Þage of

Eiik Wahlbeig
PSC ŵŵŷ: Stuuy uuiue + 0utlines foi Quiz šŶ (ŵŵ¡Ÿ¡ŶŴŵŵ)
Table of Contents
Topic Page Numbers in Textbook Page Numbers in Study Cuide
Stuuy uuiue fiom Noigan's Recitation - ŵ-Ŷ
Chaptei ź: Public 0pinion ŵŻŻ-ŶŴ9 Ŷ-Ż
Chaptei Ż: The Neuia Ŷŵŵ-ŶŸŹ Ż-ŵŶ
Chaptei 9: Political Paities Ŷ8Ź-ŷŵŻ ŵŶ-ŶŴ
Chaptei ŵŴ: Elections, Campaigns, anu voting ŷŵ9-ŷŹ9 Ŷŵ-ŷŴ


Study Gu|de from Morgan's kec|tat|on
1Ŧ nn½ Wall SLreeL
2Ŧ ArlsLoLle's 1½olog
3Ŧ LlenLoral College
4Ŧ lndlvldal MandaLe
3Ŧ nlnolas Sarkoz
6Ŧ Angela Merkel
7Ŧ uMA
8Ŧ Leon ÞaneLLa
9Ŧ llaL Lax/Þrogresslve Lax
apter 6ť Þub||c Cp|n|on ]] Iocus Çuest|onsť pŦ
10Ŧ Þlln ½lnlon
11Ŧ Lfflnan vs ÞollLlnal 1rsL
12Ŧ SnlenLlfln ½olllngť Call½ţ random sam½leţ re½resenLaLlve sam½le
13Ŧ 1½es of ½ollsť Lranklngţ exlLţ ½s
14Ŧ Lrrors ln Þolllngť CesLlon wordlngţ sam½llng errorţ eLn
13Ŧ 8oles of LllLesť LllLe Leor
16Ŧ Pow lnformed ls Le ½lln regardlng ½ollLlnal lsses?
17Ŧ LlenLoraLe ½olarlzaLlon (8ell nrve)ţ ÞarLlsansl½
18Ŧ WaL lm½anLs a ½erson's ½ollLlnal o½lnlon?
apter ť 1e Med|a ]] Iocus Çuest|onsť pŦ 22
19Ŧ Mass Medla
20Ŧ 8oll of Le lree Þress
21Ŧ lnnLlons of Le news
22Ŧ lree Þress ÞroLenLlonsť n?1 v Slllvanţ ÞenLagon Þa½ersţ near v Mn
23Ŧ Þrlor 8esLralnL
24Ŧ SelfŴselenLlon/selenLlve ½erne½Llon
23Ŧ lCC
26Ŧ 8ole of Le MedlaŴ uesnrl½Llve vs lnLer½reLlve
27Ŧ PlsLor of Le Þressť ÞarLlsanţ Þrofesslonalţ 1elevlslon
28Ŧ Medla 1oda
29Ŧ lnfoLalnmenL
30Ŧ SofL news
31Ŧ Mlnlmal vs noLŴsoŴmlnlmal effenLs Model
32Ŧ 8logglngţ ClLlzen !ornallsmţ Sonlal neLworklng
33Ŧ Pow do Le medla lm½anL Le ½ers½enLlves of voLers?
apter 9ť Þo||t|ca| Þart|es ]] Iocus Çuest|onsť pŦ26
Þage 2 of

34Ŧ 1½es of Þrlmarles
33Ŧ uelegaLes/S½erdelegaLes
36Ŧ LvolLlon of ÞollLlnal ÞarLles
37Ŧ 3 8oles of ÞollLlnal ÞarLles
38Ŧ ÞarL Canses/Þrlmar LlenLlons
39Ŧ lronLloadlng
40Ŧ ÞaLronage
41Ŧ ÞarL loalL
42Ŧ 1lrd ÞarLles
43Ŧ 2ŴÞarL SsLem
44Ŧ PlsLor of ÞarL 8eform
43Ŧ Clvll Servlne
46Ŧ AsLrallan 8alloL
47Ŧ Þrogresslves
48Ŧ ÞarL AllgnmenL/8eallgnmenL
49Ŧ naLlonal ÞarL ConvenLlons
apter ť L|ect|onsţ ampa|gns and Vot|ng ]] Iocus Çuest|onsť pŦ 2
30Ŧ ConsLlLLlonal 8eqlremenLs of LlenLlons
31Ŧ ºWlnner Lake all" ssLem
32Ŧ LlenLoral CollegeŸ Le maL Ǝ Le fnnLlon of Le LC
33Ŧ W do we ave Le LlenLoral College?
34Ŧ lnlLlaLlves
33Ŧ 8eferenda
36Ŧ Wedge lsses and negaLlve ÞollLlns
37Ŧ W do we LradlLlonall ave a low voLer LrnoL drlng elenLlons?
38Ŧ ÞredlnLlon Modelsť WaL fanLors do Le esL ½redlnLlon models nonslder?
39Ŧ 2000 8s v Core ÞresldenLlal LlenLlon nonLrovers

utlines of Cbapters ź J Ż J 9 J ŵŴ
Cbapter ź: Public pinion
1Ŧ 1e ½ower of ½lln o½lnlon
aŦ 1e ½ower of ½resldenLlal a½½roval
lŦ Approva| rat|ngŴ [o ½erformanne evalaLlon for Le ½resldenLţ nongressţ or lnLlLlonŤ generaLed ½lln
o½lnlon ½olls and L½lnall re½orLed as ½ernenLage
llŦ 8s ad lgesLŴ 9/11Ŵ 90 ½ernenL of Le ½llnŴnaLlon senrlLŴ lannlng nam½algns on lraq 70 ½ernenLŴ
evenLall raLlng wenL down Lo 30 ½ernenL from nŴfavorlng lraq war and rrlnane kaLrlnaŦ
lllŦ ama ad lg a½½roval raLlng aL flrsL L snk enase of enonomln nondlLlon and nŴ½o½lar war
AfganlsLanŦ
Ŧ WaL ls ½lln o½lnlon
lŦ 8enognlzed for lLs ½ower and ls ever nanglngţ ard Lo ½redlnLţ and nearl lm½osslle Lo nonLrol
llŦ Þub||c op|n|onŴ aggregaLe of lndlvldal aLLlLdes or ellefs aoL nerLaln lsses or offlnlals
lllŦ 8ased on voLlngţ ½ollsţ ralllesţ ½roLesLsţ news½a½er edlLorlalsţ lnformaLlon on da Lo da nonversaLlonsŦ
nŦ 1e ½lln's s½½orL of governmenL
lŦ Lff|cacyŴ exLenL Lo wln ½eo½le elleve Lelr anLlons nan ave an lm½anL on ½lln affalrs and Le anLlons
of governmenL
llŦ Þub||c trustŴ exLenL Lo wln ½eo½le elleve Lelr governmenL anLs ln Lelr esL lnLeresLs
lllŦ 1wo nommon efforLs lnvolved ln assesslng LrsL ln governmenL
Þage of

1Ŧ 8elleve Lelr ½arLlnl½aLlon ln Le governmenL maLLers
2Ŧ 8ellef LaL governmenL anLs ln Lelr esL lnLeresL
lvŦ 8oL are denllnlng
2Ŧ Þlln ½lnlon ½olls
aŦ Þolls make lL ½osslle Lo gage Le ½lln's Llnklng on a varleL of lsses or offlnlalsŦ
Ŧ Þoll reslLs nan e lasedţ nonLradlnLorţ and nonfslngŦ
lŦ 8eason naLe Sllver's nlear assessmenLs ½roved so ½o½lar drlng 2008
nŦ SnlenLlfln ½olllng and Le growL of srve of srve researn
lŦ Straw po||Ŵ alloL ½olls 19
L
nenLr news½a½ers Lo ½redlnL oLnome of elenLlons (!ankson elenLlonsţ
8oosevelL elenLlon)
llŦ kandom samp|esŴ meLod of selenLlon LaL glves everone wo mlgL e selenLed Lo ½arLlnl½aLe ln a ½oll
an eqal nolne Lo e lnnlded
lllŦ Ga||up po||Ŵ mosL wellŴknown and ½era½s mosL res½enLed ½olllng flrm ln Le uS fonded Ceorge
Call½
lvŦ Sc|ent|f|c po|||ngŴ meLod of ½olllng LaL ½rovldes a falrl ½renlse readlng of ½lln o½lnlon slng
random sam½llng
vŦ Þolls were nel½fl enase lL was nnlear wo was elng srveed *clotlflcotloo NeeJeJ*
dŦ 1½es of Þolls
lŦ ensusŴ nonsLlLLlonall mandaLed norL of Le ½o½laLlon ever Len ears
llŦ Samp|eŴ sseL of a ½o½laLlon from wln lnformaLlon ls nollenLed and analzed Lo learn more aoL Le
½o½laLlon as a wole Ŷ Le norm for an annraLe sam½le slze ls arond one Losand ½eo½leŦ
lllŦ Þopu|at|onŴ gro½ Le ½oll ls Lo re½resenL
lvŦ kepresentat|ve samp|eŴ ½olllng sam½le LaL ls noL lasedţ ln wln all memers of Le ½o½laLlon ave an
eqal nanne of elng lnnlded
vŦ 1rack|ng po||Ŵ ½olls LaL seek Lo gage Le nange of Le over a ½erlod of Llmeţ nommon drlng Le nloslng
monLs of Le ½resldenLlal elenLlon
vlŦ Lx|t po||Ŵ ½oll LaL srve a sam½le of voLers lmmedlaLel afLer exlLlng Le voLlng ooL Lo ½redlnL Le
oLnome of Le elenLlon efore Le alloLs are offlnlall nonLed (2000 elenLlon eLween s and goreŴ
nonLrovers ln llorlda)
vllŦ Þus po||Ŵ ½olls LaL are deslgned Lo manl½laLe Le o½lnlons of Lose elng ½olled (½L ln Le slfL ½lln
o½lnlon)
vlllŦ MosL famos and nonseqenLlal exlL ½oll
1Ŧ llorlda drlng 2000 ½resldenLlal elenLlons (Core / 8s)
eŦ Lrrors ln Þolls
lŦ onf|dence |nterva|Ŵ sLaLlsLlnal rangeţ wlL a glven ½roalllLţ LaL Lakes a random error lnLo annonL
llŦ Samp|e errorŴ measre of Le annran of a ½lln o½lnlon ½ollţ re½orLed as a ½ernenLage
1Ŧ 600 ½arLlnl½anLs ƹ (Sam½llng Lrror) 4Ʒ
lllŦ NonŴatt|tudesŴ sornes of error ln ½lln o½lnlon ½olls ln wln lndlvldals feel ollged Lo glve an o½lnlon
on someLlng wenţ ln reallLţ Le are naware of Le lsse or ave no o½lnlon ln lLŦ
fŦ 1e fLre ½olls
lŦ lnnreaslng nmer of Amerlnans LaL nan snreen nalls ls nanglng ½lln o½lnlon
llŦ uenllnlng res½onse raLe ls lessenlng alllL of ½ollsLers Lo na½Lre ½lln o½lnlon annraLel
lllŦ lnLerneL ½olls re½resenL Le fLre for ½olllng ½lln o½lnlon
lvŦ kesponse rateŴ ½ro½orLlon of Le ½lln wo res½ond Lo lnqlrles from ½ollsLers Lo do srves (denllne ln
½ones (no more landllnes)ţ lnnrease ln lnLerneL ½olls)
Þage 4 of

3Ŧ WaL urlves ½lln o½lnlon
aŦ Sonlal and ½ollLlnal envlronmenL
lŦ ÞollLlnal aLLlLdes are sa½ed Le envlronmenL
llŦ Some sllgL lnLs geneLlns ma sa½e ½ollLlnal vlews (noL wldel researned)
lllŦ Soc|a||zat|onŴ lm½anL and lnflenne of one's sonlal envlronmenL on Le vlews and aLLlLdes one narrles ln
llfeţ a ½rlmar sorne of ½ollLlnal aLLlLdes
lvŦ IndependentsŴ lndlvldals wo do noL afflllaLe wlL elLer of Le ma[or ½ollLlnal ½arLles
Ŧ CeneraLlonal effenLs
lŦ Generat|ona| effectŴ effenLs on one's ½ersonal o½lnlons relaLed Lo Le era ln wln one llves (greaL
de½resslonţ 9/11 aLLank)
1Ŧ Ma[or evenLs nange an enLlre generaLlon's Llnklng aoL ½ollLlns
2Ŧ need noL e llmlLed Lo llfeŴalLerlng evenLs
3Ŧ Mlllennlal seem Lo e more LrsLlng of governmenL Lan ½revlos generaLlonsţ evldenne exlsLs also
less rellglos
nŦ SelfŴlnLeresLs and 8aLlonallL
lŦ Se|fŴ|nterestŴ nonnern for one's own advanLage and wellŴelng (as lnnome rlsesţ Le nannes of someone
elng a re½llnan rlses)
llŦ kat|ona||tyŴ anLlng ln a wa LaL ls nonslsLenL wlL one's self lnLeresL (½eo½le wo ave nlldren wanL
more ednaLlon ½ollnţ elderl s½½orL sonlal senrlL enase Lere nlose Lo reLlremenL)
lllŦ L||tesŴ gro½s of ½eo½le wo ma lead Le ½lln o½lnlonţ sn as [ornallsLsţ ½ollLlnlansţ and Le ½olln
makers
lvŦ L||te teoryŴ ldea LaL ½lln o½lnlon ls sa½ed dlsnlosre among ellLes and ls a Lo½ŴLoŴoLLom ½roness
1Ŧ Masslve nange ln ½lln o½lnlon nllkel
2Ŧ LllLes alllL Lo nange ½lln o½lnlon ls ½rodnL of lnLenslL and nonslsLenn of Le message
3Ŧ ulsagreemenL among ellLes on an lsse wlll denrease ½oLenLlal Lo nange
vŦ Worr LaL ellLes ave an lger lnflenne ln ½lln o½lnlonţ goes agalnsL demonran nonne½L LaL all ave
eqal ½arLlnl½aLlon
vlŦ uemonraLs ½erse Lax ½ollnles LaL Lax Le wealL aL a lger raLe Lo ½a for sonlal ½rograms LaL eneflL
Le less wealL
vllŦ 8e½llnans ½ersade ½ollnles LaL ½roLenL lndlvldal wealL
4Ŧ 1e Sa½e of Þlln ½lnlon
aŦ 1o ndersLand ½lln o½lnlonţ one msL ndersLand Le was lL ls sa½ed ½arLlsansl½ and ldeolog
Ŧ ÞarLlsansl½
lŦ Þarty |dent|f|cat|onŴ aLLanmenL or alleglanne Lo a ½ollLlnal ½arLţ ½arLlsansl½
llŦ Þerceptua| |ensŴ ldeologlnal framework LaL sa½es Le wa ½arLlsans vlew Le world of ½ollLlnal world
and ½roness lnformaLlon
lllŦ 8 knowlng ½arL ldenLlflnaLlonţ ½ollLlnal snlenLlsLs nan ½redlnL aLLlLdes on a range of lsses
lvŦ ÞarLlsansl½ sa½es ow an lndlvldal Llnks aoL ½ollLlns
vŦ Man nlLlzens ldenLlf as lnde½endenLs L anLall eave as ½arLlsans
vlŦ Þo||t|ca| |deo|ogyŴ seLs of nonslsLenL ½ollLlnal ellefs
vllŦ L|bera|sŴlndlvldals wo ave falL ln Le governmenL Lo lm½rove llvesţ ellevlng LaL ½rlvaLe efforL are
lnsfflnlenLŤ ln Le sonlal s½ere lleral s½½orL dlverse llfesLles and Lend Lo o½½ose and governmenL
anLlon LaL seeks Lo sa½e ½ersonal nolne
Þage S of

