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You are on page 1of 60

UNIVERSITY LIBRARY

THE

METHOD

OF ARCHIMEDES

EDITED BY

Sir

THOMAS

K.C.B.,

L.

HEATH,

F.R.S.

Sc.D.,

Cambridge

at

1912

PRICE

S'_NET 5'-

QA

31.A67D5 1912

THE

METHOD

OF ARCHIMEDES

C. F.

CLAY, Managek

CElinliurai)

100,

PEINCES STREET

Berlin:

iLcifjjis

A.

PUTNAM'S SONS

CO., Ltd.

ileto

gotk: G. P.

JSomiBE

anil Carcufta:

MACMILLAN AND

THE

METHOD OF ARCHIMEDES

RECENTLY DISCOVERED BY HEIBERG

EDITED BY

Sir

THOMAS

L.

HEATH,

F.R.S.

K.C.B., ScD-.,

Cambridge

at

1912

QA

31

am6rtl)ge

AT THE UNIVERSITY PRESS

39j9:^:;^t

3Sd

Y

J.

'(^

'''^.

'i^OA-^

UUvc^

lolsh^ ^/>c

LI/>*\.

INTRODUCTORY NOTE

From the point of view of the student of Greek mathematics there has been, in recent years, no event comparable in interest

with the discovery by Heiberg in 1906 of a Greek MS. containing, among other works of Archimedes, substantially the whole of a treatise which was formerly thought to be irretrievably lost.

The

full description of

the

MS.

i.

now

in

Codex

rescriptus

Metochii

Constantinopolitani

S.

Sepulchri

to a notice in Vol.

iv.

Heiberg has told the story of his discovery of this MS. and His attention having been called

(1899) of the

'Upoao\viJi,iTiKri Pt^XioOTjKr)

of

Papadopulos Kerameus relating to a palimpsest of mathematical content, he at once inferred from a few specimen lines which were

quoted that the MS. must contain something by Archimedes.

the result of inspection, at Constantinople, of the MS.

itself,

As

and by means of a photograph taken of it, he was able to see what it contained and to decipher much of the contents. This was in the With year 1906, and he inspected the MS. once more in 1908. the exception of the last leaves, 178 to 185, which are of paper of the 16th century, the MS. is of parchment and contains writings of Archimedes copied in a good hand of the 10th century, in two

columns.

success) to

An

attempt was made (fortunately with only partial wash out the old writing,- and then the parchment was

used again, for the purpose of writing a Euchologion thereon, in the 12th 13th or 13th 14th centuries. The earlier writing appears

on most of the 177 leaves; only 29 any trace of such writing; from 9 more it was hopelessly washed off; on a few more leaves only a few words can be made out and again some 1 i leaves have old writing

with more or

less

clearness

INTRODUCTORY NOTE

different

upon them in a

All the rest

is

Archimedes which are found in other MSS., the new MS. contains, in great part, the books On the Sphere and Cylinder, almost the whole of the work On Spirals, and some parts of th.Q Measurement of a Circle and of the books On the Equilibrium

Of the

treatises of

of Planes.

But the important fact is that it contains (1) a conwork On Floating Bodies which was

is

concerned

and only to have survived in the translation by Wilhelm von Morbeke, and (2), most precious of all, the greater part of the book called, according to its own heading, 'E^oSos and elsewhere, The portion alternatively, 'E(^d8iov or 'E^oSikoV, meaning Method.

of this latter -work contained in the

by Heiberg (1) in Greek* and (2) in a German translation with commentary by Zeuthenf. The treatise was formerly only known by an allusion to it in Suidas, who says that Theodosius wrote a commentary upon it but the Metrica of Heron, newly discovered by R. Schone and published in 1903, quotes three propositions from itj, including the two main propositions enunciated by Archimedes at the beginning as theorems novel in character which the method furnished a means of investigating. Lastly the MS. contains two short propositions, in addition to the preface, of a work called Stomachion (as it might be "Neck-Spiel" or " Qual-Geist ") which treated of a sort of Chinese puzzle known afterwards by the name it thus turns out that this puzzle, which of " loculus Archimedius Heiberg was formerly disinclined to attribute to Archimedes , is

;

'' ;

really genuine.

The Method,

works

their

so happily recovered,

is

Nothing

is

more

more

tantalising,

than

way to the discovery of their great theorems. As they have come down to us, these theorems are finished masterpieces which leave no traces of any rough-hewn stage, no hint of the method by which they were evolved. We cannot but suppose that the

*

Hermes

243297.

t Bibliotheca Mathematica VII3, 1906-7, pp. 321 863. t Heronis Alexandrini opera, Vol. in. 1903, pp. 80, 17 Yide The Works of Archimedes, p. xxii.

130, 15

130, 25.

INTRODUCTORY NOTE

Greeks had some method or methods of analysis hardly less powerful than those of modern analysis ; yet, in general, they seem to have

taken pains

the

litter, so

to clear

away

all traces of

all

and with

obtained.

definitive

and rigorously

scientific

proofs, the

results

A partial exception is

it

now

veil,

of

tells

Archimedes' workshop as

werp.

