are all ribonucleotides. Eucariote
organisms continue to posses massive RNA processing within the nucleus. Reverse transcrip-
tase, whose function contradicts the Central Dogma, and encountered in retro-viruses (such as
HIV), might have ancient origin. Reverse transcriptase is indeed crucial for the transition from
RNA→RNA predecessor of genetic code to DNA→amino-acid genetic code in TGD framework.
2.2.6 How biochemical pathways and DNA-amino-acid code emerged?
The traditional viewpoint is that biochemical pathways have developed from some simple basic sys-
tems. This approach encounters difficulties when one tries to understand how integrated systems
such as electron transport and metabolic machinery could have worked in primitive systems. TGD
based solution to the problem is the universality of metabolism and other basic functions relying on
super-conductivity and its breakdown by the leakage of various supra currents between space-time
sheets.
Furthermore, one can also decompose the evolution to two parts corresponding to the development
of genetically controlled structures and self-organizing structures not controlled genetically [L2]. Chris
King has formulated the same idea in a more concrete manner in his article [58] from the point
of view of complex systems. According to King, the basic mechanisms developed without genetic
control and were finally taken under control as the genetic takeover occurred. These kind of generic
structures include proteins and nuclei acids, nucleotide coenzymes, bilayered membrane structures, ion
transport and membrane excitability, membrane bound electron transport, glycolysis and the citric
acide cycle. In TGD framework one can add to this list topologically quantized classical fields as
universal structures.
A second open question is how DNA and amino-acids took the command. Here many-sheeted
space-time provides a possible answer. DNA nucleotides are stable only inside regions containing
ordered or liquid crystal water forming a macroscopic quantum phase. The transformation of DNA
to RNA nucleotide requires water molecule which is not available in this kind of environment. The
transition from RNA-RNA predecessor of genetic code to DNA-amino-acid genetic code is also a deep
problem and here the trick might be very simple: reverse RNA transcriptase used by retro-viruses
(also HIV) could have transformed RNA genes to DNA genes.
The model for the evolution of genetic code as a fusion of singlet and doublet codes in turn allows
to understand the emergence of amino-acids as being due to a change in tRNA structure implying
that amino-acids acting as catalyzers of the attachment of RNA to tRNA molecule began to stick to
tRNA, and were loosened only when tRNA was attached to RNA so that the used amino-acids began
to form amino-acid sequences replacing RNA sequences as coded sequences.
2.2.7 Problems with the polymerization in primordial ocean
Polymerization occurs universally by dehydration in case of polynucleotides, polypeptides, polysac-
charides and lipids serving as basic building blocks of living structures. The basic difficulty is that
2.2. What is known about pre-biotic evolution? 97
polymers are not stable in an aqueous environment. Several cures to this problem have been proposed.
1. Various mineral interfaces could serve as templates for the formation of polymers and the evap-
oration of water from these structures could give rise to polymers. For instance, mud flats might
have made possible polymerization.
2. Fox has proposed that the heat flow from geoactive sites like hot springs, volcanic rims and
submarine vents could have caused the dehydration [51]. Fox has indeed managed to show how
to generate protenoids consisting of up to several hundred amino-acids possessing weak catalytic
activities. The temperatures needed are typically above 100 C and somewhat too high. Archea
as well as nanno-bacteria are indeed found in this kind of environments, and they utilize heat
and sulphur compounds as a source of metabolic energy. The first objection is that the high
temperature destroys the biological molecules in this kind of environment. Furthermore, the
atmosphere around volcanoes contains CO
2
and water and only minor amounts of nitrogen,
hydrogen sulfide and sulfur dioxide so that this kind of atmosphere does not give rise to the
biomonomers in analogs of Urey-Miller experiments.
3. The un-stability of polymers against hydration is so serious a shortcoming for the primordial
soup approach that it has inspired quite radical alternative proposals. For instance, Crick has
concluded that pre-biotic life might have extraterrestrial origin. The panspermia hypothesis
however only shifts the problem to the outer space. The evolution of life in intra-terrestrial
environement is much less radical variant of this approach if one is ready to accept the notion
of many-sheeted space-time.
4. Dr. Cairns-Smith has proposed that so called clay genes appeared as predecessors of genes [45].
For instance, Al atoms in the lattice containing Si and O can have three states at each site so
that enormous information storage capacities become available. These structures would have
acted as scaffolding for present day bio-molecules of RNA and DNA. This idea might create more
problems than it solves. One could however turn the idea around and ask whether primitive
life-forms such as nanno-bacteria could express their genetic code with the help of kaolinite clays.
To my personal opinion, an invention of a clever mechanism is probably not enough to solve the
basic problem. Polymerization in modern cells is basically a process involving metabolic control, and
it seems that the metabolic control must have been present from the beginning in some primitive
form. TGD predicts that magnetosphere can perform quantum control in astrophysical length scales
from the magnetic flux tubes of the Earth’s magnetic field B
E
or, rather, from the flux quanta of
dark magnetic field accompanying it and having strength B
E
= 2B
E
/5. A further prediction is that
metabolism is completely universal and existed in primitive form already during the primordial period.
This in turn makes possible the option that the pre-biotic life need not have developed through stages
differing dramatically from the recent life forms. One could even assume that a generalization of
ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny principle holds true for the intracellular dynamics so that it would
give precise information about pre-biotic evolution.
One must also clarify what one really means when one speaks of aqueous environment. Water
allows an extremely rich variety of structures. Liquid crystal water/ordered water encountered inside
cells might automatically stabilize polymers, and provide also a solution to how DNA and polymers
were stabilized. Sol-gel transition giving rise to macroscopic quantum coherence would generate this
liquid crystal phase.
2.2.8 The notion of protocell
The emergence of membrane bounded structures has certainly been decisive for the evolution of life.
Cell membrane made possible differentiation forced by the competition for metabolic resources. Cell
membrane imports metabolics, exports waste products, and acts as a signalling system. In TGD
universe the receptors at cell membrane also serve as cellular sensory receptors.
A variety of answers to the question about the predecessor of the cell has been proposed. The
natural constraint is that the membrane in question results via self-organization. If one requires
consistency with the generalization of ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny principle (ORP), the number
of options is reduced dramatically.
98 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
1. Lipid bi-layers are certainly a natural guess since they formed spontaneously in solutions on
biological conditions. There is thus a consistency with the generalized ontogeny recapitulates
phylogeny principle requiring that all primordial structures appear also in modern cells.
2. An elegant an plausible candidate for protocell is the gel phase resulting in sol-gel transition
inside cell [67, 58]. Gel phase has indeed many properties of cell membrane bound region and
is routinely generated also inside modern cells. A compact ordered liquid crystal type phase
is in question. Negatively charged proteins are generated inside the gel phase and gel phase
rejects Na
+
ions and attracts K
+
ions just as cell interior. Also negatively charged proteins are
stable inside gel phase. In TGD framework gel phase is a macroscopic quantum phase so that
new physics is necessary involved. In particular, the evolution by quantum jumps is expected to
lead to this kind of self-organized structures automatically. In TGD framework one expects that
the liquid crystal/ordered water phase leads to the stabilization of RNA and that even DNA
nucleotides become stable.
3. The proposal of Sidney Fox [51] is that protocells could correspond to the called micro-spheres
formed from protenoids in geolocically active sites like hots springs and volcanic rims. He
also demonstrated that this really occurs. Protedoids are amino-acid sequences differing from
ordinary peptides in that peptide bonds are different: hence this option is not consistent with the
generalization of ORP. When proteneids are washed into a warm water allowed to cool, micro-
spheres are formed. Micro-spheres are bilayered structures able to divide. A concentration
roughly 10 million times higher than believed to appear in primordial soup is required so that
either the idea of protenoid or of primordial soup is wrong. Further objections are that micro-
spheres do not perform any functions of cell, and that the structure is like an inpermeable cell
wall or spore coat rather than a cell membrane [46, 55].
The common problem of all these options is that the required concentrations of biomonomers are much
higher than those expected in the primordial soup. This forces to question the notion of primordial
soup and even the assumption about the occurrence of the pre-biotic evolution at the surface of Earth.
2.3 TGD based scenario about pre-biotic evolution
TGD framework leads to a radical view about life. Magnetosphere can be seen as a living system
controlling the evolution of life and chicken-egg question can be seen in a totally new perspective.
Super-conducting magnetosphere can be seen as a higher level life-form which controls and guides the
biological evolution from the very beginning. Second key element is dark matter hierarchy.
2.3.1 Basic prerequisites
A short summary of basic requirements and problems is in order.
1. A stable star and planet providing appropriate conditions such as temperature for liquid water
is needed.
2. Atoms like C, N, and O and smaller amounts of P and S giving rise to bio-monomers, and metals
like Al, Fe, and Zn are the basic building blocks. The formation of various chemical bonds like
hydrogen bonds, covalent bonds, and peptide bonds is necessary.
3. The formation of biological monomers (amino acids, nucleotides, fatty acids, sugars) is an es-
sential element of life. Except for DNA nucleotides, basic monomers evolve in the circumstances
simulating to what have been believed to be the primordial atmosphere. These bio-monomers are
found even in the interstellar space and in galactic clouds so that the question is not whether
the pre-biotic life can develop but whether our recent day materialistic science allows to un-
derstand how it develops. The standard wisdom about primordial atmosphere as a reducing
environment (containing no oxygen) indeed leads to grave difficulties. Also the concentrations
in the primordial ocean seem to be quite too low for the bio-monomers to be synthesized [55].
2.3. TGD based scenario about pre-biotic evolution 99
4. The formation of the biological polymers such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates
occurs universally by dehydration. The problem is that in water environment polymers are un-
stable against decay by hydration: it would seem that a metabolic energy feed is required already
at this stage to guarantee non-equilibrium situation. The assembly of these macro-molecules into
organized aggregates like chromosomes, micro-tubules and cell organelles suggests the emergence
of symbolic representations and only a weak independence of hard facts of chemistry which makes
the problem even more difficult from the point of view of standard physics.
5. The emergence of catalysts and metabolism, should be understood. Here one encounters an
egg-hen problem. Standardized metabolic currency seems to be necessary for effective catalysis
but metabolism according to the standard view involves extremely complex web of reaction
pathways needing refined catalytic actions.
6. Membrane bound structures are essential for life and one should understand how they emerge
and even predict correctly basic facts about them.
7. The emergence of the genetic code has remained a mystery in various scenarios of pre-biotic
evolution.
8. How the incredible ability of the components of bio-systems to co-operate pops up from primor-
dial soup is not always included to the list of mysteries since everything smelling ”holism” is
regarded as pseudo science in reductionistic circles.
2.3.2 TGD based vision about pre-biotic evolution
The prevailing mechanistic world view forces to conclude that life emerged accidentally in young Earth
during a relatively short time period of about .3 billion years. On basis of extensive computer simu-
lations, one can fairly say that a spontaneous generation of life in primordial ocean seems extremely
implausible [46].
TGD replaces materialistic view with a continual re-creation in which classical universe in 4-
dimensional sense is replaced by a new one in each quantum jump. p-Adic length scale hypothesis
allows to formulate the notion of evolution precisely as a generation of increasingly larger space-time
sheets characterized by preferred p-adic primes meaning also a sequence of symmetry breakings. A
second aspect is the emergence of new levels in dark matter hierarchy meaning great leaps in evolution.
A crucially new element is the predicted fractal hierarchy of copies of electro-weak and color physics.
Dark weak bosons and gluons thus become an essential part of the physics of living matter.
Macroscopic and even astrophysical quantum coherence becomes a key feature of living matter.
Theory is partially non-deterministic also in classical sense but the variational principle for K¨ahler
action implying that space-time surfaces are analogous to Bohr orbits and self-organization lead to
Darwinian selection of selected patterns.
Is life really a result of accident?
Life is often regarded as an extremely improbable accident. The estimates for the probability of the
formation of amino-acids, DNA, and of emergence of genetic code from random soup of molecules are
indeed found to be extremely small. In TGD Universe the situation is different.
1. Intentional action is basic aspect of TGD Universe. Negentropy Maximization Principle [H2]
states that the dynamics of quantum jumps maximizes the information content of the conscious
experience and implies evolution as a continual recreation of the Universe eventually leading
unavoidably to the emergence of information rich systems and explaining also why the values of
”fundamental constants” seem to be tailored for the emergence of life as we are used to identify
it. p-Adic dynamics for cognitive space-time sheets implies local randomness but long range
fractal correlations for the real dynamics.
2. The hierarchy of Planck constants implies macroscopic and macro-temporal quantum coherence
in all length scales. Universe becomes single conscious organism in this framework. This has
many implications. For instance, low frequency photon can have arbitrarily high energy. This
makes it possible control of short length and time scales by the dynamics in long scales, say by
100 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
EEG. The enormous values of gravitational Planck constant for dark matter and the assumption
that visible matter condenses around dark matter imply that planetary orbits correspond to Bohr
orbits [D7, D8]. Only very few orbital radii are possible and for a star with mass around solar
mass planets at distance of Earth are possible and probable irrespective of the mass of the
planet. Hence solar systems are standardized to high degree. Also the quantization of masses
of stars is highly suggestive and the number of stars with mass not far from solar mass is large.
Obviously this raises the probability for having Earth like environments dramatically.
3. TGD based nuclear physics [F9] explains cold fusion[22, 23] as well as biological nuclear trans-
mutations for which there is considerable empirical support [24]. The direct empirical evidence
comes from the observation that the abundances of heavier elements in an astrophysical object
at distance of order 10 billion light years are essentially the same as in solar system [25]. If
elements are created only in the stellar interiors, the abundances should be much smaller. This
suggests that the heavier elements result by cold fusion in the interstellar space. The implication
is that environments allowing life have existed much earlier than believed hitherto.
4. The hierarchy of Planck constants and the notion of magnetic body allow a mechanism of
topological quantum computation [L7] based on the representation of braids represented as flux
tubes of wormhole magnetic field whose presence might provide a definition for what it is to
be living. The first implication is an explanation for the miraculous ability of biomolecules
to find each other in terms of the reduction of Planck constant inducing a shortening of the
flux tubes connecting reactants and catalysts. The structure of flux tube patterns connecting
various molecules allows to program complex series of biochemical reactions to the structure of
braids connecting the molecules since given spots of molecules can be forced to meet each other
in reaction. Conserved braid color allowing to identify whether the braid strand comes from
A,T,C or G implies even stronger selection rules. One can assign also to amino-acid a 3-braid
corresponding to one of the DNA codons coding for it. These extremely selective interactions
between living bio-molecules give good hopes of understanding why DNA and amino-acids were
selected as molecules able to co-operate.
5. Many-sheeted space-time concept implies the existence of fundamental metabolic energy curren-
cies [J7] defined by the differences of zero point kinetic energies of particles for space-time sheets
labeled by different value of p-adic prime p. The existence of standardized metabolic currencies
simplifies the situation dramatically and living matter must face only the problem of storing
metabolic energy. Plasmoid like life forms suggest themselves as predecessors of biological life.
p-Adic length scale hypothesis p · 2
k
is what implies standardization of zero point kinetic en-
ergies and follows from zero energy ontology which also assigns to a particle labeled by prime
p a time scale T
p
=

pL
p
/c = L
p
(2)/c characterizing the temporal size of the space-time sheet
having particle and its negative energy counterpart at its time-like boundaries. The fact that
the fundamental 10 Hz biorhythm corresponds to the time scale assignable to electron suggests
that fundamental biological time scales are hidden in the space-time structure of fundamental
particles.
The notions of magnetic body and plasmoid
The model of high T
c
super-conductivity and the general vision about dark matter hierarchy have led
to a rather precise model for magnetic body as an intentional agent utilizing biological body or its part
as motor instrument and sensory receptor[M3]. Dark matter plasmoids and plasma oscillation patterns
as representations of control commands are one important aspect of the model. The prediction is that
plasmoids should have been predecessors of ordinary life forms. There is laboratory evidence that
plasmoids behave like life forms [72]. Very high temperatures catastrophic for ordinary life forms
could prevail at magnetic flux quanta associated with plasmoids. This forces a radical reconsideration
of the question how pre-biotic life have evolved and forces to ask whether even the hot interior of
Earth could have served or still serve as a seat of life.
Does the Earth’s magnetic field have a dark counterpart?
The notion of dark matter as a hierarchy of phases characterized by arbitrarily large values of Planck
constant has established itself as a part of TGD [C7, M3]. This raises several questions. For instance:
2.3. TGD based scenario about pre-biotic evolution 101
does the magnetic body of Earth have a dark counterpart and its the dark magnetic body relevant
for functioning of living matter?
A partial answer to this question came from a frustrating realization that I had for years erratically
believed that the magnitude of the magnetic field assignable to the biological body is B
E
= .5 Gauss,
the nominal value of the Earth’s magnetic field. Probably I had made the calculational error at
very early stage when taking Ca
++
cyclotron frequency as a standard. I am grateful for Bulgarian
physicist Rossen Kolarov for pointing to me that the precise magnitude of the magnetic field implying
the observed 15 Hz cyclotron frequency for Ca
++
is .2 Gauss and thus slightly smaller than the
minimum value .3 Gauss of B
E
. This value must be assigned to the magnetic body carrying dark
matter rather than to the flux quanta of the Earth’s magnetic field. This field value corresponds
roughly to the magnitude of B
E
at distance 1.4R, R the radius of Earth.
Dark matter hierarchy leads to a detailed quantitative view about quantum biology with several
testable predictions [M3]. In principle all integer and even rational values of Planck constant are
allowed. Number theoretical arguments suggest a general formula for the favored values of r ≡ /
0
[C7] as r = n
±1
1
n
±1
2
, where n
i
characterizes the quantum phase q = exp(iπ/n
i
) characterizing Jones
inclusion [C6]. The values of n
i
for which quantum phase is expressible in terms of squared roots
are number theoretically preferred and correspond to integers n expressible as n
i
= 2
k

n
F
s
n
, where
F
s
= 2
2
s
+ 1 is Fermat prime and each of them can appear only once. n = 2
11
obviously satisfies
this condition. The lowest Fermat primes are F
0
= 3, F
1
= 5, F
2
= 17. The prediction is that also
r-multiples of p-adic length scales are possible as preferred length scales.
The applications to living matter suggests that one hierarchy corresponds to a hierarchy of Planck
constants coming as r = 2
11k
for p = 2
127
− 1, k = 0, 1, 2, ... [M3]. Each p-adic length scale would
correspond to this kind of hierarchy. The unit of magnetic flux scales up as h
0
→ h = rh
0
in the
transition increasing Planck constant: this is achieved by scalings L(k) →rL(k) and B →B/r.
B = .2 Gauss would corresponds to a flux tube radius L =
_
5/2 L(169) · 1.58L(169), which
does not correspond to any p-adic length scale as such. k = 168 = 2
3
37 with n = 5 would predict
the field strength correctly as B
end
= 2B
E
/5 and predict the radius of the flux tube to be r = 18 µm,
size of a large neuron. However, k = 169 with flux 2h
5
would be must more attractive option since it
would give a direct connection with Earth’s magnetic field. Furthermore, the model for EEG forces to
assume that also a field B
end
/2 must be assumed and this gives the minimal flux h
5
. Note that n = 5
is the minimal value of n making possible universal topological quantum computation with Beraha
number B
n
= 4cos
2
(π/n) equal to Golden Mean [E9].
Concerning the interpretation of B
end
there are two options. It could correspond to a personal
magnetic body or a to dark copy of the Earth’s magnetic field. At this moment it is impossible to
say which if any hypothesis is right. However the fact that the ELF fields have no direct effect on
conscious experience mildly supports the identification as the dark variant of B
E
.
Emergence of symbols at molecular level and new view about hydrogen bond, water,
and bio-catalysts
The hierarchy of dark matter leads to novel ideas about what distinguishes living matter from ordinary
matter. The emergence of symbols and symbolic dynamics and what might be called ”molecular sex”
could be a fundamental step in the process and I have considered two visions for how this would take
place.
1. First vision
First vision is relies on the model of DNA as tqc based on braids and has quite close contact
with empirical reality [L7, L4, J7]. In this case DNA nucleotides are analogous to colors of braid
strands and base pairing corresponds to molecular sex for DNA molecules. The color of braid strand
implies long ranged highly selective interactions between DNA and distant molecules, such as lipids
of the lipid layer of cell membrane or amino-acids. Free amino-acids inherit the colors of the first two
nucleotides in the codon XY Z whereas the color of the third nucleotide corresponds to a quantum
superposition of colors for codons coding for the amino-acid: this defines the quantum counterpart
of wobble base pairing. Amino-acids can be divided into amino-acids and their conjugates analogous
to opposite sexes and generalized base pairing determines the interactions of the amino-acids to a
high degree. Hydrogen bond can be identified as a special case of flux tube. There are also flux
tubes connecting acceptors of hydrogen bonds acting as plugs in the connection lines formed by the
102 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
magnetic flux tubes and Y corresponds to this kind of plug at the level of amino-acids.
2. Second vision
The mathematical realization for the hierarchy of Planck constants leads to a generalization of the
notion of imbedding space and this leads to four kinds of phases resulting as combinations of phases
with increased or reduced unit of spin and quantum numbers associated with CP
2
degrees of freedom.
Each phase corresponds to its own Planck constant and is characterized by a discrete symmetry group.
Especially interesting are phases with large value of Planck constant involving charge fractioniza-
tion and increase of spin unit. The electrons of free electron pairs of aromatic cycle are reasonable
candidates for dark electrons of this kind. One can consider variants of hydrogen atom containing
n ≤ N fractionally charged electrons with with lepton number and electronic charge equal to n/N.
The values n/N and (N − n)/N for the fractional charge would correspond ”name” and ”conjugate
name” since their combination would give a maximal charge and a state analogous to a full electron
shell. Thermal stability poses strong constraints since atomic and molecular energy scales are reduced
as Planck constant increases.
The notion of fractional electron inspires the notion of ”half” hydrogen bond for which electron
has a fractionized fermion number. The full hydrogen bond would be formed in the fusion of half
hydrogen bonds and give rise to a structure analogous to a full electron shell expected to be especially
stable. Catalyst sites might correspond to half hydrogen bonds and the basic recognition mechanism
could be the fusion of half bond and its conjugate to form a full hydrogen bond. One could speak
about ”molecular sex”. The sequences of half bonds would represent words so that molecules would
have names. Also interpretation as quantum computer codes might make sense. The problem of this
vision is the lack of direct contact with experimental facts and for this reason it will not be discussed
in the sequel.
Universal metabolic currencies
In TGD framework a primitive many-sheeted metabolism is present from the beginning and becomes
only refined during evolution. Most importantly, metabolic currencies identified as zero point kinetic
energies liberated as particles drop to larger space-time sheets are constants of nature by the p-adic
length scale hypothesis.
Phosphate-sugar polymers form the backbone of nucleic acids and metabolism is based on ADP and
ATP formed from adenine and phosphate ions. It has been already earlier found that the generation
of ATP and its metabolic utilization involve the flow of protons between the atomic space-time sheets
and some larger space-time sheets, say magnetic flux tube of Earth [K6]). It will be found that this
mechanism is involved also with the dehydration leading to polymerization and phosphorylation. The
reversal of this process also implies the in-stability of DNA in an ordinary aqueous environment.
The interpretation of the role of phosphate ions as metabolic energy batteries seems to be wrong in
TGD framework: the main function of negatively charge phosphates would be to make bio-polymers
critical against local modifications making them thus ideal for catalytic manipulations. Even deeper
function would be the role as standard plugs to which magnetic flux tube can attach and which second
flux tube can begin. ATP →ADP would in this framework mean reconnection process for a magnetic
flux tubes modifying the hardware of tqc.
Time mirror mechanism, intentional action, memory, and remote metabolism
Time mirror mechanism having negative energy MEs as space-time correlate has phase conjugate
laser waves as standard physics counterparts. Essentially negative energy signals propagating to the
geometric past and reflecting back is in question. Intentional action realized in terms of negative
energy signals to the geometric past and appearing already at the level of molecular magnetic bodies,
is expected to become an increasingly important when the complexity of the structures increases.
The charge entanglement by negative energy W MEs is especially interesting control mechanism and
makes also possible sharing of mental images. Time mirror mechanism allows also remote metabolism
by inducing the dropping of population inverted system to the ground state liberating in this manner
positive energy photons received by the sender of negative energy signal. What makes this mecha-
nism so elegant is its enormous flexibility (credit card is the counterpart in economy). Time mirror
mechanism provides also a mechanism of memory as communications with the geometric past.
2.3. TGD based scenario about pre-biotic evolution 103
Emergence of membrane bounded structures
Self-organization in many-sheeted space-time is expected to automatically lead to the generation of the
ordered water phases which would have evolved to the gel phase defining in turn a natural predecessor
of the membrane bounded structures. Self-organization would have also led to the emergence of
membrane structures containing liquid crystal water stabilizing also DNA nucleotides.
In fact, the TGD inspired model for high T
c
super-conductivity as quantum critical super-conductivity
involving simultaneously two kinds of super-conductivities in a narrow range of temperatures around
critical temperature (presumably T · 37

C) predicts correctly the double-layered structure of cell
membrane and the length scales involved [J1, J2]. A fractal hierarchy of super-conductivities and cell
membrane like structures is predicted corresponding to the dark matter hierarchy and p-adic length
scale hierarchy [M3]. Josephson junctions and corresponding Josephson currents are in a crucial role
in the model for the hierarchy of generalized EEGs responsible for the communication to and control
by magnetic body.
According to unexpected findings about behavior of the cell membrane [67] discussed from TGD
viewpoint in [M2], the usual picture based on pumps and channels for ions is not correct. Rather, cell
interior is in gel phase in which water is in structured phase around charged bio-polymers intermediate
between ice and water. One implication of this is stabilization of RNA and DNA polymers since
hydrolysis is impossible due to the lack of free water molecules. Cell membrane would have guaranteed
the long term stability of gel phase.
Second function of the membrane like structure consisting of lipids or perhaps even DNA or RNA
molecules could relate to the topological quantum computation and memory in the manner discussed
in [L7]. The phase transitions changing the length of the wormhole magnetic flux tubes defining the
braid strands and making possible tqc would also make possible biocatalysis via reconnection of flux
tubes and via changing phase transitions changing the length of flux tube.
In this framework water and lipids molecules playing the role of lipids could have been present
in very early stage since they emerge as a result of self-organization process and are not genetically
determined.
Did life evolve in Mother Gaia’s womb?
The proposed framework poses strong conditions on pre-biotic environment and one ends up to to
interpretations for the notion of Mother Gaia’s womb, which are by no means mutually exclusive.
1. Mother Gaia’s womb as underground seas?
Braiding in the proposed sense requires the presence negatively charged polymers and membranes
consisting of lipids or their analogs. Water seems to be necessary but also gel phase is needed since
free water induces depolymerization. The coherent structure of gel would be due to the braiding of
distant molecules. The phase transitions of gel phase are good candidates for a basic mechanism of
bio-control and would stabilize these polymers via the formation of structured water around them
preventing hydrolysis. The developing life forms should be shielded from UV radiation and meteor
bombardment.
The combination of these constraints leads to the idea that life as we define it could have evolved in
the womb of Mother Gaia in underground seas with the Earth’s crust shielding from UV and meteors.
The necessary ingredients of biomolecules, in particular phosphates making possible phosphorylation
making DNA and RNA charged and appearing also in hydrophilic ends of phospholipids, would have
dissolved to the water from the ground. Cambrian revolution would have meant the burst of these
highly developed life-forms to the Earth surface and resulting as a phase transition increasing the
value of Planck constant for Earth’s space-time sheet by a factor of two would have occurred. This
would also provide a justification of Expanding Earth theory explaining the strange finding that the
continents fits nicely together to form a single super continent covering entire Earth’s surface if the
radius of Earth is one half of its recent value and actually the same as the recent radius of Mars,
which is now known to contain reservoirs of underground water.
2. Mother Gaia’s womb as mantle-core boundary?
What about the period before the life in underground seas?
1. The plasma like aspects of cytoplasm suggests that some kind of plasma phase must have been
104 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
present. Also the postulated Bose-Einstein condensates of bosonic ions at dark magnetic flux
quanta represent kind of quantum plasma.
2. Plasmoids involving magnetic flux tubes and charged particles could have been predecessors of
more complex molecular life forms and could have developed in the interstellar space. Their
metabolism could have been based on universal metabolic energy quanta. Simple metabolic
cycles and short term chemical storage of energy based on fusion and decay of simple molecules
induced by say UV radiation from the nearby stars might have developed during this era. Quite
high temperatures can be considered so that after the interstellar period this kind of life forms
could have survived and developed in the hot interior of planets receiving their metabolic energy
from radiation by high temperature plasma. A possible candidate for the womb of Mother Gaia
is the mantle-core boundary, where intensive self-organization processes are expected to take
place.
3. Ultimately the charged molecules must have come in contact with ordinary water in underground
seas. One can imagine that the polymerization of the charged molecules and the formation
of structured water around them stabilizing them and giving rise to a gel phase took place
simultaneously in presence of metabolic energy feed.
The primordial womb containing plasmoid like life forms could have been located somewhere below
the boundary at which k = 137 atomic space-time sheets transform to very hot k = 131 space-time
sheets: this should occur when the thermal de Broglie wave length becomes equal to the p-adic length
scale L(131). The transition occurs above the crust-mantle boundary (1300 K). Mantle-core boundary
(4000 K) is a good candidate for a seat of high-T life forms.
The dropping of O, C, N ions from the hot k = 131 space-time sheets to larger space-time sheets
generates light at visible frequencies replacing solar light so that even intra-terrestrial counterpart of
photosynthesis could develop. The dropping of oxygen atoms could make also possible development
of oxygen based metabolism.
Magnetic flux quantum structure of the magnetosphere acting as a nervous system and a metabolic
circuitry of the magnetic Mother Gaia could make possible controlled metabolism already during the
pre-biotic period and allow to circumvent these difficulties.
Model for the genetic code
The emergence of genetic code is one of the basic mysteries of models for pre-biotic life. The exact A-G
symmetry and slightly broken T-C symmetry of the genetic code strongly suggest that the evolution
of the triplet code occurred as a fusion of singlet and doublet codes. One ends up with a detailed
model for how this happened by studying the structure of tRNA molecule carrying in its fossilized
parts detailed information about the evolution of the code.
Nanno-bacteria [29, 30] might correspond to some predecessor of the recent genetic code. Nanno-
bacteria accompany mineral structures and actively manipulate them: this conforms with the view
that mineral interfaces have been indeed important for the evolution of polymers.
Introns are the basic mystery of DNA. TGD predicts that language is a universal phenomenon
appearing at level of eukaryotes. Memes represented as sequences of 21 DNA triplets and expressing
themselves as field patterns associated with MEs would realized this universal language.
What makes possible the coherence of bio-chemical activities?
In TGD Universe the control of genome by magnetic body relies on magnetic flux sheets traversing
through DNA strands [M3, L2]. The model implies a generalization of the notion of gene. Super-genes
correspond to sequences of genes inside single organism belonging to single magnetic flux sheet and
organize like text lines at a page of a book. The expression of super-genes as an intentional action of
magnetic body occurs therefore coherently at the level of entire organs. This explains to the miraculous
coherence of bio-chemical activities at the level of single organism. Also hyper-genes involving genomes
of several organisms, not necessary belonging to even same species, become possible. Collective gene
expression at this level makes possible the development of co-operation and social structures and are
predicted to be present already at the bacterial level.
2.3. TGD based scenario about pre-biotic evolution 105
Braiding defined by magnetic flux tubes of their wormhole counterparts carrying dark variants of
charged particles seem to represent especially important part of the magnetic body and this leads to
models of topological quantum computation and bio-catalysis.
2.3.3 Pre-biotic chemistry and new physics
The emergence of symbolic representations at dark matter level is certainly the most fascinating
possibility suggested by dark matter hierarchy.
Overall view
The most important implications can be deduced readily.
1. The dropping of ions and atoms between space-time sheets involves a liberation of zero point
kinetic energy. By p-adic length scale hypothesis these energies define a fractal hierarchy of
universal metabolic currencies which have not changed at all during evolution and are the same
in the entire universe. The presence of the metabolic machinery from the beginning helps
enormously in the attempts to understand how life has evolved.
2. Chiral selection resulting in bio-polymers having a definite handedness is a deep mystery in
standard physics framework. TGD predicts entire hierarchy of standard model physics meaning
scaled up variants of electro-weak and color physics and dark variants of these. The hierarchy
of dark weak gauge bosons predicted by TGD imply strong parity breaking effects in arbitrarily
long length scales above atomic length scales, and the presence of the chiral selection supports
the view that also dark weak bosons play key role in bio-control. Indeed, charge entanglement
generated by W MEs would be in central position in TGD based model for how magnetic bodies
control biological bodies.
3. The emergence of life means emergence of symbolic representations (including names), and also
what might be called ”molecular sex”. Formation of wormhole magnetic flux tubes between
biomolecules having quark pair and its conjugate is an attractive candidate for this process and
means coding of DNA nucleotides to quarks and antiquarks appearing as dark matter at the
flux tubes. This leads to a new view about bio-catalysis based on the temporary dropping of
the liberated proton to a larger space-time sheets and ensuing liberation of metabolic energy
quantum kicking the complex formed by reactants over the potential wall separating it from the
final state. A new view about water and its role in bio-catalysis emerges. Stability considerations
allow a general model for how first bio-polymers able to replicate emerged.
Dark matter and the emergence of symbolic representations at molecular level
The most important new physics element of pre-biotic chemistry has been already discussed and cor-
responds to the presence of dark matter hierarchy suggesting new views about hydrogen bond, water,
and catalytic action. A highly attractive hypothesis is that symbolic representations at molecular
level in the sense that quarks and antiquarks code for DNA nucleotides [L7] and also for amino-acids
[L4, L8].
Evolution of pre-biotic chemistry as a sequence of bifurcations
In his article ”Biocosmology” [58] Chris King discusses biochemistry from the point of view of math-
ematician using the notions of symmetry breaking and bifurcation. This discussion allows for a
physicists to get a wider perspective to the complexities of biochemistry. In the following I modify
the arguments of King to TGD framework. The first basic new element is that generation of new
space-time sheets corresponds to a sequence of symmetry breakings.
Besides hydrogen C, N, and O atoms with charges 6, 7, and 8 are the most important elements
appearing in basic bio-monomers. The bonds with hydrogen are formed between 1s and 2p
3
orbitals.
The covalent bonds between C, N, and O atoms are the bonds appearing in various bio-monomers
like ribose. Also peptide bonds between C and N in amino-acid sequence are covalent bonds. In
standard chemistry one can characterize the atom in given molecule by its electronegativity telling
how effectively it attracts electrons.
106 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
Electronegativity increases in the sequence C, N, O so that the bonds are more and more polar.
Also Si, P, and S in the next row of the periodic table form covalent bonds but the bond energy tends
to be lower which reflects itself as lower boiling points. For instance, the boiling point of H
2
S is below
the freezing point of water). Consider now the bifurcations.
1. Polar-non-polar bifurcation is fundamental in biology. Non-polar molecules are hydrophobic and
are not water-soluble whereas polar molecules are hydrophilic and water-soluble. For instance,
the formation of biological membranes is based on hydrophobic character of the second ends
of lipids. A rough characterization of amino-acids is by polar-non-polar dichotomy. Also DNA
base stacking is based on polarity.
2. Second bifurcation corresponds to acid-base dichotomy. Acids are able to act as donors of
positive and bases donors of negative charge. For instance, this allows to classify polar amino-
acids to acidic and basic ones. A working hypothesis worth of studying is that many-sheeted
physics is involved in the sense that the protons in acid and electrons in base have dropped to
some larger space-time sheet from the atomic space-time sheet.
3. The third bifurcation corresponds to that between second and third row of the periodic table
that is Na
+
-K
+
and Mg
++
-Ca
++
bifurcations. The covalent bonds involving K and Ca are in
general weaker. Na
+
concentration is higher outside cell whereas K
+
concentration is higher
inside cell. Same applies to gel phase, a possible predecessor of cell membrane bound regions.
Mg
++
acts as stabilizer of polymers and Ca
++
ions are key players in cellular and intracellular
control. In particular, Ca
++
waves appear in extremely wide range of frequencies and conduction
velocities.
4. The fourth bifurcation corresponds to the d-orbital elements forming a catalytic group. Al-
most all transition elements Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn are essential biological trace elements, promote
pre-biotic synthesis and are optimal in their catalytic ligand-forming capacity and valency tran-
sitions. For instance, Zn
2
+
catalyzes RNA polymerization in pre-biotic synthesis and occurs in
both polymerases and DNA binding proteins.
5. The fifth bifurcation corresponds to chiral symmetry breaking not easy to understand in standard
model predicting extremely small parity breaking. There is empirical evidence such as circular
polarization of light from the region of star formation in the constellation of Orion suggests that
parity breaking occurs also in interstellar space. Also the amino-acids in Murchison meteorite
were found to be dominantly left handed.
In TGD Universe the interpretation of bifurcations is not quite the same as in the world obeying
standard chemistry.
1. The polar-non-polar bifurcation corresponds to hydrophilic-hydrophobic dichotomy. The model
for protein folding and bio-catalysis relies on the hypothesis that wormhole flux tubes connect
conjugate amino-acids. This process is analogous to base pairing. Stating it roughly, amino-
acid and its conjugate correspond hydrophilic and hydrophobic amino-acid. This bifurcation is
thus important from the point of view of molecular symbolism and bio-catalysis if is based on
the coding of DNA are nucleotides and amino-acids by quarks and antiquarks at the ends of
wormhole magnetic flux tubes connecting them to other molecules. The emergence of wormhole
magnetic flux tubes could be seen almost as a definition of emergence of life. This might have
happened already during prebiotic molecular evolution if water molecules have been present
from the beginning.
2. Acid-non-acid bifurcation brings in protons and there is obviously a connection with the role
of protons in the basic mechanisms of metabolism and catalysis. What is also essential is the
role of negative charge of bio-polymers making bio-polymers critical against local deformations
so that a wide repertoire of catalytic actions using changing phase transitions of wormhole
magnetic flux tubes and their reconnections becomes possible. Phosphate ions would not serve
as batteries of metabolic energy but make bio-polymers sensitive to catalytic actions.
3. Fifth bifurcation is difficult to understand in standard physics framework but is consistent with
the presence long ranged weak fields predicted by TGD and possibly associated with dark matter.
2.3. TGD based scenario about pre-biotic evolution 107
This bifurcation is not the last one in TGD Universe since already plasmoids identified as rotating
magnetic systems break parity because the sign of the charge density generated by the induced
radial ohmic current depends on the orientation of rotation and only the second orientation
is favored energetically. W MEs induce charge entanglement giving rise to plasma oscillation
patterns in turn inducing various physiological waves. This mechanism can be used as a control
tool by magnetic bodies at various levels of hierarchy. Long range weak forces due to the exotic
ionization of atomic nuclei could provide a tool for controlling conformations of nucleic acid
polymers. Same applies to kaolinite clays consisting of Al, Si, O suggested to be of biological
importance (Al can have three different states at a given lattice site): in this case the state of
Al atoms in the lattice might be manipulated using weak forces.
4. The hierarchy of bifurcations defines also a hierarchy of decreasing cyclotron frequencies. The
cyclotron frequencies would be associated with both with Bose-Einstein condensates of ordinary
and exotic bosonic ions at magnetic flux sheets. For the bosonic ions cyclotron frequencies in
the B
end
= 2B
E
/5 are in alpha band and in TGD Universe they play a fundamental role in
communications to and control by magnetic body using hierarchy of generalized EEGs. Ca
++
and other waves associated with bosonic ions are of special importance in the bio-control by
magneticbody using plasmoids and plasma oscillation patterns.
What selected the bio-molecules?
The extremely low probabilities for the selection of bio-molecules from a super-astrophysical number
of alternatives represents one of the bottleneck problems of biology relying on the prevailing view
about biochemistry. The notion of braid could resolve this problem.
Suppose that the presence of braids distinguishes between living and dead matter, that the four
nucleotides are mapped to colored braid strands (that is to 2 quarks + 2 anti-quarks), and that a
given amino-acid is mapped in a non-deterministic manner to one of the 3-braids associated with the
DNA triplets coding for it. Braids could be associated besides DNA, amino-acids, and lipids also
to other bio-molecules and define more general analogs of genetic codes as correspondences between
bio-molecules able to react.
The implication would be that the step of catalytic reactions bringing together the catalyst and
reactants would occur by a temporary reduction of Planck constant only for subsets of bio-molecules
connected by braid strands and the pattern of braid strands involved would define the geometro-
dynamical pattern of the reaction. The outcome would be a selection of very restricted subsets of
bio-molecules able to form reaction networks and of reaction pathways. This would imply Darwinian
selection of subsets of bio-molecules able to co-exist and dramatically enhance the probability for the
emergence of life as we know it.
One challenge is to predict what kind of braids can begin from a given bio-molecule, say nucleotide
or amino-acid. The physicist’s guess would be that the (electromagnetic only?) interaction energy
between bio-molecule and given pattern of wormhole contacts having quark and anti-quark at its
throats should select the preferred braids as minima of the interaction energy. How closely the
presence of hydrogen bond relates to this is also an interesting question.
Polymerization, dehydration, phosphorylation, and new physics
The generation of phosphate polymers and polymers in general occurs by dehydration which quite
generally seems to involve dropping of a proton to larger space-time sheet and liberation of metabolic
energy quantum. It is interesting to find how one could understand these processes in TGD framework.
Since the notion of wormhole magnetic flux tube playing a central role in the model of DNA as
topological quantum computer and in the model of bio-catalysis, it is natural to look whether the
basic steps of these processes could be understood in this conceptual framework.
1. ATP→ ADP process
AMP, ADP, ATP are phosphorylated RNA nucleosides [115] and the hydrolysis of ATP to ADP
[116] plays a key role in the metabolism. Obviously also the molecules XMP, X=U,C,G are important
biologically. Each PO
3
in ATP corresponds to one unit of negative charge except for the last one which
carries two units of negative charge. According to the standard chemistry ATP↔ ADP corresponds
to the hydrolysis
108 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
ATP
4−
+H
2
O ↔ADP
2−
+P
i
where P
i
denotes orthophosphate HPO
−2
4
. In ADP the last phosphate group is HO−PO
−2
2
rather
than O = PO
−2
2
as in the case of ATP.
The actual process is however much more complex than this.
1. The process involves several steps such that energy is liberated in two steps in which the change
of Gibbs free energy is ∆G = .42 eV and ∆G = .31 eV making altogether .73 eV, which should
closely relate to the liberated metabolic energy.
2. Three protons are accelerated in electric field during the generation of ATP. The interpretation
would be in terms of driving of electrons from larger space-time sheet to k = 137 atomic space-
time sheet. If the larger space-time sheet corresponds to k = 139, the increment of the zero point
kinetic energy of proton is (1 − 1/4) E
0
(137) = .375 eV for E
0
(137) = .5 eV of metabolic
energy quantum. Three protons would give net zero point kinetic energy increment of 1.125
eV which is higher than ∆G
tot
= .73 eV. The explanation of the discrepancy should relate to
Coulombic binding energy of protons with ATP and F
1
. This interpretation conforms with the
observation that the liberated energy is higher for the third proton.
Consider now a more detailed model for the process. The binding of ATP to the catalytic site
involves several steps.
Step 1: The binding ATP +F
1
→ATP F
1
to the catalyst site is a complex process involving the
break-up of the hydrogen bonds between cellular water and ATP molecule and cell water and catalyst
site and generation of hydrogen bonds between catalyst site and ATP molecule. In TGD framework
this means that protons can be kicked to and dropped back from atomic space-time sheets. Only the
net number of protons dropped however matters.
This process involves liberation of Gibbs free energy about ∆G
ATP
= .42 eV. It was earlier
believed that this energy is liberated instantaneously but the findings about the behavior of the F
1
motor coupled to dissipative load, lead Oster and Wang to suggest that the process is more complex
and starts from a loose binding and ending up to a strong binding [77].
Step 2 Hydrolysis: F
1
ATP →F
1
ADP P
i
. The change of free energy is small during this step:
∆G ∼ 0.
Step 3: Ortophosphate is released from the catalyst site: F
1
ADP P
i
→ F
1
ADP + P
i
. Free
energy ∆G ∼ .31 eV is liberated at this step.
Step 4: ADP is released from the catalyst site: F
1
ADP +P
i
→F
1
+ADP +P
i
. ∆G ∼ 0 holds
true also for this process.
This picture suggests that the notion of the high energy phosphate bond is not quite correct as
suggested also by some empirical findings [78, 79, 80]. The metabolic energy would be stored as
the zero point kinetic energy of protons rather than in phosphate bonds. Perhaps the fundamental
function of phosphates would be to make DNA and RNA polymers charged in turn making possible
the formation of wormhole magnetic flux tubes and braiding making possible a wide repertoire of
catalytic actions.
2. Model of ATP →ADP based on wormhole magnetic flux tubes
Consider first the basic philosophy behind model.
1. In the model of DNA as topological quantum computer XMPs, X = A, T, C, G can be connected
to oxygen atoms by wormhole magnetic flux tubes having quark and antiquark at opposite
throats of wormhole contact and charge conjugated quark-anti-quark pairs at the ends of the
flux tubes. Dark u quark and its charge conjugate code for A, T and d quark and its conjugate
for G, C so that the conjugation for nucleotides corresponds to charge conjugation for quarks
and A−G and T −C symmetries of the third nucleotide of the codon to isospin symmetry.
2. Basic bio-catalytic processes are identified as a reconnection of the wormhole magnetic flux tubes
and change of the length of the flux tube induced by the change of the value of Planck constant
associated with it. It would not be too surprising if this kind of mechanism were involved also
in ATP →ADP +P
i
. The reason for the special role of ATP among XTP might be that the
positive charge q(u) = 2/3 of u-quark maximizes the attractive interaction between u quark and
phosphate.
2.3. TGD based scenario about pre-biotic evolution 109
3. Flux tubes connect to oxygen atoms in the proposed model of bio-catalysis and protein folding
[L8] . The model is relies on ideas inspired by the model of DNA as topological quantum
computer [L7]. In this model hydrogen bonds are assumed to correspond or to be accompanied
by (wormhole) magnetic flux tubes. Also flux tubes connecting acceptor atoms or molecules
of hydrogen bonds are assumed to be connected long flux tubes and represent genuinely new
physics. Examples of acceptors are O = atoms in phosphates and amino-acids and aromatic
rings in DNA and also in some amino-acids. The model for protein folding has tight connections
with existing chemistry and leads to a very simple and successful criterion for the formation of
hydrogen bond between N −H and O = in the constant part of amino-acid and to a successful
proposal for the folding code.
4. DNA as tqc model gives further constraints. The structure of the phospholipids suggest that in
the case DNA nucleotides long flux tubes connect the aromatic ring of the nucleotide to the O =
atom at the hydrophilic end of the lipid acting as a standard plug which in turn can be connected
to another acceptor and eventually terminates to a donor of hydrogen bond. The detailed charge
structure of the aromatic ring(s) should determine the quark-nucleotide correspondence. The
connection line to the lipid could involve several intermediate O = plugs and the first plug in
the series would be the O = atom of the monophosphate of the nucleotide. Not surprisingly,
phosphorylation would be absolutely essential for the operation of DNA as topological quantum
computer. O = −O = flux tubes could also act as switches inducing a shortcut of the flux tube
connection by reconnecting with a hydrogen bond connecting two water molecules. This is an
essential step in the model for how DNA acts as topological quantum computer.
A possible model (perhaps the simplest one found hitherto) for the reaction ATP→ ADP+P
i
is
based on the assumption that it splits a flux tube connection defining strand of a braid defining
topological quantum computation. A change of the hardware of topological quantum computer would
be therefore in question.
1. Suppose that ATP defines a standard plug in flux tube connections. This would mean that
aromatic ring and the oxygen atoms O =
1
, O =
2
, and O =
3
of the phosphates are connected
by magnetic flux tubes to a string and O =
3
in turn is connected to some (hydrogen bond)
acceptor elsewhere, say O = or aromatic ring. These flux tubes represent genuinely new physics
in accordance with the fact that ”high energy phosphate bonds” are not really understood in
the standard chemistry.
2. The reconnection of (O =
2
) − (O =
3
) flux tube with the hydrogen bond connecting two water
molecules leads to the splitting of the flux tube so that the incoming and outgoing the flux tubes
are shortcut by (O =
2
)−−H−(OH) resp. (O =
3
)−−H−(OH) hydrogen bonds (connection to
ground is the analog in circuit theory). This corresponds in the usual terminology the liberation
of the third phosphate: ATP→ ADP+P
i
. P
i
however remains at the end of flux tube to be
attached later to another ADP.
3. The process involves also hydration. (OH)