vlllŦ onservat|veŴ lndlvldals wo dlsLrsL governmenL ellevlng LaL ½rlvaLe efforLs are more llkel Lo
lm½rove ½eo½le's llvesŤ ln Le sonlal s½ere nonservaLlves sall s½½orL LradlLlonal llfesLle and Lend Lo
elleve governmenL nan ½la a valale role ln sa½lng ½ersonal nolne
lxŦ Leve|sŴ of conceptua||zat|onŴ measre of ow ldeologlnall noerenL lndlvldals are ln Lelr ½ollLlnal
evalaLlons
xŦ Ilew LaL Amerlnans are mosLl lnde½endenLs ls false
1Ŧ MosL lnde½endenLs lean Loward one ½arL or Le oLer
nŦ ls Le ½lln lnformed?
lŦ ClLlzens do noL know man deLalls aoL ½ollLlns
1Ŧ 10Ʒ know Le name of Le s½eaker of Le ose
llŦ Sa||entŴlndlnaLlon of lm½orLanne and relevanne of an lsse Lo an lndlvldal
lllŦ Low lnformaLlon raLlonallLŴ ldea LaL ½eo½le do noL need Lo ave loLs of lnformaLlon Lo make good
denlslons
lvŦ AlLog lndlvldals do noL know all deLalls aoL nandldaLes' vlews on all lssesţ Le do know vlews on
lsses LaL are relevanL Lo Lem
vŦ Þlln nan learn qlnkl lf an lsse ls sallenL enog Lo Lem and renelves aLLenLlon from Le news medla
vlŦ Þlln o½lnlon ls more sLale Lan sggesLed slfLlng answers ½eo½le Lo glve Lo Le same qesLlons [sL
a few monLs a½arL
vllŦ Þersonal denlslon maklng ls noL alwas ased on nom½leLe lnformaLlonţ so w sold ½ollLlnal denlslon
maklng e ex½enLed Lo nonform Lo raLlonal models LaL snolars se?
vlllŦ 1940 ÞresldenLlal nam½algn Colomla unlverslL SLd
1Ŧ MosL voLers made ½ Lelr mlnds ½rlor Lo Le nam½algn
2Ŧ Arged low LrnoL ln elenLlon mlgL e good Llng enase nlnformed wlll noL e nooslng
leaders
3Ŧ SggesLed Le ½lln ma noL e na½ale of meeLlng lLs demonraLln res½onsllllLles
aŦ ue Lo noL all ½arLlnl½anLs avlng eqal knowledge Lo re½resenL Lemselves
lxŦ 3 llndlngs of o½Llmlsm for voLlng uŦSŦ ClLlzens
1Ŧ Þlln nollenLlvel seems Lo make reasonale nolnes
aŦ Lnonom ls dolng ½oorlţ Le ½arL ln ½ower sffers
2Ŧ 1og lndlvldals do noL know all deLalls aoL nandldaLe vlews on all lssesţ Le know Le lsses
slgnlflnanL Lo Lemselves
aŦ PnLers know nandldaLe's vlews on gn nonLrol
3Ŧ Þlln nan learn qlnkl lf an lsse ls lm½orLanL Lo Lem and renelves aLLenLlon from news medla
aŦ lollowlng 9/11 ½lln ndersLood need for glvlng ½ some nlvll llerLles Lo ensre senrlL
4Ŧ Þlln o½lnlon ls more sLale Lan sggesLed
aŦ Þolls do noL s½eak Lo ½oorl lnformed ½llnţ L Le ½olls are waL are aL falL
3Ŧ Þersonal denlslon maklng ls noL alwas ased on nom½leLe lnformaLlonţ so ½ollLlnal denlslons are
ex½enLed Lo reflenL Le same
aŦ Low |nformat|on rat|ona||ty (ueflnlLlon)
dŦ ls Le ½lln ½olarlzed?
lŦ Þlln as ½olarlzed along wlL ½arLles
llŦ Þo|ar|zedŴ nondlLlon ln wln dlfferennes eLween ½arLles and/or Le ½lln are so sLark LaL
dlsagreemenL reaks oLţ fellng aLLanks and nonLrovers
lllŦ Depo|ar|zat|onŴ ½ollLlnal ssLem ln wln ½arLles ado½L Le same ½oslLlons on lsses and nolne ls llmlLedţ
leadlng nlLlzens Lo feel less nom½elled Lo ½arLlnl½aLe ln elenLlons
Þage 6 of

lvŦ kespons|b|e part|esŴ ½arLles LaL Lake res½onsllllL for offerlng Le elenLoraLe a nlear and dlsLlnnL range of
½ollnles and ½rogramsţ Ls ½rovldlng a nlear nolne
vŦ Some worr LaL one effenL of ½olarlzaLlon wlll e more ½ersonal aLLanks on ½ollLlnal flgres and greaLer
dlsnorse ln ½ollLlns
vlŦ Lers arge LaL lnnreaslng ½olarlzaLlon lndlnaLes ½eo½le nare more aoL wo wlns elenLlon and LaL
lnLeresL ln elenLlons as lnnreased
3Ŧ Cro½ ulfferennes
aŦ Sonloenonomln sLaLs
lŦ Soc|oeconom|c statusŴ nomlned measres of onn½aLlonţ ednaLlonţ lnnomeţ wealLţ and relaLlve sonlal
sLandlng or llfesLle (½eo½le wlL low SŦLŦSŦ Lend Lo e for more sonlal ½rograms wlle ½eo½le wlL lg
SŦLŦSŦ Lend Lo noL as mn)
1Ŧ SLrong dlfferenne ln o½lnlon among dlfferenL lnnome gro½s ls LaL ½ollLlnal ½arLles ave nlass las
llŦ keagan democratsŴ voLers LradlLlonall afflllaLed wlL demonraLln ½arL ased on Lelr worklngŴnlass
sLaLs L wo defenLed ln Le 1980's Lo voLe for 8onald 8eagan enase of ls nonservaLlve message on
sonlal lssesţ a sLrong naLlonal senrlLţ and llmlLed governmenL (s½½orL worklng nlassţ nonservaLlve
sonlal agendaţ denreased role ln gov'L)
Ŧ Age
lŦ ?onger ½eo½le are more lleral wlle older ½eo½le are more nonservaLlve
llŦ Lvldenne LaL ½eo½le Lend Lo enome more nonservaLlve as Le age
nŦ 8ellglon
lŦ ÞroLesLanLs favor nonservaLlves more Lan CaLollns or !ewsŦ Msllms Lend Lo e more lleral exne½L for
sonlal lsses
dŦ Cender
lŦ Gender gapŴ dlfferennes ln Le ½ollLlnal aLLlLdes and eavlor of men and women
llŦ Women favor demonraLs wlle men favor more re½llnans
lllŦ Women favor more s½endlng on sonlal ½rograms Lan men
lvŦ Men mn more llkel Lo s½½orL deaL ½enalL Lan woman
eŦ 8ane and LLnlnlL
lŦ Aff|rmat|ve act|onŴ ½ollnles LaL granL ranlal or gender ½referennes ln lrlngţ ednaLlonţ or nonLranLlng
fŦ LdnaLlon
lŦ lm½orLanL nanges ln Amerlnan ½o½laLlon ls lnnreaslng level of ednaLlon
llŦ Generat|ona| kep|acementŴ lder lessŴednaLed nlLlzens ave ½assed on Ls lnnreaslng Le average level
of ednaLlon of Amerlnans ½lln
lllŦ Long sLandlng ellef LaL demonran ls esL ale Lo endre wen lLs nlLlzens are engaged and lnformed
gŦ MlllLar AnLlon
lŦ 8all arond Le flag effenLŴ srge of ½lln s½½orL for ½resldenL ln Llmes of lnLernaLlonal nrlsls
llŦ Congress offlnlall denlared war 3 Llmes
lllŦ Þlln lnflenne on ½resldenL denlslon Lo engage ln mlllLar anLlon alwas llmlLed enase Le amonL of
lnformaLlon avallale Lo ½lln ls ½r½osel resLrlnLed
1Ŧ Þeo½le nannoL old Le governmenL fll annonLale lf Le are noL fll lnformed
lvŦ lndamenLal ½rolem ls LaL onne uŦSŦ ls ln warţ ½lln nan do llLLle Lo effenLlvel nange mlllLar sLraLeg
or Lroo½ levels
Ŧ AnLlŴLerrorlsm Measres
lŦ new ?orker magazlne roke sLor aoL A Cral fanlllL ln lraq
1Ŧ Were lraql ½rlsoners were s[enL Lo LorLre
Þage of

llŦ 8s admlnlsLraLlon aLorlzed deLalnlng of ss½enLsţ weLer uŦSŦ nlLlzens or noLţ wlLoL narges or
Lrlalsţ and wlreLa½½lng wlLoL a warranL
lllŦ ÞresldenL also sLrggllng wlL nloslng CanLanamo 8a fanlllL
lvŦ lf lL nan e sown governmenL anLlon saved Amerlnan llves nnoverlng/½revenLlng LerrorlsL aLLank
Lrog ars lnLerrogaLlon Lennlqesţ Len Le ½lln wlll s½½orL LemŤ oLerwlse Le ½lln wlll wanL
Lo llmlL LemŦ
6Ŧ Þlln ½lnlon and uemonran
aŦ Þlln msL e sfflnlenLl well lnformed Lo make good denlslons and ensre ½ollLlnlans anL annordlng Lo ½lln
½referennes
Ŧ AvgŦ Amerlnans do noL know man deLallsţ L naLlons man snnesses lndlnaLe ½lln ls eqal Lo Le Lask of
selfŴgovernmenL
nŦ AlLog nlear ½lln offlnlals are generall res½onslve Lo ½lln o½lnlonţ deaLe on ow res½onslve Amerlnan
CovernmenL anLall ls
lŦ Some sggesL nonnenLlon eLween o½lnlon and ½olln are weak
llŦ Lers sLaLe ½lln as mlxed feellngs on man lsses and does noL ave nonnreLe o½lnlons on Le
LogesL qesLlonsţ so we offer llLLle gldanne
dŦ ln demonran ½ollLlnlans know lsses ½lln wlll res½ond Lo and reel Loţ so Le ado½L vlews LaL wlll noL
anger elenLoraLe
lŦ ÞollLlnlans are aware of |atent pub||c op|n|on

apter ť 1e News Med|a and te Internet
I. The News
a. What are the Mass Media?
i. Mass media all news sources including the newspapers, television, and radio.
1. The vast array oI sources oI inIormation available to the public
ii. ews media subset oI the mass media that provides the news oI the day reported by journalists.
iii. With all new technology oI the 21
st
century, news media is changing since average citizen is able
to report on politics through blogs & websites
iv. !7ess- another term Ior new media or journalist
v. Millennial generation born between 19832003
1. Grew up with a 24/7 news cycle, inIormation oI our world very diIIerent than beIore 24/7
news cycle.
vi. atchdog- role oI the press in monitoring government actions
vii. or press to do their job journalists must Ieel Iree to citizen the government
1. irst amendment protects this right
II. unctions oI the news
a. InIorm
i. The press and media provides a wide range oI inIormation to the public
b. Investigating
i. News researching to reveal inIormation. (uncover illegal things politician have done)
ii. Allows press to serve as watchdogs
c. Interpreting
i. Gives the media power to tell what they think is the important part oI the story and leave certain
things out.
III. Law and the Iree press
Þage of

a. irst amendment protects Ireedom oI press, but not entirely
i. During times or threats oI war, national security concerns may require the press not publish a story
b. !7io7 7est7aints Gov. restrictions on Ireedom oI the press
i. onIlict between Gov. wish Ior secrecy and press willingness to report a controversial story
c. ea7 v. Minnesota supreme court declares that Gov. cannot prevent news Irom printing except in
extraordinary cases.
d. ibel publishing Ialse and demeaning statements about another
e. times vs. Sullivan (1964) Supreme ourt case that ruled that prooI oI actual malice is needed
to convict a law suit
i. Set a very high standard prooI oI actual malice
I. !entagon !ape7s Case Supreme ourt permitted the publication oI classiIied papers on the
Vietnam War.
i. Landmark modern case on the Ireedom oI the press
ii. NTY secured a copy oI top secret Department oI DeIense analysis detailing U.S. involvement in
Vietnam, began publishing in the belieI that the inIo contradicted oIIicial statements and that it
was essential Ior the public to understand the government`s policy.
iii. ourt rejected government`s argument that national security took precedence over the right to
publish documents embarrassing to the government.
iv. In general court gives preIerence to the press in the belieI that in the long run it is better to inIorm
the public and hold elected oIIicials accountable
g. ew laws that constrain print media, but electronic media is heavily regulated by the government
h. ede7al Communications Commission (CC) - executive branch in charge oI regulating and
overseeing radio, TV, and electronic broadcasting.
i. Monitors media ownership as well
ii. Telecommunications Act oI 1996 eased rules concerning multiple ownership oI news media
groups
1. Resulted in greater trend towards greater concentration oI media ownership
iii. Without competition the press will become lapdogs, not watchdogs
IV. History oI American Press
a. The olonial Era (16201750) newspapers were not widely available
i. olonial governments Ieared harsh criticism would incite the public and create instability
b. The ounding era (17501790)
i. Tension between colonies and Britain increase, interest in politics grew as well
ii. ederalist v.s. AntiIederalist public conIlict
iii. ede7alist !ape7s series oI published essays written by Iounding Iathers that were Ior ratiIying
the constitution.
c. The Partisan Era (17901900) aIter the adoption oI the constitution
i. Most newspapers allied with the Iederalists or newly emerging JeIIersonian party
ii. Sedition act (1798) made it illegal to print anything bad about the government. Revoked soon
aIter.
iii. !enny p7ess newspaper Ior cheap
1. Newspapers owners realize they could make higher proIits through circulation and
advertising than as arms oI political parties
2. Partisanship actually drove customers away who did not share their political views
Þage 9 of

