CYCLIC BEHAVIOR OF STEEL AND COMPOSITE BEAM-TO-COLUMN JOINTS
L. Caladoa, L. Simões da Silvab and R. Simõesb
Civil Engineering Department, Instituto Superior Técnico, Lisbon, Portugal Civil Engineering Department, Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal ABSTRACT
The paper presents the results obtained from experimental research on two types of European joint solutions, namely steel and composite beam-to-column connections. Steel joints were designed in order to investigate the influence of the connection detail (fully welded and top and seat with web angle) and the column size, while the composite ones were designed to analyze the influence of the slab, the internal and external localization of the joint and the type of the column, steel and composite. INTRODUCTION The use of steel and composite joints is inherent in every structural steel and composite building, whether it is of one story or one hundred stories. Therefore, the beam-to-column connection, due to its importance to all constructions, is significant both economically and structurally. Saving in connection costs as well as improved connection quality has an impact on buildings of all sizes. Because of the repetitive nature of connections, even minor material or labor savings in one connection are compounded and expanded throughout the entire building. It is important, then, for a design engineer to understand the behavior of the connection, not only from the point of view of the connection as a structural element, but also from the point of view of the connection as a part of the complete structural system. The collaboration between the Instituto Superior Técnico and the University of Coimbra aims to contribute to find some answers on the cyclic behavior of steel and composite connections through experimental research on different typologies of these connections to ensure that steel and composite structures may behave in a safe way during the occurrence of an earthquake. An experimental program on different types of steel and composite beam-to-column connections has been carried out on these two institutions. The experimental tests have been performed on specimens representative of frame structure beam-to-column joints close to the ones typical of European design practice. The test program was planned with the aim of assessing the influence of connection detail (fully welded and top and seat with web angle) and column size for steel connections and the influence of the localization of the joint (internal and external) and type of column (steel and composite) for composite connections. The main parameters influencing the cyclic response of these joints are briefly presented.
In both series. being respectively HE160B for the BCC5 and BCC9 specimens. i. the beam flanges have been connected to the column flange by means of complete joint penetration (CJP) groove welds. BCC6 and BCC8) and a top and seat with web angle series (BCC9. while on the legs of the web angles there was only one row of three bolts. In the fully welded specimens. BCC7 and BCC10). while fillet welds have been applied between both sides of the beam web and the column flange.
. and angles was steel S235 JR. Figure 2. 3. BCC7 and BCC10 specimens. 120x120x10 angles have been adopted. at FP. beams. The specimens of the two series were T-shaped beam-column subassemblages. fillet welded to the column web and flanges.EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM Steel joints were tested at the Instituto Superior Técnico. Figure 1.Detail of the fully welded connections.8 preloaded according to the Eurocode 3 provisions (5).CD= 0. HE200B for the BCC6 and BCC7 specimens.Detail of the top and seat with web angle connections. consisting of a 1000 mm long beam and an 1800 mm long column.e.7 fub As = 87. In each series the cross section of the beam was the same (IPE300). Figure 1 . Calado et al (2.9 kN. the continuity of the connection through the column has been ensured by 10 mm thick plate stiffeners. and HE240B for the BCC8 and BCC10 specimens. The bolts were M16 grade 8. namely a fully welded series (BCC5. 4). The material used for the columns.
Figure 2 . while the column cross section has been varied. Two rows of bolts were placed on each leg of the flange angles.
In the BCC9. Lisbon while composite ones were tested at the University of Coimbra. Steel Joints Two series of full-scale specimens have been designed and tested. Calado and Mele (1).