He

us

how he

discovered

and cubature, and he is at the same on the difference between (1) the means which

may

furnishing scientific proofs of them, and (2) the rigorous demonstrations of them by irrefragable geometrical methods which must follow

before they can be finally accepted as established

;

to use Archi-

medes'

own

{Oewpeiv)

distinctly said to

The mechanical

be incapable of

the discovery of theorems

furnishing proofs of them

;

is

and Archimedes promises to add, as regards the two main theorems enunciated at the beginning, the necessary supplement in the shape of the formal geometrical proof. One of the two geometrical proofs is lost, but fragments of the other are contained in the MS. which are sufficient to show that the method was the orthodox method of exhaustion in the form in which Archimedes applies it elsewhere, and to enable the proof to

be reconstructed.

The

itself

;

but the essential features of the mechanical Archimedes are these. Suppose to be a method employed by the area or content of which has to be found. plane or solid figure,

has been read

The method

is

X (with or without

the addition of the corresponding elements of another figure C) against the corresponding elements of a figure B, B and C being

such figures that their areas or volumes, and the position of the For this purpose centre of gravity of B, are known beforehand.

the figures are

first

;

common

if

then

the infinitesimal elements are sections of the figures made by parallel planes perpendicular (in general) to the axis and cutting the figures,

INTRODUCTORY NOTE

all the elements lie at one point or other on the common diameter or axis. This diameter or axis is produced and is imagined to be the bar or lever of a balance. It is sufficient alone are weighed to take the simple case where the elements of

any one plane perpendicular (in general) to the diameter or axis and cutting both figures; the elements are spoken of as straight

lines in the case of plane figurea

solid figures.

and as plane areas in the case of Although Archimedes calls the elements straight lines

indefinitely

and plane areas respectively, they are of course, in the first case, narrow strips (areas) and, in the second case, indefinitely

;

{dx, as

it is

we might

call it)

divides

finite,

out.

The number

are

he merely says

respectively,

that

i.e.

X and B

made up

them

and

The

object of Archimedes

is

are

all

trives therefore to

first

position

instance.

He

con-

and to

the elements of

move the elements of away from their first concentrate them at one point on the lever, while B are left where they are, and so operate at their

Since the centre of gravity of

as

known, as well as its area or volume, it may then be supposed to act as one mass applied at its centre of gravity ; and consequently, taking the whole bodies and B as ultimately placed

a whole

is

respectively,

we know the

distances of the

two centres

of gravity

from the fulcrum or point of suspension of the lever, and also the area or volume of B. Hence the area or volume of is found.

hand

problem of finding

is

;

X when

its

area or volume

known

before-

X, and

therefore

itself,

INTRODUCTORY NOTE

not X.

The method

will

be seen to

be,

device for avoiding the particular integration which would naturally

the solution depend, instead, upon another integration the result of

which

is

already known.

i.e.

ele-

ments

Volume into the distances between the point of suspension of the lever and the centres of gravity of the elements

of area or

respectively

and, as

we

said

all

in their final position.

the elements of

He

sum

of the

moments

it is

acting at

figure applied as

placed

is

equal to the

its

moment

dx,

of the

whole

length

centre of gravity.

.

or area of a section of

is it

u being the

X by one of

axis of the

cutting the lever at right angles, x being measured along the lever

(which

is

the

common

two

figures)

is

to be placed

This element

then supposed

on the lever at a constant distance, say a, from the If v! dx is the cororigin and on the opposite side of it from B. responding element of B cut off by the same plane and x its distance from the origin, Archimedes' argument establishes the equation

.

rk

rk

udx =

is

xu'dx.

Jh

Jh

Now

known because

it

the figure

(say a

is

or a cylinder)

known, and

is

one mass at

is

its

also

known

the integral

from

of B.

is

Hence

the area or volume of

X= a

C

against corresponding

of

10

elements of B,

or content,

INTRODUCTOEY NOTE

we

have,

if

its

area

udx + a

h

vdx=

xu'dx

Jh

Jh

and

(area or volume oi

X + V)a = hU.

is

always

= 0, and h

is often,

a.

Our admiration

perusal of the

if

mathematician of

by a Mathematicians will doubtless agree that it is astounding that Archimedes, writing (say) about 250 B.C., should have been able to solve such problems as those of

antiquity must surely be increased,

work before

us.

sphere,

any segment of a and the centre of gravity of a semicircle, by a method so simple, a method too (be it observed) which would be quite rigorous enough for us to-day, although it did not satisfy Archimedes himself.

Apart from the mathematical content of the book,

teresting, not only for

it is

in-

a cone are one-third of the volumes of a prism and a cylinder

respectively which have the

These

and

It

eflFect*.

now

first

to prove

them

scientifically,

first

I have

elsewhere t

made a suggestion as to the probable course of Democritus' argument, which, on Archimedes' view, did not amount to a proof

of the propositions ;

but

it

may be

well to re-state

it here.

Plutarch,

in a well-known passage J, speaks of Democritus as having raised the " if a cone were following question in natural philosophy (<^i;o-ik(us)

:

is

clearly

meant a

of the

surfaces of the sections

?

we think

Are they equal or unequal ? For, if they are unequal, they will make the cone irregular, as having many indentations, like steps, and unevennesses but, if they are equal, the sections will be equal, and the cone will appear to have the property of the cylinder and to be made up of equal, not unequal,

;

On

the Sphere

Not. adv. Stoicos xxxix.

i.

J Plutarch,

Be Comm.

3.

