2.2.1 Outline the cell theory (2).

Outline: To give a brief account or summary.

     

All living things are made of cells. Cells are the smallest unit of life. Existing cells have come from other cells. Stated in this way Cell Theory might be attributed to Schleiden and Schwann (1838). Robert Hooke first coined the term 'cell' after observing the structure of cork in 1655. The first observation of living cells was by Anton van Leeuwenhoek in 1674.

2.1.2 Discuss the evidence for the cell theory (3).
Discuss: Give an account including, where possible, a range of arguments for and against the relative importance of various factors, or comparisons of alternative hypotheses. a. All living things are made of cells: When living things are observed under the microscope they consistently appear to be composed of cells. However, there are a number of examples that do not conform to the standard notion of what a cell looks like at the microscopic level. Exceptions the that test the rule of cell theory: Muscle cells: challenges the idea that a cell has one nucleus. Muscle cells have more than one nucleus per cell Muscle Cells called fibres can be very long (300mm). They are surrounded by a single plasma membrane but they are multi-nucleated.(many nuclei). This does not conform to the standard view of a small single

nuclei within a cell

Fungal Cells: challenges the idea that a cell is a single unit. Fungal Hyphae: again very large with many nuclei and a continuous cytoplasm The tubular system of hyphae form dense networks called mycelium. Like muscle cells they are multi-nucleated They have cell walls composed of chitin The cytoplasm is continuous along the hyphae with no end cell wall or membrane

A cell capable of all necessary functions Amoeba Single celled organisms have one region of cytoplasm surrounded by a cell membrane. the original ancestral cell form which all other cells have arisen by descent. This is an image of an amoeba. The protoctista cell is unusual in that it performs all functions. John Snow and Louis Pasteur.1. Cells come only from other cells. c. Agostino Bassi. Cells are the smallest unit of life. 2. There are scientist who suggest that too much importance is attached to the resolution of the question and that the definition of 'life' is of little value. (origin of cellular life).Protoctista: Challenges the idea that a cell is specialised to a single function. This process of cell replication in eukaryotes is called mitosis and in prokaryotes is called binary fission. These ideas are then replaced by the work of Francesco Redi. A single cell protoctista capable of all essential functions. non-cellular. TOK: Cell theory replaces the former ideas of spontaneous generation or abiogenesis in which inanimate matter assembles itself into living forms. Interested students should research the concept of endosymbiont theory. This aspect of cell theory suggests that all cells therefore have a common ancestor. Such cells are usually much larger than other cells such that some biologist consider them 'acellular'. Yet. This relationship of common ancestor suggest thereof re that all organisms are related. value or other brief answer without explanation or calculation. Organelles often require the cooperation of other organelles for their successful function. the protoctista can carry out all functions of life. There still remains the necessary idea however that at some point cellular life developed from non-cellular form. This was particularly believed to be the case in out breaks of diseases. where do cells come from?     Cells carry out a form of cell division to form new cells.3 State that unicellular organisms carry out all the functions of life (1). that is. State:means to give a specific name. What cell organelles can you see? b. Much of this discussion is based on the notion that life takes cellular form and that it is possible to define the exact boundary between living and non-living. These organisms are able to carry out all the processes which are characteristic of living things such as: . No doubt this pre-cellular form was a replicating macromolecule perhaps like RNA. The parental cell divides to produce identical daughter cells.    The cell is the smallest unit of organisation that can show all the characteristics of living processes.