3. To increase circulation, newspapers begun to move towards sensationalism, printing news oI
crimes and scandals and stories about personalities much like tabloids do
iv. ellow jou7nalism distorting the Iacts to mislead the public
d. The ProIessional Era (19001950) Made journalism a large proIession. High circulation oI papers.
i. Development oI mass circulation also led journalism to develop into a serious proIession with an
ethic oI objective reporting
ii. Publicspirited press increased eIIorts to investigate wrongdoings in government, business, and
industry
iii. Muck7aking journalistic practice oI investigative reporting to uncover corruption.
1. Gave politicians additional reason to peruse good public policy: to avoid bad press
iv. Goal oI being impartial and unbiased in reporting became part oI the journalist`s creed
v. New key goal became to get the scoop
1. %he Scoop Expression Ior journalist`s goal oI breaking a new story, providing original and
important inIormation to the public
2. Begun seeking to cultivate politicians Ior access to news and stories
a. Led to a diIIerent dynamic between politicians press
i. Both sides knew they needed each other
3. Increased politician and press relationship led to an increased potential Ior conIlicts oI
interest
a. 11 the Reco7d InIormation a journalist acquires Irom interview, not intended Ior
publication, can still be useIul in setting a context Ior important news reports.
e. The Television Era (19502000) three major networks (AB BS NB)
i. So1t news olbert report, Daily Show, SNL
ii. Blogs
iii. Social networking
V. The Mass Media in the Twentyirst entury
a. Impact oI T.V. changed Iurther with the rise oI cable T.V.
b. Advances in technology opened up additional avenues oI communication
c. The hanging Media Environment
i. Media envi7onment Structure and design oI media through which people obtain inIormation
about politics or other current events
1. Two main lessons
a. Americans adopt new media quickly
i. Ex. 1| Radios in homes dramatically increased
b. There are more options Ior news than ever beIore
i. Radio T.V. Internet
d. The Decline oI Newspapers
i. a7d ews News coverage Iound in printed press, more Iact based, opposed to interpretive
narratives and commentary
ii. Will the decline oI newspapers deprive Americans oI hard news, oI Iacts they need to hold
government accountable?
e. The Durability oI Radio
i. Radio remains important
Þage of

ii. !olitical %alk Radio- Media Iormat dominated by conservative commentators that has become
vital gateway in disseminating political issues and events to millions
I. The TransIormation oI TV News
i. Shrinking audience Ior network evening news
ii. Generates concern about how well inIormed the public is about politics
g. InIotainment
i. n1otainment Sources oI news geared towards a less politically attentive audience, oIIering less
substantive and more entertaining coverage than hard news
ii. So1t ews News Iocused less on Iacts/policies than on sensationalizing secondary issues or less
serious subjects oI the entertainment world
h. logs a website that provides a Iorum Ior 'bottomup¨ commentary
i. Average citizens able to express their opinions to a wider audience
ii. Have potential to spread Ialse inIormation
iii. Blogging symbolizes the modern transIormation oI the mass media
iv. They Ioster participation, but not deliberation
1. Liberals read liberal blogs // onservatives read conservative blogs
v. Citizen 1ou7nalist Individuals with no Iormal journalistic training and independent oI news
organizations. Play an active role in reporting the news or commentating on current events
i. Social Networking
i. Politicians begun using social networks to reach out to population
j. The News and the Millennials
i. hange in media environment do not aIIect all citizens equally
ii. Millennials appear more interested in politics at this point than previous generations
VI. The Impact oI the News Media on the Public
a. News media makes decisions about what to cover, what not to cover, and how to cover it
b. %he !7opaganda Model Extreme view oI media`s role in society, arguing that press only serve the
interest oI the government, driving what the public thinks about important issues
i. By holding monopoly oI inIormation, government can easily marshal public support
c. %he Minimal e11ect model View oI the media`s impact as marginal, since most people seek new
reports to reinIorce belieIs already held rather than to develop new ones
i. People use media to reinIorce belieIs they already had.
ii. Public does not have inIo about politics, attitudes were shaped by longstanding Iorces like
partisanship or neighborhood one lives in
iii. Selective Exposu7e Process where people secure inIormation Irom sources that agree with them,
thus reinIorcing their belieIs
iv. Selective !e7ception Process where partisans interpret the same inIormation diIIerently
v. Partisanship involves a pe7ceptual lens (hapter 6)
d. ot so minimal e11ect model View oI the media`s impact as substantial, occurring by agenda
setting, Iraming, and priming
i. Begun dominating PS Ior 40 years, then starting in 1970`s begun to reassess (P. 231)
ii. genda setting ability Ior media to impact how people view issues
iii. !7iming the media inIluences how public views politicians by emphasizing criteria that make
them good or bad.
Þage of

1. an alter the criteria that citizens use when evaluating political leaders, primarily aIIecting
the vote
iv. 7aming Media inIluences public perception oI issues by constructing the issue or discussion oI a
subject in a certain way.
1. Amos Tversky & Daniel Kahneman Experiment
a. II program A adopted 200 people saved // program B adopted 1/3 possibility 600
people saved and 2/3 probability no one saved
i. 72° Iavored A // 28° avored B
b. II program adopted 400 people die // program D adopted 1/3 probability nobody
dies, and 2/3
rd
probability 600 people die
i. 22° Iavor // 78° Iavor D
c. Programs A and yield the exact same policy outcome, the only diIIerence is that
description oI program A stresses saving people, while the description oI program
stresses the deaths oI people
d. Demonstrates power oI Iraming, that public react to news event/policy depends on
how it`s presented
VII. Evaluating the News Media
a. 2 General concerns
i. Media is biased and not presenting objective inIormation
ii. ocuses on the general quality oI inIormation available to the public
iii. Public Iaith in the press has declined
iv. Are the Media Biased?
1. Given that even in selecting what stories to cover the press inIluences public opinion, bias
may be inevitable
2. or many years conservative commentators claim that news media is liberal
a. Partisan loyalties drive the liberal bias
b. Quality oI InIormation
i. oncern that people getting less hard news and searching Ior more soIt news
ii. Sound ites BrieI snippets oI inIo that stress short, catchy statements over substantive analysis.
1. ear that this undermines the quality oI inIormation
c. Implications oI the Internet
i. Evidence arrival oI internet has not changed overall amount oI inIormation the public possesses,
but also stress that internet not equally available to all Americans
ii. Those with internet access much better inIormed than those without
d. Implications oI Media hoice
i. EIIorts to make political news more interesting may Iurther 'soItening¨ oI news
ii. Though Americans have access to vast amount oI inIormation, this does not mean public as a
whole is well inIormed
iii. Media choices will Iurther Iuel polarization
VIII. The Mass Media and Public Policy: ensorship
a. Obscene ontent in Broadcast Media
i. v. PaciIica oundation (1978) established has legal authority to Iine any media outlet
that knowingly allows expression oI obscene content, under certain circumstances.
Þage 2 of

1. Underlying question was iI the irst Amendment inhibits the power oI the government to
restrict the public broadcast oI indecent language under any circumstance
ii. v. ox Television Stations
1. One broadcast used similar language that was 'Ileeting¨ and not seriously harmIul, second
broadcast used diIIerent more vulgar language
2. Ruled only needed to prove that its new policy was justiIiable and reasonable
3. Broadcast outlets taken to 'bleeping¨ or 'buzzing¨ over words that may be harmIul
iii. BS Inc. v.
1. Incident halItime show Ior 2004 super bowl |Janet Jackson|
2. Iined, BS challenged saying changed policy on indecent images without
notiIying BS and other broadcasting networks
iv. These 3 cases exert a signiIicant impact on the way government restricts expression oI speech and
visual images through the media
b. SaIety, Social Networking, and the Internet
i. Due to speed technology evolves, it is harder to keep internet 'saIe¨ Ior users
ii. Supreme court has repeatedly ruled that using broad or vague language to create blanket
restrictions jeopardizes the right to Iree speech guaranteed by the irst Amendment
IX. The Mass Media and Democracy
a. Nearly all public movements/statements oI political Iigures can be recorded, as a result politicians
have a tougher time ducking responsibility
b. ubble state oI politicians being sheltered Irom the public scrutiny and uncontrolled situations
c. Politicians build staIIs and organizations designed to keep them Irom making mistakes and Irom
interacting with journalists and citizens
d. hanges in the news media also led to decline oI # proIessional journalists covering politics
e. Worry about media`s ability to advance democratic government comes Irom those who Iavor top-
down approach
I. Those who see merit and appeal in a bottom-up approach, these changes seem Iar less troubling


apter 9ť Þo||t|ca| Þart|es
lŦ 1e role of ½ollLlnal ½arLles ln Amerlnan demonran
aŦ WaL are ½ollLlnal ½arLles
lŦ Þo||t|ca| part|esŴ road noallLlons of lndlvldals wo organlze Lo wln elenLlons ln order Lo enanL a
nommonl s½½orLed seL of ½lln ½ollnles
llŦ Þarty p|atformŴ donmenL LaL las oL a ½arL's nore ellefs and ½olln ½ro½osal for ean ½resldenLlal
elenLlon
lllŦ AL naLlonal levelţ ½arL lsses lLs ½laLform drlng ½resldenLlal elenLlon ear
lvŦ lrom Llme Lo Llme nandldaLes ma dlsagree wlL elemenLs of Le ½arL's ½laLform
vŦ uslng ½arL laels as a sorLnL for Le ½arL ½laLformţ voLers nan old Le elenLed offlnlals annonLale for
Lelr ½olln snnessesţ and lame Lem for ½olln fallres
vlŦ Þarty |n te e|ectorateŴ ½ernenLage of voLers wo are llkel Lo noose a ½arL's nandldaLes ln an elenLlon
Þage of

vllŦ Þarty |n governmentŴmemers of governmenL wo sare Le same ½arL afflllaLlon and work LogeLer Lo
annom½lls and work LogeLer Lo annom½lls Le ½arL's elenLoral and ½olln goals
vlllŦ Þarty as an organ|zerŴ lnLernal sLrnLre of a ½ollLlnal ½arL aL Le nlLţ nonLţ sLaLe or federal level
Ŧ WaL do ½ollLlnal ½arLles do?
lŦ ÞarLles ln Le elenLoraLe
1Ŧ Þarty |dent|f|cat|onsŴ aLLanmenL or alleglanne Lo a ½ollLlnal ½arLŤ ½arLlsansl½
2Ŧ IoLers ldenLlf wlL ½arLles for several reasons
aŦ 8ellef LaL Le ½ollnles ½L forL e one ½arL wlll serve Lelr lnLeresLs eLLer Lan ½ollnles
½ro½osed oLer ½arLles
Ŧ lamll or sonlal envlronmenLsţ ln wln elng a memer of a ½arL ls slmllar Lo oLer ½ersonal
naranLerlsLlns
3Ŧ Voter reg|strat|onŴenrollmenL reqlred ½rlor Lo voLlng Lo esLallsed ellgllllL
llŦ ÞarLles ln CovernmenL
1Ŧ Þarty caucusŴ gro½ of ½arL memers ln a leglslaLre
lllŦ ÞarL organlzaLlon
1Ŧ Nat|ona| comm|tteeŴ Lo½ level of naLlon ½ollLlnal ½arLlesŤ noordlnaLes naLlonal ½resldenLlal
nam½algns
aŦ 8es½onslle for rnnlng Lelr ½arL's ½resldenLlal nomlnaLlng nonvenLlon ever 4 ears
Ŧ Maln [o Lo do everLlng ½osslle Lo elenL Le ½arL's ½resldenLlal nomlnee ever 4 ears
2Ŧ IncumbentŴ onn½anL of elenLed offlne
3Ŧ State centra| comm|tteeŴ Lo½ level of sLaLe ½ollLlnal ½arLlesŤ el½ renrlL and ralse mone for
sLaLewlde nandldaLes and drafLs sLaLe ½arL ½ollnles
aŦ Also works /w lonal organlzaLlons Lo renrlL new voLers and ralse mone
4Ŧ Loca| party organ|zat|onsŴ flrsL level of ½ollLlnal ½arLlesŤ renrlLs nandldaLes for lower level elenLed
offlneţ reglsLers voLers and ensres Le geL Lo Le ½olls on elenLlon da
nŦ 1e ½arL nomlnaLlon ½roness
lŦ Lan ½arL msL nomlnaLe nandldaLes for offlne and Len elenL Lem ln a Lwo sLage ½roness
1Ŧ Þr|mary e|ect|ons ŶelenLlons ln wln voLers selenL nandldaLes wo wlll rn on Le ½arL lael ln Le
general elenLlonŤ also nalled dlrenL ½rlmar
aŦ 8noff elenLlonŴ elenLlon eld afLer lnlLlal ½rlmar ln wln voLers selenL from Le Lo½ Lwo
½rlmar nandldaLesţ garanLeelng a nandldaLe's nomlnaLed ma[orlL voLe
2Ŧ Genera| e|ect|onŴ elenLlon ln wln voLers noose Lelr elenLed offlnlals
llŦ Þrlmarles
1Ŧ lm½orLanL wa LaL ean voLer nan ave eqal volne ln nomlnaLlng ls/er ½arL nandldaLe
2Ŧ |osed pr|maryŴ ½rlmar elenLlon ln wln Le voLer msL afflllaLe wlL a ½arL efore nasLlng a voLe
3Ŧ Sem| c|osed pr|maryŴ ½rlmar elenLlon ln wln ½arLŴafflllaLed voLers nasL voLes and nonafflllaLed
voLers nan noose wln ½arL's ½rlmar Lo voLe on
4Ŧ Cpen pr|maryŴ ½rlmar elenLlon ln wln voLers do noL ave Lo afflllaLe wlL a ½arL efore voLlng
aŦ IoLers are glven ba||ots wlL ean ½arL's llsL of nandldaLes and nan noose wln Le wanL
L are resLrlnLed Lo voLlng for onl one
lŦ 8a||otŴ llsL of nandldaLes wo are rnnlng for elenLed offlneţ sed voLers Lo make Lelr
nolnes
3Ŧ LlenLlons are a fanL of ½ollLlnal llfeţ L also nreaLe nom½eLlLlon wlLln a ½ollLlnal ½arL and
ennorage nandldaLes Lo reveal negaLlve as½enLs of ean oLer's ½rofesslonal/½ersonal llves
Þage 4 of