INTRODQCTOEY NOTE

circles,

11

of equal...

which

is

very absurd,"

gether

of a solid

If then

we may make

a conjecture as to Democritus' argument with regard to a pyramid, it seems probable that he would notice that, if two pyramids of the

same height and with equal triangular bases are respectively cut by

planes parallel to the base and dividing the heights in the same the corresponding sections of the two pyramids are equal, whence he would infer that the pyramids are equal because they are the sums of the same infinite numbers of equal plane sections or indefinitely thin laminae. (This would be a particular antiratio,

of

two

if

two

sections of

be,

may

and

of

Democritus would of course which a prism on the same base equal height with the original pyramid is divided (as in

7) satisfy, in

pairs,

And

Eucl.

XII.

this

test of

pyramid would be one third part of the prism. a pyramid with a polygonal base would be easy.

The extension

to

And

Democritus

may have

an

indefinitely the

number

base of a pyramid.

I have

In accordance with the plan adopted in The Works of Archimedes, marked by inverted commas the passages which, on account

have translated

is

literally

reproduced in

(in his

Words and

sentences in square

German

translation) of

to

have been

MS.

is illegible;

in a few cases

the deficiency

is

what the

how

may

be made good.

T.

L.

H.

June 1912.

"Archimedes

I sent

to Eratosthenes greeting.

you on a former occasion some of the theorems discovered by me, merely writing out the enunciations and inviting you to discover the proofs, which at the moment The enunciations of the theorems which I I did not give.

sent were as follows.

1.

If in

inscribed

cylinder be

which has

its

its

bases in

the opposite

parallelograms*, and

on the remaining planes (faces) of the prism, and if through the centre of the circle which is the base of the cylinder and

sides

[i.e.

four generators]

it

is

will

bounded by two planes and the surface of the cylinder, one of the two planes being the plane which has been drawn and the other the plane in which the base of the cylinder is, and the surface being that which is between the said planes and the segment cut off from the cylinder is one sixth part of the whole prism.

the cylinder a segment which

;

2.

If in a

if

its

its

surface

there also

its

(faces),

its

surface

is

by the

is

Now

*

;

commu-

nicated before

for

we compared

t

i.e.

The parallelograms

squares.

THE METHOD

13

solid figure

planes and surfaces of cylinders

is

The

proofs then

to you.

say,

an earnest student,

man

fit

[of

and explain in

you same book the peculiarity of a certain method, by which it will be possible for you to get a start to enable you to investigate some of the problems in mathematics by means of mechanics. This procedure is, I am persuaded, no less useful even for the proof of the theorems for certain things first became clear to me by a themselves mechanical method, although they had to be demonstrated by geometry afterwards because their investigation by the said method did not furnish an actual demonstration. But it is of course easier, when we have previously acquired, by the method,

mathematical inquiry], I thought

detail in the

it is to find it without

This

is

reason why, in the case of the theorems the proof of which Eudoxus was the first to discover, namely that the cone is

a third part of the cylinder, and the pyramid of the prism, having the same base and equal height, we should give no

small share of the credit to Democritus who was the first to make the assertion with regard to the said figure* though

first

it.

am

made

it

now

to

be published

[by the method indicated], and I deem the method partly because I have already spoken of itf and I do not want to be thought to have uttered vain words, but

vepl ToO elfnin^vou ax-flliaros, in the singular.

necessary to expound

Possibly Archimedes

may

and as have thought of the case of the pyramid as being the more fundamental Or perhaps "figure" may be intended for really involving that of the cone. " type

of figure."

14

equally because I

ARCHIMEDES

am

persuaded that

it

will

be of no

little

successors, will,

my

contemporaries or of

my

by means of the

First

established,

then I will set out the very

to

first

theorem which

became known

me by means

is

theorems investi-

height,

and

[I

1.

is

of

gravity of

line

the remainder

of the whole magnitude and of the subtracted part in the direction of the centre of gravity of the whole] and cutting off fi-om it a length which has to the distance between the said centres of gra\'ity the ratio which the weight of the subtracted magnitude has to the weight of the remainder. [On the Equilibrium of Planes, I. 8]

straight

number of magnitudes whatever be on the same straight line, the centre of gravity of the magnitude made up of all of them will be on the same

2.

straight line.

3.

[Cf Ibid.

of gravity of

i.

5]

The centre

any straight

4.

[Cf Ibid.

is

i.

4]

The

lines

the point in

one another.

5.

[Ihid.

is

i.

13, 14]

The

the point

i.

in

[Ihid.

10]

THE METHOD

6.

15

is

The centre

of gravity of a circle

is

7.

The The

is

the point of

8.

is

is]

triple [of the portion adjacent to the base].

[Besides

is

easily

proved

If in two series of magnitudes those of the

first series are,

and further] some of them, are in any ratio whatever [to those of a third series], and if the magnitudes of the second series are in the same ratio to the

the magnitudes [of the

first series],

either

all

or

of the magnitudes of the

first series

series],

then the

sum

has to the

sum

ratio

of the

same

which

the

sum

sum

series.

Proposition

Let

ABG

straight line

AC

be a segment of a parabola bounded by the and the parabola ABC, and let D be the

Draw

BBE

parallel

Then

shall the

segment

ABC

be | of the triangle

ABC.