viruses. 2. response to a change in the environment c. Observations of this type are for the most part dependable but we must consider the introduction of 'artifacts' by those processes that prepare the material for microscopy. where as a eukaryotic animal cell is is ten time larger again at around 10 um. homeostasis the maintenance and regulation of internal cell conditions. where as a eukaryotic plant cell is ten times larger again at around 100 um. growth which for a unicellular organism means an increase in cell size and volume. virus (100nm). 5. e. Relative sizes: 1. nm= nanometer (10-9m) um= micrometer (10-6m)      Molecules of Biological significance are around 1 nm in size where as the cell membrane is about ten times thicker at 10nm. These artifacts can lead to image or data distortions and misinterpretation. organelles (less 10um). f. .a.4 Compare the relative sizes of molecules. 3. 6. metabolism which includes respiration the synthesis of ATP. bacteria (1um). referring to both (all) of them throughout.5 Calculate the linear magnification of drawings and the actual size of specimens in images of know magnification (2). These artifacts are a consequence of specimen dehydration. cell membrane thickness (10nm). bacteria.1. cells (<100 um). contrast enhancement (staining). reproduction which for the unicellular organism is largely asexual through cell division to form a clone. using the appropriate SI unit (3) Compare: means to Give an account of similarities and differences between two (or more) items. 7. nutrition which means either the synthesis of organic molecules or the absorption of organic matter. molecules (1nm). 4. cell membrane thickness. We depend on the microscope for our observation of cellular structures. generally plant cells are larger than animal cells. d.1. Calculate means find a numerical answer showing the relevant stages in the working (unless instructed not to do so). where as a bacteria is ten times larger again at around 1 um. b. radiation and microscope function. 2. organelles and cells. 2. Where as a virus is ten times larger again at around 100nm.

82 = 5cm real length Scale Bars: images often carry a scale bar which is a horizontal line drawn on the image. c) Add labels for structure d) If you know the name of the species of plant that the leaf comes from add this information. any leaf around 10-15 cm in length. This is called magnification. . b) Make sure you measure length and breadth of the leaf. Exercise 3: Decreasing the magnification a) You must now draw the leaf again but this time half all measurement and dimension.2cm/ magnification 0. add the vein patterns and note the vein pattern at the edges of the leaf. Calculate magnification from an image: using a ruler measure the size of a large clear feature on the image Measure the same length on the specimen convert to the same units of measurement   Magnification = measured length of the image /measured length of the specimen Length of the actual specimen = length on the image/ magnification ( e. a) Draw the leaf exactly the same size as the it is in life. rose leaf = image length 4. b) Add the label x 0. The scale bar shows how long the line is in the real specimen. a) You must now draw the leaf again but this time doubling every measurement b) Compete your diagram with the label x 2. f) Finally add the magnification as x 1 in the right hand bottom corner of the diagram (but prominent).On an image of a specimen it is useful to show how much larger/smaller the image is than the real specimen. Exercise 2: Increasing the magnification. leaf'.5 c) This means that all dimension have been decreased by one half of the original value.g. e) A a title 'A diagram to show the structure of a Helianthus spp. Exercise 1: Find a leaf.

If you measure the actual length of the nucleus in this image and there is a scale bar you can calculate the magnification of the image. .    The rate of exchange of substances therefore depends on the organism's surface area that is in contact with the surroundings.16 Explain the importance of the surface area to volume ratio as a factor limiting cell size (3). The volume increases as the cube but the area of the surface only increases by the square. but not by the same amount. reasons or mechanisms. The scale bar indicates the length of 10 microns = 10um Notice that 10 um is about the vertical length of the diameter of the nucleus. 2.   As the size of a structure increases the surface area to volume ratio decreases. See the formula above if you require assistance.This example shows a plant cell. Conclusions:  As the organism gets bigger its surface area : volume ratio decreases  This rule is a limiting factor for cell size. Reasoning: This can be seen by performing some simple calculations concerning different-sized organisms. Explain means to give a detailed account of causes. All other measurements from the image are made relative to this scale bar. Reason: as organisms get bigger their volume and surface area both get bigger.  As the cell gets bigger the ratio decreases  If the ratio decreases the rate of exchange decreases Example: gas exchange of oxygen for respiration.  A cell which respires aerobically demands oxygen for the process.

