# Part 1: Background/Planning

1. Slope and Equations of Lines (Algebra I) – 9th Grade 2. Objectives:  For students to become familiar with the three forms of a linear equation.  For students to calculate slope given an equation of a line in standard, point-slope, and slope-intercept form. Standards:  Relate and compare different forms of representation for a relationship (NCTM Content Standards, Algebra, page 312). In this lesson, students will be introduced to the three forms of a linear equation and how the same linear equation can be represented in three different ways. Students will learn how these three representations for a linear relationship compare to one another based on the different elements that make up each equation.  Explore relationships between symbolic expressions and graphs of lines, paying particular attention to the meaning of intercept and slope (NCTM Content Standards, Algebra, page 312). Throughout this lesson, students will be looking at how the three different forms of a linear equation relate to one another. More specifically, the students will be exploring how each of the three forms of a linear equation represent slope. They will learn which piece of each equation represents slope, and then they will have to use this information to find the slope of various roller coaster hills given a linear equation in one of the three forms.  Communicate their mathematical thinking coherently and clearly to peers, teachers, and others (NCTM Process Standards, Communication, page 322). During the Share/Summarize part of the lesson, students will be asked to discuss the answers to various review questions in small groups. Thus, students will be engaged in oral communication with their small groups and must be able to convey mathematical concepts verbally to their peers. 3. Materials/Technology/Resources – Smart Notes for “Slope and Equations of Lines” I created, Smart Board, paper and pencil, calculators, “Calculating Slope” homework worksheet from last night

Part 2: Implementation
4. Lesson: A. Launch (15 minutes) 1. At the beginning of the class period, I will spot check each student’s homework for completeness and correctness. We will then go over the answers to the homework as a class. Students will be given the opportunity to ask any questions they had regarding the homework at this time, and if needed, problems can be worked out at the board. 2. After reviewing the homework, the students will be asked to work on a few review problems individually.

3. First, students will be given two review problems in which a pair of roller coaster rises and runs are given, and students are asked to determine which roller coaster hill is steeper. This will review the student’s skills in calculating slope given a rise and a run and their ability to compare two slopes to see which hill is steeper. 4. The last review problem will review the student’s ability in calculating slope given two coordinates. The students will be given two points on a roller coaster incline and asked to calculate the slope between the two points. B. Explore (25 minutes) 1. Before discussing the different forms of a linear equation, students must first understand what a linear equation is. Thus, we will begin by defining a linear equation as an equation between two variables that gives a straight line when plotted on a graph. 2. Based on the definition of linear equation provided, students will be asked to brainstorm what elements they think are necessary for a linear equation. They will be asked to share and discuss their thoughts and ideas with the students around them. If nothing else, hopefully students recognize that slope is an essential component of a linear equation. 3. Next, students will be introduced to the three different forms of a linear equation – standard, point-slope, and slope-intercept. 4. Students will be given the standard form of a linear equation: Ax + By = C. It will explicitly be explained to students that x and y are the variables, and A, B, and C are all real numbers, where A and B cannot both be equal to zero. It will also be explained to students that in order to find the slope of a line given in this form, students must first get y alone by performing inverse operations. Once y is by itself, the value in front of the variable x represents the slope. 5. Students will then be introduced to the point-slope form of a linear equation: y – y1 = m(x – x1). Students will learn that, again, x and y are the variables, m represents the slope, and (x1, y1) represents a point. Thus, if students are given an equation for a line in this form, all they need to do to calculate the slope is to determine the value of m. 6. Finally, students will be provided the slope-intercept form of a linear equation: y = mx + b. It will be highlighted for the students that x and y are the variables, m represents the slope, and b is the y-intercept, or the point at which the line crosses the y-axis. 7. After being introduced to the three different forms of a linear equation, we will work through six relatively simple example problems as a class. For each example, an equation for a roller coaster incline/decline will be given in one of the three forms we just learned. Students will first be asked to individually identify the form in which the equation of the roller coaster is given. Then, student volunteers will be asked to tell and explain to the whole class which form they think the equation is given in. Once we have come to a consensus on the form the equation is given in, as a class we will use our knowledge of the different elements of the linear equations to find the slope in each example.

C. Share/Summarize (10 minutes) 1. Upon completing the example problems, students will break into small groups of two or three members. Students will verbally discuss with their fellow group members the answers to the following questions. a. List the three different forms of a linear equation, and recall the equations for each of the three forms. b. Describe how you would go about finding the slope of a line in each of the three forms of a linear equation. c. Compare and contrast the elements that make up each of the three forms of a linear equation. d. As a group, create an equation of a line in standard form with a negative slope. Create an equation of a line in point-slope form with a slope of zero. Create an equation of a line in slope-intercept form with a positive slope. 2. I will monitor from group to group during this discussion time. Any final student questions will be answered, and the students will be informed that they do not have an assignment for homework tonight.

Part 3: Assessment
5. Assessment Aligned to Lesson Objectives a. Formative Assessment – Student understanding of today’s material will informally be assessed at the end of class during their group discussions. Students will informally be measured on their ability to recall the three forms of a linear equation, describing to their group members how to find the slope of a line in any of the three forms, comparing and contrasting the elements that comprise each of the three forms of a linear equation, and their ability to create novel equations of lines with particular stipulations on the form and slope. This will not only measure their understanding of the material, but also their ability to verbally communicate the mathematical concepts to their peers. b. Summative Assessment – Students will not have a formal, summative assessment over today’s material. 6. Differentiation/Accommodations – To accommodate English language learners in the classroom, I will provide them with hard copies of the notes, including language objectives, so they only need to focus on understanding the material rather than writing down all the language. Also, during the share/summarize section of the lesson, ELLs will be placed in small groups with non-ELL students because although this group work only requires verbal communication and oral language, the language is academic rather than solely BICS. Therefore, ELLs would benefit from working with non-ELLs who have already developed the academic oral language skills. 7. Homework – None 

Part 4: Supporting Materials

8. References – Not Applicable 9. Attachments – The Smart Notes I created for “Understanding and Calculating Slope” are attached below.