ion joins to the third P to give P
−3
i
and H
+
to
O−P in second P to give H
+
−O in ADP
−1
. The exchange of electron would lead to the final
state ADP
−2
+P
−2
i
.
A possible model for the dropping of protons would be following.
1. It is absolutely essential to realize that F
1
is an open system and that naive thermodynamic
considerations can lead to misunderstandings. In particular, the notion of high energy phosphate
bond does not make sense. The source of the metabolic energy is the chemical energy used to
drive protons to the atomic space-time sheets of F
1
. The function of the large negative charge of
ATP is to increase the rate for the binding of ATP
−4
to F
1
. In the classical picture the binding
to F
1
is followed by the dropping of two protons to larger space-time sheet. The value of the
metabolic quantum could be reduced from .5 eV to about .21 eV by the Coulombic interaction
energy of proton with PO
4−
. The Coulombic binding energy of the remaining protons at F
1
with
ADP +P
i
is smaller and the dropped proton liberates larger energy about .31 eV. In quantum
picture the division of the process to this kind of sequence might not be a good approximation.
110 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
2. One function of the ATP → ADP would be to induce the dropping of the third proton from
F
1
space-time sheet. Second function would relate to the topological quantum computation like
process since the decay would correspond to a splitting of a braid strand coming to the aromatic
ring of A and proceeding along string defined by the ring and three O =:s of phosphates and
continuing further. This would make possible tqc as a braiding for both halves of the split
flux tubes. After the reconnection the total braid structure would be different. Quite gener-
ally, reconnection process would make possible to modify the hardware of topological quantum
computer.
3. The reason for why P
i
leaves the catalyst site and proton is dropped (step 2) should be the
in-stabilization of the bound state of positively charged proton with ADP
−2
+P
−2
i
which does
not have so strong Coulomb interaction energy with proton as ATP
−4
As a consequence, proton
can drop to the larger space-time sheet.
4. What remains open are the details of the transformation of the chemical energy to zero point
kinetic energy of protons. Remote metabolism suggests that protons send negative energy phase
conjugate photons to the geometric past inducing a transition of an energy carrying molecule
to a lower energy state (zero energy ontology gives justification for this picture). This would
mean the failure of the standard description in terms of reaction kinetics. The catabolism of
nutrients is the eventual provider of the metabolic energy and the coenzyme nicotinamid adenic
dinucleotide NAD
+
[117] receives electron and the energy liberated in the catabolic reaction.
In the proposed framework it is not an surprising that NAD
+
is analogous to RNA dinucleotide
(perhaps as remnant from RNA era when dinucleotides defined the 2-codon code) and consists of
two phosphates and adenine and nicotinamide nucleosides. The oxidation reaction NADH →
NAD
+
in turn liberates this energy. Protons could gain their energy by sending negative
energy photons to NADH. Negative energy photons would propagate along ”topological light
rays” parallel to the flux tubes connecting the system in a precisely targeted manner to NADH
aromatic rings. Alfwen waves propagating along magnetic field lines would be the standard
electrodynamics counterpart for these topological light rays.
Many details of the process remain open but it would seem that the key ideas of TGD based
quantum vision about living matter are fused together in rather detailed manner in this picture.
3. Polymerization of DNA and RNA
The polymerization of RNA and DNA by dehydration involves the fusion of PO
4
H
2−
2
phosphate
molecule with ribose. In this process the stub ...-O-H of the phosphate ion combines with H-O-C-
... stub of ribose (here C is the carbon atom not belonging to the ribose cycle). This gives rise to
..-O-(H-O)

-C-... plus proton dropping to a larger space-time sheet and liberating metabolic energy
quantum. Too large negative charge of three units makes the complex unstable and (H-O)

ion splits
out. Metabolic energy quantum might be also used in the process.
A possible interpretation is in terms of recombination process in which the flux tubes connecting
both phosphate ion and H-O-C stub of ribose with water molecule are reconnected to flux tubes
connecting phosphate ion and ribose and second water molecule and resulting OH

by flux tube
which then contracts in changing phase transition and splits OH

out..
Hydration destabilizes long polymers unless there is a continual feed of protons to the atomic space-
time sheets. This could be achieved by irradiation with photons with energy equal to the metabolic
energy currency. Situation changes also if water is ordered/structured water, in liquid crystal form,
or as ice, and therefore unable to provide the water molecules needed for the hydration. Stabilization
of RNA and DNA polymers could be achieved in this manner in gel phase.
Clay structures are known to act as catalyzers of RNA polymerization. The general model of
catalysis based on the recombination and changing transition for magnetic flux tubes should explain
also this.
Why DNA is stable inside cell nucleus?
Inside membrane bound surface both DNA and RNA nucleotides and polymers are stable. The
un-stability of the DNA nucleotides and polymers outside membrane bound surfaces could involve
many-sheeted physics.
2.3. TGD based scenario about pre-biotic evolution 111
1. What one expects that DNA transforms to RNA unless it is inside a membrane bound region.
A possible reason is that water molecule is needed to transform DNA to RNA but not available
inside membrane bound structure where water is structure water in gel phase.
2. In the case of A, G, and C nucleotides DNA→ RNA transformation means simply an addition
of one oxygen atom to the de-oxyribose ring, that is replacement of one C-H with C-O-H. If
ordinary water is present this could be achieved by the dissociation of the water molecule to
OH

+H
+
followed by the replacement of C-H in the de-oxyribose cycle with C-OH

so that
a negatively charged ribose results. The outcome is free hydrogen atom. If H
+
drops to a
larger space-time sheet, the liberated zero point kinetic energy is of order .5 eV. This process is
basically the same which should occur when single ATP molecule is utilized in metabolism.
3. In the case of T nucleotide also CH
3
group differentiating T from U must be de-attached. This
is achieved if the hydrogen atom from the water molecule is taken by the de-attached CH
3
group
to give CH
4
molecule. As a result a negatively charged U results. Inside cell nucleus or in gel
phase this process is not favored because the water is in liquid crystal form and it costs energy
to take the needed H
2
O molecule from it.
2.3.4 DNA as a topological quantum computer
For years ago I developed a model of topological quantum computation combining TGD based view
about space-time with basic ideas about topological quantum computation and ended up with the
proposal that DNA might act as a topological quantum computer. One can imagine several manners
in which DNA or RNA could act as a topological quantum computer and it good to try to state clearly
what one wants.
1. Natural requirements are that the topological quantum computer programs can be naturally
combined to larger programs and evolution means this kind of process; that the programs have
a natural modular structure inherited from the previous stages of evolution; and that the com-
putation is not restricted inside single nucleus.
2. DNA and/or RNA defines the hardware of topological computation and at least for more ad-
vanced topological quantum computers this hardware should be static so that only programs
would be dynamical. This leaves only DNA in consideration and the entangled initial and quan-
tum states at the ends of braids quantum states would be assignable to static DNA structures.
3. The program would be determined by different braidings connecting the states of DNA in time
direction or in spatial direction. Since the genomes are identical in different nuclei, the strands
could connect different nuclei or conjugate strands of double DNA strand. Reconnection process
would allow to modify the hardware for tqc.
The recent progress in quantum TGD and TGD inspired quantum biology
After the advent of the first model for topological quantum computation in TGD Universe [E9], the
mathematical and physical understanding of TGD has developed dramatically and the earlier quite
speculative picture can be replaced with a framework which leads to a rather unique view about
topological quantum computations by DNA.
1. Universe as a topological quantum computer
One can say that the recent formulation of quantum TGD states that the entire Universe behaves
like a topological quantum computer. This notion of topological quantum computer differs however
from the standard one in many respects.
1. The emergence of hierarchy of Planck constants realized as a generalization of the notion of
imbedding space is now a basic piece of TGD allowing an elegant formulation of quantum TGD
[C6, C7]. The phases of matter with large Planck constant are interpreted as dark matter.
Large values of Planck constant make possible topological quantum computations in arbitrary
long time scales so that the most fundamental objection against quantum computation can be
circumvented.
112 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
2. Zero energy ontology forces to unify S-matrix and density matrix to M-matrix - the product
of the square root of density matrix and S-matrix- defined as time-like (or rather light-like)
entanglement coefficients between positive and negative energy parts of zero energy state [C2,
C3]. Connes tensor product emerging naturally from the notion of finite measurement resolution
described in terms of inclusions of hyperfinite factors of type II
1
defines highly uniquely the M-
matrix. M-matrix would be natural candidate for defining topological quantum computation in
light-like direction. Connes tensor product makes sense also in space-like direction and would
define quantum storage of functions represented as entanglement coefficients.
3. The notion of number theoretic braid [B4, C2] is now well-understood and has become a basic
element of the formulation of quantum TGD based on the requirement of number theoretical
universality. As a matter fact, the notion of braid is generalized in the sense that braid strands
can fuse and decay. The physical interpretation is as motion of minima of the generalization
eigenvalue of the modified Dirac operator which is function of transversal coordinates of light-
like partonic 3-surface and has interpretation as vacuum expectation of Higgs field. Fusion of
braid strands corresponds to fusion of minima.
For generalized Feynman diagrams partonic light-like 3-surfaces meet at 2-dimensional vertices
defined by partonic 2-surfaces [C3]. This implies that braids replicate at vertices: the interpreta-
tion is as a copying of classical information. Quantum information is not copied faithfully. The
exchange of partonic 2-surfaces in turn corresponds to quantum communications. Hence quan-
tum communication and quantum copying emerge naturally as additional elements. Space-like
Connes tensor product in turn defines quantum memory storage.
4. Computation time is a fundamental restriction in both ordinary and quantum computation.
Zero energy ontology makes possible communications in both directions of geometric time, which
suggests the possibility of geometric time loops in topological quantum computations. Could
this mean that computation time ceases to be a restriction and ordinary computations lasting
for infinite amount of geometric time could be performed in a finite time interval of observer’s
time? This is perhaps too much to hope. The subjective time taken by the computation would
be infinite if each step in the iteration corresponds to single quantum jump. If this is the case and
if each quantum jump of observer corresponds to a finite increment of geometric time perceived
by the observer, time loops would not allow miracles.
2. The notion of magnetic body and the generalization of the notion of genome
The evolution of ideas related to quantum biology provides also new valuable insights. In particular,
the notion of magnetic body leads to a model of living system in which dark matter at magnetic flux
quanta of the field body of biological system uses biological body as a motor instrument and sensory
receptor [M3]. Quantum control would be naturally via the genome and sensory input would be from
cell membrane containing all kinds of receptors. This would suggest that magnetic flux sheets traverse
through DNA strands and cell membranes.
The quantization of magnetic flux with unit defined by Planck constant having arbitrarily large
values leads naturally to the notions of super-genome and hyper-genome [L2]. Super-genome would
consists of DNA strands of separate nuclei belonging to single magnetic flux sheet and these sequences
of genomes would be like lines of text at the page of book. Super-genomes in turn can combine to
form text lines at the pages of a bigger book, I have used the term hyper-genome. This hierarchy of
genomes would give rise to a collective gene expression at the level of organs, individuals of a species,
and at the collective level consisting of populations containing several species. Even biosphere could
express itself coherently via all the genomes of the bio-sphere. The model of topological quantum
computation performed by DNA should be consistent with this general picture.
Model for DNA based topological quantum computation
The most promising model of DNA as topological quantum computer relies on the hierarchy of
genomes. The flux sheets or collections of parallel flux tubes assignable to a magnetic body would
traverse the DNA strands of several nuclei so that strands would be analogous to lines of text on the
page of a book.
2.3. TGD based scenario about pre-biotic evolution 113
DNA strands would define the intersections of magnetic or number theoretic braids with plane
and braiding would be associated with with the magnetic field lines or flux tubes transversal to DNA.
The M-matrix defining topological quantum computation would act on quantum states assignable to
nucleotides.
1. The interpretation of nucleotides
The interpretation of the A,T,C,G degree of freedom is not obvious and one can consider several
options.
1. The quantum numbers entangled by braids having nothing to do with (A,T,C,G) assignable to
nucleotides and the braiding does not affect nucleotides.
2. The nucleotides (A,T,C,G) correspond to four different colors (a,t,c,g) for braid strands with
conjugate nucleotides defining conjugate colors. The subgroup of allowed braidings would pre-
serve the color patterns. The minimal assumption consistent with the mapping of nucleotides
to quarks and antiquarks [L7] is that braid strands connect only nucleotides and conjugate
nucleotides.
3. The model requires that the genomes in different nuclei are identical: otherwise it is not possible
to realize braidings as symmetry transformations mapping portions of DNA to their conjugates
(as noticed, this map would not occur at the chemical level). An interesting question is whether
also the permutations of nucleotides of different codons are allowed or whether only codons are
permuted so that they would define fundamental sub-programs.
4. One can understand why the minimum number of nucleotides in a codon is three. The point
is that braid group is non-commutative only when the number of strands is larger than 2. The
braidings acting as symmetries would correspond to a subgroup of ordinary braidings leaving
the color pattern of braid invariant. Obviously the group is generated by some minimal number
of combinations of ordinary braid generators. For instance, for two braid strands with different
colors the generator is e
2
1
rather than e
1
(two exchange operations/full 2π twist). For codons one
would have four different subgroups of full braid group corresponding to codons of type XXX,
XYY, XXY, and XYZ. Each gene would be characterized by its own subgroup of braid group
and thus by an M-matrix defining topological quantum computation.
5. It might be possible to understand the ”junk DNA” character of introns. Introns are the most
natural candidates for the portions of genome participating topological quantum computations.
The transcription process would disturb topological quantum computation so that introns should
be chemically passive. Since the portion of ”junk DNA” increases with the evolutionary level of
the species evolution would indeed correspond to an increase the amount of topological quantum
computations performed.
2. Two realizations of topological quantum computation and their combination
One can imagine two basic realizations of topological quantum computation like processes- or to be
more precise - entanglement by braiding. In TGD framework this entanglement could be interpreted
in terms of Connes tensor product.
2.1 Space-like entanglement
The first realization would rely space-like braids. Braid strands would connect identical lines of
text at the page of book defined by sequences of genomes of different nuclei. Inside nucleus the strands
would connect DNA and its conjugate. The braiding operation would take place between lines.
In this case it would be perhaps more appropriate to speak about quantum memory storage of a
function realized as entanglement. These functions could represent various rules about the behavior of
and survival in the physical world. For this option A,T,C,G cannot correspond to entangled quantum
numbers and the interpretation as braid colors is natural. Braiding cannot correspond to a physical
braiding of nucleotides so that (A,T,C,G) could correspond to braid color (strands would connect only
identical nucleotides).
Strands would not connect strand and its conjugate like hydrogen bonds do but would be like long
flux lines of dipole field starting from nucleotide and ending to its conjugate so that braiding would
114 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
emerge naturally. Color magnetic flux tube structures of almost atom size appear in the TGD based
model of nucleus and have light quarks and anti-quarks at their ends [F9]. This could be the case also
now since quarks and anti-quarks appear also in the model of high T
c
superconductivity which should
be present also in living matter [M3].
2.2. Light-like entanglement
Second realization would rely on light-like braids at the boundaries of light-like 3-surfaces connect-
ing 2-surfaces assignable to single genome at different moments of time. Braiding would be dynamical
and dance metaphor would apply. The light-like surface could intersect genomes only at initial and
final moments and strands would connect only identical nucleotides. Light-likeness in the induced
metric of course allows the partonic 3-surface to look static at the level of imbedding space. The
fundamental number theoretic braids defined by the minima of the Higgs like field associated with the
modified Dirac operator would be very natural in this case.
Genes would define only the hardware unless they code for the magnetic body of DNA too, which
looks implausible. The presence of quantum memory and quantum programs would mean a break-
down of genetic determinism since the braidings representing memories and programs would develop
quantum jump by quantum jump and distinguish between individuals with the same genome. Also
the personal development of individual would take place at this level. It would be these programs
(that is magnetic bodies) which would differentiate between us and our cousins with almost identical
genome.
2.3 Combination of the two realizations
These two variants of tqc accompany each other automatically if DNA nucleotides are connected
to the lipids by magnetic flux tubes [L7]. In this case the 2-D flow of lipids induced by the self
organization pattern of the metabolically induced flow of cellular water would induce the tqc as dance
and this in turn would would generate braiding of flux tubes connecting lipids to the nucleotides.
Presumably a gel-sol transition of cytoplasm accompanies tqc in this kind of situation.
Biological evolution as an evolution of topological quantum computation
This framework allows to understand biological evolution as an evolution of topological quantum
computation like processes in which already existing programs become building blocks of more complex
programs.
1. The transition from RNA era to DNA era involving also the emergence of cell membrane bounded
structures would mean the emergence of the topological quantum computation using a static
hardware.
2. For mono-cellulars double DNA strands define space-like topological quantum computations
involving only single step if the braids connect the nucleotides of the two DNA strands: obviously
a reason why for double DNA strands.
3. For multicellular organisms more complex space-like topological quantum computations would
emerge and could code rules about environment and multicellular survival in it. At this step
also introns specialized to topological quantum computation would emerge.
4. A further evolution as a generation of super-genomes in turn forming hyper-genomes and even
higher structures would have a concrete counterpart as the organization of braids of lower level to
form braids at higher level so that topological quantum computations would become increasingly
complex and program module structure would emerge very naturally.
subsectionWater memory and braids
There are several grand visions about TGD Universe. One of them is as a topological quantum
computer in a very general sense. This kind of visions are always oversimplifications but the extreme
generality of the braiding mechanism suggest that also simpler systems than DNA might be applying
tqc.
2.3. TGD based scenario about pre-biotic evolution 115
Water memory: general considerations
With few exceptions so called ”serious” scientists remain silent about the experiments of Benveniste
and others relating to water memory [26, 27, 30, 119] in order to avoid association with the very ugly
word ”homeopathy”.
The Benveniste’s discovery of water memory initiated quite dramatic sequence of events. The
original experiment involved the homeopathic treatment of water by human antigene. This meant
dilution of the water solution of antigene so that the concentration of antigene became extremely low.
In accordance with homeopathic teachings human basophils reacted on this solution.
The discovery was published in Nature and due to the strong polemic raised by the publication
of the article, it was decided to test the experimental arrangement. The experimental results were
reproduced under the original conditions. Then it was discovered that experimenters knew which
bottles contained the treated water. The modified experiment in which experimenters did not possess
this information failed to reproduce the results and the conclusion was regarded as obvious and
Benveniste lost his laboratory among other things. Obviously any model of the effect taking it as a
real effect rather than an astonishingly simplistic attempt of top scientists to cheat should explain
also this finding.
The model based on the notion of field body and general mechanism of long term memory allows
to explain both the memory of water and why it failed under the conditions described.
1. Also molecules have magnetic field bodies acting as intentional agents controlling the molecules.
Nano-motors do not only look co-operating living creatures but are such. The field body of
molecule contains besides the static magnetic and electric parts also dynamical parts character-
ized by frequencies and temporal patterns of fields. To be precise, one must speak both field and
relative field bodies characterizing interactions of molecules. Right brain sings-left brain talks
metaphor might generalize to all scales meaning that representations based on both frequencies
and temporal pulse with single frequency could be utilized.
The effects of complex bio-molecule to other bio-molecules (say antigene on basofil) in water
could be characterized to some degree by the temporal patterns associated with the dynamical
part of its field body and bio-molecules could recognize each other via these patterns. This
would mean that symbolic level in interactions would be present already in the interactions of
bio-molecules.
If water is to mimic the field bodies of molecules using water molecule clusters, at least vibrational
and rotational spectra, then water can produce fake copies of say antigenes recognized by basofils
and reacting accordingly.
Also the magnetic body of the molecule could mimic the vibrational and rotational spectra using
harmonics of cyclotron frequencies. Cyclotron transitions could produce dark photons, whose
ordinary counterparts resulting in de-coherence would have large energies due to the large value of
and could thus induce vibrational and rotational transitions. This would provide a mechanism
by which molecular magnetic body could control the molecule. Note that also the antigenes
possibly dropped to the larger space-time sheets could produce the effect on basofils.
2. There is a considerable experimental support for the Benveniste’s discovery that bio-molecules
in water environment are represented by frequency patterns, and several laboratories are repli-
cating the experiments of Benveniste as I learned from the lecture of Yolene Thomas in the 7:th
European SSE Meeting held in R¨oros [122]. The scale of the frequencies involved is around 10
kHz and as such does not correspond to any natural molecular frequencies. Cyclotron frequencies
associated with electrons or dark ions accompanying these macromolecules would be a natural
identification if one accepts the notion of molecular magnetic body. For ions the magnetic fields
involved would have a magnitude of order .03 Tesla if 10 kHz corresponds to scaled up alpha
band. Also Josephson frequencies would be involved if one believes that EEG has fractally scaled
up variants in molecular length scales.
3. Suppose that the representations of bio-molecules in water memory rely on pulse patterns repre-
senting bit sequences. The simplest realization of bit would be as a laser like system with bit 1
represented by population inverted state and bit 0 by the ground state. Bits could be arranged
in sequences spatially or by variation of zero point energy defining the frequency: for instance
116 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
increase of frequency with time would define temporal bit sequence. Many-sheeted lasers are the
natural candidates for laser like systems are in question since they rely on universal metabolic
energy quanta. Memory recall would involve sending of negative energy phase conjugate photons
inducing a partial transition to the ground state. The presence of metabolic energy feed would
be necessary in order to preserve the memory representations.
Water memory in terms of molecular braidings
It is interesting to look water memory from the point of view of tqc. Suppose that the molecules and
water particles (space-time sheet of size of say cell length scale) are indeed connected by color flux
tubes defining the braid strands and that splitting of the braid strands can take place so that water
flow can gives rise to a braiding pattern and tqc like process.
The shaking of the bottle containing the diluted homeopathic remedy is an essential element in
the buildup of water memories also in the experiments of Benveniste [26]. Just like the vigorous flow
of sol near the inner monolayer, this process would create a water flow and this flow creates a braiding
pattern which could provide a representation for the presence of the molecules in question. Note that
the hardware of braiding could carry information about molecules (cyclotron frequencies for ions for
instance.
The model for the formation of scaled down variants of memories in hippocampus discussed above
suggests that each half period of theta rhythm corresponds to tqc followed by a non-computational
period during which the outcome of tqc is expressed as 4-D nerve pulse patterns involving cyclotron
frequencies and Josephson frequency. Josephson currents at the second half period would generate
dark Josephson radiation communicating the outcome of the calculation to the magnetic body. Entire
hierarchy of EEGs with varying frequency scale would be present corresponding to the onion like
structure of magnetic body. This pattern would provide an electromagnetic representation for the
presence of the antigene and could be mimicked artificially [27, 122].
This picture might apply be the case also in the case of water memory.
1. The shaking might drop some fraction of antigene molecules to dark space-time sheets where
they generate a dark color magnetic field. Because of the large value of Planck constant super-
conductivity along color flux tubes running from molecular space-time sheets could still be
present.
2. TGD based model of super conductivity involves double layered structures with same p-adic
length scale scale as cell membrane [J1]. The universality of p-adic length scale hierarchy this
kind of structures but with a much lower voltage over the bilayer could be present also in water.
Interestingly, Josephson frequency ZeV/ would be much lower than for cell membrane so that
the time scale of memory could be much longer than for cell membrane for given value of
meaning longer time scale of memory recall.
3. Also in the case of homeopathic remedy the communication of the result of tqc to the magnetic
body would take place via Josephson radiation. From the point of view of magnetic body
Josephson radiation resulting in shaking induced tqc induced would replace the homeopathic
remedy with a field pattern. The magnetic bodies of basophils could be cheated to produce
allergic reaction by mimicking the signal representing the outcome of this tqc. This kind of
cheating was indeed done in the later experiments of Benveniste involving very low frequency
electromagnetic fields in kHz region allowing no identification in terms of molecular transitions
(magnetic body and cyclotron frequencies) [27].
Why experimenter had to know which bottle contained the treated water?
Why experimenter had to know which bottle contained the treated water? The role of experimenter
eliminates the possibility that the (magnetic bodies of) clusters of water molecules able to mimic the
(magnetic bodies of) antigene molecules electromagnetically are present in the solution at geometric
now and produce the effect. The earlier explanation for experimenter’s role was based on the idea that
memory storage requires metabolic energy and that experimenter provides it. Tqc picture suggests a
variant of this model in which experimenter makes possible the recall of memories of water represented
as braiding patterns and realized via tqc.
2.3. TGD based scenario about pre-biotic evolution 117
1. Does experimenter provide the metabolic energy needed to store the memories of water?
What could be then the explanation for the failure of the modified experiment? Each memory
recall reduces the occupation of the states representing bit 1 and a continual metabolic energy feed
is needed to preserve the bit sequence representations of antibodies using laser light systems as bit.
This metabolic energy feed must come from some source.
By the universality of metabolic energy currencies population inverted many-sheeted lasers in
living organisms define the most natural source of the metabolic energy. Living matter is however
fighting for metabolic energy so that there must be some system willing to provide it. The biological
bodies of experimenters are the best candidates in this respect. In this case experimenters had even
excellent motivations to provide the metabolic energy. If this interpretation is correct then Benveniste’s
experiment would demonstrate besides water memory also psychokinesis and direct action of desires
of experimenters on physics at microscopic level. Furthermore, the mere fact that we know something
about some object or direct attention to it would mean a concrete interaction of our magnetic with
the object.
2. Does experimenter make possible long term memory recall?
The alternative explanation is that experimenter makes possible long term memory recall which
also requires metabolic energy.
1. If braiding pattern represents, the water memory the situation changes since the robustness of
the braiding pattern suggests that this representation is still in the geometric past (which is
replaced with a new one many times). If the dark variants of molecules created in the process
are still in the water, the braid representation of water memories could be available even in the
geometric now but it is better to not make this assumption. The challenge is to understand how
this information can be made conscious.
2. What is certainly needed is that the system makes the tqc again. This would mean a fractal
quantum jump involving unitary U process and state function reduction leading to the generation
of generalized EEG pattern. Only the sums and differences of cyclotron frequency and Josephson
frequency would matter so that the details of the flow inducing braiding do not matter. The
shaking process might be continuing all the subjective time in the geometric past so that the
problem is how to receive information about its occurrence. Experimenter might actually help
in this respect since the mechanism of intentional action initiates the action in the geometric
past by a negative energy signal.
3. If the magnetic body of the water in the geometric now can entangle with the geometric past,
tqc would regenerate the experience about the presence of antigene by sharing and fusion of
mental images. One can however argue that water cannot have memory recall in this time scale
since water is quite simple creature and levels with large enough might not be present. It
would seem that here the experimenter must come in rescue.
4. The function of experimenter’s knowledge about which bottle contains the homeopathic solution
could be simply to generate time-like entanglement in the required long time scale by serving as a
relay station. The entanglement sequence would be water now - experimenter now - water in the
past with ”now” and ”past” understood in the geometric sense. The crucial entanglement bridge
between the magnetic body of water and experimenter would be created in the manufacturing
of the homeopathic remedy.
Note that this explanation does not exclude the first one. It is quite possible that experimenter
provides also the metabolic energy to the bit representation of water memories possibly induced
by the long term memory recall.
This picture is of course just one possible model and cannot be taken literally. The model however
suggest that magnetic bodies of molecules indeed define the braiding; that the generalized EEG
provides a very general representation for the outcome of tqc; that liquid flow provides the manner
to build tqc programs - and also that shaking and sudden pulses is the concrete manner to induce
visible-dark phase transitions. All this might be very valuable information if one some day in the
distant future tries to build topological quantum computers in laboratory.
118 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
2.4 Physical model for genetic code and its evolution
The original number theoretic models for genetic realied on the idea that genetic code has deeper
number theoretical significance. The neglect of some obvious physical inputs however generated some
pseudo problems. These models however led to what I believe is the correct track concerning the
understanding of the prebiotic evolution. The original model for the evolution of genetic code as a
fusion of singlet and doublet codes to triplet code has been discussed in [?]. The model to be discussed
here is obtained from this model by some dramatic simplifications.
The basic questions are following.
1. What were the physical counterparts of the pre-amino-acids and pre-tRNAs for singlet and
doublet codes?
2. How the triplet code emerged from the singlet and doublet codes? How the tRNA molecules
evolved and how the amino-acids replaced pre-amino-acids?
3. Can one identify singlet and doublet life-forms or at least some predecessors of triplet life forms
as existing life-forms?
In an attempt to answer these questions p-adic length scale hypothesis and the vision about the
molecular evolution as a sequence of spontaneous symmetry breakings induced by the generation of
new space-time sheets serve as valuable guide lines. The following biological input is needed.
1. RNA world [52] as a model for pre-biotic evolution allows to identify pre-amino-acids as RNA
sequences (RNA
1
for short) differing somehow from the ordinary RNA sequences (RNA
2
for
short). 1-code was associated with the transformation of RNA
2
→ RNA
1
and 2-code in the
simplest case with the transcription of RNA
2
to its conjugate.
2. The cross like structure of tRNA molecule identifiable as a composite of its singlet and doublet
predecessors allows to read directly the main steps in the evolution of the triplet code as a fusion
of singlet and doublet codes and also gives detailed and highly non-trivial information about
RNA
1
.
3. The reverse transcriptase, appearing in retro-viruses like HIV and acting also as a transcriptase
[70], provides the mechanism transforming RNA sequences to DNA sequences inside pre-nucleus
so that DNA→RNA code emerged and also evolved rapidly since reverse transcriptase makes a
lot of errors.
4. The basic idea is that the fusion of tRNA
1
and tRNA
2
to to tRNA
3
, the recent tRNA, made
RNA
2
→RNA
1
and RNA
2
→RNA
2
transformations impossible and the amino-acids originally
catalyzing the attachment of RNA
2
doublet in RNA
2
transcription began to be attached to a
growing amino-acid sequence and mRNA→ amino-acid part of genetic machinery was estab-
lished. The emergence of reverse transcriptase brought in DNA. DNA as topological quantum
computer idea generalized to RNA context provides tight additional conditions on the course of
events: in particular, membrane like structures, most naturally consisting of RNA
1
should have
been present already at RNA era.
5. Nanno-bacteria claimed to be even the dark bio-matter are excellent candidates for singlet and
doublet life-forms or at least, predecessors of the recent life-forms. There are reasons to believe
that RNA era is still continuing inside cell nucleus.
Second group of questions relates to the quantum control of the translation process. There are
many questions also now.
1. What makes a codon stopping codon?
2. What is behind the symmetries of the code with respect to the third codon.
3. What is the origin of breaking of the canonical A-T, C-G rules for mRNA-tRNA association?
The model for the transition from RNA era to RNA-amino-acid era allows to answer these questions
and te DNA as tqc picture leads to a physical interpretation of these symmetries and their breaking.
2.4. Physical model for genetic code and its evolution 119
2.4.1 RNA world
The hypothesis that pre-biotic life before the emergence of the cell membrane structures was RNA
dominated (the notion of RNA world) is based on a strong empirical evidence summarized in detail
in [58]. For instance, only RNA can be generated spontaneously in the absence of cell membrane
bounded structures. There is also a lot of support for the ability of RNA to take care of functions
like replication, translation, and transfer (see the [58] and references therein). Ribozymes could even
replace enzymes as RNA based catalyzing agents so that even amino-acids might be un-necessary in
RNA world and the system could consist of RNA only. This of course does not mean that this system
could yet realize genetic code and evolve.
An important implication is that pre-amino-acids might be identifiable as 2

, 5

RNA, which was
produced in the classical experiments of Leslie Orgel at 1980s mimicking primordial ocean. There are
however also other candidates and the structure of tRNA more or less fixes identification to a high
degree.
Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny principle suggests that if RNA coded RNA during primordial
period, the remnants of these RNAs could still exist and be coded by specific genes. This is indeed
the case [75] (for an article about RNA genes and RNA world see [76]). RNA genes were discovered
already 1990 in the genome of Caenorhabditis elegans, the small nematode worm but it took years to
realize that they do not code proteins but small RNA molecules that somehow turn off other genes that
play a role in worm development. Later these small RNA coding genes were found in flies, mollusks,
fish, and even humans. As many as 200 microRNA genes in C. elegans were known at time of the
writing of the article, which would represent about 1 percent of the genes of its genes. There is also
evidence that centrosomes possess their own genome based on RNA rather than DNA [127].
2.4.2 Programming of bio-molecular self assembly pathways from TGD
point of view
The beautiful results (for a popular summary see [87]) about programming of bio-molecular self
assembly - described above - when combined with the earlier model for the pre-biotic evolution -
inspire interesting insights about the role of braiding in translation. The basic observation is that
the structure of tRNA- although more complex than that of hairpin- has much common with that of
hairpins. Therefore it is interesting to look this structure from the point of view of TGD. For instance,
one can find whether the notions of braiding, anomalous em charge and quark color could provide
additional insights about the structure and function of tRNA.
The brief summary of the resulting picture is as follows. According to the TGD based model
of pre-biotic evolution [L4], 3-code should have resulted as a fusion of 1- and 2- codes to 3-codes
involving fusion of tRNA
1
and tRNA
2
to tRNA
3
≡ tRNA. Second hypothesis is that during RNA
era the function of tRNA
2
was to generate RNA
2
double helix from single RNA strand and that
amino-acids catalyzed this process. The considerations that follow strongly suggest that tRNA
1
was
involved with a non-deterministic generation of new RNA sequences essential for the evolution. After
the establishment of 3-code these two process fused to a deterministic process generating amino-acid
sequences. RNA era could still continue inside cell and play an important role in evolution.
There is an interesting work about programming bio-molecular self assembly pathways [88]. The
catalytic self assembly of complexes of nuclei acids is carried out automatically by a program repre-
sented implicitly as a mixture of linear DNA strand acting as catalyst and so called hairpin DNA:s
containing three nucleation sites a
t
, b
t
, c
t
- so called toeholds.
Key ideas
The basic idea is that a set of bio-molecular reactions can be programmed to occur in a desired order
by using a generalization of lock and key mechanism. The simplest self assembly pathway can be
specified by a collection of keys and locks. In the beginning there is only one key and the this key
fits to only one door, which leads into a room with several doors. The lock eats the key but gives one
or more keys. If the room contains several doors to which the keys fits, the reaction corresponds to
addition of several branches to the already existing reaction product. By continuing in this manner
one eventually ends up to the last room and at the last step the lock gives back the original key so
that it can act as a catalyst.
120 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
The translation of this idea to a program defining self assembly pathway is following.
1. DNA hairpin define key structural element of the self-assembly program. Hairpin is a single-
stranded DNA strand in meta-stable configuration having form A+B+C [89] such that B forms
a loop and C is a palindrome [91]. The formal expression for palindromy is C = A

t
: this means
that C read backwards (C
t
) is conjugate A

of A implying that A and C running in opposite
direction can form a double helix (duplex) by hydrogen bonding. As catalytic a

acting as key
forms a double helix with a, the hairpin molecule opens to a linear DNA molecule and energy
is liberated. In this process original key is lost but the two other toe-holds b
t
and c
t
contained
by the hairpin become available as keys. Each hairpin in the mixture of catalyst and hairpin
molecules has its own lock and two keys.
2. The process of opening new doors continues until all hairpin molecules are used. The key given
by the last lock must be catalyst strand a

