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Copyright © 2010 LearningExpress, LLC. All rights reserved under International and Pan-American Copyright Conventions. Published in the United States by LearningExpress, LLC, New York. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Grammar success in 20 minutes a day. —2nd ed. p. cm. ISBN-13: 978-1-57685-721-2 (pbk. : alk. paper) ISBN-10: 1-57685-721-2 (pbk. : alk. paper) 1. English language—Grammar—Problems, exercises, etc. I. LearningExpress (Organization) PE1112.G676 2010 428.2—dc22 2009024478 Printed in the United States of America 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 ISBN: 978-1-57685-721-2 For information on LearningExpress, other LearningExpress products, or bulk sales, please write to us at LearningExpress 2 Rector Street 26th Floor New York, NY 10006 Or visit us at www.learnatest.com

contents

INtroductIoN PreteSt NouNS and ProNouNS LeSSoN 1 LeSSoN 2 LeSSoN 3 Kinds of Nouns Common, proper, concrete, abstract, collective, and compound nouns Noun Usage Plural and possessive nouns Pronouns Personal, reflexive, demonstrative, relative, interrogative, and indefinite pronouns

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13 19 27

verbS LeSSoN 4 LeSSoN 5 LeSSoN 6 Verb Types Action, linking, and helping verbs Regular and Irregular Verbs Common regular and irregular verbs, problem, and tricky verbs Verb Forms and Tenses Present and past, present and past participle, and other verb forms; basic tense review 35 39 49

modIfIerS LeSSoN 7 Adjectives Articles, pronouns as adjectives, and demonstrative and comparative adjectives
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comparative adverbs. noun. italics and underlining. corrective. hyphens. adverb. and how to distinguish adverbs from adjectives Prepositions Common prepositions and how to distinguish prepositions from adverbs Misplaced Modifiers and Tricky Words Kinds of modifiers. and compound-complex. predicates. question marks. subordinate. and appositive phrases Clauses Independent. homonyms. complex. gerund. verbal. adjective.coNteNtS LeSSoN 8 Adverbs Common adverbs. parentheses. that enliven writing 85 91 97 LeSSoN 14 LeSSoN 15 LeSSoN 16 101 107 113 PuNctuatIoN LeSSoN 17 LeSSoN 18 LeSSoN 19 LeSSoN 20 End Punctuation Periods. and parentheses 121 125 133 139 PoStteSt 147 iv . adjective. and direct and indirect objects Agreement Subject-verb and pronoun-antecedent agreement Phrases Prepositional. and semicolons Internal Punctuation II Apostrophes. and adverb clauses Conjunctions Coordinating. including compound. colons. infinitive. and subordinating conjunctions Combining Sentences Kinds of sentences. complements. and dashes Internal Punctuation III Quotation marks. and exclamation points Internal Punctuation I Commas. participial. and homographs 63 LeSSoN 9 LeSSoN 10 69 73 SeNteNce Structure LeSSoN 11 LeSSoN 12 LeSSoN 13 Sentence Basics Subjects. brackets.

for the most part. Understanding the inner workings of a sentence can help you with your speech and writing—the essence of communication and language. and figuring out these dynamics is like putting a puzzle together (or taking it apart). While language is forever changing to meet our needs. You might be surprised by just how much you remember! D v . And the benefits you get for your efforts far outweigh the 20 minutes of your day you’ll spend with this book. take the pretest on the next few pages to determine what you already know and what you might need to focus on. Before you begin to progress through the book.Introduction o your grammar skills need some brushing up? Perhaps you have an exam on the horizon. Because English is so complex. the inner workings of a sentence are. as constant as the stars. this quick reference guide will help put you well on your way toward accomplishing your grammar goals—no matter how big or small. or you want to hone your grammar skills to improve your writing or speech. rules and guidelines called grammar and usage are necessary to help us better understand its many idiosyncrasies. Whatever the case may be.

Pretest B efore you start your study of grammar skills. Good luck. If you get lots of answers wrong on the pretest. Take as much time as you need to finish the test. When you finish. If you get a low score. do not worry—this book will teach you how to improve your grammar and writing. Each answer lists the lesson of the book that covers the concept(s) in that question. you may be able to spend less time with this book than you originally planned. Record your answers in this book. it is almost guaranteed that you will find a few things in the book you did not already know. If it does not belong to you. step by step. get an idea of how much you already know and how much you need to learn by taking the pretest that follows. 1 . Naturally. list the numbers 1–50 on a piece of paper and write your answers there. check your answers against the answer key that follows the test. It consists of 50 multiple-choice questions about what is in this book. you may find you will need more than 20 minutes a day to learn all that you need to know. 50 questions can not cover every single concept or rule you will learn by working through these lessons. so even if you answer all the questions correctly. If you get a high score on the pretest.

Circle the nouns that are pluralized correctly.Pretest Pretest 1. 9. Pass me the salt. I was so tired I couldn’t force myself to get dressed and join my friends at the mall. Circle the hyphenated nouns that are spelled correctly. Circle the subjective case pronouns. kids/him Kathy and I/it group/it each/he or she both/they everybody/they fish/they fish/it woman/we 3. Some people take themselves too seriously and think it’s their responsibility to solve everyone else’s problems! 2 . Klondike Basketball Mt. Circle the nouns that have been made possessive correctly. Circle the abstract nouns. Circle the objective case pronouns. 12. 11. tree/it King Henry/he kangaroo/his Anthony/she passenger/it Alice/her 8. 5. Circle the common nouns. Texas Puzzle Licorice IBM Work Nancy Mexico City Spiderman Clock Mr. They went to Pat’s and called me. halves casinoes valleyes booths theorys inchs houses tooths oxen dishes mother-in-laws hippopotami I went to his house and saw him. sister-in-laws runner-ups follow-ups He threw it toward me. She brought me an apple and I thanked her. Circle the interrogative pronouns. but stopped himself before he said something really mean to his brother. peace deceit NASA test telephone cheerfulness smile eyelash livelihood jungle rubber band patience number. Circle the proper nouns. 4. child’s Congress’ puppies’ women’s her’s tooth’s moms’ his’ Jody’s cactus’s Jason’s dress’s the possessive case pronouns. Everest who which how when whom where whose whomever what 10. Circle the antecedents/pronouns that agree in 2. 7. Carlo was angry. Circle the antecedents/pronouns that agree in chair Australia Monticello saucepan joy supermarket understanding dancing knitted Ohio toddlers hostess gender. We made them sandwiches. Circle the reflexive case pronouns and underline kilowatt-hours forget-me-nots sticks-in-the-mud 6.

appear feel study took prove look become call is sat grow lose future. Identify the tense of each verb as present.Pretest 13. each noun. lying) in the suitcase. ___ house ___ unicorn ___ one-way street ___ underdog ___ unopened gift ___ hour ___ wrist ___ upper level ___ elephant ___ yellow flower ___ honor ___ loafer ___ orange ___ occasion ___ admirer 23. Joy found her hairbrush (laying. except) Jim’s explanation. The swing has (lain. sets) the table while Gert cooks dinner. Italy Texas America California Japan Bahama France Virginia Belgium Inca Africa Hawaii Denmark China England 3 . past perfect. Circle the regular verbs and underline the irregular verbs. but it was difficult. may) take another glass of lemonade if you like. future perfect. hung) her new curtains on the window. Claudia’s aunt (sits. Peter tried to (accept. wash would put be buy write hold pray loan cook gnaw marry 15. (Setting. Circle the demonstrative pronouns and 19. Circle the common adjectives in the following 16. Shelley wore a blue dress to the wedding. 20. Sitting) on the porch on a cool summer night is the best. 22. Circle the correct tricky verb in each sentence. lain) awake before getting up to play. laid) broken behind the shed for two years. forgive grow wash hide sit hear buy sew play walk pet throw sentences. You (can. 18. Circle the correct form of lay/lie in each sentence. sat) patiently as the teacher took attendance. present progressive. We donated our old car to an automotive school where students practice doing repairs. That is the most annoying sound that I have ever heard. Sandy carefully (hanged. Is this the channel that you were watching? 14. The pungent aroma of Italian spices filled the busy kitchen of the pizzeria. Circle the linking verbs. will drive am driving had driven drove drive has driven drives will have driven 21. present perfect. The boy had (laid. Circle the action verbs. Those are the boxes of blankets that Mom plans to take to the SPCA. past. The class (set. Place the correct indefinite article in front of 17. past progressive. Change the following proper nouns into proper adjectives. underline the relative pronouns. or future progressive. Circle the correct form of sit/set in each sentence.

If we can reach Hightstown by five. Rewrite each sentence so that the misplaced superlative adverbs in the following sentences. modifiers are properly placed. six inches. so he bought new ones. Determine whether the boldfaced word in the sentence is a possessive pronoun or a possessive adjective. Joel was (less. Nora was sent straight to her room for disobeying her parents. Identify the prepositional phrases in the sentence is a demonstrative pronoun or a demonstrative adjective. His sneakers were worn. Determine whether the boldfaced word is a lative adjective best completes each sentence. Watch these carefully while they boil. 29. The little monkey ran around Mom’s living room and climbed up the drapes. Determine which form of comparative or super- following sentences. highest) jump in the high jump was four feet. Determine whether the boldfaced word in each sentence is an adjective or an adverb. Sean’s bank account was (larger. The accounting department ran at a fast but friendly pace. we may be able to see the president’s motorcade go by. lowest) of the three brands. My uncle showed me an autographed Babe Ruth baseball card and said it would one day be mine. more large) than mine. Barbara was (best. Determine whether the boldfaced word in each 28. 4 . Holly was beside herself with fear when the child darted into the street. This was the (long. Without a doubt. 27. better) at chess than her roommate Natalie. Circle the correct form of the comparative and preposition or an adverb. Terry’s (most high. Walking along the shore the sand burned my feet. lower. The woman was walking her dog with hair curlers. Ferdinand Magellan was the first explorer to sail around the world. longest) day of the year. Cory worked hard on improving his tennis swing for the tournament. longer. least) active during the winter than during the summer. regular exercise is necessary for good health. Use caution when you walk across busy streets. 30. 26. The store brand’s price was the (low. Tina bought a guinea pig for her brother they call Butterscotch. 25. Marissa crossed her fingers and hoped the winning ticket would be hers. This is really over the top! Take this money and buy yourself a treat. 31.Pretest 24.

Next week. stops) by my office to get directions to your cubicle. 36. Determine which pronoun best fits for proper sentences. Patty (fly. Nobody (want. The boys took ________ time walking home from school. Neither Jessica nor Marty (like. Spaghetti and meatballs (is. 35. Reading is good exercise for the brain. tastes) this lasagna before I serve it to see if it’s okay? Many (stop. 34. Brandy took the pot of flowers and brought it into the garden window. following sentences. Grumbling to himself. 39. finished/tossed trade event/equitable the total/several shut/nearby dispatched/perfume dress in/goods for sale 33. Nobody saw __________ name on the cast list. Everyone (need. are) my favorite Italian meal. flies) frequently for work. but very expensive. The cashier with the red hair and braces was especially helpful. write the homonyms or 37. Identify the simple subject in the following following sentences. Identify the verb that correctly completes the homographs.Pretest 32. 40. revealed a whole different world. Books with weak spines need to be reinforced to lengthen their shelf life. are) probably going to be the valedictorian this year. 38. Using the clues. likes) to do the laundry. Stan dragged the heavy garbage cans out to the street. wants) to play croquet in the the backyard with me. Try again. Circle the verb that agrees with the indefinite sentences. Identify the verb that correctly agrees with the pronoun/antecedent agreement in each sentence. He gave her a high-five to assure her that all was well. needs) to get any homework I assign in on time! Will somebody (taste. when turned over. It may be too soon to tell. The scared joey hopped to _________ mother for security. All of us (watch. Identify whether each boldfaced word is a direct or an indirect object in the following sentences. 5 . The lizard scurried across the sidewalk and disappeared into the bushes. Identify the simple predicate in the following pronoun in each sentence. The log. watches) out for one another. Scott and Jennifer will get married. Shopping sprees can be fun. Identify the adjective and adverb phrases in the subject in each sentence. Sally or Zach (is.