6Ŧ ÞarL organlzaLlons alwas wanL Le nandldaLe mosL llkel Lo wln ½resldenn Lo e nomlnaLed nder
Le ½arL annerŦ 1e annom½lls Lls Lrlng Lo exerL nonLrol over Le ½rlmar elenLlon ½roness
ln several was
aŦ SLaLe laws govern alloL anness
Ŧ ÞarL nonLrols Le gaLe deLermlnlng ow o½en or resLrlnLlve alloL anness ls for nandldaLes
seeklng Lo rn for offlne on Le ½arL lael
nŦ 1e nan sLeer donors Loward Lelr ½referred nandldaLesţ and awa from nandldaLes wo do
noL agree wlL Lelr goals
lllŦ 1e ½resldenLlal nomlnaLlon
1Ŧ Lvolved from one nonnenLraLed ln ands of small gro½ of ellLes Lo modern ½roness wln allows
mllllons of voLers Lo ½arLlnl½aLe dlrenLl
2Ŧ IoLers nasL voLe for ½arLlnlar nandldaLe L are reall nooslng delegaLes wo wlll s½½orL LaL
nomlnee aL Le ½arL's naLlonal nomlnaLlng nonvenLlon
3Ŧ De|egatesŴ lndlvldals selenLed ½arL voLers ln a ½rlmar or nans elenLlon wo ls nommlLLed Lo
s½½orLlng a ½arLlnlar ½resldenLlal nomlnee aL Le ½arLles naLlonal nomlnaLlng nonvenLlon
4Ŧ ÞresldenLlal ½arL nansŴ meeLlng of ½arL memers ln Lown allsţ snools and even ½rlvaLe omes
Lo noose a ½resldenLlal ½arL nomlnee
aŦ Less formal and more ½ersonal ln LaL ½arL memers meeL ln Lown allsţ snoolsţ and even
½rlvaLe omes Lo noose a nomlnee
3Ŧ Lan sLaLe awarded # delegaLes Lo Le nonvenLlon Le naLlonal ½arL organlzaLlon ased on #
LlenLoral nollege voLes Le sLaL as and also Le slze of Le ½arL s½½orL ln LaL sLaLe
6Ŧ CandldaLe wo wlns ma[orlL of delegaLes from ½rlmar and nans elenLlons ls selenLed aL Le
naLlonal nonvenLlon as Le ½arL's nomlnee for ½resldenL
7Ŧ uemonraLs and 8e½llnans allonaLe delegaLes wlLln Lelr ½rlmarles/nases dlfferenLl
8Ŧ Pow uemonraLs allonaLe delegaLes wlLln Lelr ½rlmar / nases
aŦ uemonraLln as a more dlsorderl ½roness
Ŧ S½enlflnall o[enL Lo Le se of Le nlL rleţ or w|nnerŴtakeŴa|| system
lŦ W|nner take a|| systemŴ elenLoral ssLem ln wln woever wlns Le mosL voLes ln an
elenLlon wlns Le elenLlon
llŦ 8elleved Le nlL rle allowed wlLe nonservaLlve men Lo domlnaLe Le nomlnaLlng
½roness
nŦ ln res½onse Lo Lls grassrooLs movemenLţ uemonraLs formed Le McGovernŴIraser
omm|ss|on
lŦ McgovernŴfraser comm|ss|onŴ demonraLln ½arL nommlsslon wose reforms of Le ½arL's
½resldenLlal nomlnaLlng ssLem lnnreased anness nderre½resenLed gro½s
1Ŧ 8enommended nanges ln Le wa LaL delegaLes were nosen and awarded Lo
nandldaLes drlng Le ½rlmar season
dŦ uemonraLln ½arL lnsLlLLed reqlremenLs LaL sLaLes' delegaLlons annraLel reflenL Le
dlsLrlLlon of ½referennes for ½resldenLlal nandldaLes ln Le sLaLe
lŦ lor 1978 elenLlon uemonraLs formall lnsLlLLed proport|ona| representat|on
1Ŧ Þroport|ona| representat|onŴ elenLoral ssLem LaL asslgns mlLl½le seaLs Lo a
geogra½ln dlsLrlnL annordlng Lo Le ½ro½orLlon of voLes a ½ollLlnal ½arL renelves ln
an elenLlon
Þage S of

aŦ # uelegaLes LaL a nandldaLe renelves ls ased on Le Ʒ of Le voLe renelved ln
Le ½rlmar or nansţ elLer aL Le sLaLe level or ln ean nongresslonal
dlsLrlnLŦ
eŦ ln 1981 uemonraLln ½arL reqlred ean sLaLe's delegaLlon e nom½osed of an ƹ # of men and
womenţ nreaLlng a naLegor of delegaLes known as superde|egates
lŦ Super de|egatesŴ demonraLln ½arL delegaLes wo ave a voLe aL Le naLlonal nomlnaLlng
nonvenLlon on Le asls of ½arL sLaLs or ½oslLlon ln governmenL and are free Lo s½½orL
Le ½resldenLlal nomlnee of Lelr nolne
llŦ noL nosen Lrog ½rlmar voLlng ½ronessţ raLer are lnvlLed Lo nonvenLlon slnne anLlve
memers of Le ½arL wo wlll e lnsLrmenLal ln Lrnlng oL ½arL voLers ln Le general
elenLlon
lllŦ MosL s½erdelegaLes are elenLed offlnlals ln Le ½arL
lIŦ unnommlLLed and free Lo noose womever Le wls Lo s½½orL aL Le nonvenLlon
9Ŧ Pow uemonraLs allonaLe delegaLes wlLln Lelr ½rlmar / nanses
aŦ 8arel faned lnLernal demand for more dlverse re½resenLaLlonţ so lL as noL slgnlflnanLl
nanged
Ŧ AgsL of 2010 8e½llnan naLlonal CommlLLee a½½roved a ½lan wln award some delegaLes
on a ½ro½orLlonal asls
lŦ ln Le ½asL wlL wlnnerŴLakeŴall ssLemţ 8e½llnan ½arL Lended Lo resolve nomlnaLlon
½roness more qlnkl Lan uemonraLs
nŦ SorLer nomlnaLlon ½roness gave re½llnans advanLage ln general elenLlon slnne nomlnee
nold develo½ ls sLraLeg far sooner Lan Le uemonraLln nomlnee
10Ŧ 1e Lwo earllesL ½resldenLlal nonLesLs ave een ln Le new Pam½slre ½rlmar and Le lowa
nans
aŦ Lven Log smallţ slnne flrsL 2 ½resldenLlal nonLesLs for ean ma[or ½arL makes Lem
dls½ro½orLlonaLel lnflenLlal ln generaLlng ½llnlL and momenLm for Le wlnners
Ŧ IrontŴ|oad|ngŴ oldlng man ½rlmarles slmlLaneosl earl ln Le ear
lŦ CreaLes lmalanne of lnflenne anross sLaLe ln deLermlnlng Le ½arL's nomlnee
llŦ unamlns of earl ½ollLlnal ½arLles
aŦ ÞarLles noL orlglnall lnLended Lo e a ½arL of Le ½ollLlnal ssLem
lŦ Lmerged from dlsagreemenLs among Le framers
Ŧ ÞollLlnal fanLlonsť lederallsLs and anLlŴfederallsLs
lŦ Iact|onsŴ deflned madlson as an gro½ LaL ½lanes lLs own lnLeresLs aove Le aggregaLe lnLeresLs of
sonleL
1Ŧ 8enognlzed Lese are a naLral oLgrowL of dlfferenL lnLeresLs among nlLlzens and llLLle
governmenL nold do Lo sLo½ Lem wlLoL denlng lm½orLanL nlvll llerLles
2Ŧ Lmerged efore Le nonsLlLLlon was ado½Led
llŦ Iedera||stsŴ lnlLlall Lose s½½orLed Le nonsLlLLlon drlng Le ½erlod of raLlflnaLlonŤ laLerţ Le name of
Le ½ollLlnal ½arL esLallsed s½½orLers of Alexander PamllLon
1Ŧ SLale federal governmenL LaL nold nollenL Lax reveneţ fnd and reglaLe a naLlonal armţ
reglaLe forelgn and domesLln Lradeţ and sLalllze nrrenn wold make Amerlnan demonraLln
ex½erlmenL a snness
lllŦ Ant|Ŵfedera||stsŴ Lose wo o½½osed Le new ½ro½osed nonsLlLLlon drlng Le raLlflnaLlon ½erlod
1Ŧ Ilewed Le fLre of Le us as a loosel afflllaLed L soverelgn sLaLes LaL governed Lemselvesţ
managlng Lelr own Lax ½ollnles and lnLernal senrlL
Þage 6 of

2Ŧ !sL fogL a war Lo overLrn a monarn and dld noL wanL Lo ½L Lemselves nder Le rle of an
o½½resslve new nenLrallzed governmenL LaL wold govern from Lo½ down
lvŦ lederallsL vlew½olnL Lrlm½
vŦ WaslngLon worrles o½½oslng vlews nold lead Lo organlzed ½ollLlnal ½arLles LaL wold nase nonfllnL ln
Le new naLlon
nŦ 1omas !effersonţ Andrew !ankson and Le emergenne of Le demonraLln ½arL
lŦ !efferson won elenLlon of 1800 and marked eglnnlng of esLallsed ½arLlsan ½ollLlns
1Ŧ used vlnLor Lo ls ½ollLlnal ½arL lnLo a vlale longŴLerm organlzaLlon known as Le Democrat|cŴ
kepub||cans (8e½llnans)
aŦ Democrat|c repub||cansŴ ½ollLlnal ½arL formed 1omas !efferson Lo o½½ose sLrong nenLral
governmenL ½ollnles of Le federallsLs (domlnaLed for 28 earsŴ !effersonţ !amesţ Madlsonţ
Monroeţ Clnn Adams)
llŦ uemonraLlnŴ8e½llnans grew dlvlded wln was led Andrew !ankson
1Ŧ Pe wanLed Lo Lake ½arL Lo a new level of lnnlslveness and se LaL wlder rean Lo enome
½resldenL
lllŦ ÞollLlns ad nanged ln fndamenLal was enase of Le naLlon's ra½ld geogra½ln and ½o½laLlon growL
1Ŧ !anksonŴled uemonraLs emerged as large CrassrooL ma[orlL ½ollLlnal ½arL and e sed all ½owers
of ½resldenn Lo sLrengLen ls ½ollLlnal ½arL arond Le nonLr
lvŦ AnLlŴ!ankson wlng of Le old uemonraLlnŴ8e½llnan ad Laken Le name of Le naLlonal 8e½llnans
1Ŧ Penr Cla losL elenLlon L [olned senaLe and sLarLed lalng grondwork for new ½ollLlnal ½arL LaL
wold o½½ose !ankson's ½ollnles
2Ŧ Lnnoraged memers of naLlonal 8e½llnans Lo [oln fornes wlL oLers wo o½½osed !ankson Lo
from Le W|g Þarty
aŦ W|g partyŴ ½ollLlnal ½arL formed Lo o½½ose Le !ankson demonraLs
lŦ W|g ÞartyŴ [enLed Lo !anksons ase of ½resldenLlal ½ower for ½arLlsan galns
vŦ Lmergenne of slaver sook ½ Le ½arL alanne onne agaln
dŦ 1e anLlŴslaver movemenL and Le formaLlon of Le re½llnan ½arL
lŦ uemonraLln ½arL sLraLeg for o½enlng ½ larger gaLewa for nlLlzen ½arLlnl½aLlon lnadverLenLl
ennoraged alLernaLe gro½s and ½ollLlnal ½arLles Lo emerge
llŦ Wllllam Llod CarrlsonŴ wlLe [ornallsL wo formed Le Amerlnan AnLlŴSlaver SonleL
1Ŧ lrederlnk uoglassŴ Afrlnan Amerlnan wo egan organlzlng free lanks ln Le norL for Le same
½r½ose
lllŦ ver Llme gro½s LaL o½½osed slaver nomlned nder Le abo||t|on|st movement
1Ŧ Abo||t|on|st movementŴ grassrooLs movemenL Lo aolls slaver
2Ŧ noL ½ollLlnal ½arL ½er seţ L grew large and vonal enog Lo ½ressre uemonraLs and Wlgs Lo Lake
a formal ½oslLlon on slaverţ es½enlall Le exLenslon of slaver lnLo wesLern LerrlLorles
lvŦ 1lrd ½arLlesŴmlnor ½ollLlnal ½arLles LaL ½resenL a Llrd alLernaLlve Lo Le Lwo domlnanL ½ollLlnal ½arLles ln
Le Amerlnan ½ollLlnal ssLem
1Ŧ 1½lnall fons on a slngle lsseţ L freqenLl are asored lnLo a larger noallLlon of gro½s
vŦ 8e½llnans o½½osed slaver wln was formed lnLo newesL ½ollLlnal ½arLles and demonraLs were ½roŴ
slaver
lŦ kelew top tlqbt of pŦ 299 lo textbook fot exploootloo oo bow uemoctots ooJ kepobllcoos floolly become
ootloos 2 mojot polltlcol pottles
eŦ ÞarL loalL and ½aLronage
Þage of