. The outcome is a molecule consisting of pieces of
DNA strands and can possess a very complex topology. For instance, the formation trees and
star like structures can be easily programmed.
3. To run this program one needs only an optimal mixture of catalyst molecule and hairpin DNA
molecules. In the applications discussed in [88] hairpins have length of order 10 nm which
corresponds to p-adic length scale L(151) defining also cell membrane thickness. That L(151)
corresponds also to the length of 30-nucleotide sequence defining the codon of the code associated
with Mersenne prime M
61
= 2
61
− 1 might not be an accident. The simplest applications are
autocatalytic formation of DNA dublex molecules and of branched junctions, nucleated dendritic
growth, and autonomous locomotion of a bipedal walker.
The basic idea in the realization of the autonomous motion of bipedal walker is to cheat the walker
to follow a track marked by food. The walker literally eats the food and receives in this manner the
metabolic energy needed to make the step to the next piece of food. The menu contains two kinds of
hairpins as foods: hairpins A attached regularly along the desired path of the walker (second DNA
strand) and hairpins B but not attached to the strand. The front leg l of the walker attaches to A
and this catalyzes the formation of the duplex A B as a waste and the liberated metabolic energy
allows to make a step in which hind leg becomes the front leg.
Figure 2.1: The structure of DNA hairpin (stem loop)
TGD view about the situation
The possibility to program the self-assembly relies on the almost deterministic realization of the lock
and key mechanism. The presence of braid strands could make this possible.
2.4. Physical model for genetic code and its evolution 121
1. Consider first the hypothesis about the cancelation of anomalous DNA charge. The palindromic
character of A means that the neck of the hairpin has vanishing anomalous em charge and also
vanishing color charge is possible. Hence palindromes are favored in TGD Universe. The circular
piece B is not in general color singlet. It could have braid strands connecting it to it to some
other DNA or nuclear membrane but this is not necessary. Same applies to the toehold a
t
at
the end of the other strand of neck.
2. The attachment of the lock to key could be seen as a process in which a braid consisting
of magnetic flux tubes connecting lock and key strands (DNA and its conjugate) is formed
spontaneously and followed by a phase transition reducing contracting the flux tubes and in
this manner guiding the key to the lock.
If one assumes that only paired nucleotides of single DNA strand possess braid strands, one
must assume the same for mRNA. As a consequence one would loose the nice interpretation for the
formation of AAA... tail of mRNA as a manner to guarantee integer valuedness and small value (or
even vanishing) of the anomalous em charge. If there is braid strands associated with entire mRNA,
it could end at the nuclear membrane. In this case the transfer of tRNA to mRNA during translation
by a phase transition reducing of braid strands could be initiated by the fusion of the braid strand
ends coming from mRNA codon and from its conjugate codon at tRNA at nuclear membrane.
2.4.3 The archeology of tRNA molecules as a guideline
The study of the structure of the ordinary tRNA molecule is of considerable help in the attempts to
guess what might have been its predecessor.
The structure of the tRNA molecule
The shape of the tRNA molecule [32] in 2-D representation is that of cruciform.
1. tRNA molecule has a cross like appearance, and decomposes into a body coded by tRNA gene
and an acceptor stem which is same for all amino-acids and added separately and can be replaced
during the lifetime of the tRNA molecule. Acceptor stem, to which the amino-acid is attached
with the mediation of amino-acyl-tRNA synthase, can be said to be a passive component and is
same for all tRNAs so that its structure does not determine which amino-acid is attached to it.
The stem is not coded by genes and contains 4 nucleotides.
2. tRNA molecule can be seen as single RNA strand just as hairpin. The five stems are double
helices analogous to the necks of the hairpin. Strand begins at 5

end of the acceptor stem
directed upwards. The second strand of acceptor stem continues as a toehold ending to 3

end of
tRNA. The toehold has at its end ACC to which the amino-acid (rather than conjugate DNA)
attaches.
3. tRNA molecule contains three arms with hairpin structure. A arm containing the anticodon is
directed downwards. D and T arms are horizontal and directed to left and right. Between T
arm and A arm there is additional variable hairpin like structure but with highly degenerate
loop is degenerate. It has emerged during evolution.
4. The structure of tRNA minus anticodon depends on anti-codon which conforms with the fact
T and D arms are related to the binding of amino-acid so that their nucleotide composition
correlates with that of anticodon.
5. Anticodon arm contains the anticodon of mRNA codon and thus corresponds to RNA. For
doublet part of the mRNA codon the correspondence is 1-1 but for the third nucleotide the
correspondence is more complex due to wobble base pairing to be discussed below. Wobble base
pairing indeed leads to the recent simplified model for the evolution of the triplet code as a
fusion of 1-code and 2-code.
122 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
Figure 2.2: The structure of tRNA
Wobble base pairing
The phenomenon of wobble base pairing [93] is very important. There are only about 40 tRNA
molecules instead of 61 which means that one-to-one map between mRNA nucleotides and tRNA
conjugate nucleotides is not possible. Crick suggests that so called wobble base pairing resolves the
problem. What happens that the first nucleotide of anticodon is either A, G, U, or I(nosine) [92].
The base-pairings for third nucleotide are ¦A−U, G−C, U −¦A, G¦, I −¦U, A, C¦¦. The explanation
for the non unique base pairing in the case of U is that its geometric configuration is quite not the
same as in ordinary RNA strand. I is known to have 3-fold base pairing.
Minimization of the number of tRNAs requiring that only three mRNA codons act as stopping
signs predicts that the number of tRNAs is 40.
1. It is convenient to classify the 4-columns of code table according to whether all four codons
code for the same amino-acid ((T, C, A, G) → X, whether 4-column decomposes into two dou-
blets: [(T, C), (A, G)] →[X, Y ], or whether it decomposes to triplet and singlet ([(T, C, A), G] →
[ile, met]). There are also the 4-columns containing stop codon: [(U, C), (A, G)] →[(tyr, tyr), (stop, stop)]
and [(U, C), A, G] →[(cys, sys), stop, trp]. Mitochondrial code has full A-G and T-C symmetries
whereas for vertebrate nuclear code 3 4-columns break this symmetry.
2. Consider first 4-columns for which the doublet symmetry is broken. [tyr, tyr, top, stop] column
must correspond to first tRNA nucleotide which is A or G (tyr). The absence of anti-codons
containing U implies stop codon property. For [cys, sys, stop, trp] one must have A,G and C but
U is not allowed. ile-met column can correspond to tRNAs with I and C as the first nucleotide.
3. For 4-columns coding for two doublet amino-acids the minimal set of first tRNA codons is
¦A, G, U¦. For completely symmetric 4-columns the minimal set of tRNA codons is ¦I, U¦.
Thus ¦A, G, U, I¦ would replace ¦A, G, U, C¦.
4. There are 9 completely symmetric 4-columns making 18 tRNAs, 5 doublet pairs making 15
tRNAs, ile-met giving 2 tRNAs, and the columns containing stopping codons giving 5 tRNAs.
2.4. Physical model for genetic code and its evolution 123
Altogether this gives 18+15+2+5= 40. Also the deviations from the standard code can be
understood in terms of the properties of tRNA.
Consider the interpretation of wobble base pairing in TGD framework assuming the braiding
picture and the mapping of nucleotides to quarks. The completely symmetric 4-columns correspond
to unbroken isospin and matter-antimatter asymmetries. 4-columns decomposing into doublets result
from the breaking of matter-antimatter asymmetry at quark level. ile-met column corresponds to the
breaking of both symmetries. The base pairings of I obviously break both symmetries.
The non-unique based pairing of U and I means that they cannot correspond to a unique quark
or anti-quark in braiding U pairs with both A and G so that the braid strands starting from these
RNA nucleotides must both be able to end to tRNA U. Hence tRNA U is not sensitive to the isospin
of the quark. This non-uniqueness could relate to the assumed anomalous geometric character of the
binding of U codon to tRNA sequence. The braid strands beginning from U, A, and C must be able
to end up to I so that I can discriminate only between ¦U, C, A¦ and G.
Anomalous em charge and color singletness hypothesis for tRNA
One can test also whether the vanishing of anomalous em charge of tRNA leads to testable predictions.
One can also try understand translation process in terms of the braiding dynamics. One must distin-
guish between the states of tRNA alone and tRNA + amino-acid for which braidings are expected to
be different.
Before continuing it must be made clear that braiding hypothesis is far from being precisely
formulated. One question is whether the presence of the braiding could distinguish between matter in
vivo and vitro. For instance, the condition that anomalous em charge is integer valued or vanishing
for DNA hairpins in vivo gives strong condition on the loop of the hairpin but or hairpins in vitro
there would be no such conditions. Second point is that amino-acids and I and U in tRNA
1
could
carry variable anomalous em charge allowing rather general compensation mechanism.
1. tRNA without amino-acid
1. The minimal assumption is that braiding hypothesis applies only to the stem regions of tRNA in
this case. In this case the strands can indeed begin from strand and end up to conjugate strand.
The possibility of color singletness and vanishing of total anomalous em charge are automatically
satisfied for the stem regions as a whole in absence of non-standard base pairings. In general
the acceptor stem contains however G∗ U base pair which is matter-antimatter asymmetric but
breaks isospin symmetry and gives unit anomalous charge for the acceptor stem. Also other
stems can contain G ∗ U, U ∗ G pairings as also P ∗ G and L ∗ U pairings (P and L denote
amimno-acids Pro and Leu). The study of concrete examples [95] shows that single G*U bond
is possible so that anomalous em charge can be non-vanishing but integer valued for double
strand part of tRNA. Suppose that a given amino-acid can have anomalous of any codon coding
for it. If P in G ∗ P pair has the anomalous em charge of the codon CCG, G ∗ P pair has
vanishing anomalous em charge. If L corresponds to CUA the value of anomalous em charge is
integer.
2. The anomalous em charge in general fails to vanish for the loops of hairpins. For the braids
possibly associated with the loops of tRNA the strands can only end up to tRNA itself or
nuclear membrane. If there are no braid strands associated with these regions, there is no color
or anomalous em charge to be canceled so that the situation trivializes. On the other hand, in
the case of tRNA I and U associated with the first nucleotide of the anticodon of tRNA can
have a varying value of anomalous em charge. Therefore integer valued em charge and color
singletness become possible for tRNA. tRNA can also contain amino-acids. If the amino-acids
can carry a varying anomalous em charge with a spectrum corresponding to its values for DNA
codons coding it, also they could help to stabilize tRNA by canceling the anomalous em charge.
2. tRNA plus amino-acid
1. Amino-acyl tRNA synthetase, which is the catalyst inducing the fusion of amino-acid with ACC
stem [?], could have braid strands to both amino-acid and tRNA and have regions with opposite
124 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
anomalous em charges compensating separately that of amino-acid and of the active part of
tRNA. The required correlation of amino-acid with anticodon would suggest that both D and T
loops and A-loop are included. The simplest option is however that the anticodon is connected by
braid to amino-acid so that braiding would define the genetic code at the fundamental level and
the many-to-one character of genetic code would reflect the 1-to-many character of amino-acid-
quark triplet correspondence. This hypothesis is easy to kill: for the portion of catalyst attaching
to a given portion of DNA strand amino-acids and codons should have opposite anomalous em
charges: Q
a
(amino) = −Q
a
(codon).
2. After the catalysis involving reduction of amino-acid and tRNA would form a system with
a vanishing net anomalous em charge but with a braiding structure more complex than that
before the fusion.
3. In the translation process the braiding structure of tRNA- amino-acid system should re-organize:
the braid strands connecting anticodon with amino-acid are transformed to braid strands con-
necting it to mRNA codon with a subsequent reduction of of braid strands bringing tRNA
into the vicinity of mRNA. In the transcription the anticodon-codon braiding would be replaced
with amino-acid-mRNA braiding forcing formation of the amino-acid sequence. It will be later
found that the simpler option without this step corresponds to the earlier hypothesis according
to which amino-acids acted originally as catalysts for the formation of RNA double helix.
4. tRNA is basically coded by genes which suggests that the general symmetries of the genetic code
apply to to the variants of tRNA associated with same anticodon. Hence the variants should
result from each other by isospin splits and modifications such as permutations of subsequent
nucleotides and addition of AT and CG pairs not changing overall color and isospin properties.
Also anomalous base pairs X∗Y can be added provide their net anomalous em charge vanishes.
5. tRNA has a complex tertiary (3-D) structure [94] involving base pairing of distant nucleotides
associated with the roots of the stem regions where tRNA twists sharply. This pairing could
involve formation of braid strands connecting the nucleotides involved. The reduction of Planck
constant for these strands could be an essential element of the formation of the tertiary structure.
The fossilized components of tRNA as record about the evolution of the recent form of
the genetic code
The ordinary tRNA indeed seems to contain in its structure fossilized components providing a record
about how the molecular evolution proceeded. tRNA
1
and tRNA
2
correspond naturally to the hori-
zontal and vertical segment in the recent tRNA formed as a fusion of tRNA
1
and tRNA
2
to form a
cross like structure (see figure above). Hence tRNA
1
and trNA
2
should represent in their structures
the respective genetic codes.
1. tRNA
2
should contain both the conjugate of the coding RNA nucleotide attaching to RNA
2
plus the conjugate of the coded nucleotide to which RNA nucleotide was attached and then
transferred to RNA
2
and added to the growing RNA sequence. This means that the structure
of tRNA should help to deduce the doublet code experimentally. The pairs formed by the RNA
triplet XY Z at the end of the anticodon arm of the ordinary tRNA and the pair formed by
the triplet X

Y

Z

and its conjugate on right and left sides of XY Z should provide detailed
information about the doublet code. The pairs XY − X

Y

should represent the doublet code
apart from possible symmetry breaking effects. These effects might be induced at the level of
X

Y

Z

-amino-acid correspondence level and thus not visible in the structure of tRNA.
2. The transition to the triplet code added one RNA nucleotide to both the exotic doublet (XY )
2
and the doublet X

Y

and its conjugate coded by it. The exotic 2

, 5

doublet plus the added
singlet transformed to ordinary triplet. The simplest assumption is that these RNAs came from
D arm and TψC arm. This is possible since all loops are physically near to each other. The
structure of D and Tψ loops conforms with the assumption that the predecessor of the first resp.
second loop has lost the coding resp. coded RNA. The structure of these loops forces also to
conclude that all tRNA loops have been stem like structures before their de-activation just as
the acceptor stem is. Deactivation of RNA
1
translation process must have meant the completion
of these stems to loops by addition of a conjugate of the conjugate of the coded RNA.
2.4. Physical model for genetic code and its evolution 125
The components of tRNA as ribozymes which have acted originally as RNA polymerases
The mechanism of ribozyme catalyzed polymerization for both the exotic RNA with mono- resp.
disphosphate backbones, and their their double strand can be guessed from the fact that the process
can be seen as an unfaithful replication. Hence the tRNAs involved would play a role analogous to
DNA polymeraze in the polymerization of DNA. The only difference is that, instead of the conjugate
of the template strand, a copy of strand is reproduced and the copy can be un-faithful.
DNA replication utilizes the conjugate strand as a template and occurs with the mediation of DNA
polymerase enzyme, which brings dXTP, X = A, T, C, G rather than dXMP, to the vicinity of the
DNA conjugate strand [60]. The di-phosphate is cleaved out from dXTP and the liberated energy
makes it possible to add the resulting dXMP to the growing DNA strand.
The prediction is that tRNA
1
and tRNA
2
have originally been ribozymes acting as exotic RNA
polymerases. In the case of DNA strand dXMP pairs with its conjugate in the template strand by
hydrogen bonds and 3

, 5

bond is formed between monophosphate deoxiribose of previous nucleoside.
In the case of exotic RNA strand the XMP associated with the tRNA pairs with its conjugate in the
template RNA strand, 2

, 5

bond with the ribose of the previous RNA unit is formed. tRNA is not
so selective as a polymerase as DNA polymerase and this ultimately gives rise to the many-to-one
correspondence crucial for the non-triviality of the genetic code.
1. RNA
2
consists of exotic RNA doublets with nucleotides connected by 2

, 5

monophosphate
bonds. tRNA
2
brings 2

, 5

doublet XMP
2
◦YTP
2
to the growing strand and glues it to the 5

position of the ribose in the already existing polymer. The YTP suffers the cleavage YTP
2

YMP
2
as in the case of DNA polymerization and the amount of metabolic energy provided by
the cleavage is the same. The formation of XMP
2
◦YTP
2
proceeds by gluing of XTP
2
to YTP
2
by a similar process so that the net metabolic energy used per nucleotide is essentially the same
as in the ordinary DNA polymerization.
2. RNA
1
consists of exotic RNA singlets connected by 2

, 5

diphosphate bonds. tRNA
1
brings
XTP
2
near the growing strand, the cleavage XTP
2
→ XDP
2
occurs, and XDP
2
is glued to
the 5

position of the ribose of the previous RNA nucleotide. The amount of metabolic energy
provided by the cleavage is roughly one half of that in the case of RNA
2
polymerization, and this
might partially explain why diphosphate exotic RNA strands are rare whereas monophosphate
exotic DNA strands can be found inside cells. On the other hand, it is ATP→ ADP cleavage,
which usually occurs in the ordinary metabolism instead of ATP→ AMP cleavage: only during
a very intense metabolism ATP→ AMP cleavage occurs. Since ATP metabolism is a functional
fossil from a very early period of evolution, one might expect that ATP→ ADP cleavage has
in fact occurred naturally, if not even more naturally, also in the polymerization of 2

, 5

RNA
during (exotic) RNA era.
3. In the case of double exotic RNA strand of ordinary and exotic RNA the predecessor of the recent
tRNA formed by tRNA
1
+tRNA
2
would be a ribozyme bringing energized singlet and doublet
RNAs to the double strand acting as a template with tRNA
1
component catalyzing the cleavage
of the monophosphate and tRNA
2
component catalyzing the cleavage of the diphosphate.
The crucial and testable prediction is that the ribozymes responsible for the exotic mono- and
diphosphate 2

, 5

RNA polymerization should have a strong resemblance with the two structural
components of the recent tRNA. Furthermore, the replication catalyzed by these ribozymes should be
unfaithful, perhaps in a manner consistent with the genetic code before the breaking of its symmetries.
Ribozymes responsible for the ordinary RNA polymerization are known but I am not aware about
how much is known about the corresponding ribozymes in the case of 2

, 5

RNA. The building blocks
of recent tRNA would however provide a good starting point for innovative RNA engineers. In any
case, the very fact that this form of RNA does not even allow DNA, makes it a more natural candidate
for the basic building block of RNA life than 3

, 5

RNA.
2.4.4 Recent genetic code as a fusion of singlet and doublet codes?
There are several guidelines helping to answer the question how DNA-amino-acid translation might
have emerged from singlet and doublet codes producing only RNA from RNA.
126 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
The following vision about evolution leading from RNA era to the recent DNA-RNA-amino-acid
era inspired by a combination of RNA world vision [52] with the detailed study of the structure of
tRNA suggesting the presence of 1- and 2-codes during RNA era with the DNA as tqc vision suggesting
the presence of cell membrane like structures as a necessary ingredient making possible topological
quantum computation like processes already during RNA era. The recent model is considerably
simpler than the earlier models [?].
RNA era and the transition to RNA-amino-acid era
1. Translation of mRNA to amino-acid sequences separates from the transcription of DNA to
mRNA. One expects that during RNA two different kinds of RNAs, call them RNA
2
and RNA
1
,
analogous to mRNA and proteins existed. RNA
2
can be identified as the ordinary 3

, 5

RNA
acting in the role of mRNA. A natural candidate for RNA
1
playing the role of proteins is 2

, 5

RNA since it is generated in the experiments of Orgel and appears also in genomes. Of course,
also other candidates can be considered and the structure of tRNA gives valuable information
about the character of this RNA. The copying of RNA
2
to its conjugate was the counterpart of
RNA replication. The transcription of RNA
2
to RNA
1
was the counterpart of translation.
2. The structure of tRNA, call it tRNA
3
, gives valuable information about the course of events
leading to the translation of mRNA to amino-acids. The cross like structure of tRNA
3
and
the decomposition of RNA triplet appearing in it to 2-codon and 1-codon suggests that it
resulted as a fusion of two hairpin like molecules tRNA
1
and tRNA
2
. tRNA
2
brought pairs
of nucleotides forming the 2-codon part of RNA triplet to the growing RNA
2
sequence during
replication and 2-code was simply RNA conjugation. tRNA
1
was involved with transcription
of RNA
2
to RNA
1
bringing RNA
1
nucleotides one-by own to the growing sequence. In tRNA
3
the third nucleotide does not quite correspond to ordinary RNA but to to A, G, U or I(nositol)
and is believed to differ geometrically from ordinary nucleotide, and one can assume that these
nucleotides were the building blocks of RNA
1
possibly appearing in 2