Composite Joints The test program performed at the University of Coimbra on the cyclic behavior of composite joints included 4 prototypes. This test type has been carried out according to the basic loading history recommended in ECCS (9). was reinforced with 10 12 longitudinal bars and 10 8 transversal bars per meter. The prototypes were defined such that they could reproduce the connections in a common European framed structure. being 2 in internal nodes and 2 in external ones. The steel connection is the same in all prototypes. In all cases. welded to the beam and bolted to the column flange through 6 M20 bolts (class 8. rigidly connected to a reinforced concrete slab (full interaction) by 8 shear block connectors. steel class 8. corresponding to a beam connected to the column by one end plate. a supporting girder. The specimen is connected to the supporting girder through two steel elements. The end plate was flushed at the top and extended at the bottom. Testing Apparatus The test set-up available at the Instituto Superior Técnico. The steel connection consisted of a 12 mm thick end plate. being encased by concrete (300 300 mm) in tests E10 and E12. Simões (6) and Simões et al (7). The steel column was the same in all the tests (HEA 220). with spans of about 7m.08 m apart. live loads up to 4 kN/m2 and a high energy dissipation capacity and a good fire resistance. a reaction r. Figure 4. The slab. with longitudinal reinforcement of 4 12. mainly consists of a foundation. For internal and external composite specimens cyclic loading was applied only according to the methodology proposed by the ECCS.8). The following materials were chosen: S235 JR in the steel components. 900 mm wide and 120 mm thick. General details of composite joints are presented in Figure 3. Loading Histories For the steel specimens the experimental program consisted of cyclic tests with constant and step-wise increasing amplitude displacement histories. and test E12 between composite beams and a composite column. welded to the beam and bolted to the column. stroke 200mm) is attached to a specific frame. Eurocode 3 (5) and Eurocode 4 (8).8 in the bolts. wall. The power jackscrew (capacity 1000 kN. a power jackscrew and a lateral frame. 4m spacing between frames. with 20 mm cover. the beams consisted of an IPE 270. The supporting girder is fastened to the reaction wall and to the foundation by means of pre-stressed bars. test E11 corresponding to the prototype arrangement between composite beams and a steel column. prestressed against the reaction wall and designed to accommodate the screw backward movement. with one bar in each corner of the section and stirrups consisting of 6 bars 0.
. steel A400 NR in the reinforcing bars. in order to achieve similar behavior under positive and negative moments. Two tests were also performed in internal nodes.c.
Figure 4 – Test set-up used for steel joints and available at Instituto Superior Técnico.Figure 3 – General detail of internal and external composite connections.
a supporting frame and two dynamic actuators with a capacity of 200 kN and 600 kN. which allow experimental tests on internal and external solutions. of the displacement and of all the transducers used to monitor the specimens during the testing process.
.Figure 5 – Test set-up used for composite joints and available at University of Coimbra. and the test set-up used consists of a foundation. Instrumentation An automatic testing technique was developed in both laboratories to allow computerized control of the jackscrew and the dynamic actuators. and maximum displacement of 20 cm and 10 cm. The composite specimens are connected to the supporting frame and fastened to the foundation. The tests on composite connections were performed at the University of Coimbra. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS In the following only the moment rotation hysteresis loops obtained in the increasing amplitude tests are provided. Figure 5. which recorded the displacement histories at several points in order to obtain a careful documentation of the various phenomena occurring during the tests. Specimens have been instrumented with electrical displacement transducers (LVDTs).
08 -0. A well-defined plastic hinge in the beam has formed in all the tested specimens.08
Figure 6 – Hysteresis loops and failure mode of a welded joint.04 -0.04 0. though no remarkable plastic deformation occurred in the beam. due to fracture initiated in the beam flange and propagated also in the web.00 -50 -100 -150 -200
0. where the maximum value of the applied moment was usually registered. In the very last cycle specimens have collapsed with a sudden and sharp reduction of strength. In the specimens with large column size the panel zone deformation has not been remarkable.
200 150 100 50 0 -0.Steel Joints A great regularity and stability of the hysteresis loops up to failure.02 0. Figure 6.02 0. This deterioration of the flexural strength of the connection was related to occurrence and spreading of local buckling in the beam flanges and web.
. The increasing of the size of the column specimens showed a gradual reduction of the peak moment starting from the second cycle. with no deterioration of stiffness and strength properties characterize the cyclic behavior of welded joints.06 -0. Significant distortion of the joint panel zone has been observed during the tests. and the plastic deformation took place mainly in the beam.06 0.
In all tests carried out on these specimens.06 -0.150
0 -0. Plastic ovalization of the bolt holes has also been observed mainly in the leg of the angle adjacent to column flange. Figure 7.02 0.02 0. which impose large rotations to the connection. At large applied displacements. The experimental curves.