Identify the noun clause in each sentence. Caring for her ailing grandmother is Lori’s focus right now. the audience clapped loudly and gave him a standing ovation. Identify the appositive phrases in the following I can see what you mean. How it ends remains to be seen. compound. 48. you will certainly achieve success. and Now I remember the guy that you described to me yesterday. When the judge announced the winner. Identify the coordinating conjunction(s) and the independent or a subordinate clause. What Wendy said took everyone by surprise. b. has a very fanciful imagination. All of the graduates will receive a degree. 47. complex. We can go to dinner now or we can go after the concert. If it doesn’t rain We plan to go Take that back Because I overslept Cover your mouth Remember her birthday 44. If you try harder. 42. Molly. Brad won’t be able to buy a new car.Pretest 41. d. Identify the adverb clause in each sentence. 43. I could get this job done faster if there were not so many distractions! Although many cats are loners. 46. Ron. 6 . infinitive 45. Jeannine works for KTL. my student. Hoping to win the lottery. To help pass the time. Identify the participial phrases. but she had a long drive home and it was late. Determine whether each group of words is an Unless he gets a pay raise. a public relations firm in Kansas City. Logan or Melanie can go to the retreat if they want to. phrases. Identify the adjective clause in each sentence. and gerund phrases in the following sentences. compound-complex sentences. Harriet bought 50 tickets for tonight’s drawing. sentences. is a fair-minded and friendly man. c. We signed up for the early class so we could have the rest of the afternoon free. Jake reads a book that he takes along. Identify the simple. a referee and mentor. word or group of words it is connecting in each sentence. The house at the end of the road is where my father grew up. The room next to the office is where the professors meet. a. Karla wanted to visit longer with her friend. they still look to humans for food and shelter.

Nathans birthday is May 21 1991 which fell on a Monday this year Mr Roberts left a message asking me to pick up these items staples printer paper correction fluid and two boxes of paper clips I guess the supply closet got raided All of the girls dresses were pink with white eyelet ruffles on the sleeves edges. end marks in the following sentences. Add punctuation where necessary in the 50. and following sentences. Correctly place quotation marks. Bowen the math teacher Im glad you came to the beach with me my cousin whispered because without you I couldnt make the most awesome sand castle and win the contest 7 . commas.Pretest 49. Why do we need to know how to add or subtract fractions anyway Chris asked Mr.

Virginian. French. become. hard: adverb. My: possessive adjective (Lesson 7) This: demonstrative pronoun. an admirer (Lesson 7) Italian. women’s. gnaw. marry (Lesson 4) 8 17. 23. accept. both/ they (Lesson 3) 9. hers: possessive pronoun. saucepan. put. an unopened gift. Hawaiian. peace. Jason’s. oxen. African. Mr. (Lesson 3) 11. Is this the channel that you were watching? (Lesson 3) 14. an hour. longest (Lesson 8) fast: adjective. larger. sets. moms’. 27. buy. forget-me-nots. whom. Jody’s. English (Lesson 7) His: possessive adjective. dress’s (Lesson 2) 7. 21. IBM. King Henry/he. you may refer to the designated lesson for further explanation. I was so tired I couldn’t force myself to get dressed and join my friends at the mall. loan. her: possessive adjective. sticks-in-the-mud (Lesson 2) 6. cactus’s. Those are the boxes of blankets that Mom plans to take to the SPCA. Texan. Carlo was angry. Spiderman. toddlers. Mexico City. busy. 18. child’s. 22. Chinese. Japanese. 24. hold. fish/they. a loafer. straight: adverb (Lessons 7 and 8) . lain (Lesson 5) sat. chair. Bahamian. these: demonstrative pronoun (Lesson 7) highest. booths. 19. appear. wash hide sew pet sit hear play throw (Lesson 5) lying. whose. a one-way street. better (Lesson 7) less. forgive grow buy walk (Lesson 1) 2. tree/it. an elephant. That is the most annoying sound that I have ever heard. They went to Pat’s and called me. Nancy. tooth’s. Danish. Incan. fish/it. an occasion. livelihood. but stopped himself before he said something really mean to his brother. each/he or she. wash. Everest (Lesson 1) 4.Pretest Answers If you miss any of the following questions. who. Klondike. hostess 15. a yellow flower. pray. patience (Lesson 1) 3. lowest. a unicorn. an orange. Congress’. a wrist. kilowatt-hours. an underdog. hippopotami (Lesson 2) 5. Mt. follow-ups. deceit. write. lain. which. look (Lesson 4) 16. 28. Pass me the salt. Texas. cheerfulness. old. an honor. Sitting (Lesson 5) hung. 1. She brought me an apple and I thanked her. grow. 26. puppies’. supermarket. may (Lesson 5) will drive: future had driven: past perfect drive: present drives: present am driving: present progressive drove: past has driven: present perfect will have driven: future perfect (Lesson 6) pungent. halves. Belgian. American. 20. Californian. an upper level. He threw it toward me . automotive (Lesson 7) a house. We made them sandwiches. whomever (Lesson 3) 10. prove. Alice/her (Lesson 3) 8. group/it. cook. houses. dishes. (Lesson 3) 12. Some people take themselves too seriously and think it’s their responsibility to solve everyone else’s problems! (Lesson 3) 13. blue. feel. I went to his house and saw him. 25. this: demonstrative adjective.

flies. the math teacher. is (Lesson 12) 38. Nathan’s birthday is May 21. with weak spines: adjective phrase across the sidewalk: adverb phrase. We signed up for the early class so we could have the rest of the afternoon free. his or her.” my cousin whispered. printer paper. (Lesson 15) 48. compound. taste. and two boxes of paper clips. around the world. Unless he gets a pay raise if there were not so many distractions Although many cats are loners (Lesson 14) 47. It (Lesson 11) 34. “because without you I couldn’t make the most awesome sand castle and win the contest!” (Lessons 17–20) 9 . a referee and mentor a telecommunications company in Kansas City my student (Lesson 13) 43. 1991. its (Lesson 12) 40. what you mean What Wendy said How it ends (Lesson 14) 46. but she had a long drive home and it was late. Hoping to win the lottery: participial phrase To help pass the time: infinitive phrase Caring for her ailing grandmother: gerund phrase (Lesson 13) 42. “I’m glad you came to the beach with me. c. revealed (Lesson 11) 35. garbage cans: direct object. by: adverb. it: direct object. by five: preposition. is. Bowen. watch. up the drapes (Lesson 9) 30. d. that you described where my father grew up where the professors meet (Lesson 14) 45. around Mom’s living room. their. I guess the supply closet got raided. beside herself: preposition. b. high-five: direct object (Lesson 11) 36. into the bushes: adverb phrase with the red hair and braces: adjective phrase (Lesson 13) 41. “Why do we need to know how to multiply or divide fractions anyway?” Chris asked Mr. wants (Lesson 12) 37. needs. is. compound-complex. All of the girls’ dresses were pink with white eyelet ruffles on the sleeves’ edges. The woman with hair curlers was walking her dog.Pretest 29. Shopping sprees. across busy streets: preposition (Lesson 9) 31. simple. correction fluid. complex (Lesson 16) 49. likes. Roberts left a message asking me to pick up these items: staples. her: indirect object. (Lessons 17–20) 50. If it doesn’t rain: subordinate clause We plan to go: independent clause Take that back: independent clause Because I overslept: subordinate clause Cover your mouth: independent clause Remember her birthday: independent clause (Lesson 14) 44. which fell on a Monday this year. stop (Lesson 12) 39. (Lesson 10) 32. Logan or Melanie Karla wanted to visit longer with her friend. a. The sand burned my feet while I was walking along the shore. Tina bought a guinea pig they call Butterscotch for her brother. for good health. through/threw fair/fair sum/some close/close sent/scent wear/ware (Lesson 10) 33. pot: direct object. Try. Scott and Jennifer. Mr. Without a doubt.

Nouns and Pronouns .

1 Kinds of Nouns The beginning of wisdom is to call things by their right names. ouns. is the fundamental component of our language. that is where we will start our grammar refresher. collective nouns. and compound nouns. —Chinese proverb l e s s o N Les s o n s um m ary Learn why the noun. abstract nouns. It is important to know about nouns and their function in speaking and writing because so many other parts of speech relate to nouns. and its six identifiable subgroups. Then we will look at each individual group in more detail. N 13 . proper nouns. There are six distinct groups of nouns: common nouns. So. are naming words. places. The following page briefly summarizes the six different noun groups and cites the unique qualities that separate them. or things we talk about. the most basic component of language. concrete nouns. They help us identify the persons.

input.K iNds of NouNs The six Types of Nouns Common nouns A common noun is a word that speaks of something only in a general way. places. abstract nouns In contrast. The noun wellbeing is abstract and compound. proper nouns name a very specific person. waves. abstract nouns name beliefs. and breezes are all concrete nouns. daring. herd. or some form thereof. Example: Almost nothing beats the warmth of Florida sunshine. and washing machine. and person. verbs. For instance. Concrete nouns Concrete nouns name something that appeals to your senses. Florida is a proper noun. car. One distinguishing aspect of proper nouns is that they always begin with a capital letter. or accrued. But be cautious. For example. adjectives. Compound nouns New words can be formed by combining two or more words. or thing. moonlight. concepts. car. onlooker. and people). and characteristics or qualities—things that can’t be touched. like book. For example. place. including nouns. because it is not describing another word. composure. For example. the proper noun Florida is acting as a proper adjective in the following sentence because it is used to describe the word sunshine. concrete. sovereignty. the noun school (of fish) is common. free enterprise. seen. Example: My family goes to Florida every summer for vacation. For instance. and things in terms of a unit. Don’t assume that every word in a sentence that begins with a capital is a proper noun. Some examples of compound nouns are motorcycle. and handsome are abstract nouns. and adverbs. thus creating a compound word. Common nouns can be written in singular form (book. and Albert Einstein are proper nouns. and family are collective nouns. cars. and collective. Proper nouns Unlike common nouns. cell phone. BMW Z4. Compounds 14 . A Closer look at Nouns Proper nouns are easily distinguishable from common nouns by their capital letters. In the following sentence. can be made up of a number of speech components. flock. Many nouns may fall into more than one of these categories. Basic sentence structure dictates that every sentence must begin with a capital letter—remember that from English class? Also. could instead be a proper adjective simply because it is describing or telling about a noun that follows it in the sentence. Catcher in the Rye. class. and person) or plural (books. toothbrush. what might appear to be a proper noun. Collective nouns Collective nouns are words used to name people.

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abstract. concrete 18 . concrete. caterpillar: common. 18. concrete. is are its their its their stamp: common. Phillip Ware: proper 21. ants: common. 16. concrete. concrete. envelope: common. concrete. 17. abstract 12. proper noun. proper noun 10. proper adjective (UPS is modifying tracking 15. code) 4. concrete. deck: common. 20. concrete. concrete 14. and toast is a verb). collective. concrete 13. concrete. French is a proper noun meaning people from France. performances: common. concrete. concrete. abstract. proper adjective (French is modifying toast) 9. sidewalk: common. proper noun 8. peace: common. proper noun 6. concrete. compound 23. 19. abstract. concrete. proper noun 5. abstract 11. corner: common. proper noun 2. abstract.K iNds of NouNs Answers 1. concrete. concrete. proper noun. army: common. proper noun 7. abstract. proper noun 3. concrete. collective. time: common. proper adjective (Degas is modifying painting). abstract. proper noun (here. snowstorm: common. Tristan: proper. proper noun. abstract 22. proper noun. concrete.

director (1972– ) Les s o n s um m ary Pluralize singular nouns. Plurals You can make most. playwright. but other than Shakespeare’s.2 l e s s o n noun Usage The plural of tragedy is tragedies. kiss/kisses. there are some rules to help you know how to make a singular noun plural. and turn them into possessives with ease—spelling tips included. and others do not change at all. But never fear. and mall/malls. nouns plural by simply adding -s or -es to the end of the word. the English language can be tricky. American actor. lunch/lunches. Some nouns change completely as plurals. but not all. bill/bills. Read on! 19 . why would anyone want to go through more than one? —Mim Granahan. like printer/ printers. However.