, 5

form. The phenomenon
of the wobble pairing can be assumed to have been present already during RNA era so that
correspondence 1-code was not not 1-to-1 nor deterministic but given by the correspondence
¦U → A, C → G, ¦A, G¦ → U, ¦U, A, C¦ → I¦ deduced from the number 40 of tRNAs and
assigning unique 1-codon to only G could be interpreted as a many-to-one and non-deterministic
correspondence generating new RNA sequences from existing ones. If there was RNA
2
sequence
coding for tRNA
1
, this sequence appearing in hairpin structure could have coded the inverse of
the translation. As a consequence, the occurrence of transcription and its reversal generated a
rapid evolution by creating new kinds of RNA
2
sequences.
3. From the fact that amino-acids are attached to the ACC stem of tRNA
2
, one can guess that the
role of amino-acids during RNA era was to catalyze the replication. If single amino-acid would
have catalyzed the attachment of given RNA doublet to the growing sequence, there would be
at most 16 amino-acids and genetic coded would not depend at all on the third nucleotide. This
is indeed the case for roughly half of the code table (both matter antimatter symmetry and
isospin symmetry with respect to third codon). For those mRNA codons for which A,G and
T,C correspond to different amino-acids (breaking of matter antimatter asymmetry but isospin
symmetry) two amino-acids catalyzed the attachment. Same amino-acid could also catalyzed
two different attachments (ser, arg, leu for standard genetic code).
4. The crucial step was the fusion of the 1-code and 2-code to 3-code took place via fusion of tRNA
1
and tRNA
2
to tRNA
3
along their ends containing RNA
1
nucleotide and RNA
2
doublet which
thus combined to RNA triplet. Presumably tRNA
3
in its original form was translated from a
linear mRNA molecule and transformed spontaneously to the cross like shape because of the
presence of palindrome structures in both. The original functions of tRNAs were not possible
anymore since the triplet was not at the end of the molecule. The catalyzing amino-acid however
was at the ACC end of and the function of tRNA
3
became to assist the translation of mRNA
to amino-acid sequence. For those 3-codons for which single amino-acid catalyzed the fusion of
2-codon, a full matter antimatter and isospin symmetry resulted. For those 3-codons for which
two amino-acids catalyzed the fusion, a breaking of matter antimatter symmetry took place
in the sense that for given mRNA codon only the tRNA
3
corresponding to single amino-acid
2.4. Physical model for genetic code and its evolution 127
was stable. Isospin symmetry was broken only weakly or not at all (human mitocondrial code).
Thus codons with A,G as third nucleotide almost always coded the first amino-acid and those
with T,C as the third nucleotide the second one. Stopping codons resulted when all tRNA
3
corresponding to mRNA triplet were unstable. That same RNA can code for both amino-acid
and act as a stop codon in certain situations, can be understood if the stability of corresponding
tRNA
3
depends on the chemical environment.
Symbiosis with membrane bounded structures
In DNA as tqc picture nuclear and cell membranes make possible topological quantum computation.
The magnetic flux tubes connecting DNA nucleotides to lipids of the cell membrane could also explain
why DNA is stabile inside cell. The emergence of cell membranes consisting of lipids and generated
via self-organization rather being coded by genes would have stabilized DNA generated in this manner
during DNA-RNA-amino-acid era. Membrane bounded structures emerged when the space-time sheets
corresponding to the p-adic length scale k = 151 emerged in the condensate.
Topological quantum computation should have taken place already during RNA era. This suggest
that the counterpart of the cell membrane was present already at that time. Quite recently it was
reported [96] that DNA duplexes of length 6 to 20 base pairs can join to longer cylinders which in
turn form liquid crystals and that the liquid crystal phase separates from the phase formed by single
DNA strands. Long strands had been already earlier known to form liquid crystals. This encourages
to think that also RNA duplexes are able to self-organize in this manner so that the analog of cell
nucleus containing RNA double helices as genetic material could have existed already during RNA
era.
The latter option would allow to distinguish between RNA
2
and RNA
1
used as building block of
various structures. This suggests that RNA
1
, which disappeared in the transition to RNA-amino-acid
era, might have formed liquid membranes containing inside then RNA
2
such that RNA
2
nucleotides
were connected by magnetic flux tubes to RNA
1
nucleotides. The minimal function of RNA
1
would
have been to make possible the buildup of cell membrane. In this case the lengths of RNA
1
needed to
be only of order L(151) = 10 nm. The sequences consisting of 30 RNA
1
base pairs would correspond
roughly to the thickness of cell membrane and to the codon of M
61
code. Lipid layer of thickness 5 nm
would correspond to roughly 16 base pairs and to the codon assignable to M
17
. If magnetic flux tubes
indeed stabilize DNA, the presence of RNA
1
membrane might have been enough to stabilize also DNA
so that RNA era could have been followed by DNA-RNA era and eventually by DNA-RNA-amino-acid
era with RNA
1
membrane being replaced by double lipid layer membrane.
Reverse transcription of RNA to DNA
The basic problem was how to build DNA sequences which would later take the command. If one, in
conflict with the Central Dogma, assumes the presence of the predecessor of the so called reverse RNA
transcriptase [70] associated with retro-viruses (in particular HIV virus), one can understand how this
step occurred. Reverse RNA transcriptase allowed to transform ordinary RNA sequences to DNA
sequences inside newly emerged pre-nuclei. The reverse transcriptase catalyzes also the transcription
of DNA back to RNA so that DNA began to produce new RNA.
Reverse transcriptase requires amino-acids sequences. Amino-acids appeared as catalysts in tRNA
2
already during RNA era but the spontaneous emergence of reverse transcriptase before RNA→amino-
acids translation look improbable. After the fusion of tRNA
1
and tRNA
2
RNA
2
could replicate only if
tRNA
1
, tRNA
2
and tRNA
3
continued to live in symbiosis for some time. This could have led naturally
to the generation of reverse transcriptase and DNA. After that DNA could have taken care of the
production of RNA and tRNA
1
and tRNA
2
might have lost in the fight for molecular survival or at
least their importance could have diminished. The emergence of DNA could have been associated
with the replacement of RNA
1
membrane with ordinary cell membrane. For instance, it might be
that DNA was able to form only magnetic flux tubes only with lipid bilayer membrane.
The reverse transcription is not reliable (one error per about 1000 nucleotides), and this led to
a rapid evolution of DNA analogous to that of HIV virus. This meant an escape from the fixed
point situation, and a genuine DNA → RNA predecessor of the genetic code emerged. Together
with the emergence of membrane bounded structures this meant genuine evolution at DNA level.
128 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
Reverse transcription is possible only for the ordinary RNA and explains why exotic doublet RNA
has disappeared from cell.
What were the first self replicators?
The TGD inspired model of pre-biotic evolution suggests a reasonable guess for the first self-replicating
molecular entities. Both tRNA
1
and tRNA
2
molecules must have resulted as more or less copies
of corresponding RNA
2
sequences (amino-acid was added after transcription to tRNA
2
) and the
minimal self-reproducing system could have consisted of tRNA
1
, tRNA
2
and corresponding RNA
2
molecules. Since tRNA
1
and tRNA
2
are hairpins in the usual configuration and the mechanism making
possible biochemical reaction series suggests that these hairpin molecules catalyzed the opening of the
corresponding RNA
2
pieces and their coding to tRNA
1
or tRNA
2
.
Note that double strands in the sense they occur for DNA are not necessary since the double strand
part of hairpin is analogous to DNA double strand and the opening of hairpin structure is analogous
to the opening of DNA double strand during transcription and replication. The non-determinism of 1-
code could have rapidly led to a genuine evolution and one can also imagine a spontaneous generation
of RNA
2
sequences as oligonucleotides consisting of copies of pieces of RNA
2
coding for tRNA
2
.
Also more general hairpin might be used to construct a self-catalyzing system. Since exotic and
normal RNA do not differ too much, a reasonable amount of guess work might allow to identify tRNA
1
and tRNA
2
, and perhaps even create simple pre-biotic life-forms in the laboratory.
2.4.5 Is RNA era continuing inside cell nuclei?
The last issue of [81] contains an article about the discovery that only roughly one half of DNA
expresses itself as amino-acid sequences. A detailed summary of the results has been published in
Nature [82]. The Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) project has quantified RNA transcrip-
tion patterns and found that while the ”standard” RNA copy of a gene gets translated into a protein
as expected, for each copy of a gene cells also make RNA copies of many other sections of DNA. In
particular, intron portions (”junk DNA”, the portion of which increases as one climbs up in evolu-
tionary hierarchy) are transcribed to RNA in large amounts. What is also interesting that the RNA
fragments correspond to pieces from several genes which raises the question whether there is some
fundamental unit smaller than gene.
None of the extra RNA fragments gets translated into proteins, so the race is on to discover just
what their function is. TGD proposal is that the RNA gets braided and performs a lot of topolog-
ical quantum computation [E9]. Topologically quantum computing RNA fits nicely with replicating
number theoretic braids associated with light-like orbits of partonic 2-surfaces and with their spatial
”printed text” representations as linked and knotted partonic 2-surfaces giving braids. An interesting
question is how printing and reading could take place. Is it something comparable to what occurs
when we read consciously? Is the biological portion of our conscious life identifiable with this read-
ing process accompanied by copying by cell replication and as secondary printing using amino-acid
sequences?
This picture conforms with TGD view about pre-biotic evolution. Plasmoids [72], which are known
to share many basic characteristics assigned with life, came first: high temperatures are not a problem
in TGD Universe since given frequency corresponds to energy above thermal energy for large enough
value of [C7]. Plasmoids were followed by RNA, and DNA and amino-acid sequences emerged only
after the fusion of 1- and 2-letter codes fusing to the recent 3-letter code. The cross like structure of
tRNA molecules carries clear signatures supporting this vision. RNA would be still responsible for
roughly half of intracellular life and perhaps for the core of ”intelligent life”.
I have also proposed that this expression uses memetic code which would correspond to Mersenne
M
127
= 2
127
− 1 with 2
126
codons whereas ordinary genetic code would correspond to M
7
= 2
7
− 1
with 2
6
codons. Memetic codons in DNA representations would consist of sequences of 21 ordinary
codons. Also representations in terms of field patterns with duration of .1 seconds (secondary p-adic
time scale associated with M
127
defining a fundamental bio-rhythm) can be considered.
A hypothesis worth of killing would be that the DNA coding for RNA has memetic codons scattered
around genome as basic units. It is interesting to see whether the structure of DNA could give any
hints that memetic codon appears as a basic unit.
2.4. Physical model for genetic code and its evolution 129
1. In a ”relaxed” double-helical segment of DNA, the two strands twist [83] around the helical axis
once every 10.4 base pairs of sequence. 21 genetic codons correspond 63 base pairs whereas 6
full twists would correspond to 62.4 base pairs.
2. Nucleosomes [86] are fundamental repeating units in eukaryotic chromatin [85] possessing what
is known as 10 nm beads-on-string structure. They repeat roughly every 200 base pairs: integer
number of genetic codons would suggest 201 base pairs. 3 memetic codons makes 189 base
pairs. Could this mean that only a fraction p ∼ 12/201, which happens to be of the same order
of magnitude as the portion of introns in human genome, consists of ordinary codons? Inside
nucleosomes the distance between neighboring contacts between histone and DNA is about
10 nm, the p-adic length scale L(151) associated with the Gaussian Mersenne (1 + i)
151
− 1
characterizing also cell membrane thickness and the size of nucleosomes. This length corresponds
to 10 codons so that there would be two contacts per single memetic codon in a reasonable
approximation. In the example of Wikipedia [86] nucleosome corresponds to about 146=126+20
base pairs: 147 base pairs would make 2 memetic codons and 7 genetic codons. The remaining
54 base pairs between histone units + 3 ordinary codons from histone unit would make single
memetic codon. That only single memetic codon is between histone units and part of the
memetic codon overlaps with histone containing unit conforms with the finding that chromatin
accessibility and histone modification patterns are highly predictive of both the presence and
activity of transcription start sites. This would leave 4 genetic codons and 201 base pairs could
decompose as memetic codon+2 genetic codons+memetic codon+2 genetic codons. The simplest
possibility is however that memetic codons are between histone units and histone units consist
of genetic codons. Note that memetic codons could be transcribed without the straightening of
histone unit occurring during the transcription leading to protein coding.
2.4.6 Could nanno-bacteria correspond to predecessors of the triplet life-
forms?
The experiments of Leslie Orgel (at 1980) imitating the primordial ocean demonstrate the emergence
of the exotic RNA for which doublet effectively replaces the triplet. The so called nanno-bacteria
represent a mystery at the borderline between living and non-living matter. The web article of
Robert L. Folk [29], who is one of the pioneers in the field besides Y. Morita [65] and E. O. Kajander
[30], provides a brief summary about nanno-bacteria and contains also references. A priori one cannot
exclude the possibility that nanno-bacteria might represent a predecessor of the triplet code, perhaps
even singlet or doublet life-form or their symbiosis.
Basic facts about nanno-bacteria
Nanno-bacteria (often called also nanobacteria) are considerably smaller than ordinary bacteria. The
sizes of the nanno-bacteria vary from about 20 nm to .2 micro-meters. Thus the smallest nanno-
bacteria have size scale not much above L(151) so that optical microscope does not allow to study
them. Indeed, geologists discovered nanno-bacteria by using scanning electron microscope.
Nanno-bacteria can originate a precipitation in calcite and argonite crystals by providing the
seed of the crystal. Nanno-bacteria act also as catalysts by attracting cations to their negatively
charged cell walls. They appear as dense clumps in various minerals and rocks such as limestones,
dolomites, native sulphur crystals, and metallic sulfide minerals [29]. Nanno-bacteria produce complex
silicates such as clays, where their sizes can be as small as 30 nanometers. They are involved even
with the construction of birds’ eggs! Nanno-bacteria of size about .1 micro-meters were found in
the Martian meteorite ALH84001 [64], and there is evidence that carbonaceous chondrite meteorite
Allende [29] contains them. According to Folk, the nanno-bacteria might the biological counterpart of
the dark matter perhaps dominating over the ordinary bio-matter in the entire universe. An interesting
question is how deep in the rock nanno-bacteria based life forms can survive. The hypothesis about
intra-terrestrial life suggests that there is no limit here!
Although nanno-bacteria have been demonstrated to replicate [29], the prevailing belief has been
that nanno-bacteria cannot be real life forms since by their small size they cannot contain the usual
genetic apparatus. A Finnish biologist Kajander and his collaborators have done a lot of self-funded
130 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
pioneering work in the study of the nanno-bacteria [30]. It has not been demonstrated that nanno-
bacteria possess DNA-mRNA-amino-acid translation machinery, the existence of which is often taken
almost as a definition for what it is to be a living system (a size larger than .2 micro-meters has been
the second prevailing definition of a living system!). This failure could be understood if nanno-bacteria
contain only replicating DNA or if only the RNA-to-RNA translation machinery exists possibly ac-
companied by RNA-DNA transcriptase transforming the code to DNA-RNA code. Due to the hard
cell wall of nanno-bacteria, the study of DNA/RNA is very difficult but according to the Kajander’s
private communication to Folk [29], the nanno-bacterial DNA exists and consists of very short strands.
Nanno-bacteria as RNA life?
Nanno-bacteria could correspond to some predecessor of the recent genetic code. One can consider
several options.
1. Nanno-bacteria represent an RNA life form involving two kinds of RNA sequences and closed
inside RNA
1
membrane. This does not require DNA.
2. If the claim of Kajander about about nanno-bacterial DNA is correct, then two options remain.
i) Nanno-bacteria are able to just replicate DNA and do not possess genetic code. Thus nanno-
bacteria would be at a higher level than viruses.
ii) RNA-DNA reverse transcription is utilized so that nanno-bacteria could realize DNA-RNA
code and would probably be at a higher developmental level than RNA life-forms but had not
yet realized DNA-amino-acid code. The objection against this is that the reverse transcriptase
enzyme probably requires RNA-aminoacid translational machinery.
One can ask what what RNA life-forms (option 1) would look if they still exist.
1. Singlet RNA would express itself as RNA sequences containing only U (or C) and A (or G)
nucleotides. The tRNAs used by these life-forms should appear as fossil remnants in the ordinary
tRNA.
2. In the case of a singlet life-form the layer could correspond to the length scale L(2, 73)” = ”L(146)
and be formed by doublet atomic layer corresponding to the twin pair of p-adic length scales
formed by L(16, 9)” = ”L(144) and L(2, 73)” = ”L(146).
3. In the case of doublet life-forms the length scale L(2, 29)” = ”L(145) and the tertiary p-adic
length scale L(3, 7
2
)” = ”L(147) form a twin pair and could define a double-layered structure.
The reported hard cell wall could correspond to this double layered structure. A cell wall
consisting of minerals (also nanno-bacteria induce also the precipitation of mineral crystals)
might however be most appropriate for life-forms living in the pores of rock, and possibly utilizing
tectonic energy in some form to satisfy their metabolic needs.
The generation of the triplet code would have been accompanied by the generation of double lipid
layers and possibly a transition to water environment. The most natural location for the primitive
RNA-RNA translation machinery is at the inner surface of a lipid membrane if present inside nanno-
bacteria.
The singlet or doublet RNA life-forms and their fusions could correspond to what I have chris-
tened plasmoids. Intelligent looking plasma balls occur repeatedly in UFO reports and they are also
reported to occur around crop formations. There is even a report about a plasma ball in the act of
constructing the crop formation. The plasmoid like life forms serving as couriers of ITs could be also
seen as multicellulars consisting of nanno-bacterial cells or, more probably, of their predecessors. The
immune response against nanno-bacteria and their predecessors generated during very early evolution
would make possible encounters with crops and even humans (abduction experiences) without fatal
consequences. The reported immune response against exotic doublet RNA suggests that plasmoids
contain exotic doublet RNA. The visible light from plasmoids suggests that the metabolism indeed
involves also the hot k = 131 space-time sheet so that ITs or IPs might be in question.
2.5. Did life evolve in the womb of Mother Gaia? 131
Was the encounter of nanno-bacteria and plasmoids the moment of Gaian fertilization?
Earth consists mostly of ancient meteorites known as chondrites. Carbonaceous chondrites are shown
to contain not only basic bio-monomers but even nanno-bacteria. The meteoritic material can end up
to the interior of Earth along magnetic flux tubes even today. Recall that this mechanism actually
explains the magnetized iron from meteors found in crop circles [N2]).
Thus IT life might have developed nanno-bacteria contained by meteorites in the womb of Mother
Gaia. The bio-molecules/nanno-bacteria contained by the meteorites from outer space would thus
take the role of the sperm as in panspermia theory.
There is a temptation to develop the fertilization metaphor to a more concrete level in order
to understand what happened when the symbiosis of pre-nucleus containing DNA and and pre-cell
containing RNA was established and led to the development of the genetic code and established a
genuine evolution.
1. The simple nanno-bacteria in the meteorites having only replicating DNA or perhaps only the
ability to produce DNA nucleotides would have been the sperm. Cell nucleus is much smaller
than cell and might itself be regarded as having originated from ancient nanno-bacteria. The
much more complex pre-cells containing RNA, amino-acids, and reverse transcriptase as well
as the potentiality for the realization of the genetic code plus the needed metabolic machinery,
were located in the interior of Earth and played the role of the egg. Since the hot k = 131
space-time sheets essential for the metabolic machinery were also involved, primitive plasmoid
is an excellent candidate for the egg.
2. The encounter of nanno-bacteria and plasmoids led to the fertilization of Mother Gaia. What
is fascinating that balls of light reported to appear near the crop circles and reported to even
fabricate them migh be there in order to get fertilized by nanno-bacteria contained by meteors!
Alternatively, the simultaneous appearance of pre-biotic egg and sperm might be interpreted as
a symbolic hint about what happened in the key event of the pre-biotic evolution.
2.5 Did life evolve in the womb of Mother Gaia?
The idea that Earth interior, even the hot regions at the boundary of core and mantle, could serve
as a seat for life, sounds totally outlandish in the standard physics framework. The many-sheeted
space-time and hierarchy of Planck constants however allow to consider at least half seriously this idea
although I hasten to admit that during these years I have very often had the feeling that this is one
of those painfully stubborn fix idees that like to tease imaginative theoretician. This idea has variants
characterized by a varying degree of craziness. It is a fact that rocks contain simple life forms down
to surprising depths. A crazier idea is that underground lakes could have served as seats for evolving
life. The really crazy variant of the idea is that the boundary between mantle and Earth’s core as a
regions containing strong gradients has been a seat of self organization leading to the emergence of
life in some form.
Recently however completely unexpected support for this idea came as I learned that the geological
evolution of Earth involves an anomaly. The continents would fit nicely to form a single super continent
(Wegener’s theory does not predict complete fit) if the radius of Earth would have been at the time
of Cambrian explosion by factor of 1/2 smaller than now. The fact that Cambrian explosion is one of
the biggies mysteries of biology puts bells ringing. For long time ago this anomaly has inspired what
have been called Expanding Earth Theory but the physical mechanism giving rise to expansion has
been lacking.
Quantum TGD provides this mechanism. TGD predicts that cosmic expansion does not take
place smoothly but via quantum jumps induces by the growth of the Planck constant by a factor
of 2 for space-time sheet considered. This holds true also in planetary scales and TGD variant of
Expanding Earth theory predicts relatively fast expansion of Earth’s radius with a factor 2. The
sudden appearance of completely new life forms in Cambrian explosion could be understood as a
burst of various multicellular life forms which have developed in the womb of Mother Gaia sheltered
from UV light and meteoric bombardment. What remains open is how deep in Earth’s interior life is
possible. This of course depends also on the definition of life: probably biological life would not be
possible at core mantle boundary but one can consider much more general forms of molecular life.
132 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
In the following I will proceed in stepwise manner from not totally crazy (I hope so) to really crazy
and discuss first the quantum version of Expanding Earth theory and its possible connection with
Cambrian explosion and only after consider the really crazy possibilities.
2.5.1 Quantum version of Expanding Earth theory and Cambrian explo-
sion
TGD predicts that cosmic expansion at the level of individual astrophysical systems does not take
place continuously as in classical gravitation but through discrete quantum phase transitions increasing
gravitational Planck constant and thus various quantum length and time scales. The reason would
be that stationary quantum states for dark matter in astrophysical length scales cannot expand. One
would have the analog of atomic physics in cosmic scales. Increases of by a power of two are favored
in these transitions but also other scalings are possible.
This has quite far reaching implications.
1. These periods have a highly unique description in terms of a critical cosmology for the expanding
space-time sheet. The expansion is accelerating. The accelerating cosmic expansion can be
assigned to this kind of phase transition in some length scale (TGD Universe is fractal). There
is no need to introduce cosmological constant and dark energy would be actually dark matter.
2. The recently observed void which has same size of about 10
8
light years as large voids having
galaxies near their boundaries but having an age which is much higher than that of the large
voids, would represent one example of jerk-wise expansion.
3. This picture applies also to solar system and planets might be perhaps seen as having once
been parts of a more or less connected system, the primordial Sun. The Bohr orbits for inner
and outer planets correspond to gravitational Planck constant which is 5 times larger for outer
planets. This suggests that the space-time sheet of outer planets has suffered a phase transition
increasing the size scale by a factor of 5. Earth can be regarded either as n=1 orbit for Planck
constant associated with outer planets or n= 5 orbit for inner planetary system. This might
have something to do with the very special position of Earth in planetary system. One could
even consider the possibility that both orbits are present as dark matter structures. The phase
transition would also explain why n=1 and n=2 Bohr orbits are absent and one only n=3,4, and
5 are present.
4. Also planets should have experienced this kind of phase transitions increasing the radius: the
increase by a factor two would be the simplest situation.
The obvious question - that I did not ask - is whether this kind of phase transition might have
occurred for Earth and led from a completely granite covered Earth - Pangeia without seas - to the
recent Earth. Neither it did not occur to me to check whether there is any support for a rapid
expansion of Earth during some period of its history.
Situation changed when my son visited me last Saturday and told me about a Youtube video [31]
by Neal Adams, an American comic book and commercial artist who has also produced animations
for geologists. We looked the amazing video a couple of times and I looked it again yesterday. The
video is very impressive artwork but in the lack of references skeptic probably cannot avoid the feeling
that Neal Adams might use his highly developed animation skills to cheat you. I found also a polemic
article [32] of Adams but again the references were lacking. Perhaps the reason of polemic tone
was that the concrete animation models make the expanding Earth hypothesis very convincing but
geologists refuse to consider seriously arguments by a layman without a formal academic background.
The claims of Adams
The basic claims of Adams were following.
1. The radius of Earth has increased during last 185 million years (dinosaurs [112] appeared for
about 230 million years ago) by about factor 2. If this is assumed all continents have formed
at that time a single super-continent, Pangeia, filling the entire Earth surface rather than only
1/4 of it since the total area would have grown by a factor of 4. The basic argument was that
2.5. Did life evolve in the womb of Mother Gaia? 133
it is very difficult to imagine Earth with 1/4 of surface containing granite and 3/4 covered by
basalt. If the initial situation was covering by mere granite -as would look natural- it is very
difficult for a believer in thermodynamics to imagine how the granite would have gathered to a
single connected continent.
2. Adams claims that Earth has grown by keeping its density constant, rather than expanded, so
that the mass of Earth has grown linearly with radius. Gravitational acceleration would have
thus doubled and could provide a partial explanation for the disappearance of dinosaurs: it is
difficult to cope in evolving environment when you get slower all the time.
3. Most of the sea floor is very young and the areas covered by the youngest basalt are the largest
ones. This Adams interprets this by saying that the expansion of Earth is accelerating. The
alternative interpretation is that the flow rate of the magma slows down as it recedes from the
ridge where it erupts. The upper bound of 185 million years for the age of sea floor requires that
the expansion period - if it is already over - lasted about 185 million years after which the flow
increasing the area of the sea floor transformed to a convective flow with subduction so that the
area is not increasing anymore.
4. The fact that the continents fit together - not only at the Atlantic side - but also at the Pacific
side gives strong support for the idea that the entire planet was once covered by the super-
continent. After the emergence of subduction theory this evidence as been dismissed.
5. I am not sure whether Adams mentions the following objections [35]. Subduction only occurs on
the other side of the subduction zone so that the other side should show evidence of being much
older in the case that oceanic subduction zones are in question. This is definitely not the case.
This is explained in plate tectonics as a change of the subduction direction. My explanation
would be that by the symmetry of the situation both oceanic plates bend down so that this
would represent new type of boundary not assumed in the tectonic plate theory.
6. As a master visualizer Adams notices that Africa and South-America do not actually fit together
in absence of expansion unless one assumes that these continents have suffered a deformation.
Continents are not easily deformable stuff. The assumption of expansion implies a perfect fit of
all continents without deformation.
Knowing that the devil is in the details, I must admit that these arguments look rather convincing
to me and what I learned from Wikipedia articles supports this picture.
The critic of Adams of the subduction mechanism
The prevailing tectonic plate theory [33] has been compared to the Copernican revolution in geology.
The theory explains the young age of the seafloor in terms of the decomposition of the litosphere to
tectonic plates and the convective flow of magma to which oceanic tectonic plates participate. The
magma emerges from the crests of the mid ocean ridges representing a boundary of two plates and
leads to the expansion of sea floor. The variations of the polarity of Earth’s magnetic field coded in
sea floor provide a strong support for the hypothesis that magma emerges from the crests.
The flow back to would take place at so called oceanic trenches [34] near continents which represent
the deepest parts of ocean. This process is known as subduction. In subduction oceanic tectonic plate
bends and penetrates below the continental tectonic plate, the material in the oceanic plate gets
denser and sinks into the magma. In this manner the oceanic tectonic plate suffers a metamorphosis
returning back to the magma: everything which comes from Earth’s interior returns back. Subduction
mechanism explains elegantly formation of mountains [36] (orogeny), earth quake zones, and associated
zones of volcanic activity [31].
Adams is very polemic about the notion of subduction, in particular about the assumption that it
generates steady convective cycle. The basic objections of Adams against subduction are following.
1. There are not enough subduction zones to allow a steady situation. According to Adams, the
situation resembles that for a flow in a tube which becomes narrower. In a steady situation the
flow should accelerate as it approaches subduction zones rather than slow down. Subduction
zones should be surrounded by large areas of sea floor with constant age. Just the opposite
134 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
is suggested by the fact that the youngest portion of sea-floor near the ridges is largest. The
presence of zones at which both ocean plates bend down could improve the situation. Also
jamming of the flow could occur so that the thickness of oceanic plate increases with the distance
from the eruption ridge. Jamming could increase also the density of the oceanic plate and thus
the effectiveness of subduction.
2. There is no clear evidence that subduction has occurred at other planets. The usual defense is
that the presence of sea is essential for the subduction mechanism.
3. One can also wonder what is the mechanism that led to the formation of single super continent
Pangeia covering 1/4 of Earth’s surface. How probable the gathering of all separate continents
to form single cluster is? The later events would suggest that just the opposite should have
occurred from the beginning.
Expanding Earth theories are not new
After I had decided to check the claims of Adams, the first thing that I learned is that Expanding
Earth theory [35], whose existence Adams actually mentions, is by no means new. There are actually
many of them.
The general reason why these theories were rejected by the main stream community was the
absence of a convincing physical mechanism of expansion or of growth in which the density of Earth
remains constant.
1. 1888 Yarkovski postulated some sort of aether absorbed by Earth and transforming to chemical
elements (TGD version of aether could be dark matter). 1909 Mantovani postulated thermal
expansion but no growth of the Earth’s mass.
2. Paul Dirac’s idea about changing Planck constant led Pascual Jordan in 1964 to a modification
of general relativity predicting slow expansion of planets. The recent measurement of the grav-
itational constant imply that the upper bound for the relative change of gravitational constant
is 10 time too small to produce large enough rate of expansion. Also many other theories have
been proposed but they are in general conflict with modern physics.
3. The most modern version of Expanding Earth theory is by Australian geologist Samuel W.
Carey. He calculated that in Cambrian period (about 500 million years ago) all continents were
stuck together and covered the entire Earth. Deep seas began to evolve then.
Summary of TGD based theory of Expanding Earth
TGD based model differs from the tectonic plate model but allows subduction which cannot imply
considerable back-flow of magma. Let us sum up the basic assumptions and implications.
1. The expansion is or was due to a quantum phase transition increasing the value of gravitational
Planck constant and forced by the cosmic expansion in the average sense.
2. Tectonic plates do not participate to the expansion and therefore new plate must be formed
and the flow of magma from the crests of mid ocean ridges is needed. The decomposition of a
single plate covering the entire planet to plates to create the mid ocean ridges is necessary for
the generation of new tectonic plate. The decomposition into tectonic plates is thus prediction
rather than assumption.
3. The expansion forced the decomposition of Pangeia super-continent covering entire Earth for
about 530 million years ago to split into tectonic plates which began to recede as new non-
expanding tectonic plate was generated at the ridges creating expanding sea floor. The initiation
of the phase transition generated formation of deep seas.
4. The eruption of plasma from the crests of ocean ridges generated oceanic tectonic plates which
did not participate to the expansion by density reduction but by growing in size. This led to a
reduction of density in the interior of the Earth roughly by a factor 1/8. From the upper bound
for the age of the seafloor one can conclude that the period lasted for about 185 million years
2.5. Did life evolve in the womb of Mother Gaia? 135
after which it transformed to convective flow in which the material returned back to the Earth
interior. Subduction at continent-ocean floor boundaries and downwards double bending of
tectonic plates at the boundaries between two ocean floors were the mechanisms. Thus tectonic
plate theory would be more or less the correct description for the recent situation.
5. One can consider the possibility that the subducted tectonic plate does not transform to magma
but is fused to the tectonic layer below continent so that it grows to an iceberg like structure. This
need not lead to a loss of the successful predictions of plate tectonics explaining the generation
of mountains, earthquake zones, zones of volcanic activity, etc...
6. From the video of Adams it becomes clear that the tectonic flow is East-West asymmetric in
the sense that the western side is more irregular at large distances from the ocean ridge at the
western side. If the magma rotates with slightly lower velocity than the surface of Earth (like
liquid in a rotating vessel), the erupting magma would rotate slightly slower than the tectonic
plate and asymmetry would be generated.
7. If the planet has not experienced a phase transition increasing the value of Planck constant,
there is no need for the decomposition to tectonic plates and one can understand why there is
no clear evidence for tectonic plates and subduction in other planets. The conductive flow of
magma could occur below this plate and remain invisible.
The biological implications might provide a possibility to test the hypothesis.
1. Great steps of progress in biological evolution are associated with catastrophic geological events
generating new evolutionary pressures forcing new solutions to cope in the new situation. Cam-
brian explosion indeed occurred about 530 years ago (the book ”Wonderful Life” of Stephen
Gould [114] explains this revolution in detail) and led to the emergence of multicellular crea-
tures, and generated huge number of new life forms living in seas. Later most of them suffered
extinction: large number of phylae and groups emerged which are not present nowadays.
Thus Cambrian explosion is completely exceptional as compared to all other dramatic events
in the evolution in the sense that it created something totally new rather than only making
more complex something which already existed. Gould also emphasizes the failure to identify
any great change in the environment as a fundamental puzzle of Cambrian explosion. Cambrian
explosion is also regarded in many quantum theories of consciousness (including TGD) as a
revolution in the evolution of consciousness: for instance, micro-tubuli emerged at this time.
The periods of expansion might be necessary for the emergence of multicellular life forms on
planets and the fact that they unavoidably occur sooner or later suggests that also life develops
unavoidably.
2. TGD predicts a decrease of the surface gravity by a factor 1/4 during this period. The reduction
of the surface gravity would have naturally led to the emergence of dinosaurs 230 million years
ago as a response coming 45 million years after the accelerated expansion ceased. Other reasons
led then to the decline and eventual catastrophic disappearance of the dinosaurs. The reduction
of gravity might have had some gradually increasing effects on the shape of organisms also at
microscopic level and manifest itself in the evolution of genome during expansion period.
3. A possibly testable prediction following from angular momentum conservation (ωR
2
= constant)
is that the duration of day has increased gradually and was four times shorter during the Cam-
brian era. For instance, genetically coded bio-clocks of simple organisms during the expansion
period could have followed the increase of the length of day with certain lag or failed to follow
it completely. The simplest known circadian clock is that of the prokaryotic cyanobacteria.
Recent research has demonstrated that the circadian clock of Synechococcus elongatus can be
reconstituted in vitro with just the three proteins of their central oscillator. This clock has been
shown to sustain a 22 hour rhythm over several days upon the addition of ATP: the rhythm is
indeed faster than the circadian rhythm. For humans the average innate circadian rhythm is
however 24 hours 11 minutes and thus conforms with the fact that human genome has evolved
much later than the expansion ceased.
136 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
4. Scientists have found a fossil of a sea scorpion with size of 2.5 meters [125], which has lived for
about 10 million years for 400 million years ago in Germany. The gigantic size would conform
nicely with the much smaller value of surface gravity at that time. The finding would conform
nicely with the much smaller value of surface gravity at that time. Also the emergence of trees
could be understood in terms of a gradual growth of the maximum plant size as the surface
gravity was reduced. The fact that the oldest known tree fossil is 385 million years old [126]
conforms with this picture.
Did intra-terrestrial life burst to the surface of Earth during Cambrian expansion?
Intra-terrestrial hypothesis is one of the craziest TGD inspired ideas about the evolution of life and it
is quite possible that in its strongest form the hypothesis is unrealistic. One can however try to find
what one obtains from the combination of the IT hypothesis with the idea of pre-Cambrian granite
Earth. Could the harsh pre-Cambrian conditions have allowed only intra-terrestrial multicellular life?
Could the Cambrian explosion correspond to the moment of birth for this life in the very concrete
sense that the magma flow brought it into the day-light?
1. Gould emphasizes the mysterious fact that very many life forms of Cambrian explosion looked
like final products of a long evolutionary process. Could the eruption of magma from the Earth
interior have induced a burst of intra-terrestrial life forms to the Earth’s surface? This might
make sense: the life forms living at the bottom of sea do not need direct solar light so that they
could have had intra-terrestrial origin. It is quite possible that Earth’s mantle contained low
temperature water pockets, where the complex life forms might have evolved in an environment
shielded from meteoric bombardment and UV radiation.
2. Sea water is salty. It is often claimed that the average salt concentration inside cell is that of the
primordial sea: I do not know whether this claim can be really justified. If the claim is true, the
cellular salt concentration should reflect the salt concentration of the water inside the pockets.
The water inside water pockets could have been salty due to the diffusion of the salt from ground
but need not have been same as that for the ocean water (higher than for cell interior and for
obvious reasons). Indeed, the water in the underground reservoirs in arid regions such as Sahara
is salty, which is the reason for why agriculture is absent in these regions. Note also that the
cells of marine invertebrates are osmoconformers able to cope with the changing salinity of the
environment so that the Cambrian revolutionaries could have survived the change in the salt
concentration of environment.
3. What applies to Earth should apply also to other similar planets and Mars [39] is very similar to
Earth. The radius is .533 times that for Earth so that after quantum leap doubling the radius
and thus Schumann frequency scale (7.8 Hz would be the lowest Schumann frequency) would
be essentially same as for Earth now. Mass is .131 times that for Earth so that surface gravity
would be .532 of that for Earth now and would be reduced to .131 meaning quite big dinosaurs!
have learned that Mars probably contains large water reservoirs in it’s interior and that there
is an un-identified source of methane gas usually assigned with the presence of life. Could it
be that Mother Mars is pregnant and just waiting for the great quantum leap when it starts
to expand and gives rise to a birth of multicellular life forms. Or expressing freely how Bible
describes the moment of birth: in the beginning there was only darkness and water and then
God said: Let the light come!
To sum up, TGD would provide only the long sought mechanism of expansion and a possible
connection with the biological evolution. It would be indeed fascinating if Planck constant changing
quantum phase transitions in planetary scale would have profoundly affected the biosphere.
2.5.2 Did pre-biotic life evolve in mantle-core boundary?
In the sequel this question is taken to mean simple prebiotic life forms preceding the life that possibly
developed in underground seas near to the surface of Earth. One can imagine that pre-biotic life
moved from high temperature environment in the Earth’s interior to the underground seas and charged
molecules polymerized in this process and generated gel like phase around them.
2.5. Did life evolve in the womb of Mother Gaia? 137
Some arguments supporting IT life
The following arguments favor IT hypothesis.
1. Life would have originated already in interstellar space via evolution of primitive metabolic cy-
cles involving temporary chemical storage of metabolic energy. The decay of molecules would
have been induced by incoming radiation in UV and visible range and fusion would have oc-
curred spontaneously liberating energy quantum. As stars and planetary systems formed these
primordial predecessors of life would have naturally ended into the planetary and even interiors
and received their metabolic energy from the hot environment. The dropping of particles, in
particular protons and electrons, to large space-time sheets would have provided fundamental
metabolic energy quanta, and the anomalies lines in the IR, visible, and UV radiation from
interstellar space indeed contains this kind of lines with energies which can be understood in
terms of the spectrum of these quanta [J7].
2. Boundary layers are ideal places for self-organization since they contain gradients which give rise
to energy currents feeding self-organization. Liquid state is certainly crucial for life since this
makes it possible quantum control the atomic space-time sheets very effectively. Ordinary life
relies actually on the liquid crystal property of water which suggests that the same is the case
quite generally. Thus those parts of the planetary core which correspond to boundary regions
between solid and liquid phases and thus analogous to ordered water, could be ideal places for
IT life forms to flourish, and it is actually difficult to imagine any other state of matter making
possible life able to control the surrounding world effectively.
3. This picture is consistent with and would realize concretely the general vision about magneto-
sphere as a living system. In Earth’s interior the mantle-core and core-inner core boundaries are
especially interesting in this respect since these boundaries represent solid liquid boundaries.
4. Mg, Fe, Al, Si, and O are the dominant elements in mantle. Also Ca is present. These are the
basic minerals involved with life. Also the minerals believed to be important for the evolution
of polymer structures (like kaolinites consisting of Al, Si, and O) could form both at the hot
space-time sheets and atomic space-time sheets. Below mantle-core boundary Fe and S are the
prevailing elements. Fe-S centers play a key role in high temperature and pressure models for
photosynthesis pathways [58]. The establishment of the photosynthesis has been proposed to
occur first in a sulphur containing environment with S replacing O. Inner core contains mainly
Fe at hot space-time sheets.
5. A further possibly important aspect is the transparency of the liquid glass state at mantle-
core boundary implying that visible light propagates over long distances without absorption.
This might be absolutely essential for the possibility of visible photons to propagate through
sufficiently long distances. For dark photons situation changes, and the transparency of liquid
glass might be due the fact that some fraction of photons propagate as dark photons through it.
Hence quartz is transparent in liquid state, and thus an optimal candidate for a medium whose
behavior is quantum controlled from larger space-time sheets.
6. Magnetic body means the presence of both magnetic nervous system and the analog of blood
circulation which could bring in sufficient amounts of elements needed for the synthesis of bio-
polymers. The low concentrations of the elements needed to build up bio-monomers need not
be a problem anymore since magnetic Mother Gaia could control them.
Structure of the Earth’s interior and IT life
Combining the above described general ideas with the knowledge about Earth interior, one ends up
with a more detailed picture.
1. Earth’s interior decomposes into a relatively thin crust of thickness 30-60 km; a plastic mantle
consisting mainly of Si, O, Mg, Fe, and Al mostly in form of silicates FeO-SiO
2
and MgO-SiO
2
;
a liquid core containing mainly Fe and S; and the inner core consisting mainly of solid Fe. There
are thus two solid-liquid boundary regions. The upper boundary region could contain at least
glass in liquid crystal form and the lower boundary region Fe in liquid crystal form.
138 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
2. Theoretically, the thickness for the mantle-core layer is expected to be of order few meters. The
reflection of tectonic waves from mantle-core boundary has given evidence for a rich structure
at this boundary and suggests that this expectation is not quite correct [23]. Structures of
thickness about 150 meters and with of several kilometers and between liquid and solid state
have been identified at the top of the liquid core. One explanation is that lighter elements in
the core-inner core boundary saturate and condense to solid form and being lighter than iron,
raise up and form kind of puddles at the highest points of core.
A more radical explanation is that these structures relate to a highly developed self-organization
patterns which have given rise to some kind of life-forms. In the mantle-core layer the velocity of
tectonic waves gets ultra-low. The velocity of sound in solid phase is quite generally higher than
in liquid phase: this reflects directly the fact that the approximately harmonic forces between
atoms are stronger. If liquid crystal phase is present the velocity in transversal liquid directions
should be low. What is fascinating that sooner or later the analysis of reflected tectonic waves
could give detailed information about mantle-core boundary.
3. Earth contains a previously unidentified core region with size of 300 km [17]. Assuming that the
magnetic field behaves like a dipole field down to the distances of order 300 km, the electronic
cyclotron frequency at this distance is 5 GHz which corresponds to the wave length of about 6
cm, the size scale of BOLs for the dark companion B
end
= 2B
E
/5 of B
E
. If the magnetization
density below this distance is constant (so that the core would be like ordinary magnet), the
magnetic field would be constant below this length scale.
Also some other experimental findings support this picture. It has been found that the times for
of the compressional waves to travel through Earth in magnetic north-south direction and equatorial
direction differ by 2-3 seconds [24]. This suggests a gigantic crystal structure with symmetry axis
parallel to magnetic field. If the join along boundaries condensate associated with atomic space-
time sheets is hollow with a hole of radius 300 km, and if only k = 151 space-time sheet consisting
of cold and magnetized iron is at this space-time sheet one can understand the crystal structure
and how Earth’s magnetic field results by magnetization. The estimated velocity of propagation for
compressional waves in the crystal is about 3 km/s which is rather near to the 5 km/s for steel at
room temperature. The appearance of a relatively small hole at the atomic space-time sheet is not so
surprising since typically the field equations of TGD imply hole like singularities at given space-time
sheet, and the hole could be analogous to black hole like singularity carrying inertial and gravitational
masses at its boundary.
The simplest hypothesis is that the magnetic field associated with the plasmoids is the Earth’s
magnetic field in the core region of Earth. This would mean that some kind of plasmoid like life forms
could reside also at the boundary layer associated with the new core. If the k = 151 space-time sheet
is not ferromagnet above the radius r = 300 km, the boundary region could be in spin glass type
magnetic phase and the bio-control from magnetic flux tubes would operate on the local direction of
magnetization of the magnetized regions in the boundary region.
2.5.3 What conditions can one pose on life at mantle-core boundary?
In the following some conditions on life at high temperatures at pressures are discussed as a mere
intellectual exercise certainly not to meant taken deadly seriously. The speculations rely on the
ideas which should be already familiar such as presence of strong gradients driving self-organization
as indeed found in mantle-core boundary, magnetic bodies as controllers of biological bodies, dark
matter as phases with large value of Planck constant able to form macroscopic quantum phases even
at high temperatures, and the notion of universal metabolic currencies. Gel-sol phase transitions
are also key element in the model of life. The condition that topological quantum computation like
information processing based on braids requires existence of some kind of polymers defining braids
and consisting of some basic building blocks stable under the conditions in question. The presence of
analogs of lipids and cell membranes might be argued to be also necessary.
Plasmoid life as minimum option
The least non-realistic assumption is that IT life corresponds to plasmoid like life forms having mag-
netic body containing dark matter with large Planck constant controlling visible matter at high tem-
2.5. Did life evolve in the womb of Mother Gaia? 139
peratures and in plasma phase. Fractality suggests that the high frequency analog of EEG is present
and allows magnetic body to use the visible body as a sensory receptor and motor instrument. Fre-
quencies and the values of Planck constant should be such that the energies of dark photons are above
thermal energy. General vision about evolution suggests that the values of Planck constant are not
very high so that frequency scale should be rather high.
1. Only biologically important ions and relatively simple molecules are expected to be present.
Primitive metabolic cycles based on the fusion and decay of molecules induced by the radiation
coming from environment can be considered. Cyclotron Bose-Einstein condensates of ions at
magnetic flux tubes correspond to energies above thermal threshold only if the magnetic field is
strong enough.
2. At temperature of about 4000 K at mantle core interior hydrogen bonds are still stable and
metabolic energy quantum of E
0
= .5 eV is near thermal energy. There exists of course other
metabolic quanta comings as power of two multiples of this quantum. Hence one can assumes
that the dropping of protons and possibly of electrons from larger space-time sheets is responsible
for metabolic energy quanta also now. One might argue that the typical p-adic length scale asso-
ciated with the space-time sheets corresponds to the de-Broglie wave length a λ
dB
=

3/

2mT
associated with electron. For electron this wavelength is around 35 slightly below L(149) = 50
A defining the thickness of the lipid layer of ordinary cell membrane. This scale increases with
increasing .
3. Dark micro-waves amplified by quartz crystals might be crucial for the metabolism of plasmoid
life-forms and replace visible light serving as the ”food” of the terrestrial life forms. Tectonic
activity might be as important for these life-forms as solar radiation is for us. The crust and
mantle could serve as amplifiers of em waves is a wide wave length range and make possible
communications between IT and us.
Could topological quantum computation like activities be considered?
Could even more advanced life forms have evolved in the environment provided by mantle-core bound-
ary? The presence of magnetic body makes possible braidings and simple versions for the mechanisms
of memory, of topological quantum computation like information processing, and of catalysis. The
presence of braids could be taken almost as a basic prerequisite of life. The presence of polymers of
some basic molecules seems necessary if one wants something resembling DNA as tqc.
1. The presence of polymers consisting of some thermally stable basic units is the basic require-
ment. Hydrocarbons, lipids, aminoacids, and nucleotide polymers are not chemically stable at
temperatures considered and mantle contains carbon only in trace amounts. The dominating
elements in mantle are O, Si, and Mg whereas C is present only in trace amounts. S is present
in core and thus also in mantle-core boundary. P is so called siderophilic element meaning that
it tends to avoid Si. It is theorized that during the formation of Earth from magma ocean
siderophilic elements including P separated from the mantle and went to core. In [42] ratio of
concentrations of P in core and mantle was estimated to be D(P) = 30 but the article does
not report the concentration of P on mantle. In [43] the phosphorus content of upper mantle
is reported to be in the range 130-220 ppm which would give 3-7 percent in core. One can also
imagine a formation of phosphate deposits in mantle core boundary: in absence of oxygen these
kind of deposits are formed at sea floor. This kind of deposits might have formed at the top
of the solid structures reported to exist at mantle core boundary [23]. These structures could
themselves have formed as light elements from inner core has gradually diffused to the mantle
core boundary and could include phosphate deposits. If so then mantle-core boundary could
contain considerable amounts of P and the replacement C, N, O with Si, P, O or Si, P, S might
make sense.
2. Water flow is not the only flow which could generate the self-organization patterns defining
braidings as the analogs of tqc programs. Since O dominates in mantle water is however the
first guess. It is known that lower mantle can contain water at least up to .2 weight per cent
[41]. Water molecules are stable at the temperatures considered. The phase diagram of water
140 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
[21] shows that water is in overcritical phase in the temperatures and pressures considered: 4000
K and 1.4 million atm and at the bottom of the mantle.
3. The replacement of O with S might be considered in the mantle-core boundary since S is present
in liquid core. Water would be replaced with hydrogen sulfide H
2
S (responsible for the smell of
rotten eggs!) if it appears in liquid form H
2
S at temperatures and pressures considered. H
2
S
could be also used as food. H
2
S is used by some bacteria living in deep ocean volcanic vents
as a nutrient and also in our own gut: chemically this means that H
2
S acts as electron donor
in primitive photosynthesis like process to give ATP. That sulphur is essential for growth and
physical functioning of plants might be due to the fact that it preceded oxygen based life [44].
For instance, Cys and met containing sulphur are very important amino-acids.
4. The polymers should contain atoms acting as plugs for flux tubes acceptors flux tubes (O = or
S =) and terminal points of flux tubes identifiable as donors of hydrogen bonds. S−H shows only
very weak tendency for hydrogen bonding so that Si, P, O option looks more promising and is of
course especially natural if IT life forms are considered. For instance, silicic acids [40] satisfying
the formula [SiO
x
(OH)
4−2x
]
n
are candidates for polymers containing both O =:s and OH:s. The
presence of PO
4
could have made possible the formation simple analogs of nucleotides and AMP,
ADP, and ATP molecules. It might be possible to abstract nucleotides with a polymer consisting
of four different simple molecules which are phosphorylized and attached to the backbone made
of sugars.
5. One can continue the analogy with carbon life even further. The backbone could consist of the
variants of riboses with carbon cycles replaced with Si cycles, the variants of aromatic rings with
C and N replaced with P, and base pairing between N −H and O = replaced with P −H and
O =. In the case of amino-acids one can also consider the replacement of C, N →Si, P. It is of
course far from obvious that the possibly existing silicon analogs of organic polymers are stable
enough against rapid burning to SiO
2
and water. One might hope that the higher mass of Si
stabilizes them chemically at temperatures involved. Professional chemist could probably kill
this kind of ideas without big effort.
Could one consider analogs of cell membrane and gel phase crucial for cellular life?
1. The first guess would be that gel like phase might have emerged only after these plasmoid like
life-forms came in contact with water and induced the generation of structure water in presence
of metabolic energy feed. On the other hand, it could well be that structured dater might form
around charged polymers also at high temperatures and pressures as in the case of ordinary
cell. Also silica (SiO
2
) is known to form a gel. Also glass consists of SiO
2
: the transparency of
glass to visible light might be also relevant. A group of algae polymerize silicic acid to so called
biogenic silica used to construct their cell walls.
2. Lipids forming cell membrane would be replaced with structures consisting of hydrosilicons with
the silicon analog of carbon residue as its hydrophilic head and silicon analog of the hydrophobic
fat forming the tail of the lipid. The formation of these double layers would be an outcome of
self-organization. The analogs of phospholipids having PO
4
at their hydrophilic tail would be
needed for tqc.
3. Super-conductivity plays an essential role in the TGD based model for cell membrane. Large
enough values of Planck constant in principle allow to have super-conductivity at magnetic flux
tubes.
4. The requirement that the energy E = ZeV associated with Josephson junctions over the cell
membrane like structure is above thermal energy requires very strong electric field over the
membrane unless the membrane is thick. In the case of ordinary cell membrane the energy is
rather near to thermal energy at room temperature. Now the energy would be roughly ten times
higher and correspond to about .5 eV. Whether this kind of strong electric field is realizable
is not clear. One might hope that the densities of ions could be high enough in the dense
environment.
2.5. Did life evolve in the womb of Mother Gaia? 141
Do metabolism and photosynthesis possess signatures telling about intra-terrestrial evo-
lution?
Also the intra-terrestrial metabolism should rely on atomic/molecular ”Karma’s cycles”. Assume
that the protons and electrons can be modeled as free particles in box. This assumption might not
be correct as the model for ATP-ADP involving Coulomb binding energy of proton with negatively
charge ATP molecule reducing the size of metabolic energy quantum already demonstrated. In this
case the wavelength would be roughly by a factor 1/2 longer than predicted meaning Coulombic
binding energy of order .25 eV.
In any case, with this assumption the quanta saturating to E
max
(k) = [.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16] eV and
wavelengths λ
min
= [1240, 620, 310, 155] nm could have been important. The maximal quanta E
0
(k)
correspond to the dropping from space-time sheet labeled by k = 137 − ∆k (in the case of proton)
to a very large space-time sheet. The size of the space-time sheets would be given by L(k) = r
2
(k−151)/2
L(151), L(151) = 10 nm and r = /
0
the ratio of the Planck constant in question to its
standard value. Actually and entire spectrum of quanta given by the formula E
n
= (1 − 2