State:means to give a specific name. Systems biologists attempt to put together the parts that make up a system and then observe the properties of that 'emerge' from the system but which could not have predicted from the parts themselves.reductionism and Biology 2 .7 State that multicellular organisms show emergent properties (1).e.       Oxygen is obtained form the surrounding environment such as water or blood (depends on the cell). As a model consider the electric light bulb. value or other brief answer without explanation or calculation. the surface area: volume ratio is small. Emergence. What ever other benefits a cell might gain from being big. 2. However the ratio of surface area2 : volume 3 is decreasing Therefore the volume of oxygen obtained for each unit of cell volume is actually decreasing Cells must not get too big because they cannot obtain sufficient oxygen to satisfy the demands of the cell. The bulb is the system and is composed of a filament made of tungsten. it cannot become larger than is limited by the rate of gas exchange. carbon dioxide). Try preparing a reason why size is a limiting factor for: Obtaining nutrient (glucose) Excretion of waste molecules ( urea. Oxygen diffuses across the cell membrane. We can study the parts individually how they function and the properties they posses. Only when we combine them to form the bulb can these properties be determined. These would be the properties of :    Tungsten Metal cup Glass container. and a glass container. a metal cup. anything that is exchanged across the cell surface.1. More membrane more diffusion (Surface area= increases by the 2). the whole is greater than the sum of the parts'. There is nothing supernatural about the emergent properties rather it is simply the combination of the parts that results in new properties emerging. This reasoning can be applied to nutrients and to waste. But the big cell has relatively small surface area compared to its volume i. Bigger cell (Volume = increases by the 3). When studied individually they do not allow the prediction of the properties of the light bulb. why cells are small (reasoning):          Size as a limiting Factors for cell because: A big cell needs more oxygen than a little cell Big cells need to have more oxygen diffusion across the cell membrane. ammonia. syllabus: 'Emergent properties arise from the interaction of the component parts.

population thinking. These specific gene expressions produce particular shapes.8 Explain that cells in multicellular organisms differentiate to carry out specialized functions by expressing some of their genes but not others (3). Differentiation: Cells within a multi cellular organism specialise their function.     . which acknowledges the role of variation in a population. Oxford University Press: New York 2 Mayr. No new properties will arise from the sum of the parts. These organs and systems are then integrated to give the whole organism (with its emergent properties). functions and adaptations within a cell. this is explanatory reductionism. 1 Concise Oxford English Dictionary 10th edition revised: (2002). The parts do not vary (otherwise there would be more parts) and these are predictable within the laws and principles that describe them. Remember that biology insists on a population thinking so that we know the interacting ‘parts’ vary in themselves and therefore their ‘emerging’ properties can only be generalised. E (2004) What Makes Biology Unique? Cambridge University Press: Cambridge 2.    An interesting parallel with economic theories is that the larger collective economic group the greater the number of specialisms. Rather than all cells carrying out all functions.The approach of the physical sciences is to reduce an inanimate phenomenon to its constituent parts and that knowledge of these will explain the phenomena as a whole. reasons or mechanisms. Emergence is the occurrence of unexpected characteristics or properties in a complex system. Since the smallest parts are predictable then the system as a whole is predictable. On a biological scale consider the current debate about the nature of human consciousness or the origin of life itself. The ‘parts’ of the living system vary on both a phenotypic level and at the level of the genetic program. Specialised cells have switched on particular genes (expressed) that correlate to these specialist functions.1. tissues and organs specialise to particular functions. As a general principle then we find that the larger a multicellular organisms become the more diversity and differentiated specialisms there are within the organism. This is an important feature of the biological system (compared to the non-living) which is affected by both the physiochemical laws and also by a genetic program. Explain means to give a detailed account of causes. Therefore a muscle cell will express muscle genes but not those genes which are for nerve cells. (Adam Smith) a rough guide which is found to hold true in living systems. Biological systems need a different approached. These properties emerge from the interaction of the ‘parts’ of the system. Consequently the deterministic laws and theories of the physical sciences do not apply to all aspects of biological systems. Theory reduction is the concept that theories and laws in one science field are simply special cases of theories which are to be found in the physical sciences.

