Chapter 12 - Emotional and Social Development on Adolescence  Erikson’s Theory: Identity vs.

Role Confusion o Identity  Definite who you are, what you value and direction in life  Commitment to vocation, personal relationships, sexual orientation, ethnic group, ideals  Exploration, resolution of “identity crisis” o Role Confusion  Lack of direction and definition of self  Restricted exploration in adolescence  Earlier physical conflicts not resolved  Society restricts choices  Unprepared for stages of adulthood  Self-concept in adolescence o Unify separate trains into larger, abstract ones  May describe contradictory traits; social situations o Gradually combine trains into origination system  Qualifies (I’m shy, I’m quiet)  Integrating principles o Self Esteem in Adolescences  Continues to differential  New dimension  Generally rises  Temporarily drops at school transition  Individual differences become more stable  Self-esteem linked to value of activities, adjustment  Influenced by family, culture o Identity Statues  Level of exploration –  Level of Commitment  ???  Identity achievements – commitment to values, beliefs and goals (ex: attended science fair and want to pursue career as scientist)  Moratorium – exploration without making commitment (ex: attend science fair but want to pursue history  Identity foreclosure – commitment in the absence of exploration (ex : parents telling child they need to be a scientist). Haven’t’ had change to explore  Identity diffusion – uncertainty. (attend science fair but not sure what you want to major in) o Factors that affect identity development  Personality  Flexible, open-minded  Child-reading practices  Authoritative, attaches  Peers, friends  Schools  Communities o Culture and Identity  Views of self-continuity  Cultural-majority adolescents  Individualistic view

family  Just eductiaonl enviroments Religious involvement and Morality o Formal religious involvement decline in adolescence o Religious involvement linked to  More community service  Lower drug and alcohol use  Later sex  Less delinquency o Gender Intensification in Adolescence  Increased gender stereotyping of attitudes and behavior  Biological. children accept rules set by parent. supportive relationship with parents  Amount of time spent with family not a factor in conflict  Family circumstances  Finances . social. Social contract. hisoty  Moral self=relevance  Peers. What is ethically appropriate Competing Issues of Morality o Moral o Social-conventional o Personal  Personal rights v. What’s right and what’s wrong o conventional level  conformity to social rules (won’t blurt out in class or steal candy bar) o post-conventional or principles level  questioning what would I do in this situation.    Enduring personal essence Cultural-minority adolescence  Interdependent view  Constantly transforming self  Bicultural identity Kohlberg’s stages of moral development o pre-conventional level  early on. commumity good o Moral reasoning and Behavior  Modest connection  Behavior influnced by many factors  Emotion  Temperament  Situation. declines in middle to late adolescence o Parent-Child relationships in adolescence  Autonomy  De-idealize parents  Shift from parents to self and peers for guidance  Authoritative parenting  Balances autonomy with monitoring as needed  Extra challenging during adolescence o Family Influences on Adolescent’s Adjustment  War. cognitive factors  More in early adolescence.

stereotype From Cliques to Dating . trust. status  Get together for activities  Intimacy related to gender identity     o Adronygus: more likely to be intimate friends Risks of Close Friendships  Corumination ??  Relational aggression  Girls’ closely friendships shorten  Victimization from online-only friends Benefits of Adolescent Friendships  Opportunities to explore self  Form deep understanding of another  Foundation for future intimate relationships  Help deal with life stress  Can improve attitude towards and involvement in school Cliques and Crowds  Clique  Small group : 5-7  Good friends  Identified by interests. loyalty  Closeness.o  Time  Adult relationships  Sibling relationships  Characteristics of Adolescent Friendships  Fewer “best friends”  Stress intimacy. self-disclosure  Friends are similar or get  More similar  Identity status  Aspirations  Politics  Deviant behavior  Gender Differences in Adolescent friendships  Girls  Emotional closeness. communal concerns  Get together to “just talk” o Self-disclosure  Boys  Achievement. social status  Crowd  Larger: several cliques  Membership based on reputation.

delinquency  Poor academics  Difficult family and [pier ??] relationships  For homosexuals  Finding partners  Peer harassment. shallow intimacy  Gradually look for more intimacy  Relations with parents. rejection o Peer Conformity  Pressure to confirm to:  Dress. social activities  Product behavior  Misconduct  Rises in early adolescence. group activities.affects 15-20%  Twice ad many girls as boys  Early-maturing girls  Gender intensification  Adults may not take seriously  Factors  Genetics  Child-rearing learned helplessness – (If I a failure. but low overall  More conformity in early adolescence  Authoritative parents help resist pressures o Depression in Adolescence  Most common psychological problems of adolescence . that’s who I am)  Adolescent Suicide  A leading cause od death for North American youth  Related factors  Gender  Ethnicity . friends contribute to internal working models for dating o Dating Problems  Too-early dating  Drug-use. Boy’s and girl’ cliques come together  Mixed sex cliques hang out  Several couples form and do things together  Individual couples  Changes in dating during adolesence  Goals change throughout adolescence:  Early: recreation. grooming. sex.