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family 33. half 14. 13. daisy 30. delay 32. essay 29. alley 31. story 27. candy 26. chimney 28. oaf 18. safe 22. giraffe 17. chief 15.no Un Usage Identify the correct plural for each of the boldfaced words. domino                      halves chieves lifes giraffes oafs shelves sniffs wives safes wolves monkies librarys candies storys chimneys essays daisys alleys delaies families dominoes halfs chiefs lives giraves oaves shelfs snives wifes saves wolfs monkeys libraries candys stories chimnies essaies daisies allies delays familys dominos 21 . sniff 20. life 16. wife 21. shelf 19. wolf 23. monkey 24. library 25.

sister-in-law 51. singer-songwriter 50.no Un Usage 34. piano 41. mosquito 42. echo 40. city-state 52. studio 44. hero 39. runner-up 48. editor-in-chief 47. volcano 36. radio 35. goose 55. tomato 37. deer 53. great-grandmother 49. child 22                       radioes volcanos tomatoes torpedos heroes echos pianoes mosquitoes siloes studios sixes-year-old goes-between editors-in-chief runners-up greats-grandmother singers-songwriter sister-in-laws cities-state deers womans geese childs radios volcanoes tomatos torpedoes heros echoes pianos mosquitos silos studioes six-year-olds go-betweens editor-in-chiefs runner-ups great-grandmothers singer-songwriters sisters-in-law city-states deer women gooses children . go-between 46. torpedo 38. six-year-old 45. woman 54. silo 43.

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23. 45. 4. 72. 39.no Un Usage answers 1. 49. 68. 19. 67. 31. 26. 17. torpedoes heroes echoes pianos mosquitoes silos studios six-year-olds go-betweens editors-in-chief runners-up great-grandmothers singer-songwriters sisters-in-law city-states deer women geese children moose mice alumni phenomena cacti analyses criteria the actor’s contract Sabrina’s graduation the car’s price the house’s front door Matt’s ball glove writers’ dictionaries doctors’ calendars ants’ hills countries’ islands children’s toys 25 . 25. 66. 69. 5. 55. 29. 21. 24. 59. 47. 27. 52. 34. 11. 7. 36. 20. books strengths bushes boxes packages choices edges freedoms ogres foxes pencils axes halves chiefs lives giraffes oafs shelves sniffs wives safes wolves monkeys libraries candies stories chimneys essays daisies alleys delays families dominoes radios volcanoes tomatoes 37. 30. 53. 8. 32. 61. 58. 42. 12. 63. 10. 15. 44. 48. 43. 41. 6. 46. 70. 60. 2. 16. 13. 18. 71. 22. 14. 50. 54. 9. 38. 3. 64. 65. 33. 40. 35. 51. 57. 62. 56. 28.

make sure they agree in gender. 27 . number. gender. We shared everything.” Learn about pronoun categories and cases. and on my birthday. P ronouns take the place of. or refer to. gifts were bestowed on him too.3 l e s s o n Pronouns We were always together. a specific noun in a sentence. To use pronouns correctly. and were frequently mistaken for twins. and person. and person with the noun they are replacing or referring to (the antecedent. and the importance of making them agree in number. upon me. or referent noun). on his. and not until comparatively late in life did I learn to use “I” and “me” in the place of “we” and “us. Each had forgotten the first person singular of the personal pronoun.” —Georg Moritz Ebers German novelist and Egyptologist (1837–1898) Les s o n s um m ary A pronoun is more than “a word that takes the place of a noun.

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That is the best idea I’ve heard all day. 15. 18. If no one helps anybody. few have stayed on. him: objective He: subjective. 14. them. 9. 11. 10. then what is the point of continuing? 18. and lost. 6. 14. 2. 8. 5. him: objective herself: reflexive. it: objective. me: objective his: possessive. 3. 4. their: objective It: subjective his: possessive. this: demonstrative few: indefinite that: relative that needed immediate attention. anybody: indefinite What: interrogative. 32 . 19. Ever since last year. 20. 7. 20. 17. The supervisor gave her the Monroe account 1. or interrogative. 16. Whose idea was it to paint the deck red? 15. It was Greg who called our house at two o’clock this morning. them: objective No one: indefinite That: demonstrative that: relative Whose: interrogative somebody: indefinite. someone: indefinite who: relative no one: indefinite. They played the team that had a horrible losing streak. 12. 11. Chris told me that somebody saw someone on your bike. relative. 19. No one is supposed to be going. indefinite. except for Charlie. her: possessive. it: objective itself: reflexive. 16.Pronouns Practice Determine whether the boldfaced pronoun is demonstrative. 12. answers her: possessive I: subjective It: subjective She: subjective. 13. they: subjective. What can I say? I planned this from the get-go. 17. 13.

Verbs .

pacifist. require. and punch are action verbs. As you can tell. gallop. and first woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize (1843–1914) Les s o n s um m ary Some action and linking verbs look the same.” “to help” is the most beautiful verb in the world. chop. yearn. one that can be seen with our eyes. 35 . waltz. swing. even though they are less visible than the others. remember. But some action verbs are more difficult to identify because the action is far less obvious. as in depend. Identifying such doing words in a sentence is generally easy. row. surf. consider. It is helpful to remember that mental verbs are action verbs too. foresee. linking verbs. and get some help with helping verbs along the way. This chapter covers three types of verbs: action verbs. and helping verbs. —Bertha von Suttner. and suppose. Learn how to tell the difference. understand.4 l e s s o n Verb Types After the verb “to love. mean. V erbs are “doing” words that are a necessary part of any sentence. Austrian writer. they all “do” something! Action Verbs Most action verbs represent a visible action. For example.

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otherwise. 19. 21.” So some instructors might expect you to identify the previous verb phrase as must have walked quickly to the bus stop. wrap. 9. bring. 11. Nancy would not have thrown the paper away if she had known it was important. 19. spend reboot Brush. 20. and other modifiers.” as previously explained. would have given might have won. The dealer will go to the flea market to find good antique deals. 4. 14. I didn’t realize that she had already gone. For instance. must have discussed should need. A main verb with helping verbs is called a verb phrase. you would eliminate the adverb quickly and give must have walked as the answer. 3. We could have driven to the city. Next time. if you should need help. Martin must have walked quickly to the bus stop to avoid being late. 6. 16. so he must have easily discussed it with the teacher. Practice Identify the verb phrases in the following sentences. assumed. we could rewrite the last sentence so that the adverb quickly separates the helping verbs must and have from the main verb walked. please feel free to ask. It is important to remember that a helping verb need not be right next to the main verb in the sentence. Answers 1. 15. 18. 7. The range of a verb phrase is defined as both “the main verb plus its auxiliaries. If you were asked to identify the verb phrase. A main verb may have as many as three helping verbs in front of it in a sentence. 5. had gotten 38 . stated walked. had known had read. 16. 18. 22. 20. 17. its complements. William had already read the book twice. roast action linking action linking action linking action linking could have driven would have thrown. but we took the train instead. I would be very happy to help. The skier might have won the race had she not gotten her pole stuck in the snow. Example: Martin must have quickly walked to the bus stop to avoid being late. 17. Examples: Martin walked quickly to the bus stop to avoid being late. had gone. 13. 8. Martin had walked quickly to the bus stop to avoid being late.Verb Types Helping Verbs Helping verbs enhance the main verb’s meaning by providing us with more information about its tense. noticed means close. 22. 21. I would have given her the money earlier. 10. 12. and “the main verb plus its auxiliaries. install go. would be will go did realize. 2.

burst. mathematician.” replied Kevin. please. some of them—particularly verbs: they’re the proudest—adjectives you can do anything with. “I put them away already. Example: Those musicians play jazz well. and l e s s o n clergyman (1832–1898) Les s o n s um m ary Become better acquainted with the pesky past-tense verbs that do not end with -ed.” said Coach. These verbs. I can manage the whole lot of them! —Lewis Carroll. you’ll find a list of common irregular verbs. 39 . But last evening. Example: “Put the tennis racquets away in the storage bin. called regular verbs. and learn about proper usage with tricky verbs such as lay/lie and sit/set. on the other hand.5 Regular and Irregular Verbs They’ve a temper. M ost. and set. but not all. cut. Irregular verbs. Some other verbs that follow suit are cost. British author. On the following pages. Here. but not verbs—however. so they require memorization. the irregular verb put stays the same whether it is past or present. do not follow any pattern when forming the past tense. bid. they surprised the crowd and played some blues. can be changed from the present tense to the past tense by simply adding -ed or -d. verbs follow a simple and predictable pattern when expressing past action.

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then it is an irregular verb. select the correct verb to complete the sentence. Example: I would accept your apology for being late today. lied. If you’re still confused about whether to except or accept. remember that when you agree to. agree. but except for yesterday. when you make an exception. If hang refers to a thief going to the gallows. however. accept and except are often misused because they sound somewhat alike. But if it is used in the sense of hanging out with friends or hanging a picture on the wall. Most likely.Regu laR and IRRegulaR VeRbs other tricky Verbs Several other verbs need special attention in order to be used correctly. you are “X-cluding” something in that agreement. 35. the king sentenced the criminal to be (hung. depending on their meaning in a sentence. the question leads one to wonder why you would ask it in the first place!) May. (Can. but she just wouldn’t (accept. Their meanings. My brother and I (hanged. may) have a third helping of mashed potatoes if you like. Can means having the ability to do something. (Unless you’re completely indisposed in some way. are very different. Similarly. hung. 33. I loved the movie. When you say Can I help you? what you’re really asking is whether you have the ability to help this person. hanged. and is conjugated hang. hanged. Another pair of verbs often confused in ordinary speech is can and may. When it means to recline. means having permission to do something. which we conjugated earlier in this lesson. (except. 31. something. you are “CC-ing” eye-to-eye with someone. May I help you with it tomorrow instead? The verbs hang and lie are unusual because they can be either regular or irregular. or willingly receive. except) my apology! 32. it’s a regular verb. lied. hung) posters all over town about our yard sale. I really hate snakes! 34. I said I was sorry. when lie means telling an untruth. or accept. it is an irregular verb. and is conjugated hang. accept) for the part with the snakes. Without hesitation. 36. When you say May I help you? you are asking someone to allow you to help him or her. Example: I can help you rake leaves this afternoon only after I finish my other chores. hung. you have been late every day this week. on the other hand. Practice In each sentence. May) the clown walk the tightrope without the umbrella? 47 . conjugated lie. whereas except is really a preposition that means excluding or unless. hanged). then it is a regular verb. To accept means to approve. You (can.

9. will leave incorrect. 25. 22. 17. have incorrect. 14. 35. 5. 12. watching correct incorrect. 3. 4. 23. 29. 32. 13. 10. laying lying sat sits Setting set set set sitting set sitting sits accept hung except may hanged Can 48 . 6. 8. sewed incorrect. 11. 30. 15. 27. mistaken correct incorrect. 18. 26. 36. incorrect. 2. 7. cutting lain lay lying lain laid lay lain laid 19. spent incorrect. 31. 28. 24. 16.Regula R and IRRegulaR VeRbs answers 1. 33. 21. 34. 20. shone incorrect.

49 . It comes soon enough. it is essential to have a basic understanding of the four verb forms so you can use verb tenses properly. In order to use verb tenses properly. —Albert Einstein. will help you use correct verb tenses later in this lesson. Verb Forms Verb forms may look similar to tenses. The tricky thing is to remember to be consistent with your verb tenses so your audience does not get confused. we need to really understand the differences between the four basic verb forms of the English language. verb tenses help our listeners and readers understand when something is happening. I never think of the future. or principal parts. German scientist and recipient of the l e s s o n 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics (1879–1955) Les s o n s um m ary Since every sentence needs a verb. Learning the following basic forms. This lesson covers not only the four forms. but verb tenses from basic to perfect to progressive! W hen we speak and write. but a somewhat predictable unknown.6 Verb Forms and Tenses The future is an unknown. That is where the seeds of the future were planted. but they are not. To look to the future we must first look back upon the past.

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15. was laughing: past progressive tense will have covered: future perfect tense recommended: past tense had paid: past perfect tense would have replied: past perfect tense was holding: past progressive tense enjoys: present tense became: past tense had written: past perfect tense has previewed: present perfect tense 54 . 8. 6. 19. 18. will paint: future tense broke: past tense carry: present tense Put: present tense cost: past tense was running: past progressive tense sang: past tense plays: present tense will be seeing: future is getting: present progressive tense 11. 7. 20. 10. 2. 17. 9. 14. 13. 12. 4. 3. 5. 16.V erb Forms and Tenses answers 1.