n)E
0
(k)
saturating to E
0
(k) for large values of n. In [J7] the presence of unidentified lines in the spectrum of
UV,visible, and IR radiation from interstellar space has been shown to have a satisfactory explanation
in terms of universal metabolic energy quanta.
The spectrum of diffuse interstellar medium exhibits three poorly understood structures [28]:
Unidentified Infrared Bands (UIBs), Diffuse Interstellar Bands (DIBs) [29], and Extended Red Emis-
sion (ERE) [30] allowing an interpretation in terms of dropping of protons or electrons (or their Cooper
pairs) to larger space-time sheets. The model also suggests the interpretation of bio-photons in terms
of generalizes EREs.
1. Unidentified infrared bands (UIBs) contain strong bands at λ = 3300, 6200, 11, 300 nm. Th
2. There are diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) at wavelengths 578.0 and 579.7 nanometers and also
at 628.4, 661.4 and 443.0 nm. The 443.0 nm DIB is particularly broad at about 1.2 nm across -
typical intrinsic stellar absorption features are 0.1 nm [28].
3. The Extended Red Emission (ERE) [28, 30] is a broad unstructured emission band with width
about 80 nm and located between 540 and 900 nm. The large variety of peak wavelength of
the band is its characteristic feature. In majority of cases the peak is observed in the range
650-750 nm but also the range 610-750 nm appears. This general vision can be compared with
experimental facts.
The generalization ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny principle would suggest that the recent metabolism
should have some features serving as telltale signatures of the IT past. The IT past could in turn
reflect the primordial evolution in interstellar dust. The signatures of this period would be maxima of
the action spectrum for wavelengths which correspond to both the universal metabolic energy quanta
and transition energies for transitions of simple molecules present in the molecular dust. Visible and
UV range are the most promising regions to consider.
1. There are two wave lengths of maximal effectiveness in the photosynthesis of plants and these
correspond to what are called photo-system I and II (see p. 287 of [60]). Photo-system I is
maximally activated at λ = 680 nm, corresponds to the chlorophyll a, and is not involved with
the oxygen evolution. k = 136 corresponds to wavelength saturating to λ
min
= 620 nm (1
eV). The model of ATP-ADP process suggests that Coulombic binding energy is increases the
wavelength.
2. Photo-system II is activated by shorter wave lengths and maximum effectiveness is between
500-600 nm. Photo-system II utilizes second type of chlorophyll (b, c or d) plus some accessory
pigments. All photosynthetic cells producing oxygen possess both photo-systems whereas bacte-
ria which do not produce oxygen have only the photo-system I. Hence at least the photo-system
I might derive from a very early intra-terrestrial period. The spectrum of metabolic energy
quanta for k = 135 corresponds to the wave length range [620,413,354,..,310] nm. Coulombic
binding energy could increase the wavelength from the 413 nm for k = 135 and n = 2.
3. The action and absorption spectra of green alga Ulva Taeniata, see p. 284 of [60], have besides
680 nm maximum also a broad maximum in the range 400-500 nm peaked around 430 nm. The
142 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
action spectrum has also a shoulder like structure around 600 nm. For k = 135 the first peak
could correspond to n = 1 (620 nm) and second peak n = 2 (412 nm).
4. For some bacteria encountered in hot springs [74] the effective wave length range is in the
near infrared range 700-1000 nm rather than in the range of visible frequencies dominating the
sunlight. This looks strange since in general the evolution favors maximal metabolic economy.
This leads to ask whether these bacteria might be kind of living fossils evolved in an intra-
terrestrial environment. This range of wavelength corresponds in a reasonable approximation to
that obtained by scaling the wave length range 400-500 nm in previous case and thus to k = 136.
5. DNA bases (A, G, T, C) strongly absorb UV light at around 260 nm. For k = 16 the nearest
metabolic energy quanta correspond to n = 2 and n = 3 giving wavelengths 310 nm and 207
nm. For proton the p-adic length scale is below atomic size for /
0
≥ 16.
2.5.4 What about analogs of EEG?
It looks strange to mention EEG if one speaks about primordial life forms. These analogs of EEG have
of course nothing to do with brains. The prediction is that the fractally scaled counterparts of EEG (in
loose sense of course) provide the fundamental communication and control tool for the magnetic body.
This analog of EEG is determined by the cyclotron energy spectrum nE
c
of biologically important
ions scaling like and by the characteristic energy E
J
= ZeV associated with Josephson junctions
assignable to membrane like structures and having no dependence on . The energies nE
c
and the
differences nE
c
± E
J
define the harmonics of bands and their satellites. Alpha band corresponds to
E
c
and beta and theta bands to differences in the case of ordinary EEG.
Conditions from the thermal stability of the analog of EEG
The analogs of EEG and its scaled up variants are in a fundamental role in the control of biological
body by magnetic body and this should hold true also for ITs. According to the model of EEG
resulting as a special case of the model for the fractal hierarchy of EEGs and its generalizations [M3],
the analog of EEG involves two components.
1. Cyclotron component
The first component corresponds to the harmonics of cyclotron frequencies of biologically important
ions: many of them belong to the alpha band in the case of ordinary ions.
Since 10 Hz corresponds to a secondary p-adic time scale assignable to electron defining an inherent
time scale of elementary particle in zero energy ontology, one can ask whether this frequency means
breakdown of the fractality hypothesis and raises the frequency scale of ordinary EEG in special role.
One can also wonder whether 10 Hz frequency could define a universal biorhythm.
Dark ions reside at magnetic flux sheets traversing DNA and cyclotron radiation affects directly
DNA. Cyclotron frequencies are associated with motor control affecting directly DNA and inducing
gene expression among other things. The models leads naturally to the introduction of the notions of
super DNA and hyper DNA [M3].
2. Josephson junction component
Josephson junctions associated with cell membrane define second contribution to EEG as frequen-
cies associated with coherent state of photons emitted by Josephson current. This component is
present only if Josephson junctions, naturally assignable with a membrane like structure separating
the plasmoid from environment, are present.
The frequencies are expressible as f
n,±
= nf
c
± f
J
and in the case of ordinary EEG alpha band
and its harmonics split into counterparts of beta and theta band. Alpha band has scaled variant also
in more general case and corresponds to ions which define alpha band for ordinary ions.
1. The essential condition is that cyclotron energy scale is above the thermal energy. This fixes
the minimal value of the integer k
em
characterizing the level of dark matter hierarchy involved.
For ordinary EEG frequencies the minimal value of k
em
is k
em
= 4. DNA cyclotron frequencies
assuming that the charge of DNA is solely due to the phosphate groups PO
2−
4
is around 1 Hz
and just above the thermal threshold. The thermal stability of DNA cyclotron frequencies is
2.5. Did life evolve in the womb of Mother Gaia? 143
satisfied if the ratio of the cyclotron energy to thermal energy is not smaller than one. Hence
the ratio B/T cannot be smaller than at the surface of Earth unless k
em
= 5 is assumed.
2. Second condition is that Josephson energy determined by the membrane voltage is above thermal
energy. The minimum condition is that membrane voltage scales up as V/V
room
= T/T
room
.
Josephson frequency f
J
would scale as
f
J
=
T
T
room
f
J,room
,
where f
J,room
· 5 Hz holds true. Alpha band and its harmonics and also the widths of theta and
beta bands would scale like B. The positions of theta and beta bands would scale like temperature,
and one would have the formula
f
n,±
=
B
B
E
nf
c
±
T
T
room
f
J
for the frequencies in the generalized beta and theta bands, when k
em
= 4 holds true also in the
high-T environment.
It is illustrative to consider some examples.
1. Mantle-core boundary
The temperature is T = 4000 K ∼ 13T
room
at the mantle-core boundary. This temperature
allows simple ordinary molecules like carbon monoxide and water (due to the high pressure).
2. Sunspots
The average temperature of the solar photosphere is about 5800 K whereas the minimum temper-
ature is T
min
= 4000 K and same as the temperature at mantle-core boundary. Inside sunspots
the temperature varies in the range 3000-4800 K and sunspots, which are analogous to torna-
does, would be good candidates for the seats of solar life forms. Spectral analysis demonstrates
the presence of water inside sunspots [19]. There is also evidence for a solid calcium ferrite
surface at photosphere [44].
The value of the sunspot magnetic field is between 1600-2500 Gauss and thus cyclotron frequency
is about 3200 −5000 times higher than at the surface of Earth. Also in this case k
em
= 4 level
would correspond to thermally stable ”EEG” photons with frequencies in the range of ordinary
EEG.
What could the analog of EEG for IT look like?
In the following estimates for cyclotron frequencies are for the possibly existing dark companion
B
end
= 2B
E
/5 of the Earth’s magnetic field for which the effects of ELF fields on vertebrate brain
provide a direct support.
If the sensory representations of IT life-forms are realized at the personal magnetic canvas and at
magnetosphere in the same manner as ours, the cyclotron frequency of the representing ion at distance
r
1
is must be same as the cyclotron frequency of the represented ion at distance r
0
. Assuming that
magnetic field strength scales like 1/r
3
, this gives cyclotron transitions at the distance of about
r
1
(A) = (A/A
1
)
1/3
r
0
,
giving
y(A, A
1
) = (A/A
1
)
1/3
x .
Here r
0
= xR is the radius associated with the life-form, and r
1
= yR is the distance at which
the sensory representation is realized. R denotes the radius of Earth and A the mass of the ion at
r
0
associated with IT cyclotron transition and A
1
the mass of the ion at r
1
defining the cyclotron
transitions associated with the sensory representation.
If the most important frequencies of generalized EEG correspond to cyclotron frequencies, if pre-
biotic live resides at the mantle-core and core-inner core boundaries, and if the magnetic field inside
144 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
Earth behaves as dipole field in a reasonable approximation, one can deduce the EEG frequency range
of aliens by scaling the human frequency range by the ratio
x
−3
= (
R
r
)
3
=
_
f
S
(r)
f
S
(R)
_
3
,
where r is the distance of the boundary region from the center of the Earth. The constraint that
representation is realized in inner magnetosphere gives the bound y ≤ 6 and the constraint that it is
realized in ionosphere gives y · 1.
1. Biosphere
In this case the basic equation is obtained by putting x = 1 in the general equation so that one
has
y = (
A
A
1
)
1/3
.
For protonic representations with A
1
= 1 possible in entire inner magnetosphere the constraint y ≤ 6
allows all possible values of A.
2. Mantle-core boundary
For mantle-core boundary the ratio is roughly x
−3
= 7.1 so that the EEG frequency range 1.5−90
Hz scales up to 107 −639 Hz. Sensory representations can in this case be realized as ionic transitions
in atmosphere. The basic equation is
y = (
A
A
1
)
1/3
x ,
where A is the mass number of the ion in mantle-core boundary and A
1
is the mass number of
representative ion. For protonic representation one has
y = 1.92A
1/3
.
The condition y ≤ 6 guarantees that representation is realized in the inner magnetosphere and gives
A ≤ 27. This corresponds in ordinary EEG to frequencies f ≥ 11 Hz. For A
1
> 1 also scaled up
variants of alpha and theta frequencies are representable: note however that the densities of these
ions are probably much smaller than in ionosphere.
One can consider also ionospheric ion representations satisfying y · 1 for mantle-core boundary.
Now the mass numbers of the ions involved are related by
A
A
1
· x
−3
· 7.1 .
The biologically most interesting ions have A > 7 and are representable. One manner to realize this
sensory representation is using cells or brains of various organisms and one might consider the possi-
bility that we actually are life-forms which have developed as magnetospheric sensory representations
of the life-forms at the mantle-core boundary.
3. Core-inner core boundary
For core-inner core boundary the ratio is roughly x
−3
= 263 for f
S
(r) = 50 Hz and x
−3
= 135 for
f
S
(r) = 40 Hz. In this case only electronic sensory representations are possible and one has
y = (
Am
p
m
e
)
1/3
x ,
1. For x
−3
= 263 this gives
y · 1.98 A
1/3
.
The range [1, 6] for y corresponds to the inner magnetosphere and the upper bound A ≤ 27
and to scaled up variants of cyclotron frequencies above 11 Hz in ordinary EEG. Only beta and
gamma bands would be represented.
2.6. Comparison of McFadden’s views with TGD 145
2. For x
−3
= 135
y · 2.48 A
1/3
The upper bound for A is A ≤ 14 and to the scaled up variants of cyclotron frequencies above
∼ 20 Hz in ordinary EEG.
4. Inner core-most inner core boundary
The boundary of the most inner core of radius 300 km could also be carrier of life-forms, perhaps
plasmoid like life-forms. The simplest hypothesis is that the magnetic field associated with the plas-
moids is the Earth’s magnetic field in the core region of Earth, which would be constant and of order
.2 Tesla below this distance if dipole approximation makes sense.
If important ”EEG” frequencies correspond to cyclotron frequencies, part of the ”EEG” would be
scaled up by a factor 2
169−157
= 2
12
· 4000 so that EEG frequency range .25−90 Hz would be mapped
to 1−360 kHz. Ionic cyclotron frequencies would be in the MHz range with proton cyclotron frequency
equal to 1.2 MHz. The cavity resonance frequency analogous to the lowest Schumann frequency for a
structure with radius 300 km is 159 Hz.
If the sensory representations of IT life-forms possibly existing at at r
0
= 300 kilometers are
realized as electronic cyclotron transitions one has
y · .59 A
1/3
.
Ions with A ≥ 6 would be represented above Earth’s surface. All ionic representations would be
realized in Earth’s interior.
2.6 Comparison of McFadden’s views with TGD
In his book Quantum Evolution [62] Johnjoe McFadden discusses the deep problems of molecular
biology from quantum point of view and develops very interesting ideas about evolution and con-
sciousness. Because of deep insights about what is not understood in biology, this discussion should
provide new insights for any quantum consciousness theorist attempting to build a bridge between
theory and biological reality. In the sequel McFadden’s vision is compared with TGD view and some
new ideas inspired by it in TGD framework are proposed.
2.6.1 General ideas
Before dwelling into concrete examples, it is good to compare McFadden’s general starting points with
those of TGD.
1. In accordance with most interpretations of quantum mechanics, McFadden assumes that the
initial situation involved no de-coherence and that the biological evolution means basically the
emergence of de-coherence, essentially the appearance of conscious observers performing quan-
tum measurements.
In TGD framework the situation is just the opposite: evolution means the emergence of effective
macro–temporal quantum coherence meaning that the duration of sharp mental images (sub-
selves) increased. During thee primordial stage typical lifetime of self was of order 10
4
Planck
times and defined minimal de-coherence time. Dark matter hierarchy provides and hierarchy
of Planck constants a concrete realization for a hierarchy of moments of consciousness with
increasing geometric duration and quantum parallel dissipation which is second new element of
TGD picture.
The number theoretic generalization of Shannon entropy having negative values for rational
and even algebraic entanglement is a further mathematical concept. Quantum computers are
basic examples of systems possessing positive number theoretic negentropy, and this certainly
conforms with the genuine information content of multi-verse states. It is not clear whether
Negentropy Maximization is really consistent with the Second Law of thermodynamics and one
must keep mind open for the possibility that Second Law is illusion created by the neglect of
dark matter hierarchy meaning at the same time neglect of living life forms.
146 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
2. McFadden does not fix his views about quantum measurement theory but assumes that de-
coherence is an outcome of quantum measurements performed by environment or some sub-
system of it. McFadden sees enzymatic action as a basic example of quantum measurement in
which an amplification to a macroscopic phenomenon occurs.
In TGD framework one can imagine two basic elements.
i) The emergence of symbolic representations as names of molecules made possible lock and key
mechanism and ”molecular sex”. Once it is possible to name molecules, it becomes possible
to regard bio-chemical pathways as analogs of computer programs proceeding rather deter-
ministically. As already found, this idea has very concrete implications for understanding of
bio-catalysis.
ii) The most important bio-molecules could be seen as selves with especially long wake-up
periods in a highly negentropic state of macro–temporal quantum coherence, and able to perform
intentional actions applying the time mirror mechanism. The magnetic bodies of bio-structures
are at the top of the intentional hierarchy.
3. McFadden sees quantum Zeno effect and its inverse as basic quantum control tools used by
enzymes to increase reaction rates or induce mutations. Although the Zeno effect has also TGD
counterpart, the intentional action of molecular magnetic bodies based on time mirror mechanism
seems a more plausible option. Long ranged dark weak forces, in particular charge entanglement
by W MEs, exotic ionization, and the control of the strength of the screening of the classical Z
0
force provides an additional mechanisms of enzyme control explaining chiral selection. Sol-gel
transition inducing polymerization and its reverse allows to control the stability of bio-polymers.
The leakage of particles between space-time sheets is a further control mechanism and involved
with the time mirror mechanism.
4. McFadden assumes that the superpositions of peptide-environment product states involving dif-
ferent peptides with different neutron and proton numbers are possible so that the measurement
involves also measurement of proton and neutron numbers. This option looks implausible be-
cause it is very difficult to think that states with different fermion numbers, masses, and charges
would quantum superpose.
In fact, it has become clear quite recently that TGD could in well-defined sense allow also
quantum superpositions of different DNA molecules. This kind of superpositions are routinely
assumed for coherent states of Cooper pairs in super-conductivity although they break conser-
vation of charge, fermion number, and energy. The point is that in zero energy ontology [C3]
the total quantum numbers of physical states always vanish and the states decompose into pos-
itive energy part such that negative energy part located in its geometry future. Therefore it is
possible to have quantum superpositions which in positive energy ontology, which is excellent
approximation, would look like quantum superpositions of different DNA molecules. This possi-
bility is not discussed in this chapter but it is needless to say that it could mean a revolution in
the understanding of living matter. Even thermodynamics could be interpreted in a completely
new manner since thermodynamical states which are ”superpositions” of states with different
values of conserved charged could have genuine quantal counterparts.
McFadden’s view about biochemistry
McFadden represents a very general view about the essentials of bio-chemistry.
1. Protons associated with hydrogen bonds and electronic Cooper pairs serve as basic tools of
quantum bio-control.
2. The localization of proton induces what McFadden interprets as a quantum measurement of
proton’s position.
In TGD framework the mechanism of catalytic action based on the temporary dropping of proton
from the H
N
-atom associated with catalyst or reactant, replaces this mechanism. Catalytic action
could be seen as a short lasting period of ”group sex” between catalyst and reacting molecules.
Liberation of standard metabolic energy quantum is automatically involved with the process.
2.6. Comparison of McFadden’s views with TGD 147
Important problems of quantum biology
The following list provides examples of problems that McFadden wants to understand in terms of
quantum physics.
1. The extreme effectiveness of enzyme action.
2. The mechanism of mutations, in particular that of adaptive mutations and multiple mutations.
3. Evolution.
i) The loss of complexity in computational models of evolution contra the increase of complexity
in real evolution.
ii) The emergence of the first self replicators.
iii) The evolution of extremely complex reaction pathways, such as the one leading to the buildup
of the ATPase enzyme.
2.6.2 Enzyme action
Enzymes as quantum mouse traps is the metaphor introduced by McFadden. Typically enzyme catches
the reactant molecules to a fixed conformation and fires a proton to the substrate molecule inducing
in this manner a re-organization of some chemical bonds. The enzyme gains the lost proton later from
a water molecule.
Mouse trap metaphor conforms completely with the TGD described view about catalytic action
and also with the idea about enzyme as a quantum critical system.
1. Production of lactic acid from pyruvate
McFadden represents the production of the lactic acid from pyruvate, which is one of the last steps
of catabolism, as a typical example of enzyme action. The process involves LDH, lactate dehydro-
genase, catalyzing the transformation of the pyruvate to lactic acid, and NADH providing a proton
and an electron pair. LDH donates the proton involved with the transformation of C=0 to C-O-H.
NADH in turn provides proton and electron pair so that C=O is replaced with H-C-OH. NAD
+
re-
ceives proton and a compensating electron pair from water and LDH