lŦ !anksonlan era ½rovlded man o½½orLnlLles Lo rlng Le federal governmenL lnLo Le sLaLe and lonal
arena lldlng Le forLsţ ½osL roadsţ nsLomosesţ and llgLosesŦ
llŦ Þatronage systemŴ ½ollLlnal ssLem ln wln governmenL ½rograms and eneflLs are awarded ased on
½ollLlnal loalL Lo a ½arL or ½ollLlnlan
lllŦ Þarty bossŴ ½arL organlzaLlon leader wo nonLrolled Le dlsLrlLlon of ½lln fnds rewardlng ½arL
s½½orLers and ½nlslng ½arL o½½onenLs
lvŦ ke elemenL ln Lls ssLem was Le loalL of s½½orLersţ wo on elenLlon da voLed for Le oss's
½referred seL of nandldaLes
1Ŧ IoLer s½½orL so rellale and ½redlnLale lL ename known as Mac|ne Þo||t|cs
aŦ Mac|ne po||t|csŴ ½arL organlzaLlon domlnaLed a ºoss" wo nonLrolled Le dlsLrlLlon of
½lln [os and nommanded gro½s of voLers Lo s½½orL ls ½referred nandldaLes
fŦ 8eform and Le eroslon of ½arL nonLrol
lŦ CrlLlnal fanLor ln snness of manlne ½ollLlns was ½arL nonLrol of voLlng
llŦ Man ½lanesţ ½arL offlnlals nonLed Le voLesţ frLer manl½laLlng Le voLlng ½roness Lo Lelr advanLage
lllŦ 3 uevelo½menLs ln Le laLe 19
L
and earl 20
L
nenLr eroded ½arL organlzaLlons' nonLrol over
governmenL [os and elenLlons
1Ŧ CreaLlon of a merlLŴased ssLem of governmenL em½lomenL
2Ŧ lnLrodnLlon of alloL reforms
3Ŧ A nange ln Le wa nomlnees for elenLed offlne were selenLed
4Ŧ All 3 reforms led Þrogress|ves
lvŦ Þrogress|vesŴ noallLlons of demonraLs and re½llnans wo elleved LaL governmenL as een na½Lred
norr½L ellLes wo were slng governmenL resornes Lo enrln Lemselves raLer Lan Le nlLlzen
vŦ |v|| serv|ceŴ ssLem of em½lomenL ln Le federal reanran nder wln em½loees are nosen and
½romoLed ased on merlL
1Ŧ ÞendleLon AnL of 1883 reformed Le c|v|| serv|ce reqlrlng LaL governmenL [os e flfllled
ased on merlLţ noL ½ollLlnal nonnenLlons
vlŦ Austra||an ba||otŴ voLlng ssLem ln wln sLaLe governmenL rn elenLlons and ½rovlde voLers Le o½Llon of
nooslng nandldaLes from mlLl½le ½arLlesŤ also nalled Le senreL alloL
1Ŧ ÞarLles ½rlnL Le alloLs and glve Lo voLersţ wo ½L Lem ln Le alloL oxţ no ½rlvan and ½arL
offlnlals monlLored nlLlzen's voLes
2Ŧ Lan alloL llsLs all nandldaLesţ from all ½arLles rnnlng for offlne and voLers marked Lelr nolne ln
½rlvaLe
3Ŧ AddlLlonall ½oll waLners and alloL nonLers were ex½enLed Lo ½erform Lelr Lasks wlLoL
favorlng an s½enlfln ½arL and wlLoL lnLlmldaLlng voLers
4Ŧ 1ls reform greaLl redned ½arL oss nonLrol over elenLlon oLnomes
vllŦ Þrogresslves lanned CrassrooL nam½algns for dlrenL ½rlmarlesţ rn Le sLaLeţ as a means of
nomlnaLlng ½arL nandldaLes
1Ŧ Þrlmarles re½laned Le ½ranLlne of nomlnaLlng nandldaLes ln lonal and sLaLe ½arL nonvenLlons
2Ŧ ulrenL ½rlmarles o½ened ½ ½arL nomlnaLlon ssLem Lo voLers generall
3Ŧ LffenL of dlrenL ½rlmarles was Lo greaLl redne nonLrol ½arL osses and manlnes ad over nolnes
offered ln elenLlons
lllŦ 1e LffenLs of a 1woŴÞarL SsLem
aŦ lollowlng nlvll war ½arL dlvlslons ran largel along geogra½ln llnes
lŦ 8e½llnans domlnanL ln norLeasL and WesL
llŦ uemonraLs domlnaLe ln Le SoL and lnnreaslngl ln Le naLlon's largesL nlLles
Þage of

Ŧ LlmlLed ½ollLlnal nolne
lŦ AnLon uowns
1Ŧ Arged LaL voLers wose vlews fall eLween Le Lwo ½arLles were anLall re½resenLed ln a LwoŴ
½arL ssLem
2Ŧ Med|an voter teoremŴ Leor LaL lf voLers selenL nandldaLes on Le asls of ldeolog and
everone ½arLlnl½aLes eqallţ Len ln a Lwo ½arL rane Le ½arL nloser Lo Le mlddle wlll wln
3Ŧ CandldaLes seek Lo aLLranL a ma[orlL of voLesţ and enase mosL voLers fall ln Le mlddle of Le
ldeologlnal s½enLrmţ oL ½arLles move Loward a nom½rlse
4Ŧ 1ls ls ow moderates ave ½ollLlnal lnflenne ln a LwoŴ½arL ssLem
aŦ ModeratesŴ ldeologlnal vlew½olnLs LaL falls eLween lleral and nonservaLlveţ nan e
assonlaLed wlL demonraLs and re½llnans and does noL old nonslsLenLl sLrong ldeas aoL
weLer governmenL sold e lnvolved ln ½eo½le's llves
3Ŧ CrrenL LwoŴ½arL ssLem nonLradlnLs uown's ex½enLaLlons aoL nonvergenne Lo Le mlddle
llŦ Marlne uverger
1Ŧ Slngle memer ½lrallL ssLemŴ elenLoral ssLem LaL asslgns one seaL ln a leglslaLlve od Lo
re½resenL nlLlzens wo llve ln a deflned area (a dlsLrlnL) ased on wln nandldaLe wlngs Le mosL
voLes
aŦ 1o wln LaL seaLţ nandldaLe needs onl a p|ura||ty of voLesţ noL a ½re ma[or|ty
lŦ Þ|ura||tyŴ IoLe ln wln Le wlnner needs Lo wln more voLes Lan an oLer nandldaLe
llŦ Ma[or|tyŴ IoLe ln wln Le wlnner needs Lo wln 30Ʒ +1 of Le voLes nasL
Ŧ Slnne onl one seaLţ voLers enome annsLomed Lo nooslng eLween nandldaLes from Le
Lwo ma[or ½arLles
lllŦ 1e LwoŴ½arL ssLem works Lo Lransfer Le aLLlegrond from eLween ½arLles Lo wlLln ½arLles
nŦ 1e 8ole of 1lrd ÞarLles
lŦ lormed wen Lwo ½arLles ln Le ssLem don'L offer ½olln ½ro½osal LaL a slgnlflnanL nmer of voLers
wanL Lo see enanLedţ Llrd ½arLles are formed
llŦ 1woŴÞarL ssLem sLands as a gaLe LaL lonks Le emergenne of alLernaLlve vlew½olnLs and rednes Le
nolnes avallale Lo voLers ln Lerms of ½ers½enLlves on ow Lo govern
lllŦ Wen 2 ½arLles LogeLer do noL offer ½olln ½ro½osals LaL a slgnlflnanL # of voLers wanL Lo see enanLedţ
Llrd ½arLles form
1Ŧ no Llrd ½arLles ave een ale Lo lld a ssLalned organlzaLlon over Llme
dŦ sLanles Lo Llrd ½arLles and lnde½endenLs
lŦ Are dlsnoraged Lwo maln ½arLlesŴLe anL as s½ollersŴlnde½endenLs
llŦ uemonraLs / 8e½llnans nonLrolled sLaLe leglslaLre and Congress for so long Le ave snnessfll
sLrnLred elenLoral laws Lo favor a 2 ½arL ssLem over a mlLl½leŴ½arL ssLem
1Ŧ LxŦ 1Ž lf nandldaLe ls Llrd ½arL or an Independentţ sLaLe laws L½lnall reqlre Losands of
slgnaLres Lo geL LaL nandldaLe on Le alloLţ and Le names and addresses of Le slgners ave Lo
e exanLl rlgL or Le slgnaLre wlll noL nonL
aŦ SLaLe and lonal ½ollLlnal ½arLles freqenLl nallenge Le slgnaLres on alloL ½eLlLlons ln norL
Lo Lr Lo geL Lem lnvalldaLed
Ŧ 1e also do noL ave nearl as mn resornes
lllŦ IndependentŴ voLer or nandldaLe wo ls noL afflllaLed wlL a ½ollLlnal ½arL
eŦ Callenges Lo ÞarL Þower from lnLeresL Cro½s
lŦ ln addlLlon Lo Llrd ½arLlesţ Le Lwo ma[or ½arLles also fane nallenges from esLallsed lnLeresL gro½s
and from roader sonlal gro½s
Þage 9 of

llŦ lnLeresL gro½s and sonlal gro½s ex½lolL weaknesses of ma[or ½arLles and Llrd ½arLles
lllŦ lm½orLanL ln ½ollLlns enase Le are res½onslve Lo Le ½olln nonnerns of voLers generall even lf Le
are noL memers
lvŦ ver Llme lnLeresL/sonlal movemenL gro½s ave enome more LlgLl allgned wlL s½enlfln ½ollLlnal
½arLlesţ wln as ndermlned Lelr na½anlL Lo serve as lnde½endenL nenks or nom½eLlLors wlL ½ollLlnal
½arLles
lIŦ ÞarL AllgnmenL and ldeologŴ IoLer ldenLlflnaLlon wlL a ½ollLlnal ½arL ln re½eaLed elenLlons
aŦ SlfLs ln ½arL alleglanne nan onnr wen ½lln aLLlLdes nanne nonslderal as one ½arL a½½ears Lo res½ond
more qlnkl Lo Lose nanges Lan anoLer
Ŧ 1e ÞarLles afLer Le Clvll War
lŦ ÞarLles generall sLaed Le same exne½L afLer greaL de½resslon wln rogL Lrmoll and Lrole Lo
re½llnan ½arLŴnlLlzens wanLed a nange Lrog a new ½ollLlnal leader and a new a½½roan Lo
governmenL lLself
nŦ 1e new ueal and Le 8ole of ldeolog ln ÞarL Þollnles
lŦ ÞollLlnal ldeologŴ seL of nonslsLenL ½ollLlnal vlews aoL Le wa Le federal governmenL nold work
llŦ New dea|Ŵ lu8's ½rogram for endlng Le greaL de½resslon Lrog governmenL lnLervenLlon ln Le
enonom and seL a safeL neL ½rograms for workers
1Ŧ ueslgned Lo el½ lndlvldals wo were [olessţ omelessţ or ln flnannlal need
2Ŧ LssenLlall a ½romlse Le federal governmenL Lo ½rovlde a safeL neL for workers wo fell on ard
Llmes
lllŦ IoLers name Lo anne½L Le vlew LaL governmenL lnvolvemenL ln Le enonomln as½enL of lndlvldals llves
was leglLlmaLe andţ on alanneţ a good Llng
1Ŧ Þers½enLlve on governmenL serves as Le fondaLlon for ||bera|s
aŦ L|bera|Ŵ falL ln CovŦ Lo lm½rove ½eo½le's llvesŦ ÞrlvaLe efforLs lnsfflnlenLŦ ln sonlal s½ere
s½½orL dlverse llfesLle and o½½ose an governmenL anLlon LaL seeks Lo sa½e ½ersonal
nolne
lvŦ 1ose wo o½½osed Le new ueal ename Le forefaLers of modern conservat|ve
1Ŧ onservat|veŴ ulsLrsLs governmenLţ elleve ½rlvaLe efforLs more llkel Lo lm½rove ½eo½le's llvesŦ ln
sonlal s½ere s½½orL LradlLlonal llfesLles and elleve governmenL nan ½la valale role ln sa½lng
½ersonal nolnes
vŦ 8e½llnans selzed maln weakness of new ueal wln was Le lg nosL of all Le newl nreaLed ½rograms
vlŦ AfLermaL of 1932 led Lo LransformaLlon of Lwo ½arLles
1Ŧ AlmosL as lf Le swlLned ½lanes
2Ŧ uemonraL nanged from a ½arL LaL elleved ln sLaLe's rlgLsţ low Laxesţ and llLLle governmenL
lnLervenLlon ln lndlvldal's llves Lo a ½arL LaL nreaLed a large sonlal safeL neL LaL relled on federal
governmenL Lo ensre ½ersonal enonomln sLalllL
3Ŧ 8e½llnans nanged from a ½arL LaL elleved ln a sLrong nenLral federal governmenL and ln
lnLervenLlon ln Le enonom wen nenessar Lo a ½arL of a sLrlnLl llmlLed federal governmenL and
flsnal res½onsllllL
4Ŧ Modern llerals/ConservaLlves also dlffer on sonlal lsses
vllŦ IoLers res½onded Lo Le ½arLlsan/ldeologlnal nanges nanglng Lelr own ½arL alleglannes over Llmeţ a
Lerm known as kea||gnment
1Ŧ kea||gnmentŴ longŴLerm slfL ln voLer alleglanne from one ½arL Lo anoLer
vlllŦ uemonraLs Loda s½½orL ex½andlng slze of governmenL Lo annom½lls s½enlfln ½olln goalsţ even lf lL
means ralslng Laxesţ as well as s½½orLlng lleral sonlal vlews
Þage 2 of