Modifiers .

it answers any of three specific questions about the noun(s) or pronoun(s) it is modifying: what kind? (friendly. That’s because the word car by iself is too general. demonstratives. and comparatives as well. robust. each person might have a different mental image.7 l e s s o n Adjectives A man’s character may be learned from the adjectives which he habitually uses in conversation. those). these. they may come afterward. loomed high above all other rides at the park. possessives. example: The roller coaster. large and intimidating. few. While adjectives typically come before the noun(s) they are modifying. or how many? (nine. 57 . which one(s)? (this. A djectives give a listener or reader more specific information about a noun or pronoun. An adjective is what we call a modifier. spiky). Learn to identify articles. tantalizing the most daring of park visitors. —Mark Twain. if a group of people were asked to think of the word car. many. too. some). American author and humorist (1835–1910) Les s o n s um m ary There’s more to this modifier than describing. But if the words red and convertible were added. that. the visual images would be more similar because the car has been described more specifically. For instance.

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your. too. Those checkbooks are theirs. While in France. Kyle was relieved that the weekend would be his to do what he wanted. How do you know its wing is injured? 59 . that one’s yours. can a pronoun. If a noun can play the role of an adjective. our. Sara cleaned her room until it sparkled. That lawnmower is his. which answers which one? about that noun. 35. His flying lesson was scheduled for Friday. The French Louvre is a world-famous art Practice Determine whether the boldfaced word is a possessive adjective or a possessive pronoun in the following sentences. or it takes the place of a noun. July 6. she. Some personal pronouns fall into the category of possessive adjectives: my. My unusual way of playing the guitar fascinated my instructor. white. 23. (You can review pronouns in Lesson 3. here are a few sentences using possessive pronouns. Practice Determine whether the boldfaced word is a proper noun or a proper adjective in the following sentences. 32. ours. 31. Ours floated effortlessly down the stream.) While possessive pronouns can stand theirs until further notice. her. hers. 28. his. Hollywood is part of the city of Los Angeles. The Hollywood director had unparalleled talent. 24. Get your feet wet first and it’ll be downhill from there. we visited the Louvre. and green. so. and Chinese yo-yo begin with a proper adjective. their. For comparison. Wilson family. This one is mine. a noun must follow a possessive adjective. its. 26. 36. Her father visits Italy often. 33.Adjectives Proper Adjectives Proper adjectives look like proper nouns because they are capitalized. and therefore. 29. Notice that here the object does not follow the pronoun. 34. 30. 27. The Italian flag is red. Victoria and Charles balanced their checkbook together. each answering the question what kind? or which one? about the noun it is modifying: What kind of tea? Which family? What kind of yo-yo? English Wilson Chinese alone. museum. a good 50 yards from his. The phrases English tea. Take care not to confuse possessive adjectives with the possessive pronouns mine. The clean room is hers. Examples: Ronald took his lawnmower to the repair shop. Her memo said that the account would remain Pronouns as Adjectives A pronoun such as he. are adjectives. theirs. yours. but they are modifying nouns. his. 25.

40. If the word this. This is really over the top! 38. it is considered a pronoun. It’s delicious. These flowers are exceptionally beautiful in that vase. those) answer which one? about the object. Practice Determine whether the boldfaced word is a demonstrative adjective or a demonstrative pronoun in the following sentences. Those shoes are so much more comfortable than that pair. these. Be careful. In the positive degree. and the superlative degree. please. This channel always seems to have so many commercials. demonstrative adjectives (this. What’s that? I’ve never seen that species before. I haven’t had this kind of chili before. 60 . I’ll have that one on the right. a simple statement is made about the noun: This sushi is good. the comparative degree. but is replacing a noun in the sentence. 41. Examples: This is broken. but that one is better. these. In the comparative degree. 44. Those smell rotten. but I’ll concede. These figures seem a bit high. that. That belongs to Shera. a contrast is made between two nouns: This sushi is good. it is often necessary to show how one thing compares to another. That umbrella is sturdier than this one. comparative Adjectives In the course of writing and speaking. as they are very fragile. did it to you? 42. 37. We should take a couple of those instead. These are sharp. 39. Please don’t touch these.Adjectives demonstrative Adjectives Like possessive adjectives. We can do this with three different levels of adjectives: the positive degree. or those is not followed by a noun. 43. Examples: That pool looks so inviting on this sweltering day. That didn’t make any sense to me. that. but they always appear before the noun being modified.

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42. makeshift frozen. 25. 35. 29. hot perfect. clearer 49. 7. younger good. 4. 21. 14. possessive pronoun possessive adjective demonstrative pronoun demonstrative adjective demonstrative pronoun demonstrative adjective demonstrative pronoun demonstrative adjective demonstrative pronoun. highest 46. 19. 40. 24. possessive pronoun possessive adjective possessive pronoun. 26. 30. quiet enthusiastic shorter warm. 15. 17. better 48. new. 9. 6. demonstrative pronoun 45. 3. 20. 22. white. 11. 2. 32.Adjectives Answers 1. cooler 50. 38. larger 47. more precise 62 . 18. 23. 33. 31. 41. 34. slimmest 51. demonstrative adjective demonstrative adjective. 5. possessive adjective possessive adjective. 12. 10. 43. outdoor an an a a a an an a an an a a a a a proper adjective proper noun proper noun proper adjective 27. 37. possessive pronoun possessive pronoun. 36. 16. proper adjective proper noun possessive adjective possessive pronoun possessive adjective. 8. 44. 28. 13. 39. happy. demonstrative adjective. steaming.

adverbs most frequently modify verbs. lovely. they are the only qualifications I really much respect. as long as you remember that not all such words are adverbs. Memorizing these questions will help you identify adverbs. The table that follows shows examples of how adverbs are used. You can also look for words that end in -ly. before. really). Whereas adjectives modify nouns. A dverbs are also called modifiers. afterward. costly. swiftly. very. neighborly. American-born English author and critic (1843–1916) Les s o n s um m ary Degrees of comparison can be tricky. across. —Henry James.8 l e s s o n Adverbs I’m glad you like adverbs. I adore them. tomorrow. out). there. how? (irritatingly. An adverb answers four specific questions about the word it modifies: where? (here. burly. inside. and the words they modify are underlined. 63 . For example. and why. the adverbs are boldfaced. as can distinguishing between adjectives and adverbs. extremely. and to what extent? (so. fervently). too. not adverbs. and cowardly are adjectives. when? (never. Adverbs can also modify adjectives and even other adverbs. ugly. while). friendly. For clarification. Learn which is which. suspiciously.

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usually of time (when) or place (where). The noun or pronoun at the end of the phrase is called the object of the preposition (OOP). between certain words in a sentence. British author and prime minister (1874–1965) Les s o n s um m ary What’s an OOP and where are they found? Find out in this lesson. A prepositional phrase is a small group of words that begins with a preposition and ends with a noun or pronoun. ending a sentence with a preposition is something up with which I will not put. —Winston Churchill. 69 . a preposition conveys a relationship. L ike an adverb.9 Examples: across town beyond the realm of understanding under the guise of reality upon your approval according to the polls l e s s o n Prepositions From now on.

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13. without: preposition. from the corner of storms. 15. by: adverb. under the sofa or behind my desk behind the sofa. aside: adverb 10. 4. at: preposition around: adverb.PrePositions Answers 1. 7. on: preposition 72 . of chocolate pudding beside: preposition. of: preposi­ 11. on Main Street. in the living room of us. To get. during: preposition before: preposition by: preposition tion before: adverb up: adverb across: preposition. 9. to our house. for: preposition Since: preposition. ster Drive. for the baby ducks 2. 5. into the water. 6. onto Web­ 3. 12. At the park. 8. 14.

you transfer what you are thinking—what you want to say—onto paper for someone else to read. You use modifiers to describe words or make their meanings more specific. and meanings differently arranged have different effects. —Blaise Pascal. Misplaced Modifiers When you write. There is a simple way to prevent your modifiers from becoming misplaced: Keep them as close as possible to the words they modify. split. dangling. and disruptive modifiers that rear their heads when you least expect it. 73 .10 Misplaced Modifiers and Tricky Words Words differently arranged have a different meaning. French scientist l e s s o n and philosopher (1623–1662) Les s o n s um m ary Learn to manage those bothersome squinting. You know what you mean to say. but your message can become unclear if you have misplaced modifiers: phrases or clauses that slip into the wrong place in your sentences.

Corrected: In his pajamas. just because you’re the star. Disruptive modifiers When a modifying clause is improperly placed within a sentence. Corrected: I will not tolerate your disrespectful outbursts just because you’re the star. Ms. and doesn’t seem to modify any word in particular. Corrected: When he completed his test. it disrupts the flow of the words. Bennett. Both sentences make it sound as though Russell cooked dinner inside his pajamas. Ms. Corrected: My mom told me never to lie. Bennett. the exhausted student walked home in the rain. Bennett tell Ryan she wanted him to complete his test before passing out some papers for her? Or had Ryan already finished his test when Ms. told him he could pass out some papers once he completed his test.Misplaced Modifiers and Tricky Words Dangling modifiers A dangling modifier does just that: It dangles. 74 . Did Ms. Rule 1. Russell opened the door in his pajamas to let the smoke out. squinting modifiers A squinting modifier is one that’s ambiguous because of its placement—it seems to describe something on either side of it. After burning dinner in his pajamas. Incorrect: My mom told me to never lie. Examples: After burning dinner. Russell. opened the door to let the smoke out after he burned dinner. Ms. split Infinitives Infinitives are to verbs. and modifiers do not belong between the two words. asked him to pass out some papers. Bennett told him to help her pass out papers? managing your modifiers Here are a few rules to help you place modifiers correctly in a sentence. Ryan’s teacher. Bennett. Example: I will not tolerate. Russell opened the door to let the smoke out. Place simple adjectives before the nouns they modify. burned the dinner. Russell opened the door after burning dinner to let the smoke out. in his pajamas. Ryan’s teacher. and opened the door to air out his pajamas. This error is easily corrected by placing the prepositional phrase in his pajamas closer to the word it is modifying (Russell). and placing the adverb phrase after burning dinner later in the sentence. your disrespectful outbursts. Example: Wearing a green raincoat. Example: Ryan’s teacher. told him when he completed his test to pass out some papers for her.

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lamp/not heavy: homonym/homophone/ homograph 25. to bend at the waist/a large branch: homonym/ homograph 24. jug/ball player: homonym/homophone/ homophone/homograph 12. and flour mass/a female deer: homonym/homophone/homograph 18. water. permitted/audible: homonym/homophone/ homophone/homographh 22. homophones. to move through the air/a pesky insect: homonym/ 16. 6. odor/transmitted: homonym/homophone/ homograph 11. also/deuce: homonym/homophone/homograph 15. a fish/a low tone: homonym/homophone/ homograph 19. yeast. consumed/a number: homonym/homophone/ homograph 20. next to/to shut: homonym/homophone/ homophone/homograph 7. small/one-sixtieth of an hour: homonym/ homograph 23. relax/the remainder: homonym/homophone/ homograph 9. a brief look/to stimulate: homonym/ homograph 14. Then indicate if the word pairs are homonyms. still/writing paper: homonym/homophone/ homophone/homograph homograph 80 .Misplaced Modifiers and Tricky Words Practice Read each set of clues and figure out which words fit the descriptions. correct/a ceremony: homonym/homophone/ homograph 8. or homographs. to purchase/by means of: homonym/ homophone/homograph 10. to make/fruits and vegetables: homonym/ homograph 21. guide/heavy metal: homonym/homophone/ homophone/homograph 13. something in a package/satisfied: homonym/ homophone/homograph 17.

bass/bass: homograph 8. 16. who had a broken leg. While I was fixing the broken lamp. 1. 25. As we held hands and admired the view. 14. our dog 10. ate/eight: homophone 9. 3.Misplac ed Modifiers and Tricky Words answers Answers for questions 1–5 are suggestions. 23. 19. I saw a man covered in sauce and barbequing. 15. began to bark ferociously. 18. 4. 6. 22. 20. 21. Sara played the Sonata in G on the piano for her guests. produce/produce: homograph allowed/aloud: homophone minute/minute: homograph bow/bough: homophone light/light: homonym too/two: homophone stationary/stationery: homophone content/content: homograph dough/doe: homophone close/close: homograph right/rite: homophone rest/rest: homonym buy/by: homophone scent/sent: homophone pitcher/pitcher: homonym lead/lead: homograph peek/pique: homophone 81 . 24. fly/fly: homonym 7. Your answers may vary. 5. sang with the choir. 17. 12. the birds chirped and the butterflies fluttered. 11. 2. Gladys. 13. While riding my bike.