receives a proton from a water
molecule.
2. Catabolism of lactose
Second example used my McFadden relates to the catabolism of lactose induced by the enzyme
beta galactose. The rate of the process is trillion times higher than one might expect. McFadden
proposes that the process involves a localization of proton in certain amino-acid of the beta galactose
to a particular hydrogen bond. If the localization occurs to a correct hydrogen bond, the proton is
injected to the lactose molecule and induces hydration. The suggestion is that a repeated quantum
measurement of proton’s position in beta galactose keeps the proton in the correct position so that
the decay occurs with a much higher rate than it would occur otherwise.
It is not necessary to repeat how the catalysis could be understood in TGD framework. The decay
of the lactose involves hydrolysis in which lactose molecule receives water H
N
-O-H molecule from the
environment and the loss of proton destabilizes the negatively charged molecule.
Hydrolysis could involve local gel-sol type transition transforming ordered water to ordinary water,
which is able to provide the needed water molecule. The gel-sol transition could closely correlate with
the non-standard localization of the proton inside enzyme. The process could involve an intentional
action of a magnetic body of some system involved and thus negative energy topological light rays
and charge entanglement by W MEs.
2.6.3 Quantum evolution
McFadden considers evolution from a quantum point of view. After the criticism of the RNA world
paradigm McFadden poses several questions. How complexity could have emerged during the evolu-
tion? What was the first self-replicator? How the complex metabolic pathways could have evolved?
What might be the quantum mechanisms of adapted and multiple mutations?
148 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
How evolution can create complexity?
McFadden pays attention to the fact that in the computational models of evolution final states tend
to be less complex than the initial ones. This can be seen as a consequence of dissipation which leads
to asymptotic self-organization patterns which are very simple. This is just the opposite of what is
observed in Nature (note however the fact that the rapid extinction of new species after Cambrian
explosion might be interpreted in terms of a loss of complexity).
In TGD framework the ability of living systems to circumvent the loss of complexity is due the
facts that TGD Universe is quantum critical and p-adic cognition implies p-adic evolution predicting
the emergence of systems characterized by increasing values of the p-adic prime and the integer
characterizing the levels of dark matter hierarchy serving as their ”intelligence quotients”.
At the molecular level TGD allows to resolve this puzzle elegantly. During the pre-biotic exotic
RNA period the predecessor of the genetic code is realized as many-to-one replication of exotic RNAs
meaning a loss of information. This occurred for both singlet and doublet exotic RNA and for their
composite forming a double helix with the size of the singlet helix being scaled up by a factor two.
This however led to a dead alley involving only the RNAs representing the maximal invariant set of
the RNA→RNA mapping as an asymptotic state. Final state was indeed simpler than the initial
state.
At some stage the product code transformed to a code coding for RNA triplets, and amino-acids
which originally catalyzed the mapping of RNA to RNA, took the role of the coded molecules. RNAs
were mapped to DNAs by reverse transcriptase and the high error rate of the reverse transcription
implied a rapid mutational rate. The many-to-one character of RNA→RNA replication implying the
dead alley thus transformed from a curse to a blessing since it represented implicitly the protein-DNA
genetic code.
Criticism of RNA world
McFadden represents severe critics against RNA world paradigm which is the dominating vision about
pre-biotic evolution [54]. The basic objections are following.
1. In water environment bio-polymers become un-stable against depolymerization by hydration.
This makes the idea of primordial sea implausible. The presence of the ordered water could
resolve this problem even in the standard physics based models. In many-sheeted space-time
the hypothesis that pre-biotic evolution occurred intra-terrestrially in the womb of the magnetic
Mother Gaia makes sense and could resolve basic objections against the notion primordial sea.
2. Enzymatic action requires chiral selection. In TGD framework this can be interpreted as a strong
indication for the necessity of the classical long ranged weak forces in the enzymatic control (say
charge entanglement by W MEs).
3. McFadden lists several reasons for why RNA is implausible as a pre-biotic chemical. RNA
consists of three components: RNA base, ribose, and phosphate. RNA bases and phosphate have
been generated in the experiments trying to simulate pre-biotic evolution but the spontaneous
emergence of ribose looks implausible. The problem is that a plethora of other sugars are
produced.
Some property of ribose should distinguish it from the other sugars. In TGD framework one
might argue that for the ribose self ”wake-up” periods or even periods of macro-temporal quan-
tum coherence meaning sharp and non-entropic mental images are longer than for the other
sugars. Quite generally, important bio-molecules could be identified as maximally autonomous
systems able to ”stay awake” and realize intentions.
A more concrete explanation is based on stability.
i) Both RNA, DNA and aminoacids are negatively charged and thus inherently unstable. The
assignment of ”names” to generalized hydrogen bonds represented by quark and antiquark at
the ends of the magnetic flux tube to the basic building bricks of these polymers could make
them stable and lead automatically to highly selective catalytic actions.
ii) Suppose that the OH groups associated with the sugars have tendency to form a hydrogen
bond with water molecules leading to ionization of the water molecule and liberation of proton
2.6. Comparison of McFadden’s views with TGD 149
dropping to a larger space-time sheet so that the polymer generates negative charge. If the
number of O-H groups is too large the resulting negative charge can destabilize polymers formed
by ribose, phosphate, and RNA nucleotides. Note that also the formation of double strand a
liberates one proton per hydrogen bond which has a further de-stabilizing effect. This could
explain why RNA with 4 O-H groups forms only short double strands whereas DNA having only
3 O-H groups forms very long double strands.
4. One can also wonder why just phosphate, ribose and RNA bases find each other and why the
large number of other combinations are not realized. The naming based on flux tubes would
restrict dramatically the possible combinations able to form spatially and temporally coherent
systems bound together by flux tubes and automatically lead to a final state in which molecules
having no braids with environment disappear from the system. Phosphate, ribose and RNA
base could also find each other by tuning to common wave length by sending negative energy
MEs entangling them with each other.
5. The presence of RNA bases, phosphate and ribose is not enough. McFadden finds it difficult to
understand why only RNA molecules amongst many other reaction products of its three basic
components are selected. In laboratory the activation of the RNA base allows to select RNA as
a dominant reaction product. One possibility is that the liberation of activation energy helps
to overcome the potential wall hindering the formation of RNA. This is could also due to the
fact that the bound states of the activated RNA base with other two components are short-lived
or decay to RNA in accordance with the idea RNA selves have especially long wake-up periods
and is winner in the fight for survival. Magnetic body could be able to intentionally activate
the RNA bases using universal metabolism present even without ATPase machinery.
6. In the laboratory isolation, purification, and channeling of the reactants to the reaction volume
are crucial parts of the process producing RNA and ribozymes, and almost-self-replicators. In
the conventional chemistry framework it is very difficult to imagine how these processes could
have occurred during pre-biotic evolution.
The notion of magnetic body might come in rescue. Magnetic flux quanta could make possible
highly controlled reaction network. A possible concrete toy model goes as follows. Suppose
that quantum-classical correspondence holds true in the sense that the shape of the magnetic
flux tube containing charged particles reacts to the presence of the charged particles so that it
can be regarded as a classical orbit of a charged particle in the average magnetic field inducing
Lorentz force. This makes sense only if a given magnetic flux tube contains particles with a fixed
charge-to-mass ratio, and means that magnetic body indeed isolates and purifies the reactants
to the magnetic flux tubes and allows them to react at the nodes of the magnetic web.
Evolution of metabolism
McFadden describes basic aspects of catabolism in an enjoyable manner. Catabolism can be seen
as a process in which electrons from the orbitals of complex bio-molecules (in particular glucose) are
gradually transferred to the orbitals of oxygen atoms. This process releases energy used as a metabolic
energy in the form of ATP molecules.
In the standard chemistry framework the mechanisms behind ADP→ ATP transformation seem
miracle like. It is not easy to understand how an evolution based on mere chance and necessity could
have led to the recent form of this machinery: intermediate steps seem to be simply absent. For
instance, according to McFadden the reaction pathways generating the ATPase enzyme catalyzing
the generation of ATP involves 13 steps and all these steps are necessary. The probability that this
pathway could have been generated by a random change is infinitesimally small and comparable to
that for a monkey playing with a typewriter to compose Shakespeare’s sonnets by accident.
1. Universal metabolic currencies
In TGD framework the predicted universal metabolic currencies remove partially the veil of mys-
teries surrounding the evolution of metabolism.
The dropping of a proton from atomic space-time sheet to a larger one generates a universal
metabolic energy quantum. Thus metabolism would have been present already before the chemical
storage of the metabolic energy. At the pre-biotic period the generation of negative energy topological
150 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
light rays with photon energy ∼ .5 eV could have induced the dropping of protons and remote
utilization of the liberated energy. Indeed, the model for intra-terrestrial life led to the hypothesis
that the infrared radiation corresponding to a temperature of about 4000 K near the mantle-core
boundary could have provided the energy quanta of about .4 eV driving protons back to the atomic
space-time sheets. The evolution of photosynthesis led later to the chemical storage of the metabolic
energy.
The mitochondrial battery is kept at the potential of .15 eV by the metabolic energy feed. This
process involves oxidation process in which electrons from the orbitals of molecules like glucose end
down to the orbitals of oxygen atoms. The electron pairs are provided by NADH molecules in mi-
tochondrial metabolism occurring in the water filled space between mitochondrial membranes. The
energy liberated in this manner drives protons from the interior of the mitochondria to the space be-
tween the membranes. NAD
+
ion then receives the compensating electronic Cooper pair from water
later.
The molecular battery provides the energy to generate ATP molecules serving as universal energy
currencies. Three protons leaking back along the channel inside ATPase molecule, which is analogous
to the wire connecting the plus and minus poles of a battery, gain a net energy of 3 .15 = .45 eV.
This energy they donate to a proton, which uses it to get back to the atomic space-time sheet of the
ATP molecule.
2. Does metabolism generate cell level qualia?
In a philosophical mood one could wonder the purpose of the endless ATP Karma’s cycle: why
not just the primitive metabolism involving only .5 eV photons? A partial explanation is the possibil-
ity to store metabolic energy chemically so that system becomes less dependent on environment. A
connection with the TGD based model of sensory receptor as a quantum capacitor suggests a deeper in-
terpretation. The dielectric breakdown of the quantum capacitor gives rise to qualia which correspond
to the increments of the total quantum numbers at either electrode when the dielectric breakdown
occurs. ATPase could be seen as generating local di-electrical breakdown inducing primitive protonic
qualia as a side product.
3. Molecular intentionality
The basic challenge of the bio-chemistry based approach to evolution is to understand how simple
reaction steps coherently integrate to long multi-step reaction pathways. The assumption of molecular
intentionality simplifies dramatically this task. Indeed, the best manner to understand and plan a
complex electronic instrument is to know its purpose. The manual provides explanation of the purpose
and magnetic body serves as the manual of the bio-logical body. For instance, it is much easier to
understand how the reaction pathway leading to ATPase has developed if one knows that the function
of this pathway is to liberate universal metabolic energy quanta from mitochondrial battery besides
possibly producing protonic qualia.
The fact the number of steps is 13 suggests 13-adicity and it would be interesting to see whether
various reaction pathways tend to have a prime number of steps. It deserves to be noticed that
k = 169 = 13
2
defines the p-adic prime associated with the magnetic flux tubes of the Earth’s
magnetic field and its possible dark companion B
end
= 2B
E
/5, and that the micro-tubular surface
defines naturally cognitive code with k = 13
2
bits consisting of 13 13-bit sequences defined by tubuline
conformations for a full 2π twist around micro-tubule.
Biological evolution could be seen as being induced by the evolution of cognition and of intentional
actions. By the properties of the p-adic topology it proceeds from long time and length scales to shorter
ones (p-adically short corresponds to something long in the real sense since rational space-time points
are common to real and p-adic sectors of the imbedding space). This would suggest that the evolution
of bio-logical functions is induced by the evolution of the intentional actions of the magnetic bodies,
which were initially like rough sketches and gradually became more and more refined. Also motor
skills develop in the same manner.
4. The emergence of molecular pathways
The emergence of names attached to molecules makes possible generation of computer program
like dynamics in which programs call corresponds to association of molecules with names conjugate to
some name of catalyst molecule to clusters so that catalytic action leading to a particular final state
becomes possible.
2.6. Comparison of McFadden’s views with TGD 151
The names of molecules could dictate the dynamics to a high degree. Situation could be like in
the human society: knowing that person carries the label ”physics teacher” allows to make amazingly
precise long term predictions about the daily behavior of the person whereas the knowledge of all
imaginable chemical and physical data about the person would not allow to predict anything interesting
about the activities of the person in time scales longer than few seconds.
Quantum mechanism of mutations
McFadden suggests the reduction of the superposition of normal and enol configurations of T nucleotide
to a tautomeric enol configuration as a quantum mechanism of mutation. The position measurement
of the proton can locate it to the second nitrogenic hydrogen bond and thus transform T nucleotide
to the isomeric but short-lived enol configuration having only two hydrogen bonds connecting it to
the complementary base. In the enol state DNA replication assigns G instead of A with T.
Zeno effect could allow to effectively freeze T to this configuration and thus increase the rate of
mutations. The same mechanism could work also at the level DNA→mRNA transcription and protein
translation and assign lys instead of glu to the enol configuration.
The mechanism poses an additional condition to the proposal that DNA nucleotides correspond
to quarks and antiquarks. The question is what determines which quark or antiquark corresponds to
a given nucleotide and the mechanism of mutation based on disappearance of hydrogen bond suggests
that the number of hydrogen bonds (2 or 3) determines this so that one would have correlation with
with the weak isospin of quark (u or d) and number of hydrogen bonds (3 or 2).
1. Adaptive mutations of E. coli
In adaptive mutations the bacterium E. coli unable to catabolize lactose to get metabolic energy
develops a mutation allowing it to generate beta galactose inducing the decay of the lactose. This
mutation occurs with a probability which is higher than predicted by randomness. McFadden poses the
question how the information about the presence of the lactose is communicated from the environment
to the DNA level.
If life would be mere quantum chemistry, the only possibility would be that the information transfer
sequence DNA→mRNA→proteins of Central Dogma is somehow reversed. What McFadden suggests
is DNA-mRNA-betagalactoce-lactose entanglement such that DNA appears as a superposition of
ordinary and enol configurations. Lactose would take the role of quantum measurer of the proton’s
position inside T nucleotide, and Zeno effect would increase the rate of the mutation.
In TGD Universe the bacterial magnetic body receives information about the presence of lactose
and its intention to ”eat” lactose is transformed to a desire represented by a negative energy ME
entangling directly with DNA. The intention of the magnetic body of E. coli would be to push the
DNA to enol configuration by kicking the proton to the abnormal position. Negative W ME could
induce long lasting entanglement with normal and enol configurations of T nucleotide so that the enol
configuration would appear with a higher probability than in the absence of quantum entanglement
and mutated DNA results more often in the replication. The alternative option is that magnetic body
induces the gel-sol transition inducing mutation in the manner already described.
Quite generally, feeding of dark protons to atomic space-time sheets and gel-sol transition would
serve as switches used by the cellular magnetic body to realize its desires. This mechanism could be
seen as a refined form of remote metabolism providing metabolic energy for the starving bacterium.
2. Multiple mutations of TB bacteria
TB (tubercle bacillus) bacteria are able to develop a simultaneous resistance against several drugs
[62]. This occurs for bacteria which have only brief growth periods followed by long dormant periods.
McFadden interprets dormant periods in terms of entanglement with the environment. When this
period ends even multiple mutations could result in the quantum measurement at DNA level.
In the TGD framework the magnetic body of TB population would receive information about the
fates of various members of the population in the multi-drug environment and would have a strong
desire to develop multi-drug resistance. The long dormant periods of bacteria allowing them to survive
bring in mind the sleeping periods of higher life forms, and suggests the entanglement of the bacteria
with the other members of the population, also those living in the geometric past and already deceased
as victims of the drugs. This kind of entanglement would allow the magnetic body to manipulate the
genomes of the still-living bacteria so that they have better changes to survive in the multi-drug
152 Chapter 2. Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time
environment. McFadden does not discuss whether the simple mechanism of mutations working in the
case of E. coli might be enough in the case of TB bacteria.
Note that the notion of hyper-genome allows to understand bacterial colonies as systems analogous
to multi-cellulars controlled by genes expressed collectively.
3. Mutations and intronic DNA
The TGD based view about pre-biotic evolution allows to imagine more effective mechanisms of
mutations replacing the simple mechanism utilized by E. coli and working in case of eukaryotes.
In the TGD Universe reverse transcriptase plays a key role in the pre-biotic evolution as a gener-
ator of the genetic variation. The variation is due to the high error rate of the reverse transcription.
For instance, the amazing ability of the HIV virus (retro-virus) to adapt is based on the reverse tran-
scription of HIV RNA to DNA. It would be strange if this ability would have been lost during the
sub-sequent evolution. Perhaps fragments of DNA are transformed to mRNA also during dormant,
”inwards directed” periods. mRNA fragments are however not translated to proteins now but trans-
formed back to DNA fragments by reverse transcriptase replacing the previous DNA fragment in DNA
with a new one. This mechanism might work at least in case of eukaryotes having cell nucleus and
mean that mRNA is not transferred outside the nucleus. The replacement of DNA fragment need not
occur immediately. mRNA fragments would thus act like retro-viruses to produce the needed genetic
variation. In this framework ordinary retro-viruses such as HIV might be seen as kind of fallen angels.
This kind of activity in which collective selves of populations modify the genomes of their mem-
bers might be present in all eukaryotes during sleeping (or more generally, dormant) periods. The
generation of mutations might be one of the fundamental purposes of sleep and explain why sleep is
so important for healing.
This mechanism of mutations might be still too primitive for eukaryotes. In TGD framework the
intronic portion of DNA expresses itself as temporal field patterns using p-adic cognitive codes, in
particular memetic code. Introns play the role of the computer software whereas genes take the role
of the hardware. In this picture introns would be naturally involved with the control of the adaptive
mutations of higher organisms. In the modern home computers hardware is becoming more and more
dynamical, and computer metaphor suggest that the passive DNA could contain segments representing
kind of computer store containing variants of various genes taken in use if required. Transposons might
represent these new pieces of the hardware.
This replacement need not involve the removal of the old gene fragment and could be only func-
tional. Computer metaphor inspires the idea that the intronic portion of DNA represents a given gene
as a dynamical list of addresses, kind of links or program calls, specifying which portions of DNA
contribute to the gene, and that this list characterizes how the splicing of mRNA occurs. Therefore
the mutation could occur at the intronic software level as a mere updating of the list representing the
gene.
The challenge is to understand how this addressing might be realized physically. For instance,
addressing might involve simply common fragments of DNA in meme and corresponding portions
of gene serving as addresses making possible a ”tuning to a common wave length”. Alternatively,
magnetic flux tubes might serve as space-time correlates of the links. They could be generated
intentionally as wormhole magnetic fields consisting of pairs of positive and negative energy magnetic
flux tubes parallel to DNA strand. The generation of wormhole magnetic fields identified as the basic
motor activity of the magnetic body could also explain the appearance and disappearance of EEG
bands. By the p-adic fractality similar mechanism could be at work also in DNA length scale.
4. Could zero energy ontology be relevant for living matter?
Zero energy ontology [C3, A2] emerged originally from the observation that Robertson-Walker
cosmologies correspond in TGD framework to vacuum extremals for which all conserved classical
charges vanish (the non-conserved gravitational mass density does is non-vanishing). The construction
of S-matrix led to a precise formulation of zero energy ontology.
Zero energy ontology states that physical states have vanishing net quantum numbers and consist
of positive energy states at boundaries of future directed light-cones in the geometric past (”not so
big bang”) and negative energy states at the boundaries of past directed light cones in the geometric
future (”not so big crunch”) assignable to arguments of N-point function.
Due to the fact that conformal weights are complex it is possible to distinguish between positive
energy particles propagating to the geometric future and negative energy particle propagating to
2.6. Comparison of McFadden’s views with TGD 153
geometric past. Phase conjugate laser photons contra ordinary laser photons represent basic empirical
example about this distinction.
In the construction of S-matrix identified as unitary entanglement coefficients between these tow
kinds of states (this notion makes sense for hyper-finite factors of type II
1
) these states represent
incoming and outgoing states of particle reaction so that measurement of reaction rates is basically
quantum measurement in which time-like entanglement is reduced instead of space-like entanglement
[C3].
A rather strong argument in favor of zero energy ontology comes from superconductivity [J1]. The
models super-conductivity utilize formally the notion of coherent state of Cooper pairs involving quan-
tum superposition of arbitrary numbers of Cooper pairs. This is in conflict with various conservation
laws in standard ontology but in zero ontology it is quite possible to consider quantum superposition
of zero energy states with various values of quantum numbers for positive energy states.
This opens the gates for rather fascinating speculations. Time-like charge entanglement would
allow to imagine a time-like variant of the capacitor model of sensory receptor. For instance, sensory
qualia could result in the reduction of coherent state of Cooper pairs to a state with a well defined
charge.
Also different DNA sequences with different masses and charges might appear in quantum su-
perpositions for time like entanglement and this might be relevant for evolution of genetic code. In
particular, the model of McFadden for mutations might generalize dramatically. As a matter fact,
the proposed identification of S-matrix (or rather its generalization M-matrix which need not be uni-
tary) as time-like entanglement coefficients assumes the presence of all pairs of initial and final states
appearing in the S-matrix in the superposition so that this possibility could be seen as a prediction.
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[D8] The chapter Quantum Astrophysics of [3].
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[E9] The chapter Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe of [5].
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[F6] The chapter Topological Condensation and Evaporation of [6].
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[F8] The chapter TGD and Nuclear Physics of [6].
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[F9] The chapter Nuclear String Physics of [6].
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[H2] The chapter Negentropy Maximization Principle of [10].
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[H8] The chapter p-Adic Physics as Physics of Cognition and Intention of [10].
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[J2] The chapter Bio-Systems as Super-Conductors: part II of [9].
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[L2] The chapter Many-Sheeted DNA of [11].
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2.6.4 Plasmoid like life forms in laboratory
It seems that one of the most craziest predictions of TGD inspired theory of consciousness has been
realized at laboratory. Quite recent report tells about plasmoids generated in a simple diode involving
plasma generator creating plasma column between itself and the positively charged anode [72]. The
plasmoids are self-organizing structures able to evolve in a period of few microseconds. They possess
many properties that life forms are expected to have. Plasmoids
i) grow from micrometer size up to cm size,
ii) replicate by simply dividing into two pieces,
iii) have an outer negatively charged surface separating the positively charged interior from the en-
vironment and obviously analogous to the cell membrane. Hence the plasmoid is analogous to a
capacitor, and the exchange of matter with the environment could correspond to a di-electric break-
down essential for qualia in TGD based model of the sensory receptor,
iv) possess a metabolic cycle involving the transfer of matter between the interior of the plasmoid and
environment. This cycle is seen as a periodic generation of visible light at specific frequencies: the
light balls are typically found to be red or yellow. The frequency of metabolic oscillations is at 25-45
kHz frequency range,
v) are able to communicate by generating electromagnetic radiation by inducing vibrations in the
receiving plasmoid at the same frequency.
These findings give valuable hints concerning the more detailed modelling the ”biology” of plas-
moids. For instance, one can ask whether the preferred colors might be interpreted in terms of
quantized increments of zero point kinetic energies liberated when atoms or ions (such as C, N, and
O) drop from the hot k = 131 space-time sheets (temperature being of the order of the zero point
kinetic energy) to larger space-time sheets.
2.7 Quantum version of Expanding Earth theory and Cam-
brian explosion
TGD predicts that cosmic expansion at the level of individual astrophysical systems does not take
place continuously as in classical gravitation but through discrete quantum phase transitions increasing
164 BIBLIOGRAPHY
gravitational Planck constant and thus various quantum length and time scales. The reason would
be that stationary quantum states for dark matter in astrophysical length scales cannot expand. One
would have the analog of atomic physics in cosmic scales. Increases of by a power of two are favored
in these transitions but also other scalings are possible.
This has quite far reaching implications.
1. These periods have a highly unique description in terms of a critical cosmology for the expanding
space-time sheet. The expansion is accelerating. The accelerating cosmic expansion can be
assigned to this kind of phase transition in some length scale (TGD Universe is fractal). There
is no need to introduce cosmological constant and dark energy would be actually dark matter.
2. The recently observed void which has same size of about 10
8
light years as large voids having
galaxies near their boundaries but having an age which is much higher than that of the large
voids, would represent one example of jerk-wise expansion.
3. This picture applies also to solar system and planets might be perhaps seen as having once
been parts of a more or less connected system, the primordial Sun. The Bohr orbits for inner
and outer planets correspond to gravitational Planck constant which is 5 times larger for outer
planets. This suggests that the space-time sheet of outer planets has suffered a phase transition
increasing the size scale by a factor of 5. Earth can be regarded either as n=1 orbit for Planck
constant associated with outer planets or n= 5 orbit for inner planetary system. This might
have something to do with the very special position of Earth in planetary system. One could
even consider the possibility that both orbits are present as dark matter structures. The phase
transition would also explain why n=1 and n=2 Bohr orbits are absent and one only n=3,4, and
5 are present.
4. Also planets should have experienced this kind of phase transitions increasing the radius: the
increase by a factor two would be the simplest situation.
The obvious question - that I did not ask - is whether this kind of phase transition might have
occurred for Earth and led from a completely granite covered Earth - Pangeia without seas - to the
recent Earth. Neither it did not occur to me to check whether there is any support for a rapid
expansion of Earth during some period of its history.
Situation changed when my son visited me last Saturday and told me about a Youtube video [31]
by Neal Adams, an American comic book and commercial artist who has also produced animations
for geologists. We looked the amazing video a couple of times and I looked it again yesterday. The
video is very impressive artwork but in the lack of references skeptic probably cannot avoid the feeling
that Neal Adams might use his highly developed animation skills to cheat you. I found also a polemic
article [32] of Adams but again the references were lacking. Perhaps the reason of polemic tone
was that the concrete animation models make the expanding Earth hypothesis very convincing but
geologists refuse to consider seriously arguments by a layman without a formal academic background.
2.7.1 The claims of Adams
The basic claims of Adams were following.
1. The radius of Earth has increased during last 185 million years (dinosaurs [112] appeared for
about 230 million years ago) by about factor 2. If this is assumed all continents have formed
at that time a single super-continent, Pangeia, filling the entire Earth surface rather than only
1/4 of it since the total area would have grown by a factor of 4. The basic argument was that
it is very difficult to imagine Earth with 1/4 of surface containing granite and 3/4 covered by
basalt. If the initial situation was covering by mere granite -as would look natural- it is very
difficult for a believer in thermodynamics to imagine how the granite would have gathered to a
single connected continent.
2. Adams claims that Earth has grown by keeping its density constant, rather than expanded, so
that the mass of Earth has grown linearly with radius. Gravitational acceleration would have
thus doubled and could provide a partial explanation for the disappearance of dinosaurs: it is
difficult to cope in evolving environment when you get slower all the time.
2.7. Quantum version of Expanding Earth theory and Cambrian explosion 165
3. Most of the sea floor is very young and the areas covered by the youngest basalt are the largest
ones. This Adams interprets this by saying that the expansion of Earth is accelerating. The
alternative interpretation is that the flow rate of the magma slows down as it recedes from the
ridge where it erupts. The upper bound of 185 million years for the age of sea floor requires that
the expansion period - if it is already over - lasted about 185 million years after which the flow
increasing the area of the sea floor transformed to a convective flow with subduction so that the
area is not increasing anymore.
4. The fact that the continents fit together - not only at the Atlantic side - but also at the Pacific
side gives strong support for the idea that the entire planet was once covered by the super-
continent. After the emergence of subduction theory this evidence as been dismissed.
5. I am not sure whether Adams mentions the following objections [35]. Subduction only occurs on
the other side of the subduction zone so that the other side should show evidence of being much
older in the case that oceanic subduction zones are in question. This is definitely not the case.
This is explained in plate tectonics as a change of the subduction direction. My explanation
would be that by the symmetry of the situation both oceanic plates bend down so that this
would represent new type of boundary not assumed in the tectonic plate theory.
6. As a master visualizer Adams notices that Africa and South-America do not actually fit together
in absence of expansion unless one assumes that these continents have suffered a deformation.
Continents are not easily deformable stuff. The assumption of expansion implies a perfect fit of
all continents without deformation.
Knowing that the devil is in the details, I must admit that these arguments look rather convincing
to me and what I learned from Wikipedia articles supports this picture.
2.7.2 The critic of Adams of the subduction mechanism
The prevailing tectonic plate theory [33] has been compared to the Copernican revolution in geology.
The theory explains the young age of the seafloor in terms of the decomposition of the litosphere to
tectonic plates and the convective flow of magma to which oceanic tectonic plates participate. The
magma emerges from the crests of the mid ocean ridges representing a boundary of two plates and
leads to the expansion of sea floor. The variations of the polarity of Earth’s magnetic field coded in
sea floor provide a strong support for the hypothesis that magma emerges from the crests.
The flow back to would take place at so called oceanic trenches [34] near continents which represent
the deepest parts of ocean. This process is known as subduction. In subduction oceanic tectonic plate
bends and penetrates below the continental tectonic plate, the material in the oceanic plate gets
denser and sinks into the magma. In this manner the oceanic tectonic plate suffers a metamorphosis
returning back to the magma: everything which comes from Earth’s interior returns back. Subduction
mechanism explains elegantly formation of mountains [36] (orogeny), earth quake zones, and associated
zones of volcanic activity [?].
Adams is very polemic about the notion of subduction, in particular about the assumption that it
generates steady convective cycle. The basic objections of Adams against subduction are following.
1. There are not enough subduction zones to allow a steady situation. According to Adams, the
situation resembles that for a flow in a tube which becomes narrower. In a steady situation the
flow should accelerate as it approaches subduction zones rather than slow down. Subduction
zones should be surrounded by large areas of sea floor with constant age. Just the opposite
is suggested by the fact that the youngest portion of sea-floor near the ridges is largest. The
presence of zones at which both ocean plates bend down could improve the situation. Also
jamming of the flow could occur so that the thickness of oceanic plate increases with the distance
from the eruption ridge. Jamming could increase also the density of the oceanic plate and thus
the effectiveness of subduction.
2. There is no clear evidence that subduction has occurred at other planets. The usual defense is
that the presence of sea is essential for the subduction mechanism.
166 BIBLIOGRAPHY
3. One can also wonder what is the mechanism that led to the formation of single super continent
Pangeia covering 1/4 of Earth’s surface. How probable the gathering of all separate continents
to form single cluster is? The later events would suggest that just the opposite should have
occurred from the beginning.
2.7.3 Expanding Earth theories are not new
After I had decided to check the claims of Adams, the first thing that I learned is that Expanding
Earth theory [35], whose existence Adams actually mentions, is by no means new. There are actually
many of them.
The general reason why these theories were rejected by the main stream community was the
absence of a convincing physical mechanism of expansion or of growth in which the density of Earth
remains constant.
1. 1888 Yarkovski postulated some sort of aether absorbed by Earth and transforming to chemical
elements (TGD version of aether could be dark matter). 1909 Mantovani postulated thermal
expansion but no growth of the Earth’s mass.
2. Paul Dirac’s idea about changing Planck constant led Pascual Jordan in 1964 to a modification
of general relativity predicting slow expansion of planets. The recent measurement of the grav-
itational constant imply that the upper bound for the relative change of gravitational constant
is 10 time too small to produce large enough rate of expansion. Also many other theories have
been proposed but they are in general conflict with modern physics.
3. The most modern version of Expanding Earth theory is by Australian geologist Samuel W.
Carey. He calculated that in Cambrian period (about 500 million years ago) all continents were
stuck together and covered the entire Earth. Deep seas began to evolve then.
2.7.4 Summary of TGD based theory of Expanding Earth
TGD based model differs from the tectonic plate model but allows subduction which cannot imply
considerable back-flow of magma. Let us sum up the basic assumptions and implications.
1. The expansion is or was due to a quantum phase transition increasing the value of gravitational
Planck constant and forced by the cosmic expansion in the average sense.
2. Tectonic plates do not participate to the expansion and therefore new plate must be formed
and the flow of magma from the crests of mid ocean ridges is needed. The decomposition of a
single plate covering the entire planet to plates to create the mid ocean ridges is necessary for
the generation of new tectonic plate. The decomposition into tectonic plates is thus prediction
rather than assumption.
3. The expansion forced the decomposition of Pangeia super-continent covering entire Earth for
about 530 million years ago to split into tectonic plates which began to recede as new non-
expanding tectonic plate was generated at the ridges creating expanding sea floor. The initiation
of the phase transition generated formation of deep seas.
4. The eruption of plasma from the crests of ocean ridges generated oceanic tectonic plates which
did not participate to the expansion by density reduction but by growing in size. This led to a
reduction of density in the interior of the Earth roughly by a factor 1/8. From the upper bound
for the age of the seafloor one can conclude that the period lasted for about 185 million years
after which it transformed to convective flow in which the material returned back to the Earth
interior. Subduction at continent-ocean floor boundaries and downwards double bending of
tectonic plates at the boundaries between two ocean floors were the mechanisms. Thus tectonic
plate theory would be more or less the correct description for the recent situation.
5. One can consider the possibility that the subducted tectonic plate does not transform to magma
but is fused to the tectonic layer below continent so that it grows to an iceberg like structure. This
need not lead to a loss of the successful predictions of plate tectonics explaining the generation
of mountains, earthquake zones, zones of volcanic activity, etc...
2.7. Quantum version of Expanding Earth theory and Cambrian explosion 167
6. From the video of Adams it becomes clear that the tectonic flow is East-West asymmetric in
the sense that the western side is more irregular at large distances from the ocean ridge at the
western side. If the magma rotates with slightly lower velocity than the surface of Earth (like
liquid in a rotating vessel), the erupting magma would rotate slightly slower than the tectonic
plate and asymmetry would be generated.
7. If the planet has not experienced a phase transition increasing the value of Planck constant,
there is no need for the decomposition to tectonic plates and one can understand why there is
no clear evidence for tectonic plates and subduction in other planets. The conductive flow of
magma could occur below this plate and remain invisible.
The biological implications might provide a possibility to test the hypothesis.
1. Great steps of progress in biological evolution are associated with catastrophic geological events
generating new evolutionary pressures forcing new solutions to cope in the new situation. Cam-
brian explosion indeed occurred about 530 years ago (the book ”Wonderful Life” of Stephen
Gould [114] explains this revolution in detail) and led to the emergence of multicellular crea-
tures, and generated huge number of new life forms living in seas. Later most of them suffered
extinction: large number of phylae and groups emerged which are not present nowadays.
Thus Cambrian explosion is completely exceptional as compared to all other dramatic events
in the evolution in the sense that it created something totally new rather than only making
more complex something which already existed. Gould also emphasizes the failure to identify
any great change in the environment as a fundamental puzzle of Cambrian explosion. Cambrian
explosion is also regarded in many quantum theories of consciousness (including TGD) as a
revolution in the evolution of consciousness: for instance, micro-tubuli emerged at this time.
The periods of expansion might be necessary for the emergence of multicellular life forms on
planets and the fact that they unavoidably occur sooner or later suggests that also life develops
unavoidably.
2. TGD predicts a decrease of the surface gravity by a factor 1/4 during this period. The reduction
of the surface gravity would have naturally led to the emergence of dinosaurs 230 million years
ago as a response coming 45 million years after the accelerated expansion ceased. Other reasons
led then to the decline and eventual catastrophic disappearance of the dinosaurs. The reduction
of gravity might have had some gradually increasing effects on the shape of organisms also at
microscopic level and manifest itself in the evolution of genome during expansion period.
3. A possibly testable prediction following from angular momentum conservation (ωR
2
= constant)
is that the duration of day has increased gradually and was four times shorter during the Cam-
brian era. For instance, genetically coded bio-clocks of simple organisms during the expansion
period could have followed the increase of the length of day with certain lag or failed to follow
it completely. The simplest known circadian clock is that of the prokaryotic cyanobacteria.
Recent research has demonstrated that the circadian clock of Synechococcus elongatus can be
reconstituted in vitro with just the three proteins of their central oscillator. This clock has been
shown to sustain a 22 hour rhythm over several days upon the addition of ATP: the rhythm is
indeed faster than the circadian rhythm. For humans the average innate circadian rhythm is
however 24 hours 11 minutes and thus conforms with the fact that human genome has evolved
much later than the expansion ceased.
4. Scientists have found a fossil of a sea scorpion with size of 2.5 meters [125], which has lived for
about 10 million years for 400 million years ago in Germany. The gigantic size would conform
nicely with the much smaller value of surface gravity at that time. The finding would conform
nicely with the much smaller value of surface gravity at that time. Also the emergence of trees
could be understood in terms of a gradual growth of the maximum plant size as the surface
gravity was reduced. The fact that the oldest known tree fossil is 385 million years old [126]
conforms with this picture.
168 BIBLIOGRAPHY
2.7.5 Did intra-terrestrial life burst to the surface of Earth during Cam-
brian expansion?
Intra-terrestrial hypothesis is one of the craziest TGD inspired ideas about the evolution of life and it
is quite possible that in its strongest form the hypothesis is unrealistic. One can however try to find
what one obtains from the combination of the IT hypothesis with the idea of pre-Cambrian granite
Earth. Could the harsh pre-Cambrian conditions have allowed only intra-terrestrial multicellular life?
Could the Cambrian explosion correspond to the moment of birth for this life in the very concrete
sense that the magma flow brought it into the day-light?
1. Gould emphasizes the mysterious fact that very many life forms of Cambrian explosion looked
like final products of a long evolutionary process. Could the eruption of magma from the Earth
interior have induced a burst of intra-terrestrial life forms to the Earth’s surface? This might
make sense: the life forms living at the bottom of sea do not need direct solar light so that they
could have had intra-terrestrial origin. It is quite possible that Earth’s mantle contained low
temperature water pockets, where the complex life forms might have evolved in an environment
shielded from meteoric bombardment and UV radiation.
2. Sea water is salty. It is often claimed that the average salt concentration inside cell is that of the
primordial sea: I do not know whether this claim can be really justified. If the claim is true, the
cellular salt concentration should reflect the salt concentration of the water inside the pockets.
The water inside water pockets could have been salty due to the diffusion of the salt from ground
but need not have been same as that for the ocean water (higher than for cell interior and for
obvious reasons). Indeed, the water in the underground reservoirs in arid regions such as Sahara
is salty, which is the reason for why agriculture is absent in these regions. Note also that the
cells of marine invertebrates are osmoconformers able to cope with the changing salinity of the
environment so that the Cambrian revolutionaries could have survived the change in the salt
concentration of environment.
3. What applies to Earth should apply also to other similar planets and Mars [64] is very similar to
Earth. The radius is .533 times that for Earth so that after quantum leap doubling the radius
and thus Schumann frequency scale (7.8 Hz would be the lowest Schumann frequency) would be
essentially the same as for Earth now. Mass is .131 times that for Earth so that surface gravity
would be .532 of that for Earth now and would be reduced to .131 meaning quite big dinosaurs!
have learned that Mars probably contains large water reservoirs in it’s interior and that there
is an un-identified source of methane gas usually assigned with the presence of life. Could it
be that Mother Mars is pregnant and just waiting for the great quantum leap when it starts
to expand and gives rise to a birth of multicellular life forms. Or expressing freely how Bible
describes the moment of birth: in the beginning there was only darkness and water and then
God said: Let the light come!
To sum up, TGD would provide only the long sought mechanism of expansion and a possible
connection with the biological evolution. It would be indeed fascinating if Planck constant changing
quantum phase transitions in planetary scale would have profoundly affected the biosphere.
Bibliography
Online books about TGD
[1] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Topological Geometrodynamics: Overview.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdview/tgdview.html.
[2] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Quantum Physics as Infinite-Dimensional Geometry.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdgeom/tgdgeom.html.
[3] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Physics in Many-Sheeted Space-Time.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdclass/tgdclass.html.
[4] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Quantum TGD.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdquant/tgdquant.html.
[5] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), TGD as a Generalized Number Theory.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdnumber/tgdnumber.html.
[6] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), p-Adic length Scale Hypothesis and Dark Matter Hierarchy.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//paddark/paddark.html.
[7] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), TGD and Fringe Physics.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//freenergy/freenergy.html.
Online books about TGD inspired theory of consciousness
and quantum biology
[8] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Bio-Systems as Self-Organizing Quantum Systems.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//bioselforg/bioselforg.html.
[9] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Quantum Hardware of Living Matter.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//bioware/bioware.html.
[10] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), TGD Inspired Theory of Consciousness.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdconsc/tgdconsc.html.
[11] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Mathematical Aspects of Consciousness Theory.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//genememe/genememe.html.
[12] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), TGD and EEG.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdeeg/tgdeeg/tgdeeg.html.
[13] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Bio-Systems as Conscious Holograms.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//hologram/hologram.html.
[14] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Magnetospheric Consciousness.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//magnconsc/magnconsc.html.
[15] M. Pitk¨anen (2006), Mathematical Aspects of Consciousness Theory.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//magnconsc/mathconsc.html.
169
170 BIBLIOGRAPHY
References to the chapters of books
[A2] The chapter An Overview about Quantum TGD of [1].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdview/tgdview.html#tgdevoII.
[A8] The chapter Was von Neumann Right After All of [4].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdview/tgdview.html#vNeumann.
[A9] The chapter Does TGD Predict the Spectrum of Planck Constants? of [1].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdview/tgdview.html#Planck.
[B4] The chapter Configuration Space Spinor Structure of [2].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdgeom/tgdgeom.html#cspin.
[C2] The chapter Construction of Quantum Theory: Symmetries of [4].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdquant/tgdquant.html#quthe.
[C3] The chapter Construction of Quantum Theory: S-matrix of [4].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdquant/tgdquant.html#towards.
[D7] The chapter TGD and Astrophysics of [3].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdclass/tgdclass.html#astro.
[D8] The chapter Quantum Astrophysics of [3].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdclass/tgdclass.html#qastro.
[E9] The chapter Topological Quantum Computation in TGD Universe of [5].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdnumber/tgdnumber.html#tqc.
[F1] The chapter Elementary Particle Vacuum Functionals of [6].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//paddark/paddark.html#elvafu.
[F6] The chapter Topological Condensation and Evaporation of [6].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//paddark/paddark.html#padaelem.
[F8] The chapter TGD and Nuclear Physics of [6].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//paddark/paddark.html#padnucl.
[F9] The chapter Nuclear String Physics of [6].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//paddark/paddark.html#nuclstring.
[F10] The chapter Dark Nuclear Physics and Living Matter of [6].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//paddark/paddark.html#exonuclear.
[H2] The chapter Negentropy Maximization Principle of [10].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdconsc/tgdconsc.html#nmpc.
[H8] The chapter p-Adic Physics as Physics of Cognition and Intention of [10].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdconsc/tgdconsc.html#cognic.
[H11] The chapter TGD Based Model for OBEs of [10].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdconsc/tgdconsc.html#OBE.
[I1] The chapter Quantum Theory of Self-Organization of [8].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//bioselforg/bioselforg.html#selforgac.
[J1] The chapter Bio-Systems as Super-Conductors: part I of [9].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//bioware/bioware.html#superc1.
[J2] The chapter Bio-Systems as Super-Conductors: part II of [9].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//bioware/bioware.html#superc2.
[J3] The chapter Bio-Systems as Super-Conductors: part III of [9].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//bioware/bioware.html#superc3.
BIBLIOGRAPHY 171
[J5] The chapter Wormhole Magnetic Fields of [9].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//bioware/bioware.html#wormc.
[J7] The chapter About the New Physics Behind Qualia of [9].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//bioware/bioware.html#newphys.
[K5] The chapter Homeopathy in Many-Sheeted Space-Time of [13].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//hologram/hologram.html#homeoc.
[K6] The chapter Macroscopic Quantum Coherence and Quantum Metabolism as Different Sides of
the Same Coin of [13].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//hologram/hologram.html#metab.
[L1] The chapter Genes and Memes of [11].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//genememe/genememe.html#genememec.
[L2] The chapter Many-Sheeted DNA of [11].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//genememe/genememe.html#genecodec.
[L3] The chapter Could Genetic Code Be Understood Number Theoretically? of [11].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//genememe/genememe.html#genenumber.
[L4] The chapter Unification of Four Approaches to the Genetic Code of [11].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//genememe/genememe.html#divicode.
[L5] The chapter Pre-Biotic Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time of [11].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//genememe/genememe.html#prebio.
[L7] The chapter DNA as Topological Quantum Computer of [11].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//genememe/genememe.html#dnatqc.
[L8] The chapter A Model for Protein Folding and Bio-catalysis of [11].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//genememe/genememe.html#foldcat.
[M2] The chapter Quantum Model for Nerve Pulse of [12].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdeeg/tgdeeg/tgdeeg.html#pulse.
[M3] The chapter Dark Matter Hierarchy and Hierarchy of EEGs of [12].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//tgdeeg/tgdeeg/tgdeeg.html#eegdark.
[N1] The chapter Magnetospheric Sensory Representations of [14].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//magnconsc/magnconsc.html#srepres.
[N2] The chapter Crop Circles and Life at Parallel Space-Time Sheets of [14].
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//magnconsc/magnconsc.html#crop1.
[16] The chapter Pre-Biotic Evolution in Many-Sheeted Space-Time of ”Genes, Memes, Qualia, and
Semitrance”.
http://tgd.wippiespace.com/public_html//cbookII/c2abstracts.html#prebio. (older
version for the model of prebiotic evolution).
Mathematics related references
[17] E. C. Zeeman (ed.)(1977), Catastrophe Theory, Addison-Wessley Publishing Company.
[18] D. S. Moak (1981), The q-analogue of the Laguerre polynomials, J. Math. Anal. Appl. 81 20 - 47.
[19] F. Wilszek (1990), Fractional Statistics and Anyon Super-Conductivity, World Scientific.
[20] C. Nayak and F. Wilczek (1996), 2n-quasihole states realize 2
n−1
-dimensional spinor braiding
statistics in paired quantum Hall states, Nucl. Phys. B479, 529-533.
172 BIBLIOGRAPHY
Physics related references
[21] Phase diagram of water, http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/water/phase.html.
[22] Cold fusion is back at the American Chemical Society,
http://www.nature.com/news/2007/070326/full/070326-12.html.
Cold fusion - hot news again,
http://www.newscientist.com/channel/fundamentals/mg19426021.
000-cold-fusion--hot-news-again.html.
[23] Ph. M. Kanarev and T. Mizuno (2002), Cold fusion by plasma electrolysis of water,
http://www.guns.connect.fi/innoplaza/energy/story/Kanarev/coldfusion/.
Mizuno-Omori Cold Fusion Reactor(1998), Infinite Energy Magazine, Vol4, Issue 20.
http://www.amasci.com/weird/anode.txt.
[24] C. L. Kervran (1972),Biological transmutations, and their applications in chemistry, physics,
biology, ecology, medicine, nutrition, agriculture, geology, Swan House Publishing Co.
[25] J. Prochaska, J. C. Howk, A. M. Wolfe (2003),The elemental abundance pattern in a galaxy at z =
2.626, Nature 423, 57-59 (2003). See also Distant elements of surprise, http://physicsworld.
com/cws/article/print/17750.
[26] BBC NEWS Science/Nature (2002), Quakes reveal ’core within
a core’, Wednesday, 2 October,
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/2290551.stm.
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Part II
MOTHER GAIA HYPOTHESIS
AND HUMAN CONSCIOUSNESS
179
Chapter 3
Semi-trance, Mental Illness, and
Altered States of Consciousness
3.1 Introduction
The stimulus leading to the birth of this chapter was rather personal question made with some tongue
in cheek: Am I a schizophrenic? The basic motivation for this question was my life situation: I have
found completely impossible to find any support for my work and despite my high level of education
live practically without human rights. There must be some reason to this and it might not be only
related to my heretic views about physics and consciousness and to the present neobarbaric market
economy stage of Finland and of western societies in general. Perhaps I differ from ordinary scientist
in some manner which, not only explains why I am a builder of theory of everything, but also induces
aggression, repression and perhaps also fear in my analytically thinking colleagues. ’What might this
’something different’ be’ was my question, which I finally decided to resolve during the period of
exhaustion following long-lasting writing project.
The first thing to realize was that I know very little about schizophrenia. So I went to the
library and also read my Bible about neuroscience [27] to find what schizophrenia is. Thanks are
also for Gene Johnson about material. First, I realized that paranoidal schizophrenia combined with
manic-depressive characteristics and occasional anxiety disorders is probably a more scientific looking
conceptualization for the label ’crackpot’. Examples of symptoms: ’peculiar philosophizing’ is one of
the characteristics of paranoid schizophrenia (TGD as a whole!); withdrawal from social interaction
(I see this as supplanting); paranoia (my belief that I am supplanted!); megalomania (look only
the inspired blurbs about new developments at my homepage); seing me as a ’secretary of God’
communicating TGD through me (schizophrenics obeying voices, perhaps I mediate the message of
’Gods’ by writing!). All this fits nicely with the diagnosis. There are however big flaws. I express
myself fluently by speaking (if allowed to do so, certainly not in academic circles!) and writing (if
allowed to do so, certainly not in ’big science’ circles). I do not experience horrendous loss of my self,
disappearance of my self boundaries nor total emptiness. What was also peculiar that I seemed to
have all the basic disorders of mind when suitable symptoms were picked up! As if even the nastiest
claims of my colleagues were true: I seemed to be a real poly-maniac! More seriously, what the results
of this self-diagnosis demonstrated is the dis-ability of the modern neuro-science based psychiatry
characterizing illness as a collection of separate symptoms to differentiate between altered states of
consciousness, religious experience, meditative states and schizophrenia. What is really tragic and
horrifying that many materialistic neuroscientists indeed identify all these states of consciousness as
mental illness.
It seems that the reductionistic approach of neuroscience does not provide much insight to the
basic subjective characteristics of mental illness. It seems that a more holistic approach (or ’romantic
approach’, as it was called by Luria) based on ’stories’ is needed. The book ”The origin of consciousness
in the breakdown of the bicameral mind” [37] provides, not only a fascinating scenario about the
evolution of modern consciousness from the consciousness of bicameral stone age man, but also a
holistic view about schizophrenic consciousness. In fact, schizophrenics are regarded as bicameral
men in his approach. When I received this book as gift from my friend Ben Price, I was stuck with
181
182 Chapter 3. Semi-trance, Mental Illness, and Altered States of Consciousness
the definition of consciousness which looked very bizarre to me: Jaynes stated that stone-age man
was unconscious but despite this hallucinating God’s voice giving commands! Definition does not look
so bizarre when one realizes that Jaynes differentiates between experience and consciousness whereas
in quantum approach this kind of distinction is not useful. Time was not yet ripe for me to realize
the deepness of Jaynes’s ideas. Couple of years later, armed with the notion of self hierarchy; with
concrete ideas about interaction between different levels of self hierarchy; the realization that we are
much more than our neurons as conscious selves and with detailed models for basic aspects of brain
consciousness, I was mature to realize that I can modify the story of Jaynes and that the impressive
material gathered by Jaynes supports also the TGD based quantum version of the story.