safety planning         . routine screening. completing education.Affected by genetic makeup. living environment.Average life expectancy increase 25-30 years “Wear-and-tear” theory an oversimplification We actually want the opposite = more exercise Biological aging explained by (1) programmed effects of specific genes (shortened telomeres) and (2) cumulative effects of random events (free radicals: naturally occurring highly reactive chemicals that form in the presence of oxygen) Reproductive capacity – reduced no. withdrawn o Antisocial. ↓ semen vol. less social support to exercise Substance abuse – cigarettes. attaining economic independence. Family environment Sexual orientation Mental disorders Life stress Personality o Intelligent.& quality of ova. sperm motility & % normal sperm Basal metabolic rate (BMR) declines – overweight and obesity More inactivity in low-SES because less safe neighborhoods. beginning full-time work. lifestyle. stimulants. establishing long-term sexually & emotionally intimate relationship. improved nutrition. safety . sanitation. historical period. starting a family  Biological aging or senescence: genetically influenced declines in the functioning of organs and systems that are universal in all members of our species (after body structures reach max capacity & efficiency) . marijuana. medical treatment. drugs. and ~ ½ in alcohol treatment relapse Homosexuality. drinking Most in cigarette treatment restart. leaving home. Sexual coercion Preventing and treating rape and abuse: community services.. validation of experiences. emotional Preventing suicide  Notice warnings signs  Provide adult and peer support  Teach coping strategies o Intervention  Medication  Therapy  Remove access to means      Chapter 13: Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Adulthood  Early adulthood = age 18-40  E. tobacco.g.

no solution physical and psychological symptoms Psychological stress College and dropping out of college (30-50% drop out) Vocational choice .    Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) begins sometime after 20.

same-sex.Other-sex: fewer. involves giving up some new independence. in-depth exploration and certainty (better social and academic adjustment). SES.Intimacy: making permanent commitment to intimate partner. for women in low-status jobs . affects friendships. delay first child. ~90% marry at least once. single ppl more intimate with friends .Women-women more intimate. divorced. too early may be long-term disadvantage – financials?  Trends in marriage: marry later.But.Traditional: clear division of roles . widowed.Isolation: loneliness: self-absorption  Triangular theory of love: 1. other-sex friendships . Intimacy. parenthood). work . AAs. middle adulthood (launching children)  Leaving home: 50% of 18-25 yr olds live with parent. benefits to both genders in terms of viewpts  Factors in loneliness: age (peak in late teens). Commitment .Egalitarian: partners as equals. common interests. “mixed” (race)  Traditional and egalitarian marriages . 2. immigrants).Siblings often as friends  Same-sex vs. shorter-lasting than same sex. 3. circumstances (separated. fewer children  Transition to parenthood: problems before parenthood predict problems after. strong identity helps. more high SES women.Chapter 14: Emotional and Social Development in Early Adulthood  Emerging adulthood: extends from late teens to mid-20s  Dual-cycle model in early college years: cycle between making and evaluating commitments.Passionate love into companionate love . personal characteristics (socially anxious)  Family life cycle: early adulthood (leaving home. low SES men single after 30  Cohabitation (North Americanswho cohabit before marriage more likely to divorce)  Dual-earner marriages are dominant family form  Role overload is a common problem esp. sex. joining families in marriage. Passion. personal agency  Erikson’s Theory: Intimacy vs. experiences . there’re cultural differences  Friendships in early adulthood: usually similar in age. share authority  Fewer married couples have children (70%). Isolation . cohabiting. later parenthood helps  Singlehood increasing for women.

depression – maybe) . 3. analytical speed. things you do everyday .Find interest and meaning in daily activities . sexual problems. mastery of social conventions. good judgment.Crystallized: skills that depend on accumulated knowledge.View as normal part of life. sagging.Drop in estrogen . history question  More difficulties in multitasking. loss in bone strength. focusing on relevant information. most loss in high frequencies  Skin: wrinkles.We can pinpoint where mutations occur on genes now and there’re cures .Individual and cultural differences in reactions to menopause  Male reproductive changes . working memory. 2. chance for growth  Double standard of aging: aging men rated more positively than aging women  Fluid and crystallized intelligence: . back for men) very gradual muscle declines  Skeletal changes: bones broaden but become more porous.erection problems – Viagra  Health: more than 80% rate as good to excellent – decline from early adulthood  Sexuality: slight drop in frequency among married couples (more sex in good marriages). experience. sleep difficulties. Cancer.Breast and prostate cancer most common type (26% and 25%)  Osteoporosis: ↑ vit D and calcium.Regard most experiences as controllable . vaginal dryness. continuation of early adulthood changes  Vision changes: presbyopia – problems reading small print. stroke. Unintended injury . alternative medications . intensity of response declines  Leading causes of death: 1. Challenge .g.gradual testosterone reduction but sexual activity stimulates production .Menopause age range: late 30s to late 50s . comprehension. (irritability. is valued by person’s culture.Menopause follows 10-year climacteric .Climacteric: gradual end of fertility . but risks for heart attack. cancer.Chapter 15: Physical and Cognitive Development in Middle Adulthood  Middle adulthood: ages 40 to 65  Midpoint and not end of life.Menopause symptoms: hot flashes/night sweats. healthy lifestyle!  Climacteric and menopause . exercise  Hardiness: Control. but experience. practice.Hormone therapy for menopause: reduces hot flashes. Alzheimer’s.Fluid: depends on basic information-processing skills: detecting relationships among stimuli. age spots (faster with sun exposure and for women)  Muscle-fat makeup: fat gain in torso (waist.reduced sperm and semen after 40 . Cardiovascular disease. bifocals if nearsighted. upper arms for women. and training can help compensate . slower processing. e. Commitment. upper abdomen. difficulties in dim light  Hearing changes: presbycusis – earliest.

can compensate with self-pacing. relevant information But few changes in factual (historical events). and metacognitive (being able to explain how you got to an answer) knowledge .g. procedural (e. baking a cake). strategy reminders (post-its).  Working memory decreases from 20s to 60s.

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