Sentence Structure .

he fundamental component of speech and writing. a group of words must express a complete idea and include a subject and a verb. French historian and biologist (1894–1977) l e S S o n Les s o n s um m ary To be a sentence. but it goes far beyond just subjects and verbs. and a predicate—a verb that tells what the subject is doing or what condition the subject is in.11 Sentence Basics Certain brief sentences are peerless in their ability to give one the feeling that nothing remains to be said. Basic sentence structure may sound simple. —Jean Rostand. T 85 . In this lesson. learn what complements are and how they come into play when putting together a good sentence. Every complete sentence is made up of two major components: a subject—a noun or pronoun that tells whom or what the sentence is about. sentences help people communicate their ideas to others.

They is the subject. the subject is underlined once and the verb is underlined twice. Imperative sentences (sentences that make a request or a command) always have an implied subject: Wash your hands frequently during the day to prevent colds. thus. At the end: V S At the end of the pier sat the lone fisherman. Books and Internet play an equal role as the subject. What contain? Books and the Internet. Thomas updates his resume regularly. Thomas is the subject. Tricky subjects Not all sentences have an obvious. You can then ask yourself Who went? Ed is your subject. sometimes the subject is implied. turn it into a statement that places the subject before the verb: Did Ed go to the convention in Seattle or not? becomes: A subject can be compound (two or more nouns playing an equal role in the sentence): S S V Books and the Internet contain helpful information. 86 . noun or pronoun as a subject. market is the subject. Michelle decided to run quickly to the bank. or stated. S V Ed went to the convention in Seattle. What fluctuates? The market. That is because the subject is implied. thus. it is the pronoun you: S V A subject can be a common noun: S V The real estate market fluctuates yearly. thus.Sentence BaSicS Subjects Finding the subject of a sentence is as simple as asking who? or what? in relation to the verb. A subject can be a pronoun: S V They traveled overseas for the meeting. Who ? Thomas. In the following examples. it can also appear elsewhere. Who traveled? They did. If you ask yourself who or what wash? there is not a noun in the sentence that answers the question. To find the subject in a question. A subject can be a proper noun: S V Although the subject is typically found at the beginning of the sentence. (You) wash your hands frequently during the day to prevent colds. thus. In the middle: S V Before lunch.

which means there are two or more verbs relating to the same subject or compound subject in the sentence. expresses the action done by or to the subject. The hammock was his favorite place to relax. 20. and tomato. Gail should make an effort to call her S V V V At practice. Street-side parking in this congested area is simply out of the question. Keith brought the boat to the island marina. 17. carrots. run. Rabbit. It was the perfect place for napping. 1. raccoon. 8. He rented the 30-foot boat slip for $210 per month. 87 . You can find the simple predicate in a sentence by asking yourself which word indicates action being done by or to the subject or conveys the condition of the subject. S S V burrow-dwelling badger? 5. 10. Examples: park. 18. 16. This new recipe for key lime pie is a success! mud and called the police. 3. 7. Several crocodiles were found in the pond at the Like subjects. Common salad vegetables are spinach. 13. cucumber. Weren’t dachshunds bred for hunting the scrimmage. we stretch. 9. The verb. Mim went to the mall. or tells about its condition. Key limes differ from other limes in their small was changed. predicates can be single or compound. are hunted by dachshunds as well. Yesterday. She approached her supervisor about her recent performance review. 4. The stapler on the file cabinet might also need The itinerary for Joseph’s business trip V refilling. Some raw vegetables taste great in salads. 19. drill. and fox. 11. 15. After dinner. known as the simple predicate. 12. S broccoli. also burrow-dwellers. 6. Meghan was energetic and results-driven. S V round shape and acidic taste.Sentence BaSicS Practice Identify the simple subject in the following sentences. 2. Grandpa hinted that he had missed hearing all about her travels. and V grandfather more often. Place some paper clips from the drawer in my Practice Identify the simple predicate in the following sentences. Examples: S V 14. Many stores were having sales. please. Phil’s hammock was stretched between two large oaks. street. Predicates Predicates tell something about the subject or subjects in a sentence. A jogger spotted the large reptiles lurking in the desk into the container. I usually park my car in the garage across the Last Monday. George and Marty arrived late and V ran two extra laps.

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and predicate adjectives describe the subject. Many cars get dents and scratches because other P. Chef Williams gave me a delicious recipe for hot bacon dressing. Indiana. cat named Sage. Predicate nouns can also be compound in form. 33.N. and can be compound in form as well: S V P. too.A. Janine offered the helpful student a piece of candy for his efforts. P. describe or modify the subject. 28. 26. 36. Practice 29. Dachshunds find burrows and dens with their keen sense of smell. 25.Sentence BaSicS 24. so long as they are identifying the same noun: S V P. the linking verb acts like an equals sign (=): S V P. find. 39. Salads are healthy with the right kind of dressing. 40. 30. reptile exhibit. 27. The crocodiles became new members of the Predicate nouns and Predicate adjectives Known as subject complements. and Carla was professor and mentor to many students.N. Columbus brought Hispaniola the key lime in Identify the predicate nouns and predicate adjectives in the following sentences. Parking spaces in any large city can be difficult to DeVaughn is the coach. Key limes are popular in drinks. Dachshunds are short-legged dogs. As a young man. Remember that complement means “add to or complete. Janine is a middle school teacher in Muncie.N. Mim is the proud owner of a pampered calico the 1500s. not action verbs.A. 32. 37. Canvas hammocks became popular with the English Navy in the 1600s. Slips are docking spaces for boats. marinades. Following the interview. sometimes referred to as “wiener dogs” because of their sausage-shaped bodies. Grandfather was a sailor and traveled the world. 38. 89 . Bill felt excited and drivers are careless. 35. year round. desserts. means DeVaughn = the coach. Sandbar marinas rent residents their slips optimistic. 31. Phil brought a newspaper with him so he could Predicate adjectives also follow a linking verb.” Predicate nouns and predicate adjectives add to or complete an idea to make it more precise or clearer. They are used in sentences with linking verbs. When a predicate noun follows a linking verb. 34. predicate nouns rename the subject. read.

predicate adjective: none 33. 9. 21. direct object: slips.Sentence BaSicS answers 1. 20. predicate adjective: difficult 37. predicate adjective: none 40. 13. predicate noun: none. 25. predicate noun: owner. predicate noun: members. predicate noun: none. 12. indirect object: none direct object: dents. 5. direct object: letter. 11. indirect object: grandfather direct object: burrows. 17. direct object: key lime. predicate adjective: none 38. indirect object: none direct object: newspaper. predicate adjective: popular 22. predicate noun: none. predicate adjective: none 35. called hinted are hunted was stretched is rented are might need differ direct object: collar. 14. 3. 6. predicate adjective: proud 32. predicate noun: dogs. predicate noun: spaces. indirect object: none 27. 19. 7. indirect object: Hispaniola 31. indirect object: residents 28. 10. scratches. direct object: reptiles. 18. direct object: candy. 16. indirect object: 90 . predicate noun: sailor. indirect object: cat none 23. direct object: recipe. 24. water dish. 8. dens. them. indirect object: student 30. Mim crocodiles Gail dachshunds hammock I Keith vegetables (you) recipe were having spotted. predicate adjective: none 34. predicate noun: none. 15. 4. 2. predicate noun: teacher. predicate adjective: popular 36. indirect object: me 29. 26. predicate adjective: healthy 39.

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7. 12. 20. 6. seems belongs goes have were their his or her her their its 96 .Agreement Answers 1. 5. 9. 14. 17. attends borrow fly watches like reads commute is is are 11. 2. 8. 19. 15. 3. 13. 16. 10. 18. 4.

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The plumber was unable to finish the difficult job in one day. Tommy trains hard this season. Here. The gerund phrase sampling chocolate functions as a noun and is the subject complement of the linking verb is and the subject profession. to run a mile in less than six minutes also functions as a noun because it is the direct object of the verb aims. or adverbs. to run a mile in less than six minutes functions as an adverb modifying the verb training. except it is in past participle (shake + n) form. adjectives. Example: Tasting chocolate for a living can be a delicious yet fattening profession. Example: Tommy is training this season to run a mile in less than six minutes. To conclude tonight’s program. our chief of staff would like to say a few words. Example: Debbie enjoys working with chocolate. The gerund phrase working with chocolate functions as a noun and is the direct object of the verb enjoys. Practice Identify the types of phrases that are italicized in the following sentences. The gerund phrase tasting chocolate for a living functions as a noun and is the complete subject of the sentence. Lysbeth spent the morning clipping and filing coupons. Now. The infinitive phrase to run a mile in less than six minutes is functioning as a noun because it is the complete subject of the sentence. 9. Infinitive Phrases Infinitive phrases begin with the word to plus a verb. so they can function as either subjects or objects. Wanting to save money. Example: To run a mile in less than six minutes. The phrase Shaken by the unexpected accident follows the same configuration. In this sentence. Example: Debbie’s profession is sampling chocolate. Gerund phrases always work like a noun in a sentence. Excusing the boys for their rude and reckless behavior was not an option. 99 . Example: To run a mile in less than six minutes was Tommy’s aim this season. to run a mile in less than six minutes functions as an adjective because it modifies the noun Tommy. depending on their function in the sentence. The words hot and tired complete the participial phrase. These phrases act like nouns. Gerund Phrases Gerund phrases begin with a gerund—an -ing verb acting as a noun. Example: Tommy aims to run a mile in less than six minutes this season. 8. 10. 6. 7.Phrases The present participle looking (look + ing) modifies the noun gardener. Marybeth dreams about becoming a NASA astronaut.

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17. 26. The phrase who is a local hero is a noun phrase functioning as an appositive. 11. I don’t understand what he sees in this. or which. coaster.000 is modifying the noun painting. not his. idea. Did you spill the glass of milk that was in the refrigerator? mine. which had a price tag of $10. sleep. The adjective clause who witnessed the robbery modifies the noun man. who is a local hero.000. adjective Clauses Subordinate clauses function as adjectives when they describe or modify nouns or pronouns. or the subordinating conjunction where or when. 19. Do you remember when you fell and sprained 20. 16. 18. You should know where your watch is. The adjective clause which had a price tag of $10. Example: The man who witnessed the robbery was later interviewed by the newspaper. was too expensive. The commendation goes to whoever 23. Like adjectives. Example: The painting. 15. I want to go on a ride that is fast. That we leave before five in the morning was her 22. Our intention is that we be able to visit the Eiffel Tower on our way through Paris.Clauses Example: Charles. Whether Ursula goes to college is a concern of 21. 14. James was wondering what Wednesday’s lineup is going to be. received an award. Why you decided to switch careers this late in the game is hard to comprehend. 13. like a roller accomplishes the tasks in a timely manner. your wrist? 25. I am sure it was the car whose taillight was broken. An adjective clause begins with the relative pronoun who. The room on your left is where the supervisor works. 12. whose. Phyllis’s suggestion that we go through the Blue Ridge Mountains was a good one. The police are searching for the person who lives in this apartment. they answer the questions what kind? and which one? about the words they modify. 104 . whom. 24. Practice Identify the noun clause in each of the following sentences. that. Hugh says he has no idea where he is going to Practice Identify the adjective clause in each sentence.

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20. 11. 4. 18. 38. 28. 27. 23. 8. 40. 16.Clauses answers 1. 29. independent clause subordinate clause surordinate clause subordinate clause subordinate clause independent clause subordinate clause independent clause subordinate clause subordinate clause what he sees in this that we go through the Blue Ridge Mountains what Wednesday’s lineup is going to be that we be able to visit the Eiffel Tower Why you decided to switch careers where he is going to sleep Whether Ursula goes to college That we leave before five in the morning where your watch is whoever accomplishes the tasks 21. 14. 6. 25. 12. 15. 7. 24. 35. 37. 39. that was in the refrigerator who lives in this apartment where the supervisor works when you fell and sprained your wrist that is fast whose taillight was broken that is important that I take every Thursday who lives in Oklahoma that grows outside my window Because the book was old provided that your payment goes through even if he insists on going before the sun was up as if he belonged there although there was some tension even though he used a stepladder whenever I step out of the room After we have breakfast If you don’t mind 106 . 34. 10. 19. 2. 5. 3. 36. 30. 33. 17. 9. 31. 32. 26. 22. 13.

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ConjunCtions

Practice
Using the table on page 110 for reference, create a new sentence with the clauses and a subordinating conjunction.
21. Soccer is becoming popular. Baseball is all the

rage.
22. The sailboat was stranded. There was not enough

wind.
23. Louise will sleep soundly. Her alarm clock has

13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21.

gone off.
24. The horse won’t get out of its stall. You lock the

door.
25. Dr. Kroger has high expectations of his students.