To put it in nutshell, TGD version about the relationship of human consciousness to higher levels of
self-hierarchy relies on the notion of semi-trance. During semitrance parts of brain entangle with some
higher level, say the self associated with the social group, and are in trance and therefore unconscious.
The remaining parts of brain are however conscious and receive communications from the collective
consciousness via the entangled region of brain as sensory hallucinations, emotions and thoughts.
Semitrance is absolutely essential for the self-narrative: without it our consciousness would consist
of memory fragments lasting only few seconds: higher level selves tell us where we come from and
were we are going. Bicameral man received the commands and advices of the collective consciousness
as auditory and visual hallucinations via regions of the right brain hemisphere wherefrom they were
communicated to the left hemisphere whereas modern man receives these communications as thoughts
(’internal speech’) in left brain semitrance and emotions in right brain semitrance.
The evolution of modern consciousness meant a gradual development of the simplest God+ few
men two-leveled hierarchy to a refined many-leveled hierarchy of selves having social hierarchy as its
social image and various higher level selves talking with the voices of the persons in the hierarchy.
At the same time subjective consciousness evolved: left and right brain became more and more
entangled and semitrance periods became briefer, left brain began to inhibit the communication of
sensory hallucinations from right to left brain, and sensory hallucinations transformed to thoughts
and emotions. Thus the loss of ’God’s voice’ did not mean the loss of semitrance communications and
they are absolutely essential for the survival of the social structures and for modern self-consciousness.
It is however quite possible that modern man spends much shorter fraction of time in semitrance than
his bicameral cousin.
Since our genome does not differ much from that of stone age man, this process is much more a self-
organization process than evolution of genome. By ’ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny’ principle this
development is expected to repeat itself during the development of individual during the first years
of childhood about which we not remember anything. This explains the Father-God and Mother-
Goddess associations and the strongly reactive attitudes to religion resembling often strongly rebel
against father. The average effective cognitive and emotional ages of the individuals of a civilization
characterize the developmental level of the civilization.
According to this view, schizophrenic spends in the bicameral state larger fraction of time than
normal person and receives communications of the higher levels selves more often as sensory halluci-
nations than as thoughts and emotions. Thus schizophrenia can be seen as cognitive and emotional
abnormality and becomes illness in modern society relying crucially on cognitive and emotional self-
narrative which is much more refined than the self-narrative based on sensory hallucinations. In
normal consciousness left brain hemisphere inhibits the messages from right hemisphere, left and
right hemispheres are totally entangled a considerable fraction of time and the entanglement with
higher level selves can also involve the entanglement of entire brain leading to short periods of total
trance. In this view negative periods of schizophrenia correspond to the phases when right brain
hemisphere is not entangled with higher level selves and positive, psychotic periods to the phase when
this entanglement occurs often. This vision generalizes also to manic-depressive and anxiety disorders
and one can see mental illness as disorder of communication between human brain and higher levels
of self hierarchy.
Semitrance mechanism provides also more detailed understanding about various altered states of
consciousness and extrasensory perception (hypnotic state, telepathy, clairvoyance, meditative states,
identification experiences). It has been said that schizophrenia is drowning into the sea of consciousness
whereas deep meditation is swimming in this sea. I believe that this statement is to the point. My
fascination to the problem of consciousness was initiated by a deep and long-lasting altered state of
consciousness which began with a period, which might be characterized as conversation with God,
Great Mind, as I called it: sounds very schizophrenic if one sees only collection of symptoms! It seems
3.2. Semitrance 183
that circle is closed now: I believe that I finally understand what was behind this experience and ’what
is wrong with me’. Like other modern men, I am receiving emotional and cognitive messages from
higher level selves. What distinguishes me from the average person is the abnormally long fraction
of time spent in semitrance state. I do not get drowned to the sea of consciousness and I am able to
write these lines as a ’secretary of God’. I even dare to believe (put it on account of megalomania)
that the age of modern man having no Gods is coming to its end with the recent neobarbarism of
the market economy. Our species can survive only if it keeps in contact with higher level selves and
allows room for modern bicameral men and women sitting at computer terminals in semitrance and
feverishly typing the messages of, not Village Gods, but much mightier Web Gods to the computer
screen.
3.2 Semitrance
The original path to the model for the interaction of collective consciousness with individual was
via the book Jaynes [37]. It is however more appropriate to represent the problem and its solution
without any reference to Jaynes’s idea to demonstrate that the scenario of Jaynes with only slight
modifications follows from very general assumptions.
3.2.1 How societies of idiots can behave intelligently?
Animal kingdom is full of species forming societies: ant nests, beehives, flocks of birds, packs of wolfs,
groups of apes, human communities. Also organisms can be regarded as cell communities. The ability
of these societies to behave as single coherent whole although individuals behave in a random looking
manner, is a mystery. Especially mysterious this ability looks in case of termites: the architectural
feats of the termites are not consistent with the fact that the brain of termite consists of few neurons.
Mechanisms explaining this as unconscious self-organization based on chemical communication or
communication by direct contact have been proposed. I find it however difficult to understand how
even stone-age men wandering around randomly and communicating intensively could have managed
to build Gothic cathedral. This kind of achievement requires the presence of a conscious collective
intelligence able to plan and control individuals of the community telepathically. There is indeed
evidence for telepathy in ant community described in the article [23].
This raises several questions. How collective consciousness is possible at all? How collective
consciousness could be realized without total loss of individuality? How the rather limited intelligences
of individuals can sum up to a high collective intelligence? What mechanisms collective self uses to
control and coordinate the behavior of the individuals?
3.2.2 Semitrance as basic mechanism of communication between collective
consciousness and individual
Self hierarchy is the basic prediction of TGD inspired theory of consciousness and self hierarchy makes
possible collective consciousness. The experience of self is abstracted ’sum’ over the experiences of its
subselves so that subself is experienced as a mental image. In the abstraction process the experience
of subself is replaced with an ’average’ over the mental images of subself. The intelligence of the
antnest results from summation of the mental images abstracting the contents of consciousness of the
individual ants. This explains why ant group containing overcritical number of ants can act as an
architect. The concrete realization of the self hierarchy in biomatter has been discussed in [I3]. The
most important conclusion is that we are much more than our brains: our mental images correspond
to ’ELF selves’ associated with various EEG frequencies. These ’ELF selves’ have as geometrical
correlates topological field quanta representing ELF em fields. Topological field quanta can have size
of order Earth’s circumference. The interaction of these topological field quanta (say fusion to form
larger structures) provides a mechanism giving rise to larger selves and makes possible telepathy and
various other EPR phenomena as also experiences involving communications with deceased persons
[20].
184 Chapter 3. Semi-trance, Mental Illness, and Altered States of Consciousness
Semitrance
How collective self can control and coordinate the behavior of individuals? Some kind of communica-
tion mechanism making possible collective consciousness to give commands to the individuals is clearly
needed. The entanglement of individual with collective self leads to a total loss of consciousness of
the individual and can be regarded as sleep or trance state, possession. For instance, during mating
rites of birds, male and female seem to behave like single conscious unit formed by male and female.
Social animals are however not mere organs of a higher level organism, they are also individuals. To
explain this one can consider a mechanism which might be called ’semi-trance’. If individual consists
at least part of time of two separate subselves, second subself can entangle with collective self and in
this trance state can communicate with the second self and communicate commands or advices to the
subself which is awake. Communication is here quite generally understood as a generation of mental
images: this corresponds to waking-up of subselves. The wake-up process initiates self-organization
leading to a final state pattern representing the message. Final state pattern depends only weakly on
the stimulus serving as message: this is as it should be.
Brain hemispheres or parts of them are the most obvious candidates for these two subselves. The
entanglement of the right or left brain hemisphere (or some part of it, perhaps the linguistic regions
with respect to which human brain has highest asymmetry) with a collective self could be the basic
mechanism making it possible to communicate the commands of the collective self to left and/or right
hemisphere as ’hallucinations’.
Jaynes’s vision about the evolution of civilization is based on the notion of bicamerality [37]
provides strong keys to the nature of semitrance state and how it has changed during cultural evolution.
1. Jaynes assumes that right brain activities were unconscious to bicameral man and that the
left hemisphere received the volition of right brain hemisphere as commands and advices as
hallucinatory voices and visions. This would suggest that in the case of ancient bicameral man
it is right hemisphere or parts of its that fall in trance and that left brain hemisphere receives
the commands from right hemisphere as sensory ’hallucinations’.
2. In case of modern man situation is presumably different. The average time spent in semitrance
is probably shorter; the probability to fall in semitrance state is lower; the profile of semitrance
is different and the communications between right and left brain hemispheres are probably dif-
ferent. Inhibition of the sensory communications developed so that the sensory messages from
the right brain hemisphere to left hemisphere became inhibited: visions and God’s voice disap-
peared. The profile of the communications of the collective self to human brain changed also.
Modern man receives the messages of the collective self both via left and right hemisphere semi-
trance. Spontaneous thoughts and ideas are received via left brain semitrance. Emotions and
moods are received via right brain semitrance and guide the behavior of individual much more
implicitly than direct commands. Thus sensory ’hallucinations’ have transformed to imaginative
thoughts and emotions which we do not regard as hallucinations at all: the ancient world of
elves, gods and demons has transformed to emotions and to the Platonic realm of ideas.
3. In this framework the development of civilization from primitive agricultural communities of
8000 B.C. to a modern society can be seen as the gradual establishment of ’memetic code’ [L1]
implying the parallel development of language and society: ’In the beginning there was the
Word’.
The characteristic feature of semitrance is the passivity of the experiencer: collective self com-
municates experiencer something or gives possibly commands. They are not hallucinations in which
the experiencer would hallucinate volitional acts. Only activity in the sense that experiencer has
conversation with the higher level self seem to be possible. Of course, this conversation could induce
changes in the behavior of the collective self: consider only the claimed effects of prayer.
Semitrance mechanism is extremely general and could be at work in brains of all social animals,
especially those which as groups exhibit an intelligence much higher than the intelligence of the
members of the group. Similar mechanism could work also at cellular and biomolecular length scales.
DNA double strand and cell membrane consisting of two lipid layers are indeed binary structures and
the components of the structure could serve in the role of right brain lobe. This mechanism would
explain why cell society can behave like an organism with self identity. The observed possibility of
3.2. Semitrance 185
humans with high EEG coherence to intentionally affect the degree of winding of DNA strand [24]
supports the notion of semitrance at DNA level.
Semitrance and personal narrative
If the contents of consciousness of self involve temporal average over moments of consciousness occurred
after last ’wake-up’, the duration of our self cannot be much longer than .14 seconds since this would
mean that we could not discriminate between events with time separation not longer than about
.14 seconds. This problem can be partially circumvented if our experience is multi-time experience
containing several subselves of this duration. The duration of the short term memory is few seconds
and this might represent the duration of our self. This raises the problem how we can have long term
memories and self-narrative.
Geometric memories containing contributions from entire life span provide a candidate for the self
narrative as a model for has happened and what will happen assuming that no quantum jumps have
occurred before and will occur after this quantum jump. This need not however be enough since it
seems that geometric memories must correspond to episodal memories only rather than the declarative
long term memories often expressed as internal speech. Geometric memories are also expectations
rather than genuine memories about conscious experiences and one can argue that we have genuine
subjective memories about what really happened. Furthermore, ’Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny’
principle suggests that the time interval spanned by our geometric memories is same as that spanned
by subjective memories and thus few seconds. This leaves only one possibility: higher level selves
must communicate to us information about their subjective memories whose time span is much longer
than the time span of our personal subjective memories.
Semitrance mechanism seems to provide the most plausible manner to have self-narrative telling
where we have come from and where we are going to. Thoughts and emotions, cognition and moti-
vation, are the manner how higher level selves express this self-narrative to a modern man. Indeed,
the time scales of emotions and moods are slow. The time scales for the action of second messengers
and hormones are slow and involve changes of the synaptic strengths and modifications of the gene
expression so that they could be perhaps identified as tools used by higher level selves to control the
behavior of the organism. Perhaps also our cells have their own self-narratives provided by us and
making possible such miraculous feats like DNA transcription: genetic determination could indeed be
a long term goal of cell!
Thoughts, emotions, motivations and semitrance
One can imagine two strategies for how higher level self could communicate to us our self-narrative
as thoughts and emotions.
1. Higher level self could communicate both geometric and subjective memories and allow us to
perform the comparison generating emotions.
2. Higher level self could compare geometric and subjective memories and communicate the result
of comparison to us as emotions. In this picture emotions are essentially generalized sensory
experiences. The fact that the borderline between emotions and sensory experiences (pain is
good example) is very difficult to draw, favors this option. This option, when combined with
the identification of the quantum correlates of the sensory qualia, implies that the spectroscopy
of consciousness provided by the magnetic transition frequencies applies also to emotions [K3].
Support for this identification comes from several sources. Thoughts are not direct reactions to
sensory experience. Ideas pop out of nowhere. The explosive development of science and technology
is perhaps the best example of the non-predictability of thoughts. The changes of emotions can be
nonpredictable and not direct reactions to sensory input but resulting from the comparison of what
was expected or desired with what really happened and thus involving self-narrative in an essential
manner. Expectations correspond to geometric memories and self-narrative tells what really happened:
the comparison yields emotion serving as a control tool. Since self-narrative is told to us the one who
makes ultimate comparison must be higher level self. The fact that music couples strongly to the
’hallucinatory’ regions of right brain hemisphere and affects strongly our emotions, suggests that
music is language of emotions.
186 Chapter 3. Semi-trance, Mental Illness, and Altered States of Consciousness
Spectroscopy of consciousness provides additional insight to emotions consistent with the consid-
erations above. Magnetic and Z
0
magnetic transition frequencies could parameterize the spectrum
of both sensory qualia and emotions. The smaller the frequency, the more emotional the experience
since the corresponding time scale is longer and deviation between the expected and real can be larger.
Hence emotions could have as their correlates the cyclotron frequencies defined by the magnetic field
assignable to the personal magnetic body carrying a magnetic field B
end
= 2B
E
/5 = .2 Gauss (B
E
denotes the nominal value of Earth’s magnetic field) explaining the findings of Blackman and others
[M3]. These frequencies are below 8 Hz. Since cyclotron frequency is inversely proportional to the
mass of the charged particle, this implies that emotions must be associated with biomolecules (second
messengers, hormones, etc...).
Synesthetes are able to experience very lively episodal memories. It might be that it is possible
to have multitime conscious experience with a time scale of order life span or even longer as the
possibility of transpersonal states of consciousness suggests. A phase transition increasing the value
of the p-adic prime associated with brain temporarily could make possible to have extended state of
consciousness with subjective and geometric memories with the time scale of life span.
Stress and semitrance
Stress is known to induce hallucinations in schizophrenics. This suggests that stress is a general
mechanism inducing entanglement with higher level selves. The basic mechanism could be very simple.
In case that brain decomposes unentangled parts representing separate selves, say part of right brain
hemisphere and rest of brain, this part of right brain hemisphere can get tired and ’fall asleep’ which
means nothing but semitrance. This makes possible the communications of higher level self to that
part of brain which is awake.
Semitrance provides an alarm clock mechanism. The natural function of the holistic language
regions of right brain is to remember what task primitive man was performing (say carving some
tool). If the bicameral state for, say linguistic regions, dominated, semitrance began when right
brain got tired and fall asleep. But just this semitrance induced ’God’s voice’ telling for left brain
hemisphere what task bicameral man was performing! Also in the situations in which bicameral man
did not know what to do, stress caused semitrance and immediate advice from the collective self. It is
quite possible that the voice of conscience does it best to perform the same function in modern man!
What has happened is that commands have transformed from sensory hallucinations to thoughts.
Heavy stress could also induce the splitting of entangled brain to two unentangled subselves so
that collective consciousness takes the lead when right brain hemisphere or parts of it fall asleep.
For instance, the exceptionally stressing situations encountered in war presumaly lead to situation
in which collective consciousness takes control and soldiers behave like single organism. Too much
alcohol, which probably has same effect as stress, leads to the splitting of the visual field to right and
left fields: this might be interpreted as de-entanglement of right and left visual fields. This state does
not yet represent the state in which right brain or part of it has fallen asleep. Further stress leads to
semitrance causing delirium. Note that also reduction of left-right inhibition must be involved with
the stress.
The short period between wake-up and sleep state involves often visual and auditory hallucinations.
This to be expected if falling asleep involves the decomposition of the brain to separate unentangled
regions which fall asleep at different times. The lack of sleep leads also to a hallucinatory state. These
phenomena support the view that stress can split self to two separate selves followed by the trance
state of the right or left hemisphere or parts of it. The fact that sensory hallucinations are involved
would suggest that sensory regions of the right hemisphere fall asleep first and communicate ’God’s
messages’ to the left hemisphere.
Spinning causes dizziness and is therefore a good candidate for a stimulus causing semitrance.
This could explain the social role of dance. Dance is very important also in many religions, spinning
dervishes are good example of this. Children love to spin around: the reason is perhaps that spinning
around induces the semitrance state of the early childhood. The dizziness caused by ill functioning of
the sense of balance involves spinning like feeling in either direction. This suggests that hemispheres
tend to stimulate experience of spinning in opposite directions but that normal situation they manage
to inhibit each other.
One can wonder how stress leads to de-entanglement. Entanglement corresponds geometrically to
the presence of join along boundaries bonds along which Josephson currents flow. This would suggest
3.2. Semitrance 187
that de-entanglement involves the splitting of the join along boundaries bonds. This is possible if
Josephson current vanishes: this happens if the density of the superconducting charge carriers becomes
sufficiently low. Thus it seems that the disappearance of superconductivity is the required condition.
Perhaps dissipative effects might cause this: the increase of temperature over critical temperature
at relevant space-time sheets could cause this. This would suggest that brain is near criticality for
the phase transition leading to the disappearance of super conductivity. This is in accordance with
quantum criticality of TGD Universe.
Semitrance and EEG
TGD predicts two kinds of EEG waves [M4, M5]. Propagating waves are typically associated with
linear structures such as nerve circuits and left brain hemisphere is excellent candidate for correspond-
ing selves. Large number of subselves representing mental images are predicted and the analyticity,
reductionism and temporal linearity of left brain processing can be understood if left brain waves
are dominantly propagating ones. Non-propagating waves can be associated with any structure of
arbitrarily large size. The corresponding mental images can therefore be holistic and correspond to
large region of brain.
The regions of right brain hemisphere are excellent candidate for a seat of nonpropagating EEG
waves. Quantum entanglement of subselves gives rise to the formation of parts from wholes and it
seems that brain halves provide reductionistic and holistic representations of sensory percepts. As far
as sensory experience and emotion is considered, it is right brain which indeed seems to be holistic.
Standard wisdom is that right viz. left brain hemisphere are responsible for holistic viz. reduction-
istic aspects of consciousness respectively. There is however also conflicting evidence[21] and it might
be that there is some kind of division of labour [H3] such that right brain concentrates on sensory
holism and left brain concentrates on cognitive holism. The experiments indeed suggest that it is
left brain which recognizes holistic aspects of figures representing symbols and consisting of smaller
figures representing also symbols. This would suggest symmetric scenario in which regions of both
right and left hemispheres can entangle with collective selves and give rise to cognitive and emotional
communication from higher level selves in modern man. This supports the view that also left brain
hemisphere regions can support nonpropagating EEG waves. Gap junction connected neuron groups
provide candidates for regions allowing nonpropagating EEG waves.
The entanglement with collective self corresponds to the formation of join along boundaries bonds
between corresponding mindlike space-time sheet and the space-time sheet associated with some part
of brain. This is expected to occur naturally if brain space-time sheet is in state corresponding to
nonpropagating EEG wave.
It would be interesting to check whether there are some anatomical and neurophysiological differ-
ences between the brain hemispheres of social animals. Of course, mere reductionism-holism difference,
which is not obvious anatomically, is enough. The differences of right and left brain EEG:s could be
also informative. One could also study whether different brain lobes react differently to stress.
Both hemispheres entangle with higher level selves
The functional anatomy of brain is asymmetric: it is left brain hemisphere which is responsible for the
production of speech whereas both hemispheres understand speech. Wernicke area on the left lobe
and its mirror images are responsible for the understanding speech. Wernicke’s area and its mirror
counterpart are connected by anterior commissure. Broca area and supplementary motor cortex on left
side are responsible for the production of speech. The removal of the supplementary motor cortex or
Broca area yields loss of speech which is however not permanent in case of supplementary motor area.
This specialization is dynamical and results from self-organization. Very ambidextrous people can
have speech on both hemispheres and injury to Wernicke areas in early youth can lead to a generation
of the speech areas in right hemisphere. Right brain contains counterparts of the speech production
areas of the left hemisphere with no obvious function. What is surprising that large amounts of
right brain tissue can be removed with surprisingly little deficits on mental function. The idea that
these areas are completely useless is not attractive idea knowing that evolution has been extremely
economical. So, what has been and what is the function of these areas?
The TGD inspired hypothesis modifying Jaynes’s original proposal is that both Wernicke area
and its mirror image of modern man entangle with higher level selves and mediate their messages
188 Chapter 3. Semi-trance, Mental Illness, and Altered States of Consciousness
as thoughts in left hemisphere semitrance and emotions in right hemisphere semitrance. Imaginative
thoughts and emotions are indeed more than just mechanical reactions to sensory input. In the
brain of a healthy person brain hemispheres inhibit each other during normal consciousness but when
the inhibition of right brain does not occur for some reason, ’God’s communications’ to the right
hemisphere are mediated to the left hemisphere via anterior commissure as sensory hallucinations.
This inhibition is also needed to avoid splitting of perceptive fields to two parts. This kind of splitting
implied by de-entanglement together with inhibition might be especially useful in cognitive regions
since it would make possible internal debate between holistic and reductionistic subselves.
Rather interestingly, in case of dogs and rats anterior commissures connect olfactory areas of brain.
In this case odors might be in same role as voices in case of human brain. The idea about Dog-God
expressing its will and advices using odor hallucinations does not sound so weird when one realizes
that even human perceives huge number of different basic odors [K3].
In this framework one can make guesses about the profile of the bicameral consciousness assuming
that schizophrenics are bicameral men living in wrong time and place.
1. The evolution of modern man meant evolution of the entanglement profile of semitrance. To-
day ’Godly communications’ are experienced as ideas and emotions whereas bicameral man
experienced them as sensory hallucinations. Presumably right brain dominated as the locus of
semitrance communication as suggested by the higher average intensity of EEG in right brain
hemisphere of schizophrenic. Also cognitive semitrance was possible but the higher level selves
were much more primitive than their modern followers since their intelligence was sum of much
lower intelligences over much smaller number of individuals.
2. The brain of ancient man was part of time in entangled state but unstable against transition
to split brain state induced by stress such that right brain subself was unstable against the
entanglement with collective consciousness leading to semitrance in several sensory modalities.
This occurred when ancient man got tired or encountered some novel situation causing stress.
The anterior commissure connecting Wernicke area and corresponding area on right side is thicker
in the brain of schizophrenic: this favors auditory communications between the Wernicke regions
and auditory semitrance. Note that thoughts are a special case of auditory experience in TGD
framework [K3] so that the replacement of ’God’s voice’ talking through the right hemisphere
with thoughts experienced via left hemisphere (Wernicke region?) as internal speech is a rather
natural mechanism leading from bicamerality to modernity.
3.2.3 Various aspects of semitrance state
Social interactions and semitrance
’Synchrony of the personal chemistries’ is example of those aspects of social interactions involve aspects
which are difficult to understand if one assumes that we are robots sending messages to each other.
Social messages contain perhaps much more than the formal information understood and expressed by
the left brain hemisphere. Certainly the emotional content of the message is crucial and is belived to be
expressed and understood by the right hemisphere. This makes it often possible to intuitively ’know’
whether person is lying. Semitrance involving entanglement between the right hemispheres of the
communicators with some higher level self provides a mechanism might make possible this telepathy
like emotional communication. Facial and bodily expression of emotion is probably not enough:
autists perhaps lack the ability to fall in emotional semitrance. This would explain their ability to
discriminate between faces and nonliving things. This hypothesis could be tested by comparing the
EEG:s of autistic and healthy persons.
Trust is a crucial prerequisite of the survival of society and every human relationship. It requires
something which might be regarded as partial regression to a child like state. Presumably it is this
’regression’, the readiness to give up part of right brain consciousness, that makes semitrance possible.
One example of semitrance is what happens in a group of good friends having good time together.
The wittiness and rapidity of communications is something which is difficult to understand unless one
is willing to accept that collective group self and group subselves are also participating the discussion
through participants.
Semitrance mechanism is probably also involved in the communication of individuals: the self of
a charismatic person is able to get ’hypnotic’ grasp about other people by semitrance mechanism.
3.2. Semitrance 189
People who live long time together in close relationship (married couples) or those who have fallen in
love, perhaps form ’you+me’ self rather stably. The claimed ability of close friends to communicate
with each other non-verbally could also be based on ’you+me’ self. It is often said that in close
relationships mutual trust makes if possible for partners to purposefully ’regress’ to childlike state
which is prerequisite for semitrance. The state of falling in love is often indeed regarded as psychotic.
That many of us lose their ability to fall in love when getting older, might be due to the lost ability
to fall in childlike semitrance state anymore.
Semitrance and childhood
’Ontogeny recapitulates phylogeny’ principle suggests that the development of individual repeats the
evolution of human consciousness and early childhood should correspond to the period during which
child spends considerable fraction of time in semitrance with right brain hemisphere entangled with
the collective consciousness formed by the parents and family. Childhood is indeed often regarded as
the era of paradise. Rather interestingly, small children turn their head to the direction of music even
when their attention is directed to mother [37]. If music can induce semitrance one can understand
the importance of lullabies. Many children develop non-existing playmates: perhaps the playmate is
some higher level self.
It would not be surprising if collective self would talk to child with the voices of her mother and
father and that child would experience mother and father as Goddess and God. This would explain
the psychology behind God-father and Goddess-mother associations and also the very strong reactive
attitudes towards regilion, especially at young age. Interesting question relates to the fact that many
children of modern age do not have mother and father gods.
What could be the signatures of the right brain semitrance state in case of a small child? If right
brain is most of the time entangled with higher level selves and if right brain hemisphere is responsible
for the holistic aspects of perception and cognition, chidren should not have holistic view about their
own body. The drawings of young children are indeed more like collections of features, in particular,
the holistic view about body should is lacking. The drawings of primitive man are similar. The
coherence of the motions of left and right eye might serve as a measure for entangled-ness of right and
left brain hemispheres: the eye motions of very young babies are indeed incoherent.
EEG emerges at the age of about year in frequency region 4-8 Hz stably. 8 Hz corresponds to the
frequency defined by the duration of memetic codeword and smaller magnetic transition frequencies
should be associated with emotions. Child gets EEG temporarily in lap of her mother already at the
age of 6 months. At the age of one year child learns also her first words. It would be interesting to
know what happens in the emotional development of a child at this age. In TGD framework also our
sensory qualia involve in essential manner ELF frequencies in EEG range, our personal higher level
selves. This would suggest that the consciousness of a very young child differs dramatically from that
of adult: she sees but in an entirely different manner from the manner we do.
Semitrance and exceptional mental abilities
Schizophrenics are often capable of incredible feats of endurance: for instance, catatonics can keep
same posture for days. Socrates is one of the best known example of a catatonic of this kind. Sacks tells
in his book [22] a fascinating story about his patient who was mentally retarded but could remember
compositions of Bach and entire encyclopedia of music. Sacks tells also about idiot savant twins with
intelligence quotient of 60 having amazing numerical abilities despite that they could not understand
even the simplest mathematical concepts. For instance, twins ’saw’ that the number of matches
scattered along floor was 111 and also ’saw’ the decomposition of integer to factors and primality. A
mechanism explaining this based on the formation of wholes by quantum entanglement is proposed
in [H3]. Indian self-taught number-theoretical genius Ramajunan told that he got his formulas from
his personal God. These feats lose some of their mystery if higher level selves are involved.
Music and semitrance
The basic difference between song and speech is that the pitch in song varies discontinuously whereas
in speech it varies continuously in narrow region of about one fifth of octave (the interval C − E
b
approximately). Rhythmic beat represents second basic difference. Music can stimulate emotions
which we cannot even experience as a response to the events of everyday life.
190 Chapter 3. Semi-trance, Mental Illness, and Altered States of Consciousness
In TGD framework speech and music could be seen as languages of thought and emotion. TGD
predicts that memetic code [L1] realizes the language of cognition in terms of nerve pulse patterns
of duration about .14 seconds in left hemisphere: this corresponds to frequency of about 7.1 Hz.
Music in turn provides the language of emotion in which the relationships between frequencies and
rhythmic elements express the content of emotion. The tempo of music could be closely related with
the magnetic transition frequency associated with some ’ELF self’ involved. Typically the duration of
single bar is about second and few pulses per second is the typical frequency of basic rhythmic pulses.
Perhaps it is not accident that the range of frequencies in the EEG of young child is 4-8 Hz.
Right brain is the musical brain hemisphere. Anaesthetization of the left hemisphere in Wada
test leads to a loss of speech but many patients can still sing. Also patients with haemorrhages on
the left hemisphere can often express them singing. Even the removal of the entire left hemisphere
can leave the ability to sing. Electrical stimulation of the right hemisphere produces hallucinations of
singing and music. We react to speech dominantly with our left hemisphere whereas right hemisphere
is activated more by music. For instance, if music is feeded to both ears with the same intensity,
the music feeded in left ear is remembered and perceived better. Right hemisphere also distinguishes
between melodies.
Many musicians seem to be more bicameral than average people in the sense that they spend
more time in semitrance state. The ability to remember entire compositions could involve semitrance
mechanism. Mozart could be perhaps seen as an example of a bicameral musician having miraculous
music memory, hearing his compositions as wholes and behaving much like a child in this private
life. Sacks tells in his book about a severely retarded man having miraculous ability to remember,
understand and enjoy music pieces. This is consistent with the idea that emotional and cognitive
intelligences are separate mental abilities.
One mysterious feature of music is that some compositions have ability to establish themselves
as ’classics’. If themes and compositions are emotional representations of memes, one could see
classics as survivors in the memetic fight for survival. Music induces deep emotional experiences, also
religious experiences, and surviving music pieces could be also seen as idols, pictures of ’Gods’. I find
it difficult to understand the deep affect of the pop music of my youth to my generation unless it
expressed something essential about the collective mental landscape of that generation not expressible
using only language.
Poetry and semitrance
Modern poetry could perhaps be regarded as intermediate between thought and emotion: as a language
using both words and elements of music to express ideas. Ancient poetry would in turn be dictated
in semitrance as God’s voice. In his book [37] Jaynes represents an analysis of ancient poetry relating
it to music. Here only some comments about this analysis are made. Epics of Greeks by the aoidoi
was heard and spoken as poetry. Also Veda was poetry dictated to Rishis or prophets and Hebrew
prophets were often poets. Also schizophrenics often talk in verse. Translating Jaynes views to TGD
framework, one can say that early poets were in right brain semitrance state which later developed
to trance state (Plato regarded poetry as divine madness) and ultimately to the modern form in
which poems were consciously composed in inspiration, which corresponds in TGD semitrance state
to which the linguistic regions of both hemispheres participate. Note however that in TGD framework
only the mode of communication changed from auditory hallucinations to cognitive and emotional
communications.
Poems like music are rhythmical: perhaps the frequency involved with the beat corresponds to
ELF frequency involved with the contact helping to ’stay in touch with Muses’. The basic rhythm
of Greece poetry was dactylic hexameter. As in music the pitch varied discontinuously: basic unit
being GCC. Constant pitch is used also in orthodox divine service. The role of rhyme is interesting.
Syllables involve characteristic frequency distribution: since rhymes favor same vowels they favor also
similar frequency distributions. This might lead to a resonance effect in which verses resonate with the
mental images of the earlier verses reverberating in neural circuits and establish repetitive structures
with repetition frequency defined by the duration of verse also favoring establishment of entanglement.
Jaynes believes that first poems were sung and the use of music instrument helped to get the divine
inspiration by stimulating semitrance state in the linguistic regions of the right brain hemisphere.
Lullabies presumably have the same effect in child.
Jaynes sees ancient poetry as the emergence of long term memories at the level of individuals.
3.3. Semitrance and mental disorders 191
Beautiful Muses, daughters of Mnemosyne, which later came to mean memory, singing in unisono
expressed stories about past whereas prophets told predictions for future. The transformation of the
communications of the higher level selves from sensory hallucinations to thoughts and emotions could
explain why modern poets do not receive their poems from Muses. What is fascinating that Muses
appear in plural. This might be related to the ability of right brain hemisphere to represent musical
instruments and voices as separate subselves whereas ordinary speech corresponds to single subself.
Semitrance and the development of human civilization
TGD based vision about evolution of civilization modifies Jaynes’s views. During evolution the profile
of semitrance was changed: the voices of gods were transformed to abstract emotions and thoughts
and the time spent in semitrance was shortened. Thoughts indeed merge spontaneously and are much
more than reactions to sensory input: the great rise of mathematics and philosophy few centuries B.C.
was dramatic example about transformation of the world of spirits, demons and gods to the world of
abstract ideas. Also moods and emotions can be regarded as communications involving semitrance
mechanism allowing to guide individuals in more delicate manner than just giving commands. Long
term goals involve communication of this kind. The need of the collective selves to survive manifests
itself as rules of behavior, moral. The notion of moral as a ’voice of conscience’ is consistent with
the assumption that collective self expressed its will as auditory hallucinations for primitive man
and with the idea that thoughts and emotions have replaced direct auditory hallucinations in this
communication. TGD based model of sensory modalities explains thoughts as internal speech which
is special case of auditory experiencing.
The tragic consequence of semitrance mechanism was the loss of face-to-face sensory contact with
Gods. Celestialization of the visible Gods is the basic theme of Old Testament. Later Nietche
announced the death of gods and postmodernism tells that also great narratives are dead. Conscious
sensory ’face-to-face’ communication with collective consciousness, ’God’, occurs only during religious
experiences and during dreams. In ancient societies dreams were indeed taken as messages of God
and also nowadays many individuals do so.
There are all kinds of collective selves, also demon like creatures. It would not be surprising if
demonic collective selves would not favor political leaders able and willing to listen to them in crisis
situations. Jung proposed that a collective self which he called ’Wotan’ was behind the rise of Nazism.
There are many stories about political leaders believing in dreams and omens and asking advice from
crystal gazers. Many leaders have been schizophrenic personalities (Jeanne d’Arc, Stalin, Hitler): it
might be that just the ability to hear the voice of the collective consciousness gave them the self-
confidences and charisma making them leaders. Needless to say, the examples of Stalin and Hitler
show that the collective selves with intelligence of a stone-age village god are not sufficiently intelligent
to lead modern nations.
3.3 Semitrance and mental disorders
Jaynes identified schizophrenic as a bicameral man in modern society and went to make a prediction
that right brain contains hallucinatory regions. This prediction has been verified [18, 19]. In TGD
framework the picture of Jaynes generalizes to a more general vision about mental illness. It seems
that semitrance mechanism might provide considerable insight into various types of mental abnormal-
ities and one could perhaps regard various mental disorders as abnormalities in commucation. Both
semitrance communication between various levels of self hierarchy and communication between brain
hemispheres are involved.
3.3.1 Schizophrenia and semitrance
Jaynes’s hypothesis that schizophrenic is a bicameral man living in modern society explains basic
facts about schizophrenia. It is also consistent with the historical evidence: according to Jaynes [37]
schizophrenia was described for the first time as insanity at about 400 B.C. when modern subjectivity
had established itself. As will be found Jaynes’s hypothesis generalizes to TGD context in natural
manner.
192 Chapter 3. Semi-trance, Mental Illness, and Altered States of Consciousness
General wisdom about schizophrenia
About 1 per cent of population suffers from schizophrenia, milder form of disease is schizotypal
personality disorder suffered by 2-3 per cent of population. Neuroscientific approach to schizophrenia
regards schizophrenia primarily as a disorder of cognition [27] although it is also disorder of perception,
emotion and social relationships. Kraepelin suggests that schizophrenia is basically a splitting of the
cognitive side of the personality from the affective or emotional side: the correlation between emotional
responses and real situation may be lacking: schizophrenic can laugh in situation in which he should
cry. Schizophrenia resembles manic depressive disorder in that it involves negative (nonpsychotic)
and positive(psychotic) periods. During the non-psychotic episodes symptoms, referred to as negative
symptoms, are social isolation and withdrawal; odd behavior and ideas; neglect of personal hygiene;
blunted affect. Psychotic episodes are characterized by what are called positive symptoms: loss of
the reality testing; various hallucinations, in particular auditory hallucinations; delusions (aberrant
beliefs); incoherent thinking; confusion. In paranoid schizophrenia megalomania and delusions of
persecution dominate.
There is strong evidence that schizophrenia is partly genetic abnormality [27]. Some schizophrenics
have prominent anatomic changes in their brain. There is also evidence for physiological mechanisms.
Antipsychotic drugs improve dramatically the treatment of the psychotic phase of illness. It is known
that antipsychotic drugs block dopamine receptors and it was therefore thought that the excess of
dopamine transmission is important factor in schizophrenia. It is also known that blood flow in the
frontal lobes of schizophrenics is reduced and is not further enhanced during intellectual tasks[27].
This is consistent with the interpretation of schizophrenia as a cognitive disorder. This has led to the
suggestion that there is an increase in the activity of the mesolimbic component of the dopaminergic
system and a reduction in the activity of the prefrontal area which accounts for the negative symptoms.
It has however become clear that abnormalities in the dopaminergic transmission do not account for
all aspects of schizophrenia. Although antipsychotic drugs occupy dopamine receptors very quickly,
there is a delay of 1-2 weeks in the appearance of therapeutic effects. Thus it seems that antipsychotic
effects are secondary to other consequences induced by the binding of the drugs to receptors. It is quite
plausible that modifications of gene expression might be induced in cells responding to dopamine.
In TGD context Jaynes’s hypothesis means roughly following.
1. The left brain hemisphere of the schizophrenic spends abnormally brief fraction of time in
cognitive semitrance so that the cognitive self-narrative of the schizophrenic does not satisfy
the requirements posed by the modern society relying on abstractions. Also the emotional self-
narrative provided by the right brain hemisphere is poorer than normally. This explains reduced
linguistic and cognitive abilities and emotional flatness.
2. The lack of proper cognitive and emotional self-narratives is compensated by a sensory self-
narrative made possible by right brain semitrance and communicated to the left brain hemi-
sphere as sensory hallucinations. This hypothesis explains the splitting of sensory field to part
representing ’real world’ and the part communicated by collective consciousness to left hemi-
sphere. During negative period schizophrenic the contact of the left brain of schizophrenic to
’Gods’ is split and schizophrenic experiences desperate alienation.
3. Compensation requires that the inhibition of the right hemisphere by the left hemisphere is
weaker than normally. For a schizophrenic the left and right brain presumably de-entangle to
higher degree than for a normal person. The reduced activity of frontal lobes and the increased
activity of some parts of paleobrain are consistent with this hypothesis. Dopamine is one of the
neurotransmitters responsible for the activity of brain regions and antipsychotic drugs indeed
affect the abnormal dopamine levels. The abnormal dopamine levels are very probably related
to the reduction of the inhibition of right brain hemisphere by left one.
4. Presumably the time fraction spent in right brain semitrance is higher and the average duration
of the semitrance period is longer. Also the probability of right brain semitrance induced by
stress is presumably higher than normally. This allows to understand why stress induces positive
symptoms of schizophrenia so easily.
3.3. Semitrance and mental disorders 193
More about symptoms of schizophrenia
Thoughts and emotions received from higher level selves and the sensory holism of the right brain
hemisphere save the healthy person from the loss of ’analog I’ (using the term of Jaynes). In schizophre-
nia situation is different and the decay of personality and concrete loss of the boundaries of body,
is one of the most terrifying experiences of a schizophrenic. The loss of ’analog I’ results from two
mechanisms. First, the left brain of a schizophrenic fails to receive cognitive self-narrative about ’I’.
Secondly, during sensory semitrance right brain hemisphere does not provide a concrete sensory rep-
resentation for the holistic aspects of body. The story of Oliver Sacks about Dr. P. [22] illustrates in
moving manner the notions of cognitive holism and the loss of sensory holism. Dr. P. had lost holistic
visual consciousness due to a tumor in right occipital lobe and this led to rather amazing symptoms.
Dr. P. elegantly characterizes glove as a ’Geometric shape containing five elongated bags’ but is not
able to recognize the function of glove. Dr. P. also sees faces as mere collections of features. Music
however provides Dr. P. with partial sensory holism: he is able to recognize persons through their
’body music’ and sings himself through the everyday activities like clothing and eating. Perhaps this
is nothing but entanglement of right brain Wernicke area with higher level self.
Schizophrenics find it difficult to draw their bodies: this is used as a diagnostic test. This difficulty
presumably reflects both the decay of the cognitive self picture formed by left brain and the loss of the
right brained sensory model of self caused by abnormally long periods of entanglement with higher
level selves. Eye motions of schizophrenics are also abnormal: the coherence of motions of right and
left eye is not so good as in case of a healthy person. It might be that this is partly due to the
semitrance of the regions of right brain controlling eye motions.
The breakdown of the personal narrative reflecting itself also as a loss of personal time is also
regarded as a symptom of schizophrenia. If personal narrative is told by higher level selves to person
using basically language and if schizophrenia is cognitive disorder, it is not a wonder that this narrative
breaks down and in worst situations leads to the loss of self.
Voices and other sensory hallucinations can be interpreted as resulting from the semitrance of right
brain sensory regions. Voices can be malevolent and persecuting as to drive schizophrenic to flee or
attack some-one. Voices can also act as benevolent guides in the daily activities of the schizophrenic.
Voices can even induce religious ecstacy. TGD suggest that the higher level selves talking which these
voices are indeed malevolent or benevolent as also human beings are. An open question is whether the
patient could to some degree decide with which selves to entangle. This might be the case: suggestions
by authorities can affect very dramatically the hallucinations and even eliminate them [37]. Of course,
the experience about the malevolence or benevolence of the voice might be due to cognitive disorder
of patient.
The megalomania of the paranoid schizophrenic is probably related to the experience of being
a selected messenger hearing God’s voice. This interpretation is with that prophets seem to also
have been persons able to directly hear God’s voice. The experience of a paranoid schizophrenics
about being persecuted need not be a mere hallucination. Social games are played all the time in
modern society. This leads schizophrenic to an extremely stressing situation: schizophrenic hears the
authoritative voices of the collective group self telling the truth and the conflicting messages told by
human mouths. The painful and stressing nature of social communications explains also why social
isolation is one of the symptoms of schizophrenia and why schizophrenics are so suspicious. This leads
to isolation and behavior promoting isolation such as neglect of personal hygieny: negative symptoms
result from the avoidance of social stress inducing positive symptoms. Normal person receives the
messages of the collective selves as thoughts and emotions which are not so authoritative and in
conflicting situations they can be blamed to be only reckless imagination. Suicide is extreme example
of the authority of the voices: it would be perhaps better to say that person does not perform suicide
but is murdered.
Automatisms are one important aspect of schizophrenia. Schizophrenic cannot resist the authority
of the voice telling him to do things which he would not do normally. The emotional state of the
schizophrenic need not be consistent with what he is doing: schizophrenic can dance or sing without
being happy or can laugh when he is unhappy. This suggests that also the communication of emotions
fails. Command automatisms are one example of automatisms. Patient is very apt to suggestions of
authority and can remain in in some posture for hours if physician suggests this. This might be due
to a hypnotic suggestion involving direct entanglement with the brain of authority. Also completely
unconscious automatisms are possible and can be understood as activities not involving the mediation
194 Chapter 3. Semi-trance, Mental Illness, and Altered States of Consciousness
of the left brain hemisphere. For instance, patient may feel that someone else is moving his tongue or
cannot stop his mouth from singing. In the framework of TGD patient is indeed ’half-possessed’ by the
demon like higher level self. Echolalia is one of the most amazing schizophrenia like disorders: patient
can mimic the speech, facial expressions and gestures of other persons like automaton. Semitrance
involving entanglement of motor regions of the right brain hemisphere with the brain of another person
explains this. Also hallucinatory echolalia in which one cannot identify higher authority as any known
person is possible.
Flattening of affect and loss of emotions occurs also often during both the positive and negative
periods of schizophrenia. This is consistent with the hypothesis that higher level selves communicate
with schizophrenic via sensory hallucinations rather than thoughts and emotions.
About neurophysiological signatures of schizophrenia
Jaynes [37] mentions also several signatures of schizophrenia related to EEG, brain anatomy and
neurochemistry. These signatures are consistent with the assumption that schizophrenic is more
sensitive to semitrance induced by stress; that the fraction of time spent in semitrance is higher than
in case of normal person and that the profile of semitrance communications favors sensory experience
instead of cognition and emotion.
1. The average EEG is slightly more intense in the left brain hemisphere of a healthy person
whereas for schizophrenic the roles of left and right brain are changed. As already noticed, TGD
based approach predicts that standing EEG waves make possible entanglement with higher level
selves. Thus the assumption that EEG dominance correlates with the presence of standing EEG
waves making possible the entanglement with higher level selves, explains this asymmetry.
2. Sensory deprivation increases dramatically and rapidly EEG activity. The effect of sensory
deprivation is easy to understand: in case of a schizophrenic right and left hemispheres are
more loosely entangled than in case of healthy person: during unentangled state right brain
hemisphere or parts of it fall asleep when so that semitrance and hallucinations result. Healthy
person simply gets drowsy and falls even asleep in the absence of sensory stimuli.
3. The EEG of a healthy person exhibits slight right or left brain dominance with a period about
one minute: in case of a schizophrenic this period is about four minutes. EEG seems to stuck
in left/right mode. This means that the probability of the right brain hemisphere to fall asleep
during the 4 minute period of intensified EEG is high so that sensory semitrance can result.
The longer period might be an attempt to enhance the reduced probability to fall in cognitive
left brain hemisphere semitrance in order to save cognitive self-narrative. The longer period
however implies higher probability for the schizophrenic to fall in sensory semitrance during the
psychotic period of the disease.
This can be understood more quantitatively as follows. The simplest assumption is that the
probability of the hemisphere to ’fall asleep’ during time interval ∆t is dp = λ∆t, where constant.
The probability to fall in semitrance in interval (t, t +dt) is
dP = (1 −P(t))λdt ,
which gives for the probability of not falling in semitrance during interval t of enhanced EEG activity
P = exp(−λt)
.
For schizophrenic the probability P
s
to not suffer hallucination is
P
s
= P
4
h
,
where P
h
is corresponding probability for healthy person. In case of a schizophrenic λ is anomalously
small for the left brain hemisphere but could have normal value for the right hemisphere. Already this
simple model gives a rough quantitative grasp about difference of healthy and schizophrenic person.
In his book Jaynes made the hypothesis that the linguistic regions of right brain are the hallu-
cinatory regions of schizophrenic. It has been found that neural activity in various parts of right
3.3. Semitrance and mental disorders 195
hemisphere increases during the auditory hallucinations of schizophrenic [18, 19]. This would suggest
that also other regions of the right hemisphere are involved with hallucinations. TGD indeed suggests
that in case of schizophrenic also other than linguistic regions are in semitrance.
The bundles of axons in corpus callosum connecting right and left brain are by 1 mm thicker for
schizophrenic than for healthy person. This suggests more intense sensory communication from the
right hemisphere to the left hemisphere favoring the generation of sensory hallucinations. Note that
auditory hallucinations are presumably associated with the anterior commissure connecting Wernicke
area to its counterpart in right brain hemisphere.
What good in schizophrenia?
Defectological view sees schizophrenia as a collection of defects whereas evolutionary psychology sees
schizophrenic as an inhabitant of wrong time and place. Schizophrenics differ from ordinary people in
several aspects helping adaptation to more primitive society. Schizophrenics have much more livelier
perceptive landscape than the normal ones. For instance, visual perception is known to be sharper.
The blocking of alpha waves as a reaction to sudden sensory stimuli occurs faster than in healthy
persons. Schizophrenics can work hardly for much longer times and are able to tremendous feats
of endurance. Catantonia is one example: schizophrenic can spend days in a posture which normal
person could not tolerate more than a minute. All kinds of explanations for the ability of ancient men
to build pyramides and other architectonic miracles have been proposed but the incredible endurance
of bicameral men is the most plausible explanation. These feats do not reflect endurance of an ordinary
human being but of a higher level self using schizophrenic as instrument.
Nature or nurture?, possible cures?
Schizophrenia seems to be both genetic disease and disease of self-organization of brain. Self-organization
aspect makes schizophrenia a genuine quantum disease (or abnormality). Schizophrenia can be seen
as the failure of the left brain hemisphere of a schizophrenic to cognitively self-organize to the level
achieved by normal persons. More concretely, the de-entanglement of the sensory regions of the brain
hemispheres occurs too easily and is followed by the trance of the corresponding right brain regions.
Also the profile of the semitrance communications is abnormal. This defect could be associated with
some aspects of personality only and they could be perhaps characterized by effective cognitive ages
with various types deducible from EEG pattern of the patient. If self-organization aspect dominates
over genetic factors, suitable external stimuli could perhaps make possible healthy self-organization.
The symptoms of schizophrenia appear at the verge of the adult age which suggests that schizophrenia
is to high degree this kind of disorder.
If self-organization aspect dominates and schizophrenia is inability to achieve full cognitive age,
the EEG of children should have some (not necessarily all) characteristics of s schizophrenic person.
One could check whether the above listed EEG signatures characterize also the EEG of children.
Especially interesting in this respect is the 8 minute period of schizophrenic EEG as compared to the
2 minute period of a healthy persons making the probability of the semitrance state high.
One could image the elimination of the positive symptoms of the schizophrenia by electrically
stimulating appropriate regions of patient’s brain using electric implants to make falling to semitrance
less probable and to reduce the fraction of time spent in semitrance nearer to its normal value. The
total elimination of semitrance would however transform positive symptoms to negative ones and would
split the communication with higher level selves, which seems to be essential for the self-narrative.
Also the inhibition of the right left brain communication is one manner to eliminate hallucinations
and presumably the effect of antipsychotics is based on this inhibition. One could however consider