This study area in biology has been developing very fast in recent time.  What is the benefit of differentiation and specialisation of tissues rather than all tissues carrying out all functions? In a multi cellular organism specialisation is more efficient than the generalised plan when competing for a specific resource. The new discipline is called evolutionary developmental biology or 'Evo-devo'. Outline means to give a brief account or summary.9 State that stem cells retain the capacity to divide and have the ability to differentiate along different pathways(1). value or other brief answer without explanation or calculation. In the xylem water can be moved very efficiently from underground to the canopy of the highest trees at very little cost to the plant.  A stem cell is able to divide but has not yet expressed genes to specialise to a particular function. Even the placenta can be a useful source of stem cells.1. 4. 2.(2005). If there is no specialised tissue for carrying water then the plant would rely on the movement of water by mass flow of diffusion which is very slow. Under the right conditions stem cells can be induced to express particular genes and differentiate into a particular type of cell.  A stem cell retains the capacity to divide and has the ability to differentiate along different pathways.1. . Adults still posses stem cells in some organs but much less so than a child. 3. Endless forms Most beautiful. Some of the discoveries about why some embryonic cells become nerves. The following text is a great introduction to what will become one of the most important aspects of biology for this new century Carrol. State:means to give a specific name. The plant is therefore limited in size and therefore cannot compete with larger species.  Stem cells can be obtained from a variety of different places including the blastocyte.New York:Norton 2. S. muscles or blood cells has led to new ideas about the evolution of life.10 Outline one therapeutic use of stem cells (2). 2. In higher plants we have specialisation to for a tubular system called the xylem. The study of how animal cells become specialised is called embryology. This is more efficient way of water transport than simply been passed by the mass movement of water from cell to cell. Consider the role of water transport through the plant: 1.

Blood is filtered for the presence of peripheral stem cells. 3. including stem cells. These stem cells can be used to treat the individual without generating an immune response. 7. These ES cells could be used to treat the individual without encountering resistance from his or her immune system.1. Post radiation/ chemotherapy means that the patients health blood tissues is also destroyed by the treatment. 1. This is because. ES cells can be harvested from the blastocyst and grown in culture. Therapeutic cloning . This is a method of obtaining ES cells from someone who has already been born. The following information provides an introduction to these technologies. In time however the cancerous cells adapt to this treatment so that radiation and chemotherapy are often used together. 6. Cells in the general circulation that can still differentiate into different types of blood cell otherwise known as stem cells. Chemotherapy supplies toxic drugs to kill the cancerous cells. which has not happened in this case. 5. ¨ . The process of therapeutic cloning is shown in this diagram. It begins by taking a somatic (body) cell from the individual. Health stem cells or marrow cells can be transplanted back to produce blood cells again You may wish to think about more elaborate forms of stem cell therapy. Bone marrow can be removed before treatment. 2.Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma is a cancerous disease of the lymphatic system. technically speaking. 3. The new cell behaves like a fertilized egg and develops into a blastocyst. This is a serious barrier to stem cell therapy. 2. an embryo is the result of the union of an egg and a sperm. 4. Radiation can be used to kill the cancerous cells. Notice that we do not not refer to this type of blastocyst as an embryo. The somatic cell is fused with an egg that has had its nucleus removed. Embryonic Stem cell therapy this animation is an excellent introduction to the use of embryonic stem cell for therapies. The resulting cell is genetically identical to the individual because it contains the DNA from the individual’s somatic cell. patient requires heavy does of radiation and or chemotherapy. Outline of the disease. The human body recognizes and attacks foreign cells. This will destroy health blood tissue as well as the diseased tissue.

7. 10.1. The nucleus from the patients cell is transferred to the enucleated cell body. The cells then stimulated to divide forming a clone. 9. The inner cell mass becomes a source of totipotent stem cells. The nucleus of the patients cell is removed and retained. The patient requires the replacement of some diseased tissue. 5. At the same time we require a human egg cell. The cell body itself is retained. . Totipotent means they are capable of being stimulated to become one of any type of cell. Cells are stimulated using differentiation factors to become the type of cell required for therapy. 8. In therapeutic cloning these cells have the same immune system identity as the patient therefore there is not immune rejection problem. Therapy would require the transfer of the new healthy cell to the patient. It is important that this technique is not confused with embryonic stem cell cultures or with reproductive cloning. First we obtain a health cell from the same patient. This is mainly as the cell retains the tendency to divide unlike the sample tissue from the patient. The cell body of the patients cell is discarded. 6. 2. The cell mass forms a blastocyst. The nucleus is removed from the egg and discarded. 3. 4.

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