They work hard.

answers
1. calm yet noisy 2. You or I 3. We took the local roads to the city for we knew

the expressway would have traffic. 4. with great fluidity yet without passion 5. Ken and Rona arrived early so they could get good seats for the symphony. 6. Rhonda wanted to go back to finish her degree in nursing, so she freed up three evenings a week for her classes. 7. Last week’s weather was rainy, but the forecast is calling for sunny skies this week. 8. He shivered, for the pool water was cold. 9. sandwich or salad 10. tired but eager 11. either . . . or 12. Both . . . and

Whether . . . or either . . . or; neither . . . nor; both . . . and Either . . . or both . . . and; neither . . . nor Either . . . or whether . . . or neither . . . nor; either . . . or; both . . . and both . . . and; neither . . . nor; either . . . or Now that soccer is becoming popular, baseball is all the rage. Even though soccer is becoming popular, baseball is all the rage. Even though baseball is all the rage, soccer is becoming popular. 22. The sailboat was stranded because there was not enough wind. Because there was not enough wind, the sailboat was stranded. While there was not enough wind, the sailboat was stranded. 23. Louise will sleep soundly, even if her alarm clock has gone off. Even if her alarm clock goes off, Louise will sleep soundly. Louise will sleep soundly until her alarm clock goes off. 24. The horse won’t get out of its stall if you lock the door. If you lock the door, the horse won’t get out of its stall. After you lock the door, the horse won’t get out of its stall. 25. Dr. Kroger has high expectations of his students, as they work hard. Dr. Kroger has high expectations of his students, so long as they work hard. Dr. Kroger has high expectations of his students, so they work hard.

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Combining sentences
It is my ambition to say in ten sentences what others say in a whole book.
—Friedrich Nietzsche, German philosopher

l e s s o n

and writer (1844–1900)

Les s o n s um m ary
Good writing includes sentences of varying lengths and complexity that make text more appealing and inviting to readers. To start with, you can achieve this by combining your sentences. In this lesson, you will learn how to do just that.

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f you have ever read a book written for young readers, you probably noticed that the sentences were simple, direct, and short. While that kind of language may be helpful for beginning readers, it becomes extremely monotonous and uninteresting for advanced readers. Books that are more interesting to read contain a variety of sentence lengths and complexities. Authors accomplish this by combining sentences. Besides simple sentences, there are three other kinds of basic sentences: compound, complex, and compoundcomplex.

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(complex) 19. Ferrara posted the missing signs around the neighborhood. 9. (complex) 117 . 5. Although cats are very independent pets. (compound-complex) 15. (complex) 12. so I went to the beach. (complex) 20. we should hurry. Frank took out his fishing pole. (complex) 16. Tiffany tripped on a tree root and she stubbed her toe badly. Sometimes computers can be obstinate. so he didn’t catch fish. (compound-complex) 18. even if there is a lot of traffic. Yesterday was snowy and very cold. Mr. If Jacob decides to go back to school. While taking out the garbage. but there was too much traffic. Although we have driven 20 miles.) 1. the independent clauses are boldfaced and the subordinate clauses are underlined. I turned on my computer so I could finish my assignment. (complex) 17. We vacationed last year in Virginia Beach. but that didn’t bother the children. so we will go to Orlando this year. 2. Karla stayed at work because she had a lot to Isaac’s parents went too. Those are both electives. After we arrived back home. (complex) 14. so you can take photography or you can take sculpture. they will approach someone they trust for affection. 8. Isaac went to California to visit UCLA. (complex) 13. do. 10. especially when they won’t do what we want them to. 4. Jack. he will pursue his doctorate in history. When Drake goes to work he has to take the New Jersey Turnpike. 3. The sun was shining and the weather was warm. I have to go back home because I forgot my wallet. Give me the broken vase and I’ll fix it. she found it under her bed. they went outside to play anyway. my throat started to hurt and I became feverish.) 11. I tried to cross the street. for it needed to be on time. hoping that someone had seen his little dog. although it will take more than three years for him to finish it. 7.C ombining sentenCes Answers (Possible answers are shown. and (Note that in answers 11–20. 6. but he couldn’t put bait on the hook. If we want to get to the station on time. Hannah looked for her lost earring.

Punctuation .

Note that periods are not used for acronyms—abbreviations that use all capital letters (NATO. NJ).S. the period (. use it as the end mark. Periods are also used with common abbreviations.C. Eliot. Periods The most common form of end punctuation. W. 121 . periods are used after a person’s initials (T...) indicates the end of declarative sentences (statements of facts) and imperative sentences (simple commands or requests). Order an extra-large pepperoni with mushroom. Examples: Friday night is pizza night for my family. Mr.. or Gov. CEO. and measurements (Dec. American author (1899–1961) l e s s o n Les s o n s um m ary Review the basics of end punctuation and its proper placement in sentences and abbreviations. unless the sentence needs an exclamation point or question mark. DNA) or for postal state abbreviations (SD. If a sentence ends with an abbreviation that has an end period. such as months. please. AL. Mon. Fields) and for titles such as Dr.02).. days. .17 end Punctuation My attitude toward punctuation is that it ought to be as conventional as possible. Finally. —Ernest Hemingway.

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6. 8. Did Gov. The 1980 eruption of Mt. What did she say. a. c. Louis. a. in Wash. c. How shocking! I never thought she would go through with it! 10. Mr. for almost 20 years. He need any more. What a great job! Can you do it again? c. VT? 5. 6. a. a. Why her? She already has two and doesn’t answers 1. What a great job. The Drama Club elections have been rescheduled for 3 p. b. Help? I am going to drop these groceries! c. state destroyed more than 200 sq. a. Varnes enjoy their trip to Essex Jct. determine which sentence is properly punctuated with question marks and exclamation points. 3. Can you do it again? 123 . Karen Lee has been the head of the Health Department in Boone Cty. 9. 9. c. How shocking? I never thought she would go through with it. b. 10. Sept.. How shocking. Why her? She already has two and doesn’t need any more? 9. Thursday. Kurtry is a family friend. 4.end Punctuation Practice In each group of three. Why her! She already has two and doesn’t need any more? c. I never thought she would go works in St. c. b. and Mrs. a. Helens. a. What a great job? Can you do it again? b. miles of forest and timber. Dr.m. What did she say? I didn’t hear her? 8. 7. I didn’t hear her. 2. St. through with it! b. Help! I am going to drop these groceries? b. Help! I am going to drop these groceries! 7. Gerald F. What did she say? I didn’t hear her.

and necessary. There are some hard and fast rules for comma placement. Learn where and when it is appropriate. . or mispunctuates.18 Internal Punctuation I The writer who neglects punctuation. commas can obscure the meaning of your message. it often occurs that an axiom appears a paradox. and clauses. Some writers use them frequently. you’ll find some basic rules about comma use. others do not. and semicolons: They are ordinary kinds of punctuation. or that a sarcasm is converted into a sermonoid. but they can be tricky. to use these misused marks. For the want of merely a comma. just as taking a breath is a pause in speaking. Commas You find commas everywhere. 125 . phrases. colons. or too few. Just keep this in mind as you write: Too many. American poet. is liable to be misunderstood. . —Edgar Allan Poe. They indicate a pause in writing. and to enhance clarity by adding a sense of pace in written materials. critic. l e s s o n and short-story author (1809–1845) Les s o n s um m ary Commas. On the following pages. but usage can often be a matter of personal style. Commas are used to set apart some modifiers. .

or mice without anxiety. helped us draw up the plans. if your series uses the words and or or to connect them. winter flounder has two eyes on its right side. bread. phrases. Shelly grabbed her coat. and ran to the bus. Examples: You. Confusing: Laughing Larry tried to tell the joke but just couldn’t. and is. If you use two or more adjectives to describe a noun or pronoun. Set off an introductory word or phrase from the rest of the sentence with a comma.) This pause stops readers from carrying the meaning of the introduction into the main part of the sentence. or spiders. . are the winner. Examples: Please pick up milk. What a strange name. 126 . Laughing Larry . a word or phrase that renames or enhances a noun. intelligent child. (See Lesson 13 for a review of phrases. and blue are patriotic colors. Example: He was a happy. or by two commas if it is within the sentence. should be set off from the rest of the sentence by commas. Less Confusing: After eating. known as summer flounder. An appositive. Marie was unconcerned about the high waves. Rule 2. or clauses in a sentence. Rule 3. which might lead to misinterpretation. Be careful not to put a comma between the final adjective and the word it modifies. An experienced sailor. A transitional phrase should also be set off by a comma if it introduces a sentence. Confusing: After eating the flower shop owner and his manager tallied the day’s receipts. I cannot look at pictures of snakes. Nancy. I cannot look at pictures of snakes or spiders or mice without anxiety. Examples: Red and white and blue are patriotic colors. in fact. On the other hand. Use commas to separate a series of three or more words. However. Examples: Fluke has two eyes on its left side. It seems as though someone was very hungry . and white. the flower shop owner and his manager tallied the day’s receipts. Our neighbor. put it on. . and bananas from the store on your way home from work. . Not: Red. a well known architect. Larry tried to tell the joke but just couldn’t. Less Confusing: Laughing. .Internal PunCtuatIon I Rule 1. use a comma to separate them. a comma is not necessary.

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Mary Edwards Walker became the first woman to receive the Congressional Medal of Honor. pavilion in West End Park in Columbia South Carolina. please bring: a charcoal pencil. “You’re invited to the cast party” said Randy “and you’ll meet the star of the show Stan Hanks. one of America’s finest female poets. 10. and your creativity to: room 601 of Larsson Hall. two paintbrushes. Colons Colons are used to introduce a word. Examples: Phenomenal Women: Four Poems Celebrating Women is written by Maya Angelou. physicist. 129 . and between numbers when citing the volume and pages of books and magazines. February 2 2010 is our 25th anniversary. The Blue Ridge Mountains part of the Appalachian Mountain Range begin in Georgia and run through North Carolina Tennessee Virginia and Maryland and end in Pennsylvania. please bring the following items to room 601 of Larsson Hall: a charcoal pencil. 8. We had a choice of steak fish or vegetable plate at Marcie’s bridal dinner. Jimmy has watched Barnyard: The Original Party four times this weekend. For her work as a surgeon during the Civil War Dr. Incorrect: On your first day of the art workshop. diplomat. The next bus for New York City leaves at 10:20 a. two paintbrushes. or a phrase.Internal PunCtuatIon I 4. and hence we often make troublesome changes without amendment. Please refer to Volume 3: pages 4–9 for further information. 7. Lastly.” 9.m. colons are used to separate the hour from minutes in written time. politician. a sentence. and inventor is quoted as saying: “All human situations have their inconveniences. We feel those of the present but neither see nor feel those of the future. Do not use a colon when introducing a list if the colon follows a preposition or a verb. writer. Brittany’s birthday party is March 21 2009 at the A colon can also introduce an excerpt or long quotation in your writing Example: Benjamin Franklin (1706–1790).” and set off the subtitle of a movie or book. Very truly yours 5. a list. and frequently for the worse. and your creativity. a drawing pad.” Example: On your first day of the art workshop. 6. a quotation. They say “here is an example” or “an example is going to follow. a drawing pad.

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17. 1826. 14. “and you’ll meet the star of the show. 6. cat food.” said Randy. Kelsey owns Joe’s Bar and Grill.Internal PunCtuatIon I 18. 20.” 9. The Blue Ridge Mountains. The instructions said to consult Volume J pages eration after school every day. Joe owns Kelsey’s Bakery coincidentally. Tennessee. fish. 20. is our 25th anniversary. La Habra. there was no one there to see it but him. Virginia. 8. Stan Hanks. or 30–36 and Volume P pages 89–90 for further information. he had lost his key. he still brings his laundry when he visits. Dr. 11. or vegetable plate at Marcie’s bridal dinner. To whom it may concern: 13.” 18. 12. Kelsey owns Joe’s Bar and Grill. “You’re invited to the cast party.m. in Monticello. He just made a hole-in-one. My mom lives at 521 N. 2. Mary Edwards Walker became the first woman to receive the Congressional Medal of Honor. Mr. 12:00 p. Mr. 3.? 15. Tabitha used to watch Star Trek: The Next Gen- there to see it but him. 19. Joe owns Kelsey’s Bakery. part of the Appalachian Mountain Range. and end in Pennsylvania. Daren admires Winston Churchill’s quote: “We make a living by what we get. 2010. 4. Darla’s grocery list included six items: eggs. Although Joseph is far from home. For her work as a surgeon during the Civil War. Very truly yours. we make a life by what we give. perhaps he should invest in a new washer and dryer. coincidentally. begin in Georgia and run through North Carolina. 131 . California. and bleach. 2:30 p. Brittany’s birthday party is March 21. 7. South Carolina. Colfax Street. He just made a hole-in-one there was no one milk.m. 10. answers 1. toothpaste. February 2. at the pavilion in West End Park in Columbia. Which time is better for you. 5. 19. soap. Thomas Jefferson died on July 4. The instructions said to consult Volume J: pages 30–36 and Volume P: pages 89–90 for further information. and Maryland. Virginia. 16. 2009. We had a choice of steak. Dad rang the doorbell several times. Dear Dad.