possibility of inducing left brain hemisphere semitrance to improve cognitive communications with
higher level selves.
Social isolation of the schizophrenic is presumably due to the contradictory messages received by
semitrance mechanism and via externalized communications. Therefore schizophrenic might be com-
pletely happy in the social environment where this discrepancy is absent. Thus genuine love, respect
and acceptance are perhaps the most effective manner to reduce the sufferings of the schizophrenic.
196 Chapter 3. Semi-trance, Mental Illness, and Altered States of Consciousness
Tourette’s syndrome
Tourette’s syndrome is a mental disorder having close resemblances with schizophrenia and it seems
that the reduction of the entanglement between the speech regions of right and left brain hemispheres
could explain this. It is not however obvious whether entanglement with higher level selves is involved
or not. For a description of Tourette’s syndrome reader the books of Jaynes [37] is recommended.
Sacks tells in his ’Man who mistook his wife for a hat’ tells also a story about Tourette’s syndrome.
Tourette’s syndrome usually shows its first symptoms in childhood at the age of five or sometimes
earlier. In the beginning the symptoms are mild: facial twitch or bad word out of context. This develop
to uncontrollable emission of obscenities, grunts, barks, or profanities in the middle of otherwise
normal speech. Tourettians are extremely ’sensory’: they love to feel things by touching and even by
tasting them. They have ticking like appearance and are enormously spontaneous in their behavior.
Tourettians are often artistically gifted. Tourettians can cope in society due to modern medication.
They are fully conscious of their state and have bivalent attitude to their state: they suffer from it but
feel that they would lose something valuable in normal state of mind. Sacks tells about a Tourettian
how resolved the problem by coming week-end Tourettian living ordinary life during working days!
Tourette’s syndrome involves abnormal brain wave patterns, some central nervous system damage,
and usually left handedness.
The symptoms of Tourette’s syndrome bring into mind a continual fight between two personalities:
the second personality intrudes continuously to the activities of the dominating personality. This
situation resembles split brain personality to that occurring when the physical connection between
brain hemispheres is cut. Perhaps some regions of left hemisphere have abnormally weak entanglement
with the corresponding regions of the left hemisphere so that right and left hemisphere are competing
for the usage of speech organs. It is not clear whether semitrance mechanism could be involved so
that Tourettian would be ’semi-possessed’.
3.3.2 Disorders of mood
In neuropsychology one distinguishes between moods and affective responses [27]. Moods are long
lasting emotional states whereas affective responses are direct emotional reactions. Euphoria, elation,
pleasure, surprise, anger, anxiety, disappointment, grief, sadness, despair, depression are normal af-
fective responses. In disorders of mood three of these responses become abnormally strong: euphoria
(manic disorder), depression and anxiety.
One can distinguish between unipolar depression and bipolar depression (manic-depressive disor-
der). Unipolar depression can be reactive, endogenous or atypical(!). In endogenous case (melancholy)
symptoms are depression with diurnal variations (mornings are especially difficult), insomnia and fre-
quent awakenings with early morning wakening , anorexia, psychomotor agitation and mental pain,
loss of interest to almost all activity and lack of response to pleasurable stimuli (ahedonia). Endoge-
nous depression does not lead to emotional or intellectual underactivity. Reactive depression results
from a specific stress, like loss of job, family member, etc... and is not so pervasive as endogoneous
depression. Maniac ’suffers’ from euphoric periods. Elevated, expansive or irritable mood lasting at
least one week, over-activity, over-talkativeness (or hypergrafia), social intrusiveness, increased energy
and libido, pressure of ideas, grandiosity, decreased need for sleep, reckless involvements. Perhaps
manic-depressive and creative person differ in that creative person has some well defined long term
goal to which he/she can direct this immense energy.
The key feature of the panic disorders is fear: arousal, restlessness, heightened responsiveness,
sweating, racing heart, increased blood pressure, dry mouth, a desire to run or escape, and avoidance
behavior. There are two basic types of anxiety disorder. Panic attacks are brief, recurrent, spontaneous
episodes of terror without any clearly identifiable cause. Generalized anxiety is long lasting (lasting
for six months or longer). The symptoms are motor tension, autonomic hyperactivity, vigilance and
scanning (feeling on edge, exaggerated startle response, difficulty in concentrating).
Reductionistic neuroscientists seem to forget social factors in attempts to understand mental dis-
orders. They cannot but agree that reactive depression correlates with a personal loss but do not
mention social factors in case of melancholy. The natural guess would however be that melancholy
differs from reactive depression in that it correlates with long lasting stress such as loneliness or some
unachieved long term goal. Of course, melancholy in turn favors the continuation of this situation.
One could also wonder whether it is really sensible to talk about disorder of mood when mood actually
3.3. Semitrance and mental disorders 197
reflects very faithfully the actual social situation. It is known that genetic factors are important in
various forms of depressions. But again, genetic factors could help to build an individual whose fate
is to question for the values and beliefs of the community and the hostile reaction of the community
could be the primary cause of depression and even physiological changes.
3.3.3 Mental disease as communication disorder?
TGD suggests modification of the standard views about mental disorders. Basic principle in biochem-
istry and control and coordination of living matter is dynamic equilibrium in which inhibitory and
excitatory effects cancel each other in equilibrium: a good example of this principle at work is the pro-
cess of standing still. There is abundant evidence that the structures of the left and right hemisphere
have inhibiting effects on each other: there is a temptation to regard this inhibition as a particular
example of a general principle. The mutual inhibition could also be seen as a mechanism guaranteing
division of labor: symmetric functioning leading to redundancy is not possible. The failure of the
mutual inhibition could be seen as a general mechanism of mental illness so that the metaphor of
mental balance would be much more than metaphor. Standard neuroscience favors this view.
TGD suggests however a different view. One could also see mental illness as a failure of com-
munication between brain hemispheres and higher level selves. Messages of higher level selves could
be simply misunderstood or not received at all. For instance, the communication of emotions could
be inconsistent with communication of subjective and geometric memories whose comparison should
determine the emotions. In this picture the sensory hallucinations of a schizophrenic and prolonged
periods of hemisphere dominance could be seen as an attempt to compensate the poor cognitive semi-
trance communications of the left hemisphere with higher level selves. The lack of the right brain
inhibition by left brain indeed allows right brain hemisphere to communicate the messages of the
collective consciousness to the left hemisphere.
Empirical facts about lesions of brain make it possible to test the idea about mental disease as a
disorder of communications. When temporal lobe epilepsy is caused by a lesion of the left temporal
lobe, 90 per cent of patients develop the symptoms of paranoidal schizophrenia with massive auditory
hallucinations. If the lesion is on the right temporal lobe, patients tend to develop manic-depressive
symptoms. This suggests that schizophrenia and manic-depressive disorder are mirror images of each
other. Indeed, negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia correspond to the depressive and
manic periods of manic-depressive psychosis. Schizophrenia and manic-depressive psychosis are indeed
somehow dual: the positive period of schizophrenia is more like passive experiencing of hallucinations
whereas the manic period of manic-depressive psychosis involves over-activity and the lack of emotional
guidance leading to reckless involvements. This could be understood if left brain is passive thinker
and right brain is active decision maker. In absence of the guidance of the higher level selves patient
behaves abnormally. This duality supports the view that both brain hemispheres of a healthy person
participate to semitrance communications. Complete symmetry would suggest that also left-to-right
lobe communications are possible. In case of manic-depressive disorder these communications should
occur during the manic period of disease and should be suppressed during the depressive period.
In this conceptual framework one could understand why both schizophrenia, manic depressive
disorder and anxiety disorder have two different manifestations and semitrance mechanism suggests a
unified view about these disorders.
1. Defects of left (schizophrenia) or right (manic depressive disease, anxiety disorder) brain semi-
trance communications are the basic characteristic of these diseases. Brain tries to compensate
the lacking communications: the opposite healthy brain hemisphere is still capable of effective
semitrance communications and tries to help the opposite hemisphere by communicating it the
guidance it receives from higher level selves. Unfortunately, this compensation is not complete
and is present only during active period of disease and lacks during the passive period.
2. The fraction of time spent by the healthy hemisphere in semitrance involving communications
with opposite hemisphere, call it briefly τ, could be an important parameter measuring the char-
acter of illness in all these three cases. During the passive period (period of negative symptoms
in schizophrenia/depression/panick disorder) τ is abnormally low and patient is like a rejected
child and in the absence of telepathic guidance and encouragement patent finds social contacts
difficult and tends to withdraw from social interaction. During active periods (positive symp-
toms/manic period/general anxiety disorder) τ is abnormally high giving rise to the sensory
198 Chapter 3. Semi-trance, Mental Illness, and Altered States of Consciousness
hallucinations of the schizophrenic and to the euphoria and social intrusiveness of the person
suffering manic disorder. In case of the anxiety disorder even the presence of left-to-right brain
communication is unable to save patient from the general anxiety disorder, which gets even
worse in the absence of this communication.
3.4 Semitrance, trance and altered states of consciousness
It seems that semitrance mechanism could also provide understanding about various altered states of
consciousness. In some cases it is difficult to draw a borderline between trance and semitrance and
therefore also trance like states are discussed in the following.
3.4.1 Sleep, trance and dreams
Sleep and trance are unconscious states from the point of view of individual although higher level self
is certainly conscious. The distinction between sleep and trance provides an interesting challenge for
quantum theories of consciousness. During trance state entire brain is strongly entangled and human
body serves effectively as organ of the higher level self. Concerning the interpretation of the sleep
state, the first hint comes from the observation that the wake-up from sleep occurs much more easily
than from trance state. This suggests that entanglement is now weak and near to the critical value.
There is also evidence for some kind of information processing occurring in brain during sleep state.
Quantum computing have been suggested as a metaphor for the information processing performed
by brain. The information processing performed by a quantum computer is unconscious in TGD
framework and in case of an ideal quantum computer occurs just at the border of conscious and
unconscious state so that entanglement is as weak as it can be. This would suggest that quantum
computing like activities indeed occur during sleep. Of course, quantum computing in the strict sense
of the word is probably too restricted a notion to be applied in case of biological structures. It might
be however that the unconscious information processing by brain known believed to occur during sleep
is analogous to quantum computing.
Trance states involve the entanglement of entire brain with higher level self. The claimed ability
of mediums to communicate with dead and induce aspirations of dead relatives could be based on
ability of the medium to entangle with the collective consciousness of the participants of the sitting as
well as to induce semitrance in the participants. The semitrance of the participants is also essential
for the formation of the collective self. Sleepwalking probably also represents a trance state in which
sleeper serves as a motor organ of the collective self. The many variants of religious possession, such
as talking with languages, could be regarded as trance states. Shamanism and oracles represent also
examples of trance states. In this case trance state is induced artificially.
Hypnosis presumably involves the entanglement of the hypnotizer with part of subject person’s
brain which thus becomes part of the hypnotizer. Swinging pendulum is a classical auxiliary tool used
to induce hypnosis. Perhaps the rhythm of the swinging pendulum corresponds to a relevant EEG fre-
quency associated with the collective self formed by the hypnotizer and subject person. Concentrating
attention to the pendulum might induce semitrance (at least it causes dizziness). The attention of
the subject person is concentrated to the pendulum and to the voice of hypnotizer and the scope of
consciousness is gradually reduced. It is not clear whether the final state is semitrance or total trance.
Semitrance option is consistent with the fact that schizophrenics are very apt to suggestions.
During dreams only part of brain is conscious and this in principle makes possible communications
from those parts of brain which are in semitrance. Of course, it is quite possible that brain generates
the dreams itself. Both dreams dominated by auditory and visual experiences and dreams consisting
of internal speech are possible. Dreams are often passive (lucid dreams are an exception) which would
suggest that sensory semitrance mechanism involving either or both hemispheres is indeed involved.
This of course does not exclude the possibility of active generation of hallucinations as occurs during
lucid dreaming. Communication (generating mental images/waking up subselves in receiver) can
be also bi-directional. Even fetus seems to have periods of REM sleep. An interesting question is
whether it possesses EEG like activity at higher frequencies say 60-70 Hz associated with REM dream.
If so, our dreaming state would be much like return to prenatal consciousness involving semitrance
with sensory hallucinations. Ordinary state of consciousness could quite well involve also very short
intervals of trance during which higher level selves communicate with entire brain but unconsciously.
3.4. Semitrance, trance and altered states of consciousness 199
An interesting question relates to how much the EEG profile in REM sleep (average EEG frequency is
65 Hz) resembles the profile associated with the visual and auditory hallucinations of schizophrenics.
Interestingly, many (not all) schizophrenics spend abnormally short time in REM sleep. Perhaps the
total time spend in semitrance is what matters.
3.4.2 Altered states of consciousness
Religious and similar experiences
Various religious experiences are excellent candidates for semitrance states and could correspond to
the entanglement with the highest levels of the self hierarchy possible for human. Persinger’s work [29]
related to the effects of ELF em fields to brain provides support for the notion that topological field
quanta of ELF em fields are correlates of the higher level selves. Stimulation of the right hemisphere
using various patterns of magnetic pulses of duration of about millisecond with frequency between 1
and 50 Hz generates various kinds of altered states of consciousness. The basic experience is sensing
the presence of something which can be benevolent or malevolent. Obviously this something must
inform subject person about its presence via semitrance mechanism. Seeing angels are typical religious
experiences and have obvious explanation as right brain semitrance.
Persinger explains UFO experiences as modern versions of religious experience allowed by the
non-religious culture we live in [29]. This is what also TGD predicts: it is left brain which inter-
prets the messages of higher level self using the available belief system and conceptual framework.
Persinger’s view is materialistic: he sees religious experiences as mere neural activity coupled with geo-
electromagnetic fields. Also changes in Earth’s magnetic often induce altered states of consciousness
and there is strong statistical evidence about the effects of the magnetic storms on the well being of
the patients of the mental hospitals. These effects are consistent with semitrance hypothesis and the
hypothesis that magnetic and Z
0
magnetic transition frequencies provide spectroscopy of conscious-
ness [K3]. Note however that the endogenous magnetic field B
end
= 2B
E
/5 = .2 Gauss explaining
various findings about ELF effects on brain is not identical with the Earth’s magnetic field B
E
and
could be interpreted as ”dark” magnetic field accompanying it [M3]. Experiences in which person
meets deceased relatives can be produced with highly reliable methods [20]. Semitrance mechanism
provides explanation for these experience and suggests that some levels of personal electromagnetic
self hierarchy survive in ’physical’ death.
There are also experiences not identifiable as semitrance experiences. For instance, meditative
experiences in which mind is totally empty belong to this class of experiences. TGD based explanation
of these states as states of ’whole-body consciousness’ relies on the notion of irreducible self having by
definition no subselves (mental images). These kind of states presumably involve mutual entanglement
of the left and right hemispheres. One could say that irreducible selves are for consciousness what
elementary particles are for physics.
Telepathy, clairvoyance and identification experiences
In [H4] I have considered the explanation of phenomena like telepathy, clairvoyance and group con-
sciousness. These experiences can be explained in terms of semitrance mechanism involving entangle-
ment with ELF selves assuming that rather abstract concepts exist physically as higher level selves as
TGD indeed predicts.
Especially fascinating are identification experiences [25] [H4]. The objects with which person can
identify range from elementary particle, via objects of inorganic and organic world (like animals, the
mothers of all dead soldiers, etc..) to entire Cosmos. It is not obvious whether a mere semitrance
is sufficient to explain identification experiences. TGD provides a more general mechanism making
possible transpersonal consciousness. For definiteness assume that right brain hemisphere is in trance
state and that left brain experiences a phase transition increasing the p-adic prime characterizing it so
that this prime becomes larger than equal to the p-adic prime characterizing higher level self entangled
with the right hemisphere. In this kind of situation remembered extended state of consciousness results
if left brain hemisphere entangles with the latter system. Various religious and enlightment experiences
could perhaps be understood as examples of this kind of experience. In particular, Brahman=Atman
experience in which person identifies herself with God, following semitrance experience about direct
personal contact with God, could represent this kind of experience.
200 Chapter 3. Semi-trance, Mental Illness, and Altered States of Consciousness
Perhaps enlightment can be identified with what might be called ’loving state’. ’Loving state’
involves extension of self and should therefore make possible to affect the state of other living beings
by semitrance mechanism. TGD predicts that DNA can be in self state and its binary structure
suggests the possibility of semitrance states. There is empirical evidence that people in ’loving state’
can affect the degree of winding of DNA [24]. The coherence of ECG is used in these experiments as
a measure for how deep the ’loving state’ is and the degree of the winding of DNA correlates with the
intention to wind (unwind) DNA.
3.4.3 Stephan’s case
’Stephan’s case’ was one of the stimuli which made me conscious about the challenge of formulating
precisely how different levels of the self hierarchy can communicate with each other. I learned about
Stephan’s case via email correspondence with Stephan’s mother. Stephan was a victim of brain injury
and his survival was regarded by several specialists as a ”miracle” from the viewpoint of standard
medicine. There were also some other miracle like occurrences during the period after accident and
they could perhaps be interpreted in terms of trance and semitrance states. In the sequel Stephan’s
case is discussed as a possible example of engtanglement with higher level selves involving trance and
semitrance mechanisms.
I hasten to admit that my personal knowledge about practical medicine is very restricted and that
I must therefore stay at general level in my interpretations. Second reservation: these interpretations
are the first attempt to apply TGD inspired theory of consciousness to individual person and must
therefore be taken with grain of salt. I learned from Stephan’s case from Stephan’s mother who
contacted with me and asked whether TGD approach to consciousness could say something about
Stephan’s case. In the following I will use excerpts from the correspondence with Stephan’s mother
to describe what happened.
There is additional aspect related to Stephan’s case about which I became conscious only when
trying to learn about body consciousness. This aspect is related genetic engineering involving unholy
alliance of science and business. To learn what is really involved, it is good to read Mae-Wan Ho’s
article about the dangers of genetic genetic engineering [18]. The most hard-nosed genetic engineers
are ready to build headless humans to provide store parts for the more lucky ones. The justification
for this comes from the basic dogma of neuroscience. No brain, no consciousness. I feel horror when
trying to image what it is to be a conscious human without head and losing gradually organs. Limb to
day, liver tomorrow, next week heart, and so on. What does this helpless living creature experience?
What happened?
In the following is the report of Stephan’s mother about the accident.
Accident
Stephan had just turned 21 and was travelling with a friend to see his grandparents in Oklahoma.
They got as far as a State Park campground outside of New Orleans. The vehicle Stephan’s friend
was driving clipped a wooden sign too close to the narrow park road, which catapulted the side-view
mirror assembly into the passenger window. It hit Stephan over the left eye, bounced and hit him
at least 2 more times, and shattered his face and skull into more than 100 pieces. Displacement of
bone fragments dissected the left internal carotid artery, caused 2 pseudoaneurysms in the left middle
menengeal artery, and shear injury caused formation of a carotico-cavernous fistula where the vessel
tunnels through the base of the skull.
Records state that first aid was rendered by an elderly priest who was walking near the accident
scene, and who used to be a physician. He applied pressure to the left external carotid until blood flow
stopped, but by then Stephan had asperated 2 lungsful. He was basically drowned. At the hospital
they managed to pump out his lungs and hook him to a respirator, transferred him to Intensive Care.
We were given no hope that he would survive, but it had been noted on his driver’s license that he
was an organ donor, so they said they’d keep him alive until we got there if they could.
We drove all night from Florida to arrive the next morning. He was still alive, hooked up to the
machinery, his head swollen beyond belief. We were told he had a CSF leak down his throat from
a shattered palate, that there wasn’t any sense in shunting the pressure from swelling because he’d
3.4. Semitrance, trance and altered states of consciousness 201
been more than 20 minutes without oxygen due to drowning in blood. They wanted his organs. Had
he actually been dead, we would have donated them. He was not.
When I saw him he was ”asleep”, but I noticed serious restraints on his chest, arms and legs. He
stirred once, tried to move, and moaned. I asked the neurosurgeon why he was restrained, and was
told he was ”very combative.” This made no sense to me given the injuries. I was asked what kind
of ”drugs” he was on to make him so strong. I was told he had floored 2 male nurses that morning
transferring him to CT scan room, and that he’d tried to ”escape.”
My husband and I recognized immediately what was happening, and also recognized that he was
most certainly not ”brain dead” and was not nearly as ”unconscious” as the medical people said he
was.
About Stephan
We had known our son well for all 21 years of his life. What we knew about him was that he had a
most unusual consciousness. He had always been an active dreamer and notorious sleepwalker. This
dream-self (unconscious?) had a distinct personality that was Stephan but was also not-Stephan. His
normal waking personality was quiet, shy, very thoughtful and sweet. Brilliant in a number of ways
and immensely talented, harmless. He’d learned to juggle when he was 12, and could juggle 5 objects
of different size and shape (including fire) under his leg, behind his back, over the top and every other
way you could think of, and make it look easy.
He became a professional clown - partner to my husband - and started working with young children.
They loved him like crazy. He had his own television show, a fan club full of 6-year olds, and appeared
in some motion pictures as a teen heartthrob.
His unconscious self, the sleepwalker, was his ”darkside” (like the ”shadow” in psychology). With
Stephan, he was such a good-guy that even his shadow was a good-guy. Just different. Instead of all
sweetness and light like SkyPup the Clown, the sleepwalker was Batman (that’s what we called him).
Serious, brooding, very intense and ”haunted.” An undercover super hero fighting forces of evil for
the good of humanity, always at the ready.
Stephan began to ”grow out of” active dreaming when he was 13. He was a target of bullies at
school because he was smaller than the other children, but he was tremendously coordinated. We got
him martial arts lessons, and he quickly earned his belts. He was a master of weapons - bow, chucks,
swords - and paid for extended lessons by appearing in public with the master of the art. He became
so proficient we thought he’d finally integrated both ”sides” of his personality by the time he was 16.
Stephan after accident
When we heard about his strange (and unexplainable) activities following the accident, we realized
Batman was back, fully in control, and in that situation extremely dangerous. Our visits in ICU were
limited to 10 minutes every 4 hours, but I went to work right away communicating with Batman in
the way I had always done. He responded. After 3 days, when he opened his eyes and I managed
to talk the doctor into removing the ventilator, he was talking back to me. The medics judged him
”conscious” and allowed me to stay with him in ICU so he wouldn’t fight the attendants.
By day 3 the swelling had gone down to normal except for a bump over the left eye. The displaced
pieces of shattered bone had reset themselves without disfigurement, and there was no bruising. The
hard palate, which 3 days before had been ”a mushy mess of moveable bone” according to the doctor,
had reset and become ”rigid.” Stephan was eating solid food, walking with my help to the restroom,
and had begun to count out loud. He’d count until he got to where a number was missed, I’d tell him
what it was, then he’d start over. This went on until he got to 1000. I believe he was checking his
brain circuits for damage.
The CT scans demonstrated a resolving left frontal lobe contusion as the only physical brain
injury apparent. He was still severely confused and child-like in his speech, but there were no physical
deficits, he was extremely strong (and remained in restraints when I wasn’t there), and the long period
without oxygen did not appear to have damaged his circuits. The doctors had no explanation at all,
just shook their heads and said they’d never seen anything like it. It was a Catholic hospital, the
priest who saved Stephan’s life called his contacts, and investigators from the Vatican arrived. All
involved were absolutely convinced it was a genuine ”Miracle.”
Stephan was released from the New Orleans hospital 10 days after the accident and I flew with
him in an Air Ambulance back home to Florida. There he went into the care of a neurologist at a
facility attached to a large rehabilitation hospital. At that time rehabilitation looked like it would be
202 Chapter 3. Semi-trance, Mental Illness, and Altered States of Consciousness
necessary.
The neurologist called in a full team, including 3 neurosurgeons, to document this supposed ”Mir-
acle.” They ordered an MRI scan, which showed the dissected carotid and aneurysms as well as the cc
fistula. They were suddenly very, very confused. Stephan’s actual condition absolutely did not match
what the MRI showed, so they wanted to see the blood flow. They ordered an arteriogram, which is
an invasive procedure.
The arteriogram confirmed the compromised arteries on the left side of Stephan’s brain. Medical
knowledge ”knows” that this would have resulted in paralysis of the right side of the body, but
Stephan was by that time juggling oranges in his hospital room and playing chess with his cousin.
The radiologist pointed out recently in court that Stephan had an uncommon but not unheard-of
anomaly of brain form and plumbing supply. The hemispheres of his brain were not separated in
portions, and he had a double-entry blood system which resulted in cross-flow from the right carotid
to the left (and presumably visa versa had the left supply been working). This anomalous blood
supply was postulated to account for the lack of paralysis and infarct damage.”
Unfortunately, the invasive arteriogram proceedure caused a complication to develop - hemorrhage
of the cc fistula, which presented as massive epistaxis (nosebleed). We did not connect the two, because
the doctors told us the hemorrhaging was not related to the diagnosed artery injuries, but were instead
the result of broken nasal bones. I believe they were frightened that their test had caused the condition
to deteriorate, and they decided not to do anything about it. So they lied.
Every day we would spend more and more time with Stephan’s normal conscious personality.
Batman had appeared for survival purposes, and was allowing Stephan to be conscious for periods of
time until he became tired. We knew both of these personalities well, could deal with either or both
of them, so we stayed in the hospital room with our son. We even became fairly adept at emergency
response to serious hemorrhages... because we had to.
Stephan was sent home without treatment for the arterial injuries, which we were told not to worry
about. Three weeks later he suffered 2 more massive hemorrhages and was hospitalized in the care of
a facial surgeon. He received cauterization surgery in the nose, blood transfusions, and was again sent
home. Three weeks later he suffered yet another hemorrhage which could not be stopped, and died.
Medically, there was absolutely no reason for Stephan to have been alive at all. Medically there
was no accounting for his consciousness or physical strength. 2 teams of a dozen doctors in 2 states
have testified on the record and in a court of law that this was a ”Miracle.”
I saw it differently. The ”Batman” sleepwalker who took over when Stephan was rendered uncon-
scious did not recognize or heed physical damage to the Central Processor (brain). I think this con-
sciousness operated quite differently than the normal waking consciousness, perhaps directly through
the cellular consciousness of body. I do not know where Batman’s processor was, but it may be seated
entirely on the undamaged right side of the brain. He was able to speak, write poetry, play chess
and guitar, so was obviously using left side circuitry to some extent, or perhaps this personality was
associated with a ”higher self” consciousness that operates non-physically.
The general hypothesis explaining medical miracles
The foregoing suggests that there were several medical ”miracles” involved. A possible general expla-
nation for these miracles is the entanglement of parts of brain with some higher level self leading to
either trance or semitrance state.
1. Negentropy Maximization Principle (NMP) tells which subsystem of self gets opportunity to
perform quantum jumps. If the injured parts of Stephan’s brain entangled with higher level self
and did not get this opportunity, they did not suffer irreversible, incurable changes. Therefore
the miracle became possible.
2. This was certainly the case if the higher level self enjoyed whole-body consciousness, which by
definition does not allow subselves. This condition is however un-necessarily restrictive: it is
enough to assume that the injured parts of Stephan’s brain did not win the race about the
maximization of negentropy gain via quantum jump leading to unentangled state.
3. The reduced blood flow in brain might have been an important factor: the reduction of the blood
flow led to a reduced entanglement entropy flow into left brain half and this meant that these
3.4. Semitrance, trance and altered states of consciousness 203
parts of brain did not have chances to win the race for making a quantum jump to unentangled
state.
Thus the basic hypothesis is that entanglement with some some higher self occurred and this self
consciously saved Stephan’s life. Using religious terminology: Angel saved Stephan. The hypothesis
is very natural in light of the proposed role of higher level selves in the self-organization of human civ-
ilization. Bicameral man received commands and advices of collective consciousness(es) in semitrance
state [N6]. In fact, the concrete guidance of humans by higher level selves via semitrance mechanism
provides a natural explanation for the beliefs about angel like beings guiding the behavior of mortals.
It is quite possible that both Stephan’s body and injured part of brain were entangled with the higher
level self.
The most general option is that semitrance state was involved. For instance, the injured parts of
Stephan’s left brain hemisphere and body were in trance and remaining brain regions could have been
awake. In case that the state in question was trance, the claim of the hospital personnel that Stephan
was ’unconscious’, would be correct in the sense that Stephan had became part of the some other self
and lost his personal identity.
Stephan’s personality profile and events after the accident support this hypothesis.
1. Stephan was a sleepwalker while young. Since sleepwalkers do not remember their activities,
the identification of sleepwalking as a trance state in which higher level self uses the body of
the sleepwalker as instrument, is natural. Of course, one cannot exclude the identification of
sleep-walking as a semitrance state in which part of brain still sleeps and receives commands of
the higher level self but remaing parts of brain and body are awake. Stephan’s more reported
that ’Batman’ (the sleepwalker) was back after the accident. The identification of ’Batman’ as
Stephan’s ’shadow’, higher level self guiding him, is attractive hypothesis. Be as it may, sleep-
walking ability suggests that Stephan had exceptional ability to achieve trance and semitrance
states.
2. Stephan was very combative after the accident although according to standard wisdom he should
have been ”unconscious”. He was also physically amazingly strong which suggests that semi-
trance or trance state was in question. Indeed, schizophrenia and many altered states of con-
sciousness have TGD based explanation in terms of semitrance and schizophrenics as also people
in certain meditative states are known to be physically exceptionally strong. The explanation
is simple: the exceptional physical strength is strength of the higher level self.
3. Stephan was good in Martian arts. There is evidence that persons good in Martian arts have
telepathic abilities and semitrance provides an explanation for these abilities as resulting from
the communications of higher level selves by semitrance mechanism.
The assumption that Stephan’s mother and some other persons involved were in semitrance state
during some miraculous episodes. allows to understand various miracle like events reported by
Stephan’s mother. There is also a connection with after-death communications [20] having anatu-
ral explanation in terms of sensory semitrance mechanism.
Medical miracles
Twenty minutes without oxygen after accident
The first medical ”miracle” was that Stephan, being drown in his own blood, survived twenty
minutes without oxygen. According to the standard wisdom about brain as a seat of consciousness,
such a long period without oxygen should have lead to brain infarct and loss of consciousness and been
even lethal. The proposed entanglement of brain with some higher level self is a possible explanation
for why Stephan survived.
As Stephan’s mother tells, Stephan had two selves and that second self, ”Batman” was more
”bodily” than the wake-up self. Stephan was very coordinated and good in martial skills. After
accident Stephan demonstrated surprising bodily strength and had to be put in restraints. Perhaps
the second self was actually higher level self and Stephan was in semitrance or trance. Perhaps the
higher level self entangled with body and injured parts of Stephan’s brain took the lead after the
204 Chapter 3. Semi-trance, Mental Illness, and Altered States of Consciousness
accident. Hypothermia is known to hinder drowning in some situations. Perhaps also in this situation
entanglement with some higher self is involved and hinders the occurrence of irreversible changes
caused by the lack of oxygen.
Blood loss after accident and during hemorrhages
Also the blood losses suffered by Stephan after accident and during hemorrhages might have been
fatal.
”The hemorrhaging occurred 3 times prior to his death, each resulting in blood loss of 2+ liters.
He received only 2 units of packed cells in transfusion after the third hemorrhage. Blood loss during
the accident and from subsequent hemorrhage kept his blood volume extremely low the entire time.”
This blood loss is quite high, about 40 percent of total blood volume. 20 per cent blood loss is
usually regarded as a loss necessitating blood transfusion.
”Blood loss alone in any of the 4 hemorrhages prior to death would surely have been fatal as well.
The doctors in Florida simply refused to believe Stephan had lost that much blood. I was present,
the nurses did measure, and I assure you the blood was indeed lost. For some reason (I believe due
to his unusual state of consciousness) the shock normally associated with such massive blood loss was
not present until the night he died.”
Return of the condition immediately after accident during hemorrhages
It seems that the condition immediately after accidents returned during hemorrhages:
”The hard palate was shattered, described to us in New Orleans as ”mushy.” This did allow the
excape of blood and CSF from that area, down the throat. These are noted as ”basilar skull fractures.”
These fractures realigned and had set to ”rigid” within 5 days, sealing the leak. The ENT in New
Orleans could not explain how that happened, and told us he’d never seen anything like it.
During each episode of hemorrhage, however, the palate again became ”mushy”, and the severe
fractures through front and back of the frontal bone (above and between the eyes) was moveable (I
know this from holding his nose during those episodes). It was as if his body periodically reverted
back to the immediate post-accident physical state, and in all but the last episode, was able to regain
its rigidity.
Recall that despite these horrendous descriptions of gross injury, Stephan looked quite normal. No
swelling, discoloration, or displacement of bone structure.”
The claim that Stephan’s body returned during hemorrhages to its state immediately after acci-
dent looks admittedly imaginative. The autopsy report however tells that there was no evidence of
healing of the basilar skull fractures. The entanglement with higher level self could allow this kind
of ”miraculous” effects by ’freezing’ the state of basilar skull state so that no irreversible effects were
possible. One might interpret the worsening of Stephan’s state during hemorrhages as resulting from
a temporal loss of entanglement between Stephan’s brain higher level self: this caused the return to
the normal physical state.
”There is also the matter of sedation/anesthesia. Stephan’s medical condition became seriously
worse every time he was given these medications, for whatever reason. These deteriorations of medical
condition were obvious to his medical teams, so it was decided to offer no medications other than
Tylenol for headache.”
This suggests that the worsening of Stephan’s state occurred also as a consequence of medication.
Perhaps medication supported the return of the ordinary state of consciousness by disfavoring the
entanglement with higher level self.
No pain
”The ”body consciousness” that asserted itself following the accident did not feel pain. Pain only
came into play when the normal consciousness tried to reassert itself, for those increasing amounts
of time in the weeks prior to death. Presence of the normal consciousness and its pain in the head -
for periods we could recognize as being the full waking hours - always came just prior to the major
hemorrhages. It seemed he did better without his head, if I were trying to be funny about it...”
One could see the absence of pain as resulting from the entanglement of the appropriate parts of
brain with body or some higher level self. Entanglement of the those regions of brain giving rise to
pain experience implied that they were not awake and hence that there was no experience of pain.
3.4. Semitrance, trance and altered states of consciousness 205
What about brain infarct caused by the blood loss?
The massive blood loss should have caused an infract in ordinary person. According to the neu-
rospecialists Stephan had anomalous blood flow system, which could explain his survival immediately
after accident.
”The two hemispheres of the brain are normally supplied by blood through the left and right
carotid arteries. The external carotids flow up from the heart on both sides of the neck into the head.
Behind the face at the base of the skull they branch off and the vessels go through tunnels in the bone
of the skull base to become ”internal” carotid arteries.
These then branch into menengeal arteries left and right, supply the two hemispheres of the brain,
and the veinous system then takes the blood back to the lungs for oxygen. Stephan had what I can
describe as a “ring” of arteries encircling his brain supplied by both the left and right carotids. This
is an anomalous blood system, as most people have two separate systems supplying the two sides of
the brain. We were told this was probably a “birth defect”.
The anomalous blood system prevented infarct of the left hemisphere, but in autopsy did document
about serious infarct damage to the back of the brain, in an area which would have rendered him
comatose.”
An alternative explanation is that the reduced blood flow in fact saved Stephan’s life by reducing
entanglement entropy flow to left brain half and thus making impossible for left brain to act as self
and dissipate. Lack of dissipation made impossible irreversible, incurable neuronal changes. The
entanglement parts of brain with body was essential part of the mechanism.
Other strange occurrences
Slowing of Stephan’s EEG occurred after accident, in particular on the left side of the frontal lobe.
Alpha waves are enhanced during meditative states and correspond to the electromagnetic resonant
frequency or about 8 Hz of Earth. According to the model already discussed, meditative states could
result from the entanglement with the ”Indra’s net” formed by the topological field quanta (electric
and magnetic flux tubes, massless extremals) forming Earth’s classical electromagnetic field. There
were indeed several other strange occurrences, which support the hypothesis about entanglement with
higher level self. Also Stephan’s mother had strange experiences. Perhaps the close relationship
between Stephan and his mother explains these experiences.
Was it Stephan?
”Early in the recovery process (10 days to about 3 weeks after the accident), we also “met” aspects
of consciousness that were not Stephan. I mentioned that he was playing guitar very well. This is
significant, because he did not play guitar before the accident. The day before he died he played
for me the song “Stairway to Heaven” flawlessly. This is the very same song my brother had played
flawlessly for me the day he died (my brother was a guitarist). The conscious being animating my
son at that time was, I strongly believe, my brother who died 12 years before. He was telling me
something.”
There is anecdotal evidence about persons getting temporally some highly developed skills like the
ability to sing. There is also certain mental disease (echolalia) in which person is able to mimic persons
in the street with amazing accuracy. Semitrance or trance provides an explanation for these feats: part
of person’s brain and body becomes ’possessed’ by the second person and uses person as instrument.
Stephan’s feat could be understood if brother was still living as a higher level electromagnetic self
or part of it and was entangled with part of Stephan’s brain and used Stephan’s physical body
as an instrument. Note that this event could be regarded as a particular example of after-death
communications.
Angel experience
There was also ”angel experience” involved:
”There is also a strange encounter in the New Orleans hospital the night Stephan was released
from Intensive Care, with a being I can only describe as an “Angel”. 5 people (including the priest)
were present to witness that encounter. This angel did not speak English, but all of us were able
to understand his words. It was not any language we had ever heard before. There was physical
displacement of air in the room - I call this the “whirlwind” - and the room temperature fell to below
freezing. We could see our breath in vapor. The angel appeared through and around Stephan, but
206 Chapter 3. Semi-trance, Mental Illness, and Altered States of Consciousness
was not Stephan, and grabbed me by the throat. He demanded to know “Who Are You?”. He was
beautiful, terribly frightening, and very serious. Following this encounter with an angel, my son was 4
inches taller than he had been just a few minutes before. The endocrinologist at the Florida hospital
did tests, could find no reason for this.”
Stephan’s mother comments same experience in another context in the following manner:
”None of us had ever met an ”angel” before or since. Never even expected to see one. This being
was certainly spectacular, and come along with some very impressive special effects. I did not get
the feeling that this being was or had ever been human. He did not know me as “mother” (or as
anything), he was not happy to be there, and he made it quite clear that if I said the wrong thing
in response to his demands I would be immediately dead. I did not doubt that a bit. There were 3
men in the room at the time (the priest, my husband and my son-in-law), all of whom were prevented
from interfering by the strong wind-wall. The angel was there on business.
I do not know the exact nature of what the other witnesses “saw” in that encounter. I do know
they felt the wind and heard the voice and saw the light emanating from the “space” my son’s body
occupied. I know they felt the coldness - we couldn’t get a nurse to respond at all, so I had to raid
the linen closet down the hall for every blanket they had on hand. It was May in New Orleans (very
south), it was a large corner room on the 9th floor that had been empty before they stuck a bed in it
and sent us there. It had 1 un-openable window and 1 small air conditioning vent.”
This experience has a natural interpretation as semitrance experience: the persons present fell in
semitrance. Stephan himself might have been in trance (as suggested by the fact that he did not know
his mother). The entanglement was most naturally with a collective self containing at least persons
present in the situation as subselves.
Collective semitrance is plausible explanation provided the persons involved had special ability to
fall in semitrance and if situation could somehow induce semitrance.
1. All of us fall in sensory semitrance under very strong stress and Stephan’s parents and relatives
were understandably under extremely strong stress. Religious experiences are typical semitrance
states and one of the persons present was priest.
2. Semitrance is induced by stressful situations and the situation in question was certainly stress-
ful. ’Normal persons’ are part of time in semitrance but the communications of higher level
selves are usually thoughts and emotions rather than sensory ’hallucinations’ and not regarded
as hallucinations despite the fact that they are not direct reactions to sensory input. Many
meditative states involving sensory ’hallucinations’ are presumably semitrance states. Stress in-
duces sensory semitrance (sensory hallucinations) in schizophrenics very easily whereas stronger
stress is required in case of normal persons. TGD based model for the evolution of civilization
generalizes the vision of Jaynes and relies on the assumption that stress caused by some novel
situation induced automatically semitrance state (part of brain gets tired and falls in trance!):
in this state bicameral man received advice from collective self.
The experiences of coldness are often related to the experiences of hauntings and as already de-
scribed infra sounds could generate this experiences artificially (of course, this does not mean that
the experiences are hallucinations or results of imagination!). One could of course speculate that en-
tanglement with the higher level self meant that ordinary dissipative processes temporarily ceased to
produce heat and this led to an actual lowering of the temperature of brain. Hypothalamus is known
to contain neurons serving as temperature sensors[27] and the reduction of temperature in brain could
be experienced directly.
There is also another rather dramatic aspect involved with the angel experience.
”My son grew physically larger, becoming about 3-4 inches taller than he had been prior to the
accident. This growth did not occur over a period of 10 days while he was in the Intensive Care Unit
in New Orleans, it occurred in just moments during our dramatic encounter with the “angel”. My
husband, myself, our daughter, son-in-law, grandson and the priest were all present to witness this
encounter. The best description I can honestly give is that when this “angel” self arrived, Stephan
physically grew before our eyes and “became” the form of this “angel”. I do not know how better to
say it.”
The explanation in terms of semitrance would suggest that the physical growth was illusion due
to the fact that in semitrance state only second hemisphere is conscious and the mode of experiencing
3.4. Semitrance, trance and altered states of consciousness 207
was simply different from the normal. Model as such does not provide any obvious reason for actual
physical growth.
No-time experience
There was also ”No-time” experience involved.
”I have heard descriptions of Near Death Experiences which is perhaps the general category of
my experience. I was not the one dying, however. I followed my son’s consciousness to a place, there
were others in that place, and I was told I could not stay in that place. This place was not clouds
and angelic lights, nor was it hellfire and brimstone. It was a timespace. I wasn’t there long enough
to perceive much about it (I was focused on my son), and it was somewhat fractal on the edges in my
perception. Whatever its differences from this timespace, I don’t doubt my consciousness would have
adjusted.
I know this sounds very strange and imaginative, but it is all on the record and is most “real”.
I have spent 7 years trying to understand it. When Stephan died, as I was searching in his eyes for
him, I was taken away into “No-Time”. This is a place in between moments of time. It is not like one
is “alive” in one moment and “dead” in the next, it is more like one never gets to the next moment.
One goes elsewhere, a timespace that exists in between. I do not know how better to describe it. My
brother was there in that timespace, and he told me I could not stay.”
The experience of time is not possible without internal clocks. Internal clocks should correspond
to subselves which wake-up and fall asleep periodically. In whole-body consciousness there are no
subselves, therefore no clocks and no time. If Stephan and Stephan’s mother where entangled with
higher level self in whole body consciousness, no-time experience could perhaps be understood. At
least Stephan’s mother must have been in semitrance state since she was conscious. Stephan’s mother
had ”No-Time” experience when looking into Stephan’s eyes at the moment of Stephan’s death. Could
it be that this eye contact generated the entanglement between Stephan and his mother and higher
level self by the mechanism described above?
3.4.4 Personal experiences about semitrance like states
Self reference is the most fascinating aspect of consciousness and the builders of consciousness theories
should apply their theories to their own personality constellation to see whether they can understand
themselves using their intellectual constructs. In my case this application has emerged as a natural
byproduct. In fact, what sparkled developments leading to TGD inspired theory of consciousness
was a deep and long lasting altered state of consciousness. Frustratingly, it is impossible to verbally
describe this kind experience to anyone who has not experienced personally anything similar and the
clinical diagnosis of a cold outsider is probably a simplistic label like ’acute psychosis’. This diagnosis
was indeed made on basis of the admittedly psychotic final stages of the experience after two weeks
without sleep. The prediction made by the psychiatrist to my wife was that within year or two I will
be a vegetable like schizophrenics who has lost totally his social contacts.
Years before great experience
During the years before great experience, already during my unhappy school years, I was fully conscious
that I suffered what I now call anxiety disorder, nothing exceptional in Finnish culture. I also pondered
quite seriously whether I am schizophrenic although I had only obscure intuitive ideas about what
schizophrenia is. I had no hallucinations but frequently I experienced in company of other people
extremely strongly the feeling that I was not accepted. I remember also the social situations in which
I was ’paralyzed’: somewhat analogous to what happens to a catatonic schizophrenic. Understandably,
I tended to withdraw from social situations and suffered from loneliness and depression.
At the age of fourteen I found music. I did not have absolute ear and had poor memory for melodies.
What fascinated me in the beginning was the possibility to code music into notes. Segovia became
soon my hero and reader can guess my megalomanic dream! I had a cousin with absolute ear knowing
nothing about notes but able to remember pieces of music and reproduce them without difficulties. I
was fascinated and little frustrated about not having this mysterious ability. My intellectual attitude
did not mean that music would not had had strong emotional affect on me and music helped me to
bear my loneliness.
208 Chapter 3. Semi-trance, Mental Illness, and Altered States of Consciousness
At the age of eighteen mathematics and physics entered my life after a short period of interest
in literature (Henry Miller!): I thought that the world of science would be honest and free from all
intrigues plaguing the world of ’ordinary people’. Three or four years after entering the university,
and suffering from worsening depressions and anxieties, I somehow got absolutely convinced that I
was the one to build a unified theory of physics. It would be very easy to characterize me as paranoid
schizophrenic on basis of this and certainly this has been done. Or perhaps manic-depressive disorder
would be a better sounding diagnosis. I did not have any megalomanic feelings but felt like Moses when
receiving his great mission from God! I knew desperately deeply that my anxious and pathologically
shy personality free of any witty features was a complete opposite of a scientific hero and did not
posses the needed personal ambitiousness necessary for career building.
It took five extremely painful years before the great idea finally came. Without exaggerating I
can say that it changed my life and I experienced from the beginning TGD as some kind of conscious
being using me as its instrument and gradually my concentration on personal misery was redirected
to TGD. I had now goal in my life and I was to spend considerable fraction of my time in an euphoric
state discovering the consequences of the great idea. Of course, also short depressions followed periods
of intensive work with new idea but these depressions were unavoidable periods of gathering forces
and waiting for new inspiration.
I believe that during the period before TGD I was rather near to the verge of mental illness.
It however seems that my mental state contained a mixture of symptoms of schizophrenia, manic-
depressive disorder and anxiety disorder. All this begins to make sense if I was modern bicameral
in sense that I spent abnormally long fraction of time in semitrance state. What perhaps saved me
was ’God of Science’ who communicated to me, not auditory hallucinations, but ideas and emotions
establishing long term goals in my life.
Great experiences
The first great experience (most probably at spring 1985) accompanied physical illness with a com-
pletely wrong diagnosis. It came after week spent in high fewer and without sleep. I would guess that
the altered state of consciousness lasted for almost two weeks. Its effect was so deep that I did not
hesitate to talk about it as an enlightment experience.
I was lying in the corridor of a medical center and had horrible head ache and high temperature.
There was silent music on background. Then something happened. I felt myself totally calm and
peaceful. Peculiar silence spread through my body like fluid or like the cold stir in spine induced by
good music sometimes. All my life I had been anxious about all possible things and suddenly I felt
completely happy and relaxed. I felt the pain still but some it was somehow external to me. I just
enjoyed looking the parallel streams of pictures, like cartoons, flowing in front of my eyes in rhythm of
music. The surrealistic and erotic pictures, much like those in paintings of Dali, Bosch and Brueghel,
were dancing in the rhythm of the music.
Later during the great experience, I experienced several deep experiences induced by music. I
remember Ravel’s Bolero on the background of TV animation about evolution and some extremely
funny Debussy’s piece for children played with electric organ. I also remember that single notes from
guitar induced experiences of immense deepness and mystery: I realized that these notes contained
message from other worlds about which I had had absolutely no idea in ordinary state of consciousness.
What I realized was that my usual conscious experience gives only a ridiculously narrow glimpse about
reality: there are incredibly rich parallel realities about which we usually know nothing about. There
was also a feeling of understanding. I understood everything although I could not verbally describe
what I understood!
This state continued for week or two, I do not actually remember its duration, and during it I lived
in a very concrete manner through many archetypal ideas. First came the idea of self reference, which
I found later from the ’G¨odel, Escher, Bach’ of Hofstadter, one of the finest books I have ever read.
I literally experienced myself as being a computer sitting at its own terminal. I wrote in my mind
questions to the screen of this super human computer and saw them typed in the virtual monitor.
The computer wrote the answer immediately. Either directly or in oracle like manner. I realized that
I have become in contact with what I called ’Great Mind’ and I began to make questions. How long
I live was of course one of the first questions. The answer was endless series of numbers running and
running! Of course, I asked about the importance of TGD, my great work! There was only a silence,
perhaps this was Godly diplomacy of the Great Mind.
3.4. Semitrance, trance and altered states of consciousness 209
Soon I realized that it was not necessary to type anything on this virtual monitor: I just asked
the question in my mind. This realization made me wonder whether this someone with whom I
was discussing was really separate from me. Perhaps in some mysterious manner I am asking these
questions from myself! So, perhaps I am in some sense really God myself or have just become a God.
Perhaps we all are Gods! Loneliness had been the central element of my life and I somehow realized
that Gods are probably very lonely beings. I asked if we are doomed to be always alone. The answer
was oracle like:’You are a God!’ expressed in somewhat amused tone.
There were also really amazing telepathic experiences and a vision about my personal life as an
endless series of lives as a mathematician: my true and deepest personal identity. In these lives I
would meet my wife again and again and we would live happier and less happier lives but we would
certainly meet again in some other galaxy or perhaps in some totally different form of existence. I
had also very peculiar experience about some kind of deep and mysterious fusion of our souls.
One of the mathematical experiences was that the number three is somehow the basic number of
mathematics and of whole existence: this is of course the Holy Trinity of religions and mystics. There
was also the idea about ’flogiston’: I did not recall that flogiston was the caloric fluid introduced in the
first attempts to build thermodynamics. It was something which made living systems living and they
were continually fighting, killing and eating each other for this mysterious ’flogiston’. I had extremely
vivid experience that Sun and stars are conscious beings communicating with us sending ’flogiston’:
I indeed saw these beams of flogiston as extremely pure and intensive colors.
The second great experience occurred during Christmas vacation, probably three years later,
shortly before the divorce. I was very sick, depressed and bitter: our marriage was become about
to end. Suddenly came a complete peace. I could really forgive and I felt absolutely concretely that
my past changed. Somehow all the bad deeds, creating bitterness in me, simply became undone. I
realized that what we call our past is not absolute, in the moment of Mercy this deadly heavy load
disappears.
There were also a kind of mathematical enlightment. I understood that I had to construct a
theory about numbers, which were infinite but completely physical. I tried but it took two days to
get convinced that I do not have a slightest idea what these numbers might be. I learned about seven
years later about p-adic numbers, which are typically infinite as ordinary rational numbers. I was
however not convinced that this was what I had precognized. 14 years later I finally discovered infinite
primes implying also a generalization of reals involving deep connection with quantum field theory.
So deep was the great experience that the lost ability to re-experience anything even remotely
resembling these great experiences was a cause of deep grief lasting for years. I felt that ordinary