From

draw

AKF

parallel to

BE, and

let

the tangent

to the parabola at

C meet BBE

CB

to

meet

AF

in

KH equal to CK.

* The problem of finding the centre of gravity of a cone is not solved in any extant work of Archimedes. It may ha.ye been solved either in a separate treatise, such as the irepl ivywv, which is lost, or perhaps in a larger mechanical work of which the extant books On the Equilibrium of Planes formed only a part.

16

Consider

point.

ARCHIMEDES

GH

K being

its

middle

Let

OF,

MO be any straight line parallel to ED, and let it meet GK, AG in M,N,0 and the curve in P.

since

Now,

GE

is

GD

the

semi-ordinate,

EB = BD;

" for this is

Since

FA,

MO

are parallel to

EB,

it

follows that

FK^KA, MN=NO.

Now, by the property

of the parabola, " proved in a lemma,"

MO:OP=GA:AO = GK KN

:

[Eucl. VI. 2]

= HK:KN.

Take a

straight line

TG

it

with

its

centre of gravity at

H,

so that

TH = HO

MO,

then, since

is

the

and

*

i.e.

the works on conies by Ariataeus

expression in

On Conoids and

Spheroids, Prop. 3,

Prop.

3.

THE METHOD

it

17

will

follows that

TG

at

about K.

and [On

MO

the

at

be in equilibrium

i.

Equilibrium of Planes,

6, 7]

Similarly, for all other straight lines parallel to DE and meeting the arc of the parabola, (1) the portion intercepted between FC, AC with its middle point on KG and (2) a length equal to the intercept between the curve and AG placed with its centre of gravity at will be in equilibrium

about K.

Therefore

is

MO intercepted between

AG.

of all the parallel

FG,

all

AG and

H

is

as

PO

lines like

GFA

made up

MO,

GBA

is

made up

PO

it

where

it is

in the figure,

is

in equilibrium about

H.

so that

placed with

its

centre of gravity at

Divide

KG at W

GK=SKW;

A GF

;

then

is

is

Therefore

i.

15]

Therefore

But

Therefore

AACF: (segment ABC) = HK KW = 3:1. segment ABG=^AAGF. AAGF=4>AABG. segment ABG = ^AABG.

:

"Now

is

sort

of indication that the conclusion

is

true.

the

theorem

H. A.

is

not

same time

2

18

aechimp:des

have recourse which I myself discovered

shall

to the geometrical demortstration

we

Proposition 2.

(1)

Any

of

the sphere

and

height equal to

(2)

its

radius; and

a great

circle

of the

(1)

Let

ABCD be

a great

circle of

BD

Let a

circle

be drawn about

BB as

Let the surface of this cone be produced and then cut by a plane through G parallel to its base the section will be a circle on EF as diameter. On this circle as base let a cylinder be erected with height and axis AG, and produce GA to U, making equal to GA.

as vertex.

;

be described with

AH

Let

CH

being

its

middle point.

Draw any

straight

line

MN

Let

ABGD

and

parallel to

BD.

the diameter

respectively.

*

AG in

S,

MN

Join AO.

yeaiierpoviiirriv dirdSei^ii' in the

is

Heiberg translates as

Greek text

is

rd^ofiev,

if Td^o/iev

certainly difficult to

translate.

meant "we

down"

or "later on," but I agree with Th. Beinach {Revite gengrale des sciences puree

et appliquges, 30 November 1907, p. 918) that it is questionable whether Archimedes would really have written out in full once more, as an appendix, a proof which, as he says, had already been published (i.e. presumably in the

Quadrature of a Parabola).

Td^o/iev, if correct,

should apparently

mean "we

THE METHOD

Through

19

diameter

MN,

circle

since

Now,

= A0' = OS' + SQ'-

20

with the

ARCHIMEDES

circle in the cone, if

made by a and passing through any other plane perpendicular to straight line in the parallelogram LF parallel to EF.

Similarly for the three corresponding sections

AG

If

we

deal in the

all

circles

AG

those solids respecit is, will

tively, it follows that

make up

be in equilibrium about

H.

the centre of gravity of the cylinder,

:

when both

Therefore, since

is

HA

therefore

J.ir = (cylinder)

(sphere

+ cone AEF).

ButHA=2AK;

Now

therefore

= 2 (sphere + cone AEF). cylinder = 3 (cone AEF) [Eucl. cone AEF = 2 (sphere).

cylinder

;

xii. 10]

But, since

EF=2BI>,

cone

therefore

(2)

= 4 (cone ABB).

draw

sphere

Through B,

VBW,

AG

for axis

on VX,

and the

circles

cylinder

Then

FF= 2 (cylinder

VD)

[Eucl. xii. 10]

"From

this theorem, to the

above.

Q.E.D.

effect that a sphere is four times as great as the cone with a great circle of the sphere as base and with height equal to the radius of the sphere, I conceived the notion that the surface of any sphere is four times as

it; for, judging from the fact that any equal to a triangle with base equal to the circumference and height equal to the radius of the circle, I apprehended

circle is

THE METHOD

that, in like

21

manner, any sphere is equal to a cone with base equal to the surface of the sphere and height equal to the

radius*."

Proposition 3.

By

this

method we can

to

theorem that

the axis of the spheroid is

spheroid;

and,

1\ times

the

when

he cut by

If any spheroid

cone which has the

{i.e.

a plane through

the centre

and

at

right angles to the axis, the half of the spheroid is double of the

same

base

and

the

same axis as

the segment

the half

of

the spheroid).