This lesson shows you when and how.S. essayist. we shorten two words into one. to make a noun plural. join. to make nouns possessive. A postrophes are used to create contractions.19 Internal Punctuation II But through every clause and part of speech of the right book I meet the eyes of the most determined men. interrupt. For instance. In informal writing. his force and terror inundate every word: the commas and dashes are alive. has and not would become hasn’t. using an apostrophe to create a contraction. and philosopher (1803–1882) Les s o n s um m ary Knowing when and how to use contractions or show possession. U. l e s s o n poet. and. in rare instances. 133 . is essential in good writing. Apostrophes Contractions Contract (con-TRACT) means to squeeze together or shorten. —Ralph Waldo Emerson. or emphasize your words and phrases correctly. and whether to divide.—can go far and live long. The following table shows some other common contractions. so that the writing is athletic and nimble.

Intern Al PunctuAtIon II

Possessive nouns
Possessives are nouns that show ownership. To make a singular noun possessive, add -’s. Be careful not to confuse the plural form of a noun with the possessive. Plural Form: The writer of the news stories won a Pulitzer. Singular Possessive: The news story’s writer won a Pulitzer. The first sentence tells us that the writer of multiple stories won a Pulitzer. The second sentence tells us the writer of one story won a Pulitzer. To form the possessive of the plural noun stories, add an apostrophe after the final -s. Plural Possessive: The news stories’ writer won a Pulitzer. This sentence also tells us that the writer of multiple stories won a Pulitzer. The -s’ rule applies only to plural nouns ending with an -s. For example, the possessive of the plural noun children, which does not end in -s, would be children’s. To form the possessive of a singular noun ending with -s, do one of two things: add -’s or just add an apostrophe after the -s. Examples: Kara Reynolds’s picture was in the newspaper this morning. Kara Reynolds’ picture was in the newspaper this morning.

Example: M.D.’s and Ph.D.’s are doctorate degrees in medicine and philosophy. Add -’s to form the plural of words, letters, and numbers that we do not commonly see in the plural form. Examples: How many um’s and uh’s did you count in the run-through of my speech? I got four A’s and two B’s on my report card. Please write your 5’s and 8’s more clearly on tests.

Practice
Place apostrophes where they belong in the following sentences.
1. The mans rake wasnt left in the leaf pile. 2. My mothers tablecloth was stained with grease. 3. You shouldnt pull your sisters hair. 4. The secretarys phone rang off the hook all

morning.
5. Maries umbrella was blown inside out. 6. The snowstorms forecast didnt keep us out of

school.
7. Kyles pep talks are always the best arent they? 8. Mandys parents grounded her, so she couldnt go

Plurals with apostrophe + s
There are a few occasions when -’s is required to make a noun plural. Add -’s to form the plural of abbreviations that contain more than one period, such as Ph.D. or M.D.

to the concert with me.
9. There was a huge pile of students papers on the

teachers desk.
10. That actresss British accent wasnt very good.

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18. The British Broadcasting Company BBC broadcasts on cable channel 67. The girls were all given brown fuzzy teddy bears cute! for their birthdays. or defining. there was a line that consisted of 15 people which made it not so convenient. . 20. . The American Automobile Association AAA has serviced millions of members since 1921. Example: Kim said. 1861. you may have breakfast a in your room. parentheses can be used to indicate an alternative form of a written term. and 5 publish. Practice Determine where the parentheses should be placed in the following sentences. . Examples: Before printing. abbreviations. or c by the pool. 2 write. b on the deck. an American pastime. Brackets Brackets also help to clarify information. 11. Example: The New York Times article stated that “[b]aseball. the Civil War began with the battle at Fort Sumter National Geographic. you must finish the dishes first. We skated or should I say swept the floor at the rink this weekend. . . . place the words inside brackets. 14. You should indicate the CDs you want before they sell out. When you editorialize (insert comments or missing material within a quote). 2002. 17. an American pastime . is favored by many women as well as children. 12. Examples: There has been recent news from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) . but have a narrower range of uses than parentheses.Internal PunctuatIon III Parentheses are also used for providing. place the new letter in brackets. 4 edit. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has issued a new . While at the resort. Finally. On April 12. . 19. 3 revise.” in the original source. Mohandas Mahatma Gandhi 1869–1948 was a leader of peaceful protest in India during the 1930s. “In order for you [Katelyn] to go [to the Monmouth Mall to see a movie].” Note that the article would have read “Baseball. At the convenience store. 15. the steps of the writing process are 1 draft. Write the name(s) on the form and submit.” If the capitalization of a word in a quote needs to be altered in order to make it fit in a sentence or paragraph scheme. 142 . 16. . 13. While fluidly interchangeable. carefully select the page(s) you need .

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Internal PunctuatIon III

Practice
Identify the words and phrases that need to be italicized (or underlined) in the following sentences.
26. “Bonjour, mon ami,” my French neighbor said to me. 27. Newsweek and Time are two popular newsmagazines around the world. 28. It is so annoying when you whine—please stop! 29. Hunt for Red October was an engaging novel written by Tom Clancy, as well as a successful film. 30. How do you know it’s what she wants?

answers
1. “Are you going to the class reunion?” asked 12. We skated (or should I say swept the floor) at

Jennifer. 2. “I couldn’t wait another minute,” Lee announced. “How did your job interview go?” 3. Randy said his graduation gift from his grandparents would blow you away. 4. “Yes, I would like that, thank you,” said Henry. 5. Isn’t it just like Jane to say something like that, thought Kevin. 6. “Your projects on photosynthesis are due on Monday,” said Mr. Lang. 7. The police officer asked the suspect, “Where were you on February 12 at 9:00 a.m.?” 8. “The pictures,” sighed the photographer, “came out blurry.” 9. My manager reminded us that the customer is always right. 10. “The next stop is Chambers Street,” said the bus driver. 11. While at the resort, you may have breakfast (a) in your room, (b) on the deck, or (c) by the pool.
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the rink this weekend. 13. The British Broadcasting Company (BBC) broadcasts on cable channel 67. 14. The girls were all given brown fuzzy teddy bears (cute!) for their birthdays. 15. You should indicate the CD(s) you want before they sell out. 16. At the convenience store, there was a line that consisted of 15 people (which made it not so convenient). 17. The American Automobile Association (AAA) has serviced millions of members since 1921. 18. On April 12, 1861, the Civil War began with the battle at Fort Sumter (National Geographic, 2002). 19. Mohandas Mahatma Gandhi (1869–1948) was a leader of peaceful protest in India during the 1930s. 20. While fluidly interchangeable, the basic steps of the writing process are (1) draft, (2) write, (3) revise, (4) edit, and (5) publish.

Internal PunctuatIon III

21. “The Trojan Horse,” stated Mrs. Mitchell, “was

27. Newsweek and Time are two popular newsmag-

not a gift, but really a cleverly plotted red herring [decoy] created by the Greeks.” 22. A favorite dance saying is that “[i]f dance were any easier, it would be football.” 23. “If I were you,” said Nathan, “I wouldn’t put it [the project] off to the last minute.” 24. After my wife and I purchased it [our second house], we were overjoyed. 25. “As a teacher, he [Mr. Johnson] is obliged to report any misconduct he sees throughout the day,” said Mr. Cancro. 26. “Bonjour, mon ami,” my French neighbor said to me.

azines around the world. 28. It is so annoying when you whine—please stop! 29. Hunt for Red October was an engaging novel written by Tom Clancy, as well as a successful film. 30. How do you know it’s what she wants? How do you know it’s what she wants? How do you know it’s what she wants? How do you know it’s what she wants? How do you know it’s what she wants? How do you know it’s what she wants? How do you know it’s what she wants?

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Posttest

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ow that you have spent a good deal of time improving your grammar skills, take this posttest to see how much you have learned. Record your answers in this book. If it does not belong to you, list the numbers 1–50 on a piece of paper and write your answers there. Take as much time as you need to finish the test. When you do, check your answers against the correct answers in the section that follows it. Each answer lists the lesson of the book that covers the concept(s) in that question. If you took the pretest at the beginning of the book, you can compare what you knew then with what you know now. Check your score on this posttest against your score on the pretest. If this score is much greater, congratulations—you have profited noticeably from your hard work. If your score shows little improvement, you may want to review certain chapters, especially if you see a pattern to the kinds of questions you missed. Whatever your score, keep this book handy for review and reference whenever you are unsure of a grammatical rule.

They gave me the Miss Congeniality award! She never seems to have time to visit her old neighborhood. where whom how when whoever which who whose whatever Violin Harvard Lunch NBC Chair Sabrina Earth Lamps President Obama Memphis Idaho Pacific 10. Andrew questioned himself about his decision to buy the treadmill. 3. kites/they everyone/it Paul and I/we fishermen/they company/it deer/it each/we player/we deer/they 9. Circle the subjective case pronouns. Give me a sign. Matt/her mice/they students/it lizard/it Cheryl/she you and I/we 8. 13. Circle the objective case pronouns. Circle the antecedents/pronouns that properly pillow guilt information FBI jealousy kindness clapping cute fruit breathe mindless razor agree in gender. Circle the abstract nouns. Circle the hyphenated nouns that are spelled correctly. He cooked them ravioli. Circle the proper nouns. We picked a lot of peaches from our trees. knowledge deceit malice carrots log pilot money warmth pleasure jury banana split hope agree in number. Circle the antecedents/pronouns that properly 2.Posttest Posttest 1. Circle the nouns that have been made possessive correctly. 11. His decision about buying the treadmill was rash. frees-for-all vote-getters fathers-in-law not-for-profits passer-bys voice-overs 6. Circle the nouns that are pluralized correctly. 4. 12. Circle the interrogative pronouns. Circle the reflexive case pronouns and underline 5. This isn’t a good way to spend the money that you saved! Is that the neighbor who drove you home from the airport? 148 . 7. televisions womans ferries knifes flys tooths deers pluses mouses analyses igloos volcanoes We lent it to him. Circle the common nouns. Circle the demonstrative pronoun and underline the relative pronouns. horse’s kittens’s children’s band’s ant’s bus’s classes’ child’s doctors’ teachers’ Max’s class’s the possessive case pronouns. Heather herself wondered what prompted him to buy it.

present progressive. Sanjay lent his laptop computer to his longtime friend Benjamin. and I (hanged. Circle the action verbs. 19. hung) out at the mall almost all day Saturday. Marcy. Nathan prefers tennis.Posttest 14. This mysterious trunk has (lain. Change the following proper nouns into proper “Mom. laid) untouched in this attic for decades. We had (set. (can. past progressive. sentences. present perfect. take never would can will am now are how not could did present. past. Circle the regular verbs and underline the 21. Circle the linking verbs. however. Place the correct indefinite article in front of Janice is (setting. He answered every question on the exam correctly (accept. future perfect. Elvis was a legendary rock-and-roll performer who was loved by people everywhere. 20. may) I sell some of this old jewelry online?” I asked. past perfect. lies) his schoolbooks on his desk. sitting) the table before her guests arrive. set) down in the comfortable chair and took a short nap. Greece Idaho North America Washington Japan Mexico Denmark Florida Belgium Maya Asia Hawaii France Vietnam Britain 149 . Chris. am swimming had swum will have swum swam have swum will swim were swimming swims 16. ___ hen ___ honorable person ___ one-car family ___ orthodontist ___ honeybee ___ orangutan ___ ozone layer ___ umbrella ___ hour-long lecture ___ universe ___ wristwatch ___ upperclassman ___ elegant dinner ___ underwater city ___ opinion 23. Identify the tense of the verbs that follow as look just moisten talk draw should help itch may cook be geranium 15. Circle the correct tricky words in each sentence. future. Circle the correct form of sit/set in each sentence. or future progressive. Circle the correct form of lay/lie in each sentence. 22. Sammy usually (lays. sat) our glasses of lemonade on the orange coasters beside us. except) the last one. Soccer is the most popular sport in the world. The shopkeeper (laid. lain) his apron on the counter before locking up for the night. Circle the common adjectives in the following irregular verbs. 18. each noun. injure lock untie hide know grow carry mow cost write drive throw 17. adjectives. Jim (sat.