. The cyclic behavior of the top and seat with web angle connections was characterized by bolt slippage and yielding and spreading of plastic deformation in the top and bottom angles. as it was expected. the contact of the compression angle and the beam web to the column flange (gap closure) gave rise to sudden stiffening of the connection. showed pinching hysteresis loops. since the inelastic behavior of the connection was governed by the angle. cyclically subjected to tension. immediately after the fillet. the collapse of the connection occurred due to fracture in the leg angle located on the beam flange. No significant rotation of the column and distortion of the panel zone have been observed throughout the experimental tests carried out on these specimens.04 0. with a large slip plateau and subsequent sudden stiffening.04 -0.08 -0. typical of this type of connection.00 -50 0.06 0
Figure 7 – Hysteresis loops and failure mode of a top and seat with web angle connections. which is evident in the experimental curves. Negligible scatters were observed in the moment capacity of the three connection series.
and test E12 corresponding to a composite column and shown in Figure 9. 166
. illustrated in Figure 8.
150 100 50 0 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 -50 -100 -150 -200 0 10 20 30
Figure 9 .
100 50 0 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 -50 -100 -150 0 10 20 30
Figure 8 .Hysteresis loops and failure mode of an internal node with a steel column. test E11 corresponding to a steel column.Composite Joints Two tests were performed in internal nodes.Hysteresis loops and failure mode of an internal node with a composite column.
150 100 50 0 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 -508 -100 -150 -200 0 10 20 30
Figure 10 . Because the maximum amplitude was not very high.
250 200 150 100 50 0 -50 -40 -30 -20 -10 -50 -100 -150 -200 -250 0
Figure 11 . the strength degradation was low.Hysteresis loops and failure mode of an external node with a composite column. This fact allows to say that the confinement of the concrete was not very efficient.These joints presented high ductility with similar response for hogging and sagging moment. although it was very competent in the monotonic tests performed in this type of joints.Hysteresis loops and failure mode of an external node with a steel column. Based on the experimental results it was possible to conclude that after the cracking of the concrete in the web of the composite column the cyclic behavior of the specimen E12 (composite column) was similar to that of the E11 (steel column).
On the contrary. Proc. for top and seat with web angle steel connections the panel zone does not affect the behavior of the joint. “Structural Steel Components under Low-Cycle Fatigue: Design Assisted by Testing”. and Castiglioni. steel vs composite. Structural Engineers World Congress. paper No. E.. January-February. De Matteis. Bernuzzi. On the contrary. (ed.. which is directly related to the column size. The strength degradation was mainly due to the deformation of the shear connectors and consequent slip between the slab and the steel beam. As in external nodes. internal or external. by D.2570/6/A (2) Calado. SEWC. G. Proc. the localization of the joint. C. 1998. ACKNOWLEDGMENT Financial support from “Ministério da Ciência e Tecnologia” .
. E9 and E10. has influence on the cyclic behavior of the connection. San Francisco. and Mazzolani. was similar. the experimental tests performed have evidenced that the influence of the type of the column.Concerning external nodes. A.. R. L. After the cracking of the concrete the cyclic behavior of both connections.PRAXIS XXI research project “Dynamic Behavior of Steel-Concrete Composite Structures” and the European research project INCO-COPERNICUS Joint Research Project “Reliability of Moment Resistant Connections of Steel Building Frames in Seismic Areas” (RECOS) is gratefully acknowledged. Concerning composite joints.. 211-220. the ductility remained high except for test E10 under negative hogging moment. REFERENCES
(1) Calado. L. Auckland. 2000. CONCLUSIONS In this paper the major aspects governing the cyclic behavior of some European solutions for steel and composite joint have been evidenced against experimental results. L. SDSS’99 Stability and Ductility of Steel Structures. C. External joints have exhibited some pinched hysteresis loops while for internal nodes the cyclic behavior was more regular and stable. After that phase the behavior of the joints was similar. 6th International Colloquium. with a slip plateau and subsequent strength degradation.. F. (3) Calado.. E9 with steel column (Figure 10). Dubina and M. the experimental curves exhibited some pinched hysteresis loops. steel or composite occurred in the first cycles when the concrete is not cracked. "Experimental Behavior of Steel Beam-to-Column Joints:
Fully Welded vs Bolted Connections". 12th World Conference on Earthquake Engineering. which instead is mainly. Landolfo. Elsevier. occurred in the first cycles when the concrete was not cracked. and the influence of the type of column. and Mele. which was unsymmetrical due to the unsymmetrical resistance of the connection. New Zealand. Ivanyi). Timisoara (Romania). and E10 with composite column (Figure 11). 1999. related to the tension angle geometry and strength properties. It has been shown that for welded steel joints the behavior of the connection is strongly affected by the panel zone. “Cyclic Behavior of Steel Beam-to-Column Connections: Interpretation of Experimental Results”.M.
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