lxŦ 8e½llnans Loda s½½orL llmlLlng Le slze of governmenL kee½lng LaxaLlon and reglaLlon of Le
enonom Lo a mlnlmm as well as ½reservlng nonservaLlve sonlal vales
xŦ Ma[orlL of voLers Loda relnLanL Lo ldenLlf Lemselves nonnlslvel wlL elLer ½arLţ wln sggesLs an
alLernaLlve Lo reallgnmenL known as Dea||gnment
Ŧ Dea||gnmentŴ a relnLanne voLer Lo ldenLlf Lemselves wlL elLer ½arLţ ofLen annom½anled
lnnreased sp||t t|cket vot|ng
aŦ Sp||t 1|cket Vot|ngŴ ÞranLlne of voLlng for nandldaLes from dlfferenL ½arLles for dlfferenL
elenLed offlnlals ln a slngle elenLlon
2Ŧ 1ls slLaLlon means ½arLles are Loo exLreme ln Lelr ellefs for mosL voLers or are º½olarlzed"
dŦ 1e Modern ÞarLlsan Landsna½e
lŦ 8eslL of Le 2008 elenLlons ma e slgn LaL ½arL landsna½e ls slfLlng
llŦ Wen voLers glve one ½arL nonLrol of wlLe ose and Congress Le ave lg ex½enLaLlons for sLrong
governmenL Lrank renordţ a Lerm deflned respons|b|e part|es
1Ŧ kespons|b|e Þart|esŴ ÞarLles LaL offer Le elenLoraLe a nlear and dlsLlnnL range of ½ollnles and
½rogramsţ Ls ½rovldlng voLers a mean for oldlng Le ½arL ln governmenL annonLale for ½olln
oLnomes
lllŦ 8enenLlţ ½arLles ave Laken on sLarker o½½oslng ½oslLlons and ram½ed ½ Le reLorln Lo Le ½olnL LaL lL
ls dlfflnlL form memers of o½½oslng ½arLles Lo nommnlnaLe aL all
lvŦ CrrenL ½arLlsansl½ as redned lnnenLlve for Le ½arLles Lo noo½eraLe and solve ½rolemsţ reslLlng ln a
less res½onslve governmenL Lo overall ½lln needs
IŦ ÞollLlnal ÞarLles and Þlln Þollnť 1e LnvlronmenL
aŦ ÞarL ÞlaLforms ln LnvlronmenLal Þolln
lŦ uemonraLln ½arL nenLered on nreaLlng ºgreen" [os and renewale energ sornes and on rednlng
greenose emlsslons
llŦ 8e½llnan ÞarL fonsed on ½romoLlng nlean and rellale sornes of energţ fndlng an energ LrsL fndţ
and lnnreaslng em½asls on energ nonservaLlon and efflnlenn
lllŦ ÞresldenL ama ½ro½osed Le ºna½ and Lrade lll (PŦ8Ŧ 2434)" wln esLallses ssLem were
governmenL esLallses maxlmm amonL of naron emlsslon for enLlre nonLrţ wlL goal of rednlng
Lese emlsslons 17Ʒ 2020
1Ŧ WlLln maxlmmţ ean nom½an nan ţ sellţ and Lrade ½ermlLs wlL ean oLer lf Le ex½enL Lelr
emlsslons Lo exneed or fall elow ex½enLaLlons
2Ŧ Þassed Le Pose of 8e½resenLaLlves
3Ŧ 8e½llnans arged lger nosL for nonsmersţ ½oLenLlal [o loss as nom½anles nL ank on lrlngţ
real denrease ln naron emlsslon wold Lake Loo long Lo annom½lls aL Loo greaL a nosLŦ
Ŧ Com½eLlng ConsLlLenL and lnLeresL Cro½ Þressres
lŦ Þarty ||ne voteŴ voLlng ln nongress annordlng Lo ½arL ½oslLlonţ so LaL a ma[orlL of one ½arL voLes
agalnsL a ma[orlL of Le oLer ½arL
llŦ Memers of oL ½arLles nrossed ½ollLlnal alsle Lo voLe agalnsL Lelr ½arL's offlnlal ½oslLlon
IlŦ ÞollLlnal ÞarLles and uemonran
aŦ ÞollLlnal ½arLles deLermlne Le nolnes voLers ave aL Le ½olls nrafLlng Le laws LaL allow nandldaLes Lo e
on Le alloL and overseelng Le ½rlmarles LaL allow voLers Lo noose nandldaLes



Þage 2 of

Chaptei ŵŴ- Elections, Campaigns, anu voting
lŦ 1e ConsLlLLlonal 8eqlremenLs for LlenLlons
aŦ ConsLlLLlon nearl sllenL on rles aoL voLlng ln elenLlonsţ leavlng sn nolnes Lo Le sLaLes
Ŧ L|ectora| o||egeŴ 338 ½resldenLlal elenLors Lo re½resenL Le voLers ln res½enLlve sLaLes
lŦ Conseqennes of delegaLlon of aLorlL ls Lo nreaLe a ssLem of voLlng LaL ls ver nom½llnaLedţ enase
sLaLe rles var
llŦ ulfferlng rles also lead Lo lneqallLles among sLaLes
nŦ lramers wanLed Lo seL ½ arrlers agalnsL a dlrenL demonran
dŦ ÞresldenLlal LlenLlons
lŦ 3 lndamenLal Lemes glded Le lramers' Llnklng
1Ŧ SLaLe glven road dlsnreLlon on ke maLLers regardlng ½resldenLlal elenLlons Lo ensre Le
lm½orLanne and Lo nonLeralanne Le ½ower of Le naLlonal governmenL
2Ŧ lramers deslgned ½resldenn wlL Ceorge Waslng ln mlnd and dld noL s½ell oL ln greaL deLall all
as½enLs of Le ½resldennţ lnnldlng elenLlons
3Ŧ uolng waL was rlgL for Le naLlon as o½½osed Lo s½½orLlng one fanLlon over anoLer
aŦ Assm½Llon wenL awr earl onţ as ½arLles formed almosL from Le sLarL
llŦ 1e LlenLoral College
1Ŧ lormal selenLlon of ½resldenL ls ln ands of elenLors wo nollenLlvel nonsLlLLe Le LlenLoral College
2Ŧ SelenLlon of elenLors orlglnall Le res½onsllllL of sLaLe leglslaLre
aŦ Cave ½lln an lndlrenL sa ln Le nolne
3Ŧ 1oda Le ½eo½le of ean sLaLe noose Le elenLors ln an arrangemenL LaL as glven nlLlzens a new
gaLewa for lnflenne
4Ŧ ÞarL llnes ½ elenLors for lLs nandldaLes ½rlor Lo Le elenLlon
3Ŧ Lan sLaLe renelves # elenLoral voLes ƹ Lo nmer senaLors and memers ln ose of re½s
aŦ Mlnlmm ls 3
Ŧ Callfornla as mosL elenLoral voLes /w 33
6Ŧ All elenLoral voLes ln a sLaLe are allonaLed Lo Le nandldaLe wo flnlses flrsL ln Le voLlng
7Ŧ 1o wln ½resldenn nandldaLe needs ma[orlL (270) of Le 338 elenLoral voLes
aŦ 433 8e½resenLaLlves + 100 SenaLors + 3 ulsLrlnL of Colomla ƹ 338
8Ŧ lf no one wlns ma[orlL of elenLoral voLesţ elenLlon ls Lrown lnLo Pose of 8e½resenLaLlves
aŦ Lan sLaLe geLs 1 voLe and nandldaLe wlL ma[orlL wlns
lllŦ Þrolems wlL Le LlenLoral College and 8eform
1Ŧ LlenLoral nollege as never worked as lramers envlsloned
2Ŧ ulfflnlLles wlL Lls gaLe Lo dlrenL demonranť
aŦ SLaLes were free Lo seL Lelr own rles for selenLlng elenLorsţ as a nonseqenne sLaLe's rles for
selenLlng elenLors and Le LlmeLale for selenLlon var wldel
Ŧ Wen wlnnlng Le naLlon's popu|ar vote does noL aLomaLlnall LranslaLe Lo a wln ln elenLoral
nollege
lŦ lndlvldal wo renelves fewer voLes nold enome ½resldenL
llŦ Þopu|ar VoteŴ 1all of LoLal voLes from lndlvldal nlLlzensţ as o½½osed Lo elenLoral voLe
3Ŧ AdvanLages of LlenLoral College
aŦ Lnnorage nandldaLes Lo senre s½½orL ln all norners of Le nonLrţ noL [sL areas wlL
dense ½o½laLlon
Ŧ LllmlnaLlng elenLoral nollege wold denrease role of Le sLaLesţ dam½enlng slgnlflnanne of
sLaLe lnLeresLs
Þage 22 of

lvŦ 1e ConLrovers Srrondlng Le 2000 ÞresldenLlal LlenLlon
1Ŧ Þo½lar voLeţ Core renelved Ƌ600ţ000 voLes Lan s
2Ŧ nelLer s nor Core ad ma[orlL ln Le elenLoral nollege
aŦ 8s led llorlda 337 oL of 3Ŧ8 mllllon voLes (Ŧ0001 Ʒ ulfferenne)
3Ŧ ClLlzens anross nonLr losL falL ln Amerlnan elenLlons afLer mlLl½le renonLs
4Ŧ S½reme norL sLaLed Le manlner of rnnlng elenLlons ls a sLaLe qesLlon LaL sold noL lnvolve
federal norLs
eŦ Congresslonal LlenLlon
lŦ SenaLe lnLended Le framers Lo rlng sLaLe lnLeresL Lo ear on Le leglslaLlve ½ronessţ wlle wlLe
ose was lnLended Lo re½resenL Le ½eo½le
llŦ SenaLe LlenLlons
1Ŧ ConsLlLLlon orlglnall gave Le nolne of senaLors Lo sLaLe leglslaLre
2Ŧ Ado½Llon of 17
L
amendmenL nanged Lls
lllŦ Pose LlenLlons and 8edlsLrlnLlng
1Ŧ Pose memers alwas een elenLed dlrenLl Le ½eo½le
2Ŧ SLaLe leglslaLre res½onslle for drawlng dlsLrlnL llnesţ a ½roness known as red|str|ct|ng
aŦ ked|str|ct|ngŴ SLaLe leglslaLre redraw ondarles of nongresslonal dlsLrlnLs ln Le sLaLe Lo
make Lem eqal ln ½o½laLlon slze
Ŧ used as a Lool Lo anleve greaLer mlnorlL re½resenLaLlon ln Le Pose of 8e½resenLaLlves
nŦ CrrenL gldellnes on redlsLrlnLlng nall for Le nonslderaLlon of rane ln drawlng dlsLrlnL llnesţ
L noL Lo LaL exLreme lL as een em½loed ln Le ½asL
Ŧ ÞolLlnallzaLlon of drawlng dlsLrlnLs ls nalled gerrymander|ng
aŦ Gerrymander|ngŴ redlsLrlnLlng LaL laLanLl eneflLs one ½ollLlnal ½arL
fŦ Ler LlenLlons
lŦ Some sLaLes voLers nasL alloLs on s½enlfln ½ollnles Lrog |n|t|at|ves and referenda
1Ŧ In|t|at|vesŴ Þroness wln nlLlzens ½lane ½ro½osed law on Le alloL for ½lln a½½roval
2Ŧ keferendumŴ Þroness wln ½lln a½½roval ls reqlred efore a sLaLe nan ½ass laws
llŦ 1e ÞresldenLlal Cam½algn and lsses
aŦ 1e denlslon Lo 8n and Le lnvlslle Þrlmar
lŦ Wen nandldaLe denldes Lo rn for ½resldenLţ e/se msL enLer Le |nv|s|b|e pr|mary
1Ŧ Inv|s|b|e pr|maryŴ Þerlod [sL efore Le ½rlmarles egln wln nandldaLes aLLem½L Lo na½Lre ½arL
s½½orL and medla noverage
llŦ Þarty |ns|dersŴ nandldaLes wlL dee½ Lles Lo ½arL leaders and vlews LaL agree wlL ½ollLlnal vlew½olnLs of
½arL leadersl½
Ŧ 1e Canses and Þrlmarles
lŦ 1o wln ½arL nomlnaLlonţ nandldaLe msL senre ma[orlL of delegaLes Lo wln Le naLlonal ½arL
nonvenLlon
llŦ 70Ʒ se some form of pr|mary e|ect|on
1Ŧ ClLlzens dlrenLl voLe for nandldaLe wo wlll rn on ½arL lael ln general elenLlon
lllŦ 30Ʒ se nanses
1Ŧ MeeLlng of ½arL memers ln Lown allţ snoolsţ and even ½rlvaLe omes Lo noose a voLe for a
½resldenLlal ½arL nomlnee
2Ŧ Canses demand more Llme from voLersţ ½arLlnl½aLlon sall low
lvŦ Larl ½rlmarles qlnkl lld momenLm for a fronLŴrnner and leld a llkel nomlnee
vŦ IrontŴLoad|ngŴ Poldlng man ½rlmarles slmlLaneosl earl ln Le ear
Þage 2 of