Let a plane through the axis of a spheroid cut its surface in the ellipse ABGD, the diameters (i.e. axes) of which are AG, BD and let be the centre.

;

Draw a

circle

about

BD

as diameter

and

in a plane per-

pendicular to

AG;

imagine a cone with this circle as base and A as vertex produced and cut by a plane through G parallel to its base

the section will be a circle in a plane at right angles to

AG

and about

EF

as diameter.

latter circle as base

AG;

and axis

being

AH equal to

GA.

Let

HG

of a balance,

its

middle point.

In the parallelogram

parallel to

LF

EF meeting the

to say,

ellipse in 0,

MN

in

Q, R,

*

8 respectively.

is

That

Archimedes originally solved the problem of finding the and he inferred the

Gyliixder

i.

the surface

is

problem from that of the former. Yet in On the Sphere and is independently found (Prop. 33) and before the

:

volume, which

order of

found in Prop. 34

another illustration of the fact that the the Greek geometers as finally

22

If

ARCHIMEDES

MN

a.t

right angles to

AC,

it will

MN,

the

spheroid in a circle

in a circle

Since

HA = AC,

HA:AS=CA AS =EA:AQ

:

= M8:SQ.

Therefore

HA:AS = MS" MS

:

SQ.

THE METHOD

That

is,

23

is

(circle in

spheroid

+ circle in cone).

it is,

in equilibrium, about A, with the circle in the spheroid

if

and

circles are

Similarly for the three corresponding sections

plane perpendicular to

straight line

made by a and passing through any other in the parallelogram LF parallel to EF.

AG

in

If we deal in the same way with all the sets of three circles which planes perpendicular to AG cut the cylinder, the spheroid and the cone, and which make up those figures

it

respectively,

is,

where

it

will

be

in equilibrium

about

their centres

cone together,

gravity at

when both

of

H.

Therefore, since

:

is

:

therefore

(spheroid

+ cone AEF).

cylinder = 2 (spheroid

cylinder = 3 (cone

+ cone AEF).

;

And

therefore

AEF)

cone

AEF = 2 (spheroid).

;

But, since

therefore

and

Through B,

and on VX,

D draw VBW, Zi)F parallel to AG; imagine a cylinder which has AG for axis and the

circles

cylinder

Then

VY= 2

(cylinder

VD)

above.

Q.E.D.

24

ARCHIMEDES

Proposition 4.

Any

\\ times

the cone

segment of a right-angled conoid (i.e. a paraboloid of a plane at right angles to the axis is

as the segment.

the axis in the parabola

BAG;

and

be cut by another plane at right angles to the and intersecting the former plane in BG. Produce BA, the axis of the segment, to H, making HA equal to AD.

let it also

axis

Imagine that

middle point.

HD

is

being

its

The base of the segment being the and in a plane perpendicular to AD,

circle

on

BG as

diameter

imagine (1) a cone drawn with the latter circle as base and A as vertex, and (2) a cylinder with the same circle as base and

AD as axis.

In the parallelogram

parallel to

EG let

any straight

let

line

MN

MN be drawn

angles to

AD

diameter

MN and the

THE METHOD

Now,

25

or

HA A8 = MS'

:

80\

OS)

Therefore

:

(circle, rad.

:

= (circle

will

if

in cylinder)

(circle in paraboloid).

it is,

be

in equilibrium,

is

its

circle in

the paraboloid,

the latter

placed with

centre of gravity at H.

made

by a plane perpendicular

Therefore, as usual,

to

is

if

parallel to

BC.

we take

all

whole cylinder and the whole segment and treat them in the

same way, we

is

where

it is,

in equilibrium about

its

centre of gravity at

If

H.

is

AD,

K

:

is

of the cylinder

therefore

HA AK= (cylinder)

:

(segment).

Therefore

cylinder = 2 (segment).

And

therefore

=3 segment = f

cylinder

(cone

(cone

^50); ABC).

Proposition 5.

{i.e.

The centre of gravity of a segment of a right-angled conoid a paraboloid of revolution) cut off by a plane at right angles

on the straight line which

is the

to the aods is

that the portion

and

to the vertex is

way

of it adjacent

the axis in the parabola

BAG;

in

and

axis

let it also

BG.

26

ARCHIMEDES

Produce

BA,

H, making

HA

its

equal to

AD;

and imagine

DH

to

The base of the segment being the and in a plane perpendicular to AD,

imagine a cone with this

circle as

circle

on

BG as

diameter

base and

as vertex, so that

AB,

AG are

let

In the parabola

OP

be drawn

AG

in Q, 8,

respectively.

of the parabola.

THE METHOD

If

27

now through

OP

a,

AD,

diameter

OP

circle

We

HA

and the

(circle,

:

diam.

QR)

it is, is

= (circle

circle in

in paraboloid)

(circle in cone);,

in

its

equilibrium about

with the

circle in the

centre of gravity at H.

Similarly for the two corresponding circular sections made by a plane perpendicular to AD and passing through any other

ordinate of the parabola.

Dealing therefore in the same way with all the circular make up the whole of the segment of the paraboloid and the cone respectively, we see that the segment

sections which

it

is,

is

in equilibrium

about

since

its

centre of gravity at H.

