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**Bar and Beam Elements
**

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 38

Distributed Load

Uniformly distributed axial load q (N/mm, N/m, lb/in) can

be converted to two equivalent nodal forces of magnitude qL/2.

We verify this by considering the work done by the load q,

[ ]

[ ]

[ ]

W uqdx u q Ld

qL

u d

qL

N N

u

u

d

qL

d

u

u

qL qL

u

u

u u

qL

qL

q

L

i j

i

j

i

j

i

j

i j

· · ·

·

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

· −

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

·

¸

1

]

1

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

∫ ∫ ∫

∫

∫

1

2

1

2 2

2

2

1

1

2 2 2

1

2

2

2

0 0

1

0

1

0

1

0

1

( ) ( ) ( )

( ) ( )

/

/

ξ ξ ξ ξ

ξ ξ ξ

ξ ξ ξ

x

i

j

q

qL/2

i

j

qL/2

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 39

that is,

W

qL

qL

q

T

q q

· ·

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

1

2

2

2

u f f with

/

/

(22)

Thus, from the U=W concept for the element, we have

1

2

1

2

1

2

u ku u f u f

T T T

q

· + (23)

which yields

ku f f · +

q

(24)

The new nodal force vector is

f f + ·

+

+

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

q

i

j

f qL

f qL

/

/

2

2

(25)

In an assembly of bars,

1 3

q

qL/2

1

3

qL/2

2

2

qL

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 40

Bar Elements in 2-D and 3-D Space

2-D Case

Local Global

x, y X, Y

u v

i i

' '

,

u v

i i

,

1 dof at node 2 dof’s at node

Note: Lateral displacement v

i

’

does not contribute to the stretch

of the bar, within the linear theory.

Transformation

[ ]

[ ]

u u v l m

u

v

v u v m l

u

v

i i i

i

i

i i i

i

i

'

'

cos sin

sin cos

· + ·

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

· − + · −

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

θ θ

θ θ

where l m · · cos , sin θ θ .

x

i

j

u

i

’

y

X

Y

θ

u

i

v

i

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 41

In matrix form,

u

v

l m

m l

u

v

i

i

i

i

'

'

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

·

−

¸

1

]

1

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

(26)

or,

u Tu

i i

'

~

·

where the transformation matrix

~

T ·

−

¸

1

]

1

l m

m l

(27)

is orthogonal, that is,

~ ~

T T

−

·

1 T

.

For the two nodes of the bar element, we have

u

v

u

v

l m

m l

l m

m l

u

v

u

v

i

i

j

j

i

i

j

j

'

'

'

'

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

·

−

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

0 0

0 0

0 0

0 0

(28)

or,

u Tu

'

· with T

T 0

0 T

·

¸

1

]

1

~

~

(29)

The nodal forces are transformed in the same way,

f Tf

'

· (30)

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 42

Stiffness Matrix in the 2-D Space

In the local coordinate system, we have

EA

L

u

u

f

f

i

j

i

j

1 1

1 1

−

−

¸

1

]

1

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

'

'

'

'

Augmenting this equation, we write

EA

L

u

v

u

v

f

f

i

i

j

j

i

j

1 0 1 0

0 0 0 0

1 0 1 0

0 0 0 0

0

0

−

−

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

·

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

'

'

'

'

'

'

or,

k u f

' ' '

·

Using transformations given in (29) and (30), we obtain

k Tu Tf

'

·

Multiplying both sides by T

T

and noticing that T

T

T = I, we

obtain

T k Tu f

T '

· (31)

Thus, the element stiffness matrix k in the global coordinate

system is

k T k T ·

T '

(32)

which is a 4×4 symmetric matrix.

Lecture Notes: Introduction to Finite Element Method Chapter 2. Bar and Beam Elements

© 1998 Yijun Liu, University of Cincinnati 43

Explicit form,

u v u v

EA

L

l lm l lm

lm m lm m

l lm l lm

lm m lm m

i i j j

k ·

− −

− −

− −

− −

¸

1

]

1

1

1

1

2 2

2 2

2 2

2 2

(33)

Calculation of the directional cosines l and m:

l

X X

L

m

Y Y

L

j i j i

· ·

−

· ·

−

cos , sin θ θ (34)

The structure stiffness matrix is assembled by using the element

stiffness matrices in the usual way as in the 1-D case.

Element Stress

σ ε · ·

¹

'

¹

¹

)

¹

· −

¸

1

]

1

¸

1

]

1

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

E E

u

u

E

L L

l m

l m

u

v

u

v

i

j

i

i

j

j

B

'

'

1 1

0 0

0 0

That is,

[ ]

σ · − −

¹

'

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

)

¹

¹

¹

¹

¹

E

L

l m l m

u

v

u

v

i

i

j

j

(35)

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