nŦ 1e naLlonal ConvenLlon (Þage 329) *no slgnlflnanL lnformaLlon*
dŦ lsses
lŦ lndralslng and Mone
1Ŧ 1971 nongress Lrled Lo ½L nandldaLes on eqal flnannlal fooLlng and make Lem less fonsed on
s½enlal lnLeresLs Lrog Le lederal LlenLlon Cam½algn AnL (lLCA)
2Ŧ MaLnlng fndsŴ Þlln fnds glven Lo ½resldenLlal nandldaLe eqallng Le $ amonL Le nandldaLe
ralses from ½rlvaLe nonLrlLors
3Ŧ ConLrlLors Lr Lo am½llf Lelr lm½anL Lrog bund||ng
aŦ 8und||ngŴ rganlzlng and lnflennlng oLers Lo donaLe Lo a ½ollLlnal nam½algn Lo ralse more
mone Lan Le 2ţ400 nonLrlLlon lLC rles ½ermlL ½er lndlvldal
4Ŧ Þo||t|ca| Act|on omm|ttees (ÞAs)Ŵ Cro½s formed Lo ralse and nonLrlLe fnds Lo s½½orL
elenLoral nandldaLes and are s[enL Lo nam½algn flnanne laws
3Ŧ 8les for ½lln flnannlng of ½resldenLlal nomlnaLlon nam½algns are nom½llnaLedţ deslgned Lo ensre
nandldaLes are serlos nonLenders efore renelvlng Lem
6Ŧ MnCaln sed ½lln fnds renelvlng $80 mllllon from governmenL // ama o½Led oL and s½enL
$730 mllllon
llŦ Sw|ng StatesŴ SLaLes noL nlearl ½roŴ8e½llnan or ½roŴuemonraL
1Ŧ Swlng voLersŴ voLers nelLer 8e½llnan or uemonraLţ ½ersed ean ½arL drlng elenLlon
2Ŧ 8oL MnCaln and ama nam½algned ard ln ÞennslvanlaŴ a batt|eground state
aŦ 8att|eground StateŴ SLaLe were oLnome of ½resldenLlal elenLlon nnerLaln and wln oL
nandldaLes lnvesL mn Llme Lo wln
lllŦ M|crotarget|ngŴ CaLerlng deLalled lnformaLlon on nrossŴsenLlons of elenLoraLe Lo Lrank ½oLenLlal
s½½orLers and Lallor ½ollLlnal messages for LemŤ also nalled narrownasLlng
1Ŧ Pas enome favorale Lo ½ollLlnal ½arLles and elenLoral nam½algns
2Ŧ Can deslgn s½enlfln ½ollLlnal messages Lallored for ean voLlng ½roflle
3Ŧ Pas egn Lo re½lane LradlLlonal ½olllng Lennlqes
lvŦ Cam½algn lsses
1Ŧ Va|ence IssuesŴ nonnonLroverslal/Wldel s½½orLed nam½algn lsses nllkel Lo dlfferenLlaLe among
nandldaLes
aŦ Iage nlalm Lo a goal
Ŧ Þrovlde llmlLed lnnlLe Lo waL ½ollnles a nandldaLe mlgL ½erse onne ln offlne
2Ŧ Þos|t|on IssuesŴ ffer s½enlfln nolnes ln ½ollnţ ofLen dlfferenLlaLe nandldaLes' vlews
3Ŧ Wedge |ssueŴ lsse fonsed on ½arLlnlar gro½ of elenLoraLe LaL nandldaLes se Lo galn more
s½½orL Laklng voLes awa from o½½onenLs
aŦ Pave ½oLenLlal Lo reak ½ o½½onenLs noallLlon
Ŧ Cenerall lnvolve nonLroverslal ½olln nonnerns
lŦ LxŦŽ AorLlonţ ga marrlage
vŦ negaLlvlL
1Ŧ CandldaLes good aL Lelllng voLers Lo voLe for Lemţ L also Lo noL voLe for o½½onenLs
2Ŧ Þlln needs Lo know Le good and Le ad so negat|v|ty ½las an lm½orLanL role ln nam½algns
aŦ Negat|v|tyŴ Cam½algn sLraLeg Lelllng voLers w Le sold noL for o½½onenLţ lgllgLs lnfo
LaL ralses doLs aoL o½½onenL
3Ŧ MosL famos negaLlve add was ºuals S½oL" alred ÞresldenL Lndon !onson
aŦ AgalnsL 8arr ColdwaLerţ lm½lled lf ColdwaLer won e wold sLarL nnlear war
4Ŧ 8enenLlţ amonL of negaLlvlL as een on Le rlse
Þage 24 of

3Ŧ 1ls Lrend ma weaken Le farln of demonran
6Ŧ 1o ensre annonLalllLţ nandldaLes do need Lo e ale Lo nrlLlqe Le oLer slde
vlŦ Þolls and ÞredlnLlon Models
1Ŧ Þred|ct|on Mode|sŴ lormlas LaL Lake lnLo annonL arra of fanLors Lo ½ro[enL a wlnner
aŦ 8esL ½redlnLlon models se nomlnaLlon of ke sLrnLral fanLors
lŦ 1e Lnonom
llŦ ÞresldenLlal Þo½larlL
lllŦ 1e lnnmenL ½arL's Llme ln offlne
lllŦ Congresslonal Cam½algns and lsses
aŦ 1e uenlslon Lo 8n and Le Þrlmarles
lŦ M|dterm L|ect|onsŴ Congresslonal elenLlons alfwa eLween ½resldenLlal elenLlon
Ŧ 1e lall Cam½algn
lŦ AfLer ½rlmarlesţ Lwo wlnnlng nandldaLes ofLen revlse Lelr nam½algn message Lo aLLranL more moderaLe
voLers
llŦ 1o wln general elenLlonţ nandldaLes need voLes from ½arL memersţ lnde½endenLsţ and o½½oslng ½arL
nŦ lsses
lŦ Congresslonal elenLlons don'L draw mn aLLenLlon as ½resldenLlal elenLlonsţ eL lnvolve man of Le same
lsses
llŦ IoLers almosL alwas reelenL ose / senaLe memers
1Ŧ CesLlon lf nongresslonal elenLlons anLall serve Lo old Congress annonLale
lllŦ IoLers know less aoL Lese nandldaLes Lan Lose ln ½resldenLlal elenLlons
lvŦ lndralslng and Mone
1Ŧ An lndlvldal nan nonLrlLe ½ Lo $2ţ400 Lo a nandldaLe ln ½rlmar and same amonL ln general
elenLlon
2Ŧ u½ Lo a LoLal of$ 43ţ600 from ½rlmarles and same amonL for general elenLlons
3Ŧ CandldaLes also ralse mone from ÞACsţ wln llmlLed Lo $3ţ000 ½rlmar and $3ţ000 general Lo a
slngle nandldaLe
vŦ 1e 8ole of ÞollLlnal ÞarLles
1Ŧ ÞarLles forldden nam½algn flnanne laws from anLlvel noordlnaLlng a s½enlfln lndlvldals
nongresslonal/senaLorlal nam½algn
aŦ Lonal ½arLles nan engage ln general anLlvlLles
2Ŧ 8ole of naLlonal ½ollLlnal ½arLles ln nongresslonal elenLlons nom½lex
aŦ 1e nan ½a for nam½algn Lralnlngţ old general ½arL fndralsersţ nam½algn adds LaL
aLLank o½½oslng nandldaLes (L nannoL menLlon Lelr ½arL's nandldaLe)ţ and sare llsL of
donors/½arL memers wo volnLeer Lelr Llme Lo nandldaLes lndlvldal nam½algn
vlŦ lnnmenn AdvanLages
1Ŧ 1e almosL alwas wln
2Ŧ nmer of nom½eLlLlve ranes as een ln denllneţ Lrend nalled van|s|ng marg|na|
aŦ Van|s|ng Marg|na|Ŵ 1rend marklng denllne of nom½eLlLlve nongresslonal elenLlons
3Ŧ Safe SeatsŴ SeaL ln nongress nonsldered Lo e rellal eld one ½arL or anoLer
4Ŧ Plg raLe of lnnmenL reŴelenLlon ma lndlnaLe good workţ or ralse nonnerns lf elenLlons reall
fosLer annonLalllL
3Ŧ SLraLegln 8eLlremenLŴ uenlslon Lo reLlre from nongress ased on nllkellood of wlnnlng nexL
elenLlon
vllŦ 8elaLlve Lank of lnLeresL
Þage 2S of

1Ŧ IoLlng raLes ln nongresslonal elenLlons are alwas lower Lan ½resldenLlal elenLlons
2Ŧ IoLers Lend Lo voLe for lnnmenLs
3Ŧ IoLlng drlven 2 ma[or fornesť ÞarLlsansl½ and lnnmenn
aŦ Þres|dent|a| coatta||sŴ LffenL a ½o½lar ½resldenL/½resldenL nandldaLe as on nongresslonal
elenLlons
4Ŧ ÞarLlsan make½ of nongress reflenL ½o½larlL of ½resldenL or ½resldenLlal nandldaLe
lIŦ 1e ÞranLlne and 1eor of IoLlng
aŦ IoLlng ls a gaLewa Lo ½owerţ so Lere wlll alwas e aLLles over wo geLs anness Lo alloL
Ŧ Com½eLlng Ilews of ÞarLlnl½aLlon
lŦ ueaLes nenLered on wo ls qallfled Lo nasL alloLs
llŦ 1oo mn ½arLlnl½aLlon ƹ Loo man demands on governmenL
1Ŧ As reslL governmenL enomes less ale Lo res½ond Lo Lese demands
lllŦ nam||ton|an Mode| of Þart|c|pat|onŴ sggesLs Loo mn ½arLlnl½aLlon ls ad and LaL man ½eo½le noL
wellŴenog lnformed Lo nasL voLes
1Ŧ lavors a larger role for ellLlsLs
lvŦ Iefferson|an Mode|Ŵ SggesLs more ½arLlnl½aLlon eLLerţ more ½eo½le lnvolved more Le learn aoL
½ollLlns and wanL Lo geL even more lnvolved
IŦ Wo IoLes?
aŦ Low LrnoL ralses qesLlon aoL governmenL's res½onslveness
Ŧ uneqal LrnoL varlos demogra½ln gro½s sggesL governmenL res½onse ls neqal as well
nŦ 1rnoL (Þage 330) *no slgnlflnanL lnformaLlon*
dŦ 1e uemogra½lns of 1rnoL
lŦ 8ane and LLnlnlL
1Ŧ 1rnoL raLes ln eLnln mlnorlLles elow average for enLlre nonLr
2Ŧ 1ese gro½s Lend Lo e less well offţ lower lnnome means lower LrnoL
llŦ Sex
1Ŧ Women Lrn oL a sllgLl lger raLe Lan men
2Ŧ Cender ga½Ŵ ulfferennes ln ½ollLlnal aLLlLdes and eavlor of men and women
lllŦ Age
1Ŧ ÞarLlnl½aLlon remalns lger for older Amerlnans
lvŦ lnnome
1Ŧ More lnnome means Le ½erson as more aL sLake Ls more reason Lo voLe
2Ŧ Plger lnnome lndlvldals more llkel Lo arrange Lo voLe LaL Lose wlL lowŴ½alng [osţ wo are
less ale Lo Lake Llme off work Lo voLe
vŦ LdnaLlon
1Ŧ ?ears of formal ednaLlon morL lm½orLanL lnflenne on Lendenn of someone Lo voLe
2Ŧ SonlallzaLlonŴ Þroness of learnlng nsLomsţ aLLlLdesţ and vales of sonlal gro½ţ nommnlL or
nlLre
aŦ Pavlng een ralsed ln envlronmenL sLresses lm½orLanne of ednaLlon sa½es wllllngness Lo
voLe
IlŦ W IoLe?
aŦ 3 A½½roanes Lo ex½laln w voLes noose Lo voLeŦ lleld of Lnonomlnsţ Þsnologţ and 8les and nonLexL of
Le elenLlon
Ŧ An Lnonomln Model of IoLlng
lŦ All nolnes lnvolve a nalnlaLlon aoL selfŴlnLeresL LaL alannes nosLs and eneflLs
Þage 26 of

llŦ lf eneflLs exneed Le nosLsţ Le Lrn oL
lllŦ lf voLlng enomes less nosLl Lo all nlLlzensţ Lere sold e rlse ln ½arLlnl½aLlon
lvŦ 1ax nL ls a pub||c good LaL ls sared all ln sonleLţ regardless of weLer one voLes or noL
1Ŧ Þub||c GoodŴ Coods/eneflLs ½rovlded CovŦ wln everone eneflLs and no one nan e exnlded
vŦ 1e nanne one voLe wlll alLer Le oLnome of Le elenLlon ls ver small
vlŦ 1e nonnlslon of Le enonomln model was LaL voLlng was noL ln one's selfŴlnLeresL and ln fanL ls
lrraLlonal
vllŦ Man ½eo½le do nasL alloLsţ so Le enonomln model of voLlng as velar weaknesses
nŦ A Þsnologlnal Model of IoLlng
lŦ Ilews voLlng as ½rodnL of nlLlzens' aLLlLdes aoL Le ½ollLlnal ssLem
llŦ 1ese aLLlLdes ofLen ½rodnL of sonlallzaLlon and earl ½ollLlnal ex½erlennes
lllŦ Þsnologlnal nom½onenL Lled Lo anL of voLlng ls part|sans|p
1Ŧ Þart|sans|pŴ ALLanmenL/alleglanne Lo a ½ollLlnal ½arL
2Ŧ ClLlzens wo allgn /w ½arL more llkel Lo voLe
lvŦ ClLlzens wo ex½ress greaLer LrsL ln governmenL more wllllng Lo ½arLlnl½aLe
vŦ Þeo½le wo Llnk Le ave a volne ln governmenL are llkel Lo voLeţ ½ollLlnal snlenLlsLs nall Lls aLLlLde
eff|cacy
1Ŧ Lff|cacyŴ LxLenL Lo wln ½eo½le elleve Lelr anLlons nan ave an lm½anL on ½lln affalrs and Le
anLlons of governmenL
dŦ An lnsLlLLlonal Model of IoLlng
lŦ Inst|tut|ona| mode|Ŵ lonses on Le nonLexL of Le elenLlonţ lnnldlng weLer lL ls nlose and weLer Le
rles ennorage or dlsnorage ½arLlnl½aLlon
1Ŧ IoLlng ls ndersLood Lo e sa½ed Le rles of Le ssLem
aŦ ÞollLlnal ½arL eavlor
Ŧ Wa nandldaLes rn Lelr nam½algns
nŦ 1e nonLexL of Le elenLlon
2Ŧ Model does noL lgnore lndlvldals' ½ersonal resornes of ½snolog aLLlLdesţ lL ½olnLs oL LaL Le
½ollLlnal envlronmenL ls a fanLor LaL sa½es ½arLlnl½aLlon
llŦ Com½eLlLlveness of an elenLlon also lnflennes moLlvaLlon
IllŦ Assesslng 1rnoL
aŦ ls 1rnoL Low?
lŦ 1e unlLed SLaLes Com½ared Lo Ler uemonranles
1Ŧ Com½ared Lo oLer demonranlesţ LrnoL ln Le unlLed SLaLes ls nearl Le ver oLLom
aŦ nl nonLr slgnlflnanLl lower Lan uS ls AfganlsLan
2Ŧ ne reason LrnoL so low as Lo do wlL rles of voLlng
aŦ AsLralla as compu|sory vot|ng
lŦ ompu|sory vot|ngŴ ÞranLlne LaL reqlres nlLlzens Lo voLe ln elenLlons or fane ½nlLlve
measres
3Ŧ AnoLer reason as Lo do wlL Le nonvenlenne of voLlng
aŦ MosL Lro½ean nonLrles lessen Le nosL of voLlng allowlng voLlng Lo Lake ½lane on Snda
Ŧ MosL sLaLes selenLed 1esda as Le da for voLlng ln ½rlmarles and ln sLaLe elenLlons
lŦ Slnne on a worklng daţ noL man nlLlzens avallale Lo ½arLlnl½aLe
llŦ 1rends ln 1rnoL
1Ŧ Senond wa LrnoL ln Amerlnan elenLlon seems ½rolemaLln ls Le Lrend over ½asL 30 ears
Þage 2 of

2Ŧ IoLlng Age Þo½laLlon (IAÞ)Ŵ used Lo nalnlaLe raLe of ½arLlnl½aLlon dlvldlng nmer of voLers
nmer of ½eo½le ln nonLr wo are over 18
aŦ All nlLlzens over 18 nonsLlLLe Le IAÞ
3Ŧ uownward Lrend enome worrlsome ln llgL of rlslng levels of ednaLlonţ wln ls one of Le
sLrongesL ½redlnLors of LrnoL
4Ŧ ne ex½lanaLlon lles ln Le dlfferenne eLween Lose wo enLer elenLoraLe and Lose wo leave
3Ŧ Conne½L of generat|ona| rep|acement desnrles a Lrend ln wln older voLers wo ½ass awa and
leave Le elenLoraLe are re½laned less rellale ong voLers
aŦ Generat|ona| rep|acementŴ Cnle were onger generaLlon re½lanes older generaLlon ln
elenLoraLe
6Ŧ Senond ex½lanaLlon as een Le denllne of ½arL organlzaLlons
aŦ Lonal ½arLles less ale Lo Lrn oL Le voLe on elenLlon daţ Ls voLlng raLes as denllned
7Ŧ 1lrd ex½lanaLlon for denllnlng LrnoL ls lnnreaslngl ars Lone of ½ollLlnal nam½algns
aŦ Some arge negaLlve nam½algns fel voLer a½aL
Ŧ More nlear evldenne negaLlvlL ln nam½algns as een on Le rlse
nŦ A ars nam½algn llkel Lo e nom½eLlLlve and nom½eLlLlve nam½algns draw lnLeresLţ Lerefore
lnnreaslng LrnoLŦ
lŦ negaLlve aLLanks nan anLlvaLe ½arLlsansl½ţ wln also lnnreases LrnoL
8Ŧ 8enenL nom½reenslve sLd of all researn on Lls Lo½ln sows nlearl LaL negaLlvlL ls n1
8LSÞnSl8LL for a denllne ln LrnoL
lllŦ 1e IoLlng Lllglle Þo½laLlon Measre
1Ŧ lorL ex½lanaLlon arglng LaL LrnoL as noL denllned over earsť Le IAÞ measre ls ln error
slnne lL does noL Lake lnLo annonL lnnreases ln # of nonvlnLed felons and lmmlgranLs wo are
lnellglle Lo voLe
2Ŧ Þo½kln and Mnuonald lnLrodned new measre nalled Vot|ng L||g|b|e Þopu|at|on (VLÞ)
aŦ Vot|ng L||g|b|e Þopu|at|on (VLÞ)Ŵ used Lo nalnlaLe raLe of ½arLlnl½anL dlvldlng # voLers #
½eo½le wo are ellglle raLer Lan [sL ale Lo voLe
Ŧ uo 1rnoL 8aLes ÞromoLe lneqallL?
lŦ lanL LaL Lose eLLer ednaLed or eLLer off ½arLlnl½aLe aL a greaLer raLe ls a ½oLenLlal sorne for nonnern
llŦ lnnome ga½ eLween rln and ½oor lnnreaslng
IlllŦ ÞarLlnl½aLlon 8eond IoLlng
aŦ lnvolvemenL ln ÞollLlnal Cam½algns
lŦ Cam½algns are lm½orLanL gaLewa LaL allow ½lln Lo lnflenne ½ollLlns and for ½ollLlnlans Le ½lln
llŦ 1e ½ro½orLlon of ½eo½le wo work ln a nam½algn as een small and ver sLale over Le lasL 3 denades
lllŦ More nlLlzens also nlalmed Lo dls½la m½er sLlnker/wear LLon Lan engaglng ln oLer nam½algn
anLlvlLles
lvŦ Amerlnans far more engaged ln nam½algns Lan nlLlzens ln oLer demonranles
Ŧ ÞroLesL ÞollLlns
lŦ 8oston 1ea ÞartyŴ ÞroLesL wln nolonlsLs dressed as lndlans oarded sl½s ln 8osLon aror ex½ress
anger aL 8rlLLan's Lax ½ollnles and nommernlal reglaLlon
llŦ ln generalţ ver few Amerlnans anLall ½arLlnl½aLe ln ½roLesLs
lllŦ Plger raLes of ½roLesL anLlvlLles ln oLer demonranles nan e aLLrlLed Lo sLrong laor ½arLles Ŵ some of
Lem sonlallsL and nommnlsL Ŵ LaL make ½roLesLs nommon and smolln
nŦ LŴÞarLlnl½aLlon
lŦ Lasler and nea½er Lo send eŴmall Lo nongress Lan Lo wrlLe a leLLer
Þage 2 of

llŦ ÞarLlnl½aLlon ln logs and oLer eŴnommnlnaLlon wlll nonLlne Lo rlse
lllŦ lnLerneL also Lransformed fndralslng and nam½algn lnvolvemenL
lxŦ IoLlng Laws and 8eglaLlons
aŦ SLaLe governmenLs nonLlne Lo manage mosL voLlng laws and ½ronedresţ Log Le federal governmenL
sLe½s ln Lo ½revenL dlsnrlmlnaLlon aL ½olls
Ŧ 8oL work Lo ½revenL voLer frad
nŦ Þolln maklng regardlng voLlng ls nderLaken aL oL federal/sLaLe levelsţ and as effenL of oL ex½andlng
and ½oLenLlall nonLranLlng LrnoL
dŦ 1e naLlonal IoLer 8eglsLraLlon AnL and IoLer ldenLlflnaLlon
lŦ 1e Nat|ona| Voter keg|strat|on ActŴ 8eqlres sLaLes Lo allow nlLlzens Lo reglsLer Lo voLe aL same Llme Le
a½½l for/renew drlver's llnense
1Ŧ 8eqlres LaL sLaLes lnform nlLlzens lf Le are removed from Le a½½roved voLer roll and llmlLs
removal Lo a nange of addressţ nonvlnLlon for a felonţ and deaL
llŦ 1o avold voLer frad man sLaLs lnsLlLLed voLer ldenLlflnaLlon reqlred on elenLlon da
1Ŧ ConLroverslal and o½½onenLs sed ln federal norLs Lo sLrlke lndlana's ½oLo ldenLlflnaLlon law
2Ŧ lsse was weLer sLaLe laws LaL were lnLended Lo ½revenL voLer frad ad Le reslL of ½revenLlng
nlLlzens wo were legall enLlLled Lo voLe from dolng so enase of a lank of ½ro½er luŦ
aŦ ½½onenLs arged ½roness of geLLlng sn a nard Loo nom½llnaLed and overall effenL of law
wold dlsenfrannlse Losands of nlLlzens
3Ŧ S½reme CorL rled ln favor of lndlana law
aŦ º1e sLaLe lnLeresLs ldenLlfled as [sLlflnaLlon for Le law are oL neLral and sfflnlenLl
sLrong Lo reqlre s Lo re[enL Le lawslL"
lllŦ ulLlmaLel sLaLes and lonallLles admlnlsLer and oversee elenLlonsţ and sLaLes ave res½onded
lnnonslsLenLl Lo Lese federal governmenL
lvŦ ln a demonran all nlLlzens sold ave eqal o½½orLnlL Lo nasL Lelr voLes enase voLlng ls Le
fndamenLal menanlsm wln we old governmenL annonLale
eŦ new lorms of IoLlng
lŦ Some sLaLes lnsLlLLe earl voLlngţ allowlng voLers Lo nasL alloLs ½rlor Lo Le 1esda wen Le general
elenLlon ls eld
llŦ VoteŴbyŴma||ŴsystemŴ MeLod of voLlng ln elenLlon were alloLs are dlsLrlLed Lo voLers ½osLţ
nom½leLedţ and reLrned ½osL
1Ŧ Can mall ln 2 weeks ½rlor Lo elenLlon
lllŦ Cell ½one Lennolog nold lnnrease voLer LrnoL
xŦ LlenLlonsţ Cam½algnsţ and Þlln Þollnť Cam½algn llnanne and Þromlses
aŦ Cam½algns and elenLlons ke lnsLrmenLs ln Amerlnan demonran enase Le allow voLers Lo [dge Lelr
elenLed offlnlals and re½lane Lem lf dls½rove of [o ½erformanne
Ŧ LlenLlons lnLrlnslnall nonnenLed Lo ½lln ½olln oLnomes enase ½ollLlnlans Lake Lem as lndlnaLors of wln
½ollnles voLers wanL Le governmenL Lo ½rse
nŦ Cam½algn llnanne Laws
lŦ 1971 lederal LlenLlon Cam½algn AnL (lLCA)Ŵ reqlred nandldaLesţ ½ollLlnal ½arLlesţ and ÞACs Lo dlsnlose
Lelr nam½algn flnannlal renords
1Ŧ 1974 Congress amended Lo seL sLrlnL llmlLs on ow mn $ nold e nonLrlLed lndlvldalsţ
½arLlesţ and ÞACs Lo nam½algns
aŦ Also nreaLed lederal LlenLlon Commlsslon as lnde½endenL agenn Lo nlosel monlLor nam½algn
flnanne
Þage 29 of

llŦ S½reme norL nase 8nkl vŦsŦ Ialeo (1976)Ŵ denlared llmlLs on nonLrlLlons and enfornemenL of Lose
llmlLs were nonsLlLLlonalţ L LaL llmlLs on ow mn $ nandldaLes s½enL was noL nonsLlLLlonal
lllŦ 8l½arLlsan Cam½algn 8eform AnL (8C8A)Ŵ ralsed legal nonLrlLlon allowanne for nam½algns
1Ŧ ÞrollLed ½ollLlnal ½arLles from anne½Llng/s½endlng nllmlLed amonLs of mone dlrenLl on
nam½algns
2Ŧ 8esLrlnLed alllL of lnLeresL gro½s Lo rn nam½algn ads wlLoL fll ldenLlflng Lemselves
3Ŧ ÞrollLed Lem from rnnlng Lese ads wlLln 30 das of a ½rlmarţ and 60 das of Le general
elenLlon
lvŦ ClLlzens unlLed vŦsŦ lederal LlenLlon CommlsslonŴ undoes man of Le ½revlos resLrlnLlonsţ now allowlng
nlons and slnesses Lo s½end mone on nam½algns
vŦ lLC's enfornemenL denlslons are evenandedţ noL favorlng or LargeLlng gro½s re½resenLlng one ldeolog
or Le oLer
vlŦ lLC as een res½onslve Lo nlLlzens' nonnerns and nonLlnes Lo serve as a Lool were nlLlzens nan el½
ensre falr ½lalng fleld ln elenLlons
dŦ Cam½algn Þromlses and LlenLoral MandaLes
lŦ LlenLlons lnLended Lo send slgnals Lo ½ollLlnlans waL ½ollnles sold e ½rsedţ wlnnlng nandldaLes
nlalm LaL Lelr elenLlon nonsLlLLed a mandateţ a nlear slgnal from Le ½lln aoL Le ½ollnles
governmenL sold ½rse
1Ŧ MandateŴ ÞollLlnal ½ower Le ½resldenL nlalms afLer a denlslve elenLoral vlnLor
llŦ ke llnk eLween a nam½algn and a ½olln oLnome ls exLenL Lo wln nandldaLes are s½enlfln ln nam½algn
½romlses
1Ŧ Iage ½romlses do noL LranslaLe well lnLo anLal ½lln ½olln slnne Le fall Lo ½rovlde a le½rlnL
for nongress and Le ½lln
2Ŧ As long as ½resldenL does noL waver from nam½algn ½romlsesţ e nan se Le ldea of a mandaLe Lo
snnessfll annom½lls ls goals
lllŦ ÞarL ÞlaLforms and Cam½algn Þromlses
1Ŧ Cam½algn ½roness noL made solel ½resldenLlal nandldaLesţ also made ½arL ln form of party
p|atform
aŦ Þarty Þ|atformŴ uonmenL LaL las oL a ½arL's nore ellefs and ½olln ½ro½osals for ean
½resldenLlal elenLlon
lŦ 1ese are ado½Led aL Le naLlonal nonvenLlons
2Ŧ ama made 413 ½romlses drlng nam½algnţ 13 monLs lnLo Lerm onl roken 16 of Lem
3Ŧ LlenLlons serve an lm½orLanL ½lln ½olln ½r½ose slnne Le allow voLers Lo denlare Lelr a½½roval
or dlsa½½roval of governmenL anLlons
4Ŧ Cam½algns Lemselves are Le selllng of nonLrasLlng ½ollLlnal ½rodnLsţ and voLers noose Le one
Le Llnk ls esL
xlŦ LlenLlonsţ Cam½algnsţ IoLlngţ and uemonran
aŦ Man worr nam½algns Loo longţ nandldaLes s½end Loo mn moneţ and voLers noL well lnformed
Ŧ Long Lerm ½roness as worked reasonal well // SorL Lerm Lose wo loose wo see ½roness as nfalr
nŦ AlLog lm½erfenLţ elenLlonsţ nam½algnsţ and voLlng ½rovlde a real nanne Lo ensre governmenL
res½onslveness
dŦ 1rog nom½eLlLlve sLrggle Amerlnan demonran fnnLlons
eŦ ne danger Lo demonran a dlsLorLlon ln Le LrnoL
lŦ 8ln ½arLlnl½aLe more Lan ½oorţ and Lls ga½ ls lnnreaslng
llŦ CovernmenL ma e overl res½onslve Lo Le needs of Le well off
Þage of

1Ŧ 1reaLens Le nder½lnnlngs of a demonraLln and egallLarlan sonleL
lllŦ WealL nlLlzens ave more anness Lo lnformaLlon/resornes on Le lnLerneL and Lerefore are more
lnformed and eLLer ale Lo make governmenL res½onslveness Lo Lelr needs
1Ŧ AL Le same Llme lnLerneL mlgL e sed Lo exLend ½arLlnl½aLlon
fŦ ÞarLlnl½aLor model of voLlng as more a½½eal Lan Le ellLe model
gŦ uemonran enomes more res½onslveţ more annonLaleţ and more eqal lf more ½eo½le ½arLlnl½aLe
Ŧ More gaLewas Lere areţ Le eLLer Amerlna's nlvln llfe ls