A is the centre of gravity of the whole system and the centre of gravity of part of it, namely the cone, as placed, is at H, the centre of gravity of the rest, namely the segment, is at a point on HA produced such

Now,

as placed,

that

HA AK = (segment)

:

(cone).

But

Therefore

that

is,

segment

= | (cone).

[Prop. 4]

HA=^AK;

Proposition 6.

The centre of gravity of any hemisphere [is on line which] is its oasis, and divides the said straight

the straight

line in such

a way

to 3.

to the

it

hemisphere has

circle

its

centre in the

ABGD;

28

let

ARCHIMEDES

AG,

BD

circle,

and through

BD

let

AG.

The

on

and

BD as

A

as

diameter.

vertex.

Produce

GA

to

H, making

A

being

its

middle point.

straight line

In the semicircle BAD, let any OP be drawn parallel to and the two and cutting AG \n BD

generators

AB,

AD of

let

the cone in Q,

respectively.

Join

AO.

a plane be drawn

Through

OP

at right angles to

AG;

hemisphere in a

circle

with diameter

OP

Now

RA:AE = AG:AE

= AO^:AE' = {OE'+AE'):AE' = {OE'+QE'):QE' = (circle, diam. OP + circle, diam. QR)

where they

diameter

a,tH.

are, are in

ii

(circle, diam.

QR).

equilibrium about

is

with the

its

circle

with

QR

the latter

placed with

centre of gravity

diameters OP,

is

And, since the centre of gravity of the two circles with QR taken together, in the place where they are,

[There

a lacuna here

is

in Prop.

8.

We

are, balance,

about A,

THE METHOD

the circle with diameter

at

29

its

QR

placed with

centre of gravity

H.

sections

all

points on

AO

fill

up the hemisphere

ABD respectively, we find that the hemisphere BAD and the cone ABD, in the places where they are, together balance, about A, a cone equal to ABD placed

BAD and

the cone

with

its

centre of gravity at H.

its

gravity at

in the places

M+N placed with centre of H balances the hemisphere BAD and the cone ABD

where they

are,

centre of gravity at

place where

it is;

M of

its

ABD

(alone) in the

is

in the place

at a point

where

it is.

Now

V such

that^G' = 4GF;

therefore, since

M at

:

fi" is

:

M

whence

(cone)

= fJ.G

HA=iAC

i\/"

AG,

Jlf=|(cone).

= |(cone).

Now

which

is

let

somewhere on AO.

Then, since

(hemisphere)

:

N = HA AW.

:

But the hemisphere BAD = tviice the cone ABD; [On the Sphere and Cylinder I. 34 and Prop.

and iV=f (cone), from above.

Therefore

2 above]

2:i = EA -.AW

= 2AG:AW,

whence

AW: WG = 5:3.]

30

ARCHIMEDES

Proposition 7.

We

that

[Any segment of a sphere has] to the cone [with the same base and height the ratio which the sum. of the radius of the sphere and the height of the complementary segment has to

the height of the

complementary segment]

all

is

[There

is

that

is

missing

is

the

construction,

easily

understood

by

THE METHOD

equilibrium about

31

QB

if

of

all sets

their centres

of gravity at

H.

of three circles

cone with the

common

AG.

height

AO

perpendicular to

tively, it follows that

is

make up

the whole segment of the sphere and the whole cone respec-

it

is,

in equilibrium about

A

if

with the

sum

of the segment of

of gravity at

H.

Divide

AO at

W,

F in such

way that

AW=WO, AV=3VG.

Therefore

will

and

V will

:

BAD of

sphere)

=

[The rest of the proof

thus.

HA

;

-.AW.

can easily be suppHed

is lost

but

it

We

(cone

have

:

(cylinder)

:

(cylinder)

But

Therefore,

(cone

. :

eoc

aequali,

(cone

AEF +

whence

(segmt.

(cone

Again

AEF) = AW AG ^AG^= ^AG:iAG. BAD) (cone AEF) = {^AG - ^ AG) ^AG. AEF) (cone ABD) = EG' DG' = AG"-:AG.GG = AG:GG = ^AG:WG.

: : :

:

32

Therefore, ex aequali,

ARCHIMEDES

(segment

BAD)

(cone

Q.E.D.J

Proposition 8.

[The enunciation, the setting-out, and a few words of the

construction are missing.

Prop.

The enunciation however can be supplied from that of 9, with which it must be identical except that it cannot

any segment," and the presumption therefore

only,

i.e.

refer to "

is

that

segment

either a

the case

of a segment

greater than a hemisphere.

The

out

Produce

self-

HA

and

equal to

be regarded as the

let

HG

being A.

off

the

segment describe a circle with G as centre and radius (GE) equal to AG; and on this circle as base, and with A as vertex, let

a cone be described.

AE,

AF

point

cutting the segment in K, L, and

Q AE,

on AG, parallel to

EF and

AF in E, P respectively.

Join

AK.

THE METHOD

33

Now

HA:AQ = GA: AQ

= AK':AQ^ = (KQ' + QA'):QA'

(circle,

:

diam.

KL + circle,

H;

diam.

PR)

(circle,

diam. PR).

circle

Imagine a

placed with

its

circle

equal to the

with diameter

PR

centre of gravity at

KL, PR,

circle

they

are,

with the

with

diameter

PR

placed with

its

centre of gravity at H.

made by

Therefore, taking

all

to

AG.

make up

respec-

the segment

tively,

ABD

of the sphere

AEF

segment ABD of the sphere and the cone AEF, in the places where they are, are in equilibrium with the cone ^^^^ assumed to be placed with its centre of gravity at H.

we

has

Let the cylinder If he equal to the cone A for vertex and the circle on EF as diameter

Divide

M+

AEF

which

for base.

therefore

this has

the cone

AEF;

"for

the axis in such a

its

centre

way that the cylinder (alone), placed with of gravity at H, is in equilibrium with the cone AEF.

suspended at

H

is

perpendicular to

Since

M+N

ABB of

are,

segment

AEF

in the places

where they

while M, also at H,

the place where

iV"

is

follows that

AEF

in

it is, it

at

-Ef is

it is.

segment

ABD

of the

* Cf. note

on

p.

15 above.

H. A.

34

ARCHIMEDES

Now

(s>;giii..Dt

ABD of

sphere)

(cone

:

ABB)

= OG GC;

" for this is already

II.

proved "

[Cf,

On

And

(cone

ABD) (cone AEF) = (circle, diam. BD) = BL' EF' = BG^:GE= CG GA GA' = CG GA.

: :

.

(circle,

diam.

EF)

Therefore, ex aequali,

(segment

ABD of

sphere)

(cone

:

AEF)

= OG GA.

Take a point

{GA + 2GG).

(4(?(7

We

:

+ GA),

and, cotnpojiendo,

GA .AW={QGC + 2GA):{iGG+GA).

But

and

GO = i (6GG + 2GA),

:

[for

:

and, alternately and inversely,

CV,

It follows,

(segment

ABD of

sphere)

(cone

AEF) = GV WA.

:

Now,

is

M with

its

centre of gravity at

in equilibrium about

A

:

AEF with

its

centre

of gravity at V.

(cone

AEF)

(cylinder

M) = HA:AV = GA:AV;

cylinder

and,

since

the cone

AEF = the.

M)

:

M+N,

we

have,

(cylinder (cylinder jy^

= AV:CV.

THE METHOD

Hence, componendo,

(cone

35

AEF)

(cylinder

N)=GA:GV*

= HA:CV.

AEF) = GV WA;

:

But

it

(segment

ABD of ABD

sphere)

(cone

therefore, ex aequali,

(segment

of sphere)

(cylinder

N) = HA A W.

:

And

where

it

at

is

in equilibrium about

it is;

ABB,

in the place

therefore, since

is

is

ABD of

the sphere.

Proposition 9.

In the same way we can investigate the theorem that

straight line which is the axis of the segment, straight line in such

The centre of gravity of any segment of a sphere is on the and divides this

a way that

the

part of

it

adjacent

to the

vertex of the segment has to the remaining part the ratio which the sum of the axis of the segment and four times the axis of

the

to

the

segment and

[As this theorem relates to " any segment " but states the same result as that proved in the preceding proposition, it follows that Prop. 8 must have related to one kind of segment,

segment greater than a semicircle (as in Heiberg's figure of Prop. 8) or a segment less than a semicircle and

either a

;

the present proposition completed the proof for both kinds of segments. It would only require a slight change in the figure,

in

any

case.]

Proposition

1 0.

By

this

method

too

we can

[A segment of an obtuse-angled conoid {i.e. a hyperboloid of revolution) has to the cone which has] the same base [as the

*

Archimedes arrives

Of.

it

Euclid

x. 14.

32

36

iigffi.erd

ABCHMEDES

and equal height the same ratio ax the sum of the and itiree times'] tfte "annex to the axis" (i.e.

of

or, in

axis

of

the

the segment

half

hyperholoid

other

the

to

the

and

sum of

is

[this

segment and double of the " annex " * the theorem proved in On Conoids and Spheroids,

tJie

axis of

tfie

many

has been

made

clear

by means of the foregoing examples, I will I may now proceed to compass the proofe

Proposition

If

having

in

a right prism

xtnth

and touching with its four parallelogrammic faces, and if through the centre of the circle which is the base of the cylinder and one side of the opposite square faxx a plane be drawn, the figure cut off by the plane so drawn is one sixth part of the

its

whole prism.

is

"This can be investigated by the method, and, when it set out, I will go back to the proof of it by geometrical

[The investigation by the mechanical method

contained

considerations."

is

it contains no mechanics, is still of the character which Archimedes regards as inconclusive, since it assumes that the solid is actually made up of parallel plane sections and that an auxiliary parabola is actually made up of parallel straight

which, although

lines in

it.

as

stated.

The text has "triple" {Tpi-rrXturlan) in the last line instead of "double." As there is a considerable lacuna before the last few lines, a theorem about the

out.

may have

fallen

THE METHOD

37

38

ARCHIMEDES

IS

of the cylinder cut off in a parallelogram, one side of which equal to ST and the other is equal and parallel to

UV (in

the

first figure).

parallelogram

off,

along

EG in the

equal to

QW.

is

Now,

since

:

EC is

a parallelogram, and

:

VI

parallel to GO,

EG QI = YG CV (O in portion of cyl). EG = HQ, GI=HW, QH=OH; therefore OH HW= (O in half cyl.) (O in portion).

cyl.)

:

And

Imagine that the parallelogram in the portion of the is moved and placed at so that is its centre of gravity, and that OQ is the bar of a balance, being its

cylinder

middle point.

Then, since

is

it

centre of gravity at W,

is in

with

its

equilibrium about

H with

the

its

when

placed with

centre of gravity at 0.

chord in the semicircle

If then

to

OQ

PQR

perpendicular to OQ.

we take

all

it

follows

it is, is

in equilibrium

about

H with

Proposition

12.

Let the parallelogram (square) MIf perpendicular to the axis, with the circle OPQR and its diameters OQ, PR, be

drawn

separately.

THE METHOD

Join

39

planes at right

circle,

that plane.

This

produces

prism

with

triangular section

of

y

to

this

prism

is

the

original

Let LK,

to

UT be

drawn

in

parallel

OQ and

equidistant

from

T,

it,

in S, F,

K,

in

MP

PR,

circle

and GH,

HM

UT

Through LK,

PQR

and

in

the prism

GHM

four

heights are equal to the axis of the cylinder, and the other

sides are equal to

KS, TF,

LW,

UV

respectively

40

ARCHIMEDES

oi

is

LW

from 8,

the distance of the centre of gravity of

while

^8K is

SK from 8.

are,

Therefore

8K

*Si.

and

LW,

in

balance about

Taking

all

the

parallelogrammic

elements in

the

half

we

find that

PQR and the prism OHM, in the places where they are respectively, balance about H.

From

this result

gravity at 0,

to balance (about

is

shown

H)

the half-cyUnder

substitute for

it is.

By

Prop. 12

we may

it is

of that proposition turned the opposite

the prism

GEM

RP.

way

relatively to

is

The

(say

at a point

Z) on

HQ

such that

EZ= ^HQ.

its

gravity,

centre of

we have

(portion of cylinder)

:

(prism)

= f-ff Q

OH

= 2:3;

therefore

(portion of cylinder)

Note.

or,

in other

words, of a semicircle.

then

OHM in

PQR

in the place

it is

balances,

If

where

is

it is.

X

.

is

the point on

HQ

.

which

the centre of

or

is,

that

HX = OTT ^.HQ.^

THE METHOD

41

42

[There

Since

is

ARCHIMEDES

a lacuna here, to be supplied as follows.

MN NL = OK^

:

LS'

it

follows that

MN ML = MN'

:

: :

But

is

MN'

MO'.

Therefore

(A

in prism)

(A

in portion of cylinder)

in rect.

DG)

We

now take

all

DG and

the parabola

EFG respectively

and

(all

;]

it will

follow that

:

the

portion of cylinder)

(all

is

the parallelogram

made up

is

made up

of the triangles in

it

it],

DG

parallel to parallel to

KF,

and the parabolic segment of the straight lines intercepted between its circumference and EG

;

KF

therefore

(prism)

(portion of cylinder)

:

But

" for this is

CJ

;

EFG).

proved in

my

earlier treatise."

[Quadrature of Parabola']

Therefore

If then

prism

=f

(portion of cylinder).

we denote the

and the

2,

the

prism

is

is 3,

therefore the portion of the cylinder

=^

(original prism).

Q.E.D.

THE METHOD

43

[The above proposition and the next are peculiarly interesting for the fact that the parabola is an auxiliary curve introduced

the sole purpose of analytically reducing the required cubature to the known quadrature of the parabola.]

for

Proposition

14.

Let there be a right prism with square bases [and a cylinder inscribed therein having its base in the square ABGD and touching

let

its sides

at E, F,

G,H;

EQ

and the

side

corresponding to

GD

ABGDI.

This plane cuts off from the prism a prism, and from the

cylinder a portion of

It can

it.

is

the plane

will first

But we

it,

prove that

it

is

possible to inscribe in

the portion cut off from the cylinder, and to circumscribe about

solid figures

made up

in such a

magnitude

way

less

by

But

it

Now

(prism cut

<f

off)

:

(inscribed figure)

:

=

therefore

O DQ

DO is

:

segment)

/U

it

which

is

"

that

the parallelogram

Consequently

not greater.

;; ;

44

ARCHIMEDES

And

(all

:

(all

= (all Os

:

in

O DG)

fig.

(all

Os

in

therefore

(prism cut

off)

:

=

the

{EJ

DQ)

(figure circumscr.

off

is

solid

about

the

>

of

f of

the

figure

circumscribed

portion

cylinder

proof but the way in which the method of exhaustion was

applied,

of

it,

are clear.

and the parallelism between this and other applications The first fragment shows that solid figures

of prisms were circumscribed

made up

and inscribed

to the

The

GE

they divided

GE into

a triangular face

right prism.

ofP

common

to

The planes

also

as cuts off the portion of the

as base.

GD

The number of parts into which the parallel planes divided GE was made great enough to secure that the circumscribed figure exceeded the inscribed figure by less than a small

assigned magnitude.

The second

and

this

is > | of the prism cut off; be impossible, by means of the use of the auxiliary parabola and the proportion

was proved

to

MN:ML = MJST'

which are employed in Prop.

13.

MO'

THE METHOD

45

We may

first

(2)

on the

left is

that

circumscribed and

inscribed, (3) the corresponding element-

off

s pyo

(GG'GEDD') which

In

