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Date: Tuesday, November 1, 2011 Type of Class/Grade Level: Middle school/high school general music class Middle school/high

school music ensemble class Objectives: Students will be able to recognize the similarities and differences between repetition and sequence in a musical setting. Students will be able to identify repetition and sequence within the song Angels We Have Heard on High, in the key of F Major. Using a four-word phrase, students will have a clear and concise understanding of how repetition and sequence is used in a musical setting. Materials: Students will need both a pen/pencil and a blank sheet of paper for this lesson. Students will also need sheet music for Angels We Have Heard on High, which will be passed out toward the end of the lesson. Teacher will need lesson plan and sheet music for Angels We Have Heard on High. Sheet music should be SATB arrangement of song. Teacher will also need access to a piano. Opening Activity: Explain to students that today they will be learning about two of the most basic compositional techniques used by classical composers repetition and sequence. Have students write down a four-word phrase that explains an action and makes sense. Tell students to avoid using words such as the, an, and, of, with, etc. (ex. Cat chases brown yarn) If time allows, have some student volunteers read their phrase to the class.

Procedures: 1. Tell students to consider this four-word phrase as a four-bar phrase of music (or melody) throughout this lesson. Explain to students that the entire phrase (all four words) make up the four-bar melody. a. Explain that many classical music composers composed melodies that were often no longer than four bars. 2. Next, have students write their four-word phrase (or four-bar melody) five times. Tell them not to change any of the words. a. Ask students if anyone knows why you had them write the phrase five times. b. Explain to students that they now, more than likely, know their fourword phrase extremely well. c. Explain that classical composers wanted their melodies to be easily remembered. d. Explain that this technique is called repetition, and that it was a very popular technique used by the Classical Period composers. e. Explain to students that chances are, the popular music they listen to on the radio uses repetition as well. 3. Next, have students write down another four-word phrase using the same four words of their original phrase. Explain to students that this new phrase should still have the same meaning, or imply the same meaning, as their original phrase (ex. Brown yarn cat chases). a. Explain to students that this technique of changing the melody (phrase) is called sequence, and that it too was a very common and popular technique used by classical composers. b. Explain that a sequence (in music) is the repetition of a pattern at a higher or lower pitch basically the music is just slightly changed, just as we just slightly changed our words from the original phrase. c. For just a minute or two, have students write down as many different sequences as they can, reiterating that its important that the phrase still imply the same meaning as their original phrase. d. If time allows, have some volunteers read some of their sequences to the class. 4. Finally, hand out sheet music to Angels We Have Heard on High to class. Have students sing the melody together, while teacher plays accompaniment on piano. Only sing verse one and the refrain. a. After done singing, ask students if they could hear repetition/sequence within the music. b. Point out that each line (SATB) of the refrain is a sequence each part is repeated down a step. c. Play each individual line, exaggerating the sequences. d. Have students sing refrain again, if time allows.

Closure: Reiterate that repetition and sequence were extremely popular techniques used by classical composers. Mention, again, that both repetition and sequence are used in almost any music you listen to, including todays popular music on the radio. Assessment: Teacher will know whether learning is occurring by calling on students to answer questions and by entire class participation. Additionally, students could perform this lesson in groups, creating an automatic peer evaluation scenario.