People said my coconut custard pie tasted (good. you’ll probably get dizzy. 26. he finished dinner and went upstairs to his room. My flight from L. Termites were found all around the building. most cautiously) during the race. lative adjective best completes each sentence. the chef threw the roast into the sink. Having been burned to a crisp. If you spin around quickly. The (cooler. 25. This has got to be the fastest time you’ve recorded yet. We drove around the back to drop off the heaviest packages first. Living in close quarters can be difficult for some. Without a word. I showed Charles my coin collection. Determine whether the boldfaced word in the 32. Marco rode (more cautiously. Using the clues. slimier) than the other one. 150 homographs. before you drop them. 30. and he told me about his. she would always share what was hers with others. group of cattle/listened give a lecture/where you live stumble/an excursion passed away/changed the color fair-minded/barely shoreline/glide without power authentic/spool of film behavior/run an experiment . Identify the prepositional phrases in the sentence is a possessive pronoun or a possessive adjective. coolest) day yet this week was Wednesday. please. to Tucson seemed (longer.Posttest 24. well). Crocks of onion soup were served to the guests dripping with cheese. Determine whether the boldfaced word in each following sentences. Hand me those. Determine whether the boldfaced word is a sentence is a demonstrative pronoun or a demonstrative adjective. Her kindness was undeniable. Rewrite each sentence so that the misplaced modifiers are properly placed. That storm isn’t moving fast enough to suit me. Of the three jockeys. Our hunch was that the deed was really theirs. Circle the correct form of the comparative and 31. superlative adverbs in the following sentences. Lori told Joe not to be too hard on himself. Kerry’s parents brought her to Disney World. narrowest) of all.A. Determine whether the boldfaced word in each 29. gooder) than his mom’s! 28. in fact Sam said it tasted (better. write the homonyms or sentence is an adjective or an adverb. and it was 97 degrees. but only time would tell. 27. longest) than the one from Tucson to New York. We went out for ice cream when the show was over. My shoes are the (narrower. Yuck! This rock is (slimy. Determine which form of comparative or super- preposition or an adverb. Kyle went straight home after the movie. She walked quickly across the room to see what had crashed to the floor. At the age of five.

infinitive phrases. although some did not. Identify the simple predicate in the following following sentences. goes) to the prom each year. Identify whether the boldfaced word is a direct indefinite pronouns in the following sentences. Bacon and eggs (are. is) the favorite dish of many people who stop at our diner. it still fell from the wall. and gerund phrases in the following sentences. The judge gave the contest finalists extra time to prepare for the last round. Even though I hung the picture up carefully.Posttest 33. 151 . The orchestra played several Beethoven pieces. wear boots or shoes with a ridged sole. The puppy wagged _________ tail eagerly when it saw the mailman at the door. Jay’s turkey and mayo sandwich turned bad. 40. tries) out for the community theater’s musical production every year. Identify the adjective and adverb phrases in the adjectives in the following sentences. Animals that sleep during the day and are awake at night are called nocturnal. prefer) to eat yogurt. Mike still likes coming home once in a while. Determine which pronoun best fits for proper or an indirect object in the following sentences. needs) to be done about that leak. Identify the participial phrases. The airline representative said the flight should arrive within the hour. Leaving his entire fortune to his nephew Lewis. Something (need. Everyone carefully opened __________ package. 34. Everyone (go. Identify the verb that will agree with the sentences. Becoming an accomplished pianist has always been Victoria’s plan. is) the only choice of genre left to choose from for my report. Judy was a pie chef who entered and won many contests. Stand still. We spotted a turtle on a rock nearby. the time of day it’s eaten varies widely. 41. 35. Some of the shoes on the far shelf cost more than $300. 38. 36. Although he lives on his own. Please stop. The group took ________ yearly retreat to Maine. The townspeople gave the sheriff a welcoming ovation. following sentences. To avoid slipping on the ice. 39. Science fiction or mystery (are. Zach signed his will with little trepidation. Jane played hopscotch all afternoon. Cockatiels can become speaking birds if trained well. please. Most liked it. Kara and Maria (try. While each (prefers. Identify the predicate nouns and predicate pronoun/antecedent agreement in each sentence. but for medical purposes as well. Artificial intelligence is used not only in games. Identify the verb that correctly completes the sentences. Identify the simple subject in the following 37. On the hot summer day.

and stayed up all night talking. Identify the adverb clause in each sentence. and I know that drinking water is better than drinking soda. Gold or blue would be the best choice of color for the pillows. As I said I am learning ballroom dancing Here are some for you Well.Posttest 42. Determine whether each group of words is an sentence. I received a great letter of recommendation for a summer internship from Professor Williams. Danielle and Joanna watched a movie. too. b. the first state to ratify the U. compound. popped popcorn. but many did not. following sentences. 46. Identify the noun clause in each sentence.000 prize money in a single season. To make mashed potatoes. 48. 43. 45. I should say so That’s life Stop that 44. the head of our science department. Constitution. Sometimes we go to the lake so we can water-ski. please. d. since 1939. S. The Asian market where they sell many exotic fruits is down the road from us. It’s not easy to memorize all of the mathematical formulae for algebra stated Mrs. she missed the introductory overview of the entire workshop. Except for Tanya. 152 end marks in the following sentences. complex. Do you know what time the store opens? I can’t decide which shoes to wear. a professional tennis player. Put your folded laundry away. Some citizens voted in the town election. Identify the simple. Whether or not you believe it. Violet decided to go home for the holidays since her grandparents would be visiting. Because Jill was late. Identify the appositive phrases in the following 47. compound-complex sentences. The American holly has been the state tree of Delaware. and the word or group of words it is connecting. c. a. just add butter and milk to the boiled potatoes and mash until creamy. was the first female athlete to win over $100. Shapiro but we’ll accomplish that by the year’s end Would you make my steak sandwich without onions please asked Harry I began Courtney am not the only girl who feels that way . Identify the coordinating conjunctions in each sentences. The boy at the end of the line closed the door. On April 12 1861 the Civil War began with the battle at Fort Sumter The dentists hygienists and staff threw a surprise party for him Would you consider using Benjis or Jesss racket for now 50. and independent or a subordinate clause. Identify the adjective clause in each sentence. commas. Correctly place quotation marks. the decision is ultimately yours. 49. we all got soaked while walking back from the auditorium. Billie Jean King. Add punctuation where necessary in the I sang a song that my mom sang to me when I was a baby.

would. hope (Les15. deer/they (Lesson 3) 9. whose. a one-car family. help. his: possessive pronoun Her: possessive adjective. an upperclassman. a wristwatch. an honorable person. This isn’t a good way to spend the money that you saved! Is that the neighbor who drove you home from the airport? (Lesson 3) 14. Vietnamese. We picked a lot of peaches from our trees. horse’s. a honeybee. Cheryl/she. an orangutan. legendary. Max’s. Sabrina. (Lesson 3) 13. Greek. popular. mice/they. Andrew questioned himself about his decision to buy the treadmill. razor (Lesson 1) 2. whom. lizard/it. Washingtonian. deceit. an orthodontist. Japanese. an ozone layer. Danish. are. Idahoan. draw. which (Lesson 3) 10. Idaho. whoever. North American. kites/they. French. igloos. Heather herself wondered what prompted him to buy it. doctors’. an opinion (Lesson 7) 23. my: possessive adjective. 1. an elegant dinner. classes’. sat. children’s. televisions. an hour-long lecture. did (Lesson 4) 16. NBC. ferries. pleasure. child’s. fathers-in-law. fruit. a universe. hers: possessive pronoun Our: possessive adjective. longtime. Hawaiian. (Lesson 3) 12.Posttest Answers If you miss any of the following questions. can. Give me a sign. Earth. vote-getters. malice. lain. We lent it to him . how. pluses. voice-overs (Lesson 2) 6. am swimming: present progressive had swum: past perfect will have swum: future perfect swam: past have swum: present perfect will swim: future were swimming: past progressive swims: present (Lesson 6) 21. information. They gave me the Miss Congeniality award! She never seems to have time to visit her old neighborhood. Floridian. moisten (Lesson 4) untie hide mow drive know grow cost throw (Lesson 5) 17. pillow. Pacific (Lesson 1) 4. British (Lesson 7) 24. cook. an umbrella. company/it. laptop. Mayan. injure lock carry write son 1) 3. laid (Lesson 5) 18. President Obama. rock-androll (Lesson 7) 22. Asian. bus’s. theirs: possessive pronoun (Lesson 7) 25. lays. volcanoes (Lesson 2) 5. set (Lesson 5) 19. look. could. deer/it. analyses. talk. He cooked them ravioli. setting. Memphis. an underwater city. (Lesson 3) 11. hung (Lesson 5) 20. class’s (Lesson 2) 7. Mexican. not-for-profits. except. That: demonstrative adjective those: demonstrative pronoun This: demonstrative pronoun (Lesson 7) 153 . who. you and I/we (Lesson 3) 8. itch. will. Belgian. teachers’. fishermen/they. Paul and I/we. a hen. Harvard. you may refer to the designated lesson for further explanation. knowledge. am. His decision about buying the treadmill was rash. may.

time: direct object (Lesson 11) 36. the first state to ratify the U. its. over: adverb. popped popcorn. Most. is (Lesson 12) 38. Mike (Lesson 11) 34. her parents brought her to Disney World. As I said: subordinate (Lessons 7 and 8) 29. Artificial intelligence. 1861. close: adjective. across the room: preposition (Lesson 9) 31. hard: adverb. from the wall: adverb phrase (Lesson 13) 41.” “Would you make my steak sandwich without onions. When Kerry was five. the head of our science department. around the building. good. needs. I should say so: independent That’s life: independent Stop that: independent (Lesson 14) 44. most cautiously. Gold or blue Danielle and Joanna. which was burned to a crisp. that my mom sang at the end of the line where they sell many exotic fruits (Lesson 14) 45. “but we’ll accomplish that by the year’s end. d. compound-complex. b. finalists: indirect object. the Civil War began with the battle at Fort Sumter. The chef threw the roast. please?” asked Harry. Animals. The dentist’s hygienists and staff threw a surprise party for him. “am not the only girl who feels that way. better (Lesson 8) 28. around the back (Lesson 9) 30. Without a word. Crocks of onion soup dripping with cheese were served to the guests. pieces: direct object. goes. “It’s not easy to memorize all of the mathematical formulae for algebra.S. is. bad: predicate adjective. sheriff: indirect object. its (Lesson 12) 40. compound.” (Lessons 17–20) . into the sink. on the far shelf: adverb phrase. Except for Tanya Whether or not you believe it since her grandparents would be visiting. a. spotted (Lesson 11) 35. narrowest (Lesson 7) 27. On April 12. his or her. within the hour: adverb phrase. herd/heard address/address died/dyed coast/coast real/reel conduct/conduct (Lesson 10) 33. of the shoes: adjective phrase. (you). slimier. chef: predicate noun (Lesson 11) 37. try. ovation: direct object. Becoming an accomplished pianist: gerund phrase To avoid slipping on the ice: infinitive phrase Leaving his entire fortune to his nephew Lewis: participial phrase (Lesson 13) 42. a professional tennis player. watched a movie. prefers (Lesson 12) 39. birds: predicate noun. complex (Lesson 16) 49. stand. Constitution (Lesson 13) 154 I am learning ballroom dancing: independent Here are some for you: independent Well. too (Lesson 14) 47. to his room. “I.” stated Mrs. c. (Lesson 10) 32. coolest. that drinking water is better than drinking soda what time the store opens which shoes to wear (Lesson 14) 46. played. longer. and stayed up all night talking Sometimes we go to the lake so we can waterski. straight: adverb 43. simple. Would you consider using Benji’s or Jess’s racket for now? (Lessons 17–20) 50. around: adverb.” began Courtney. Shapiro. (Lesson 15) 48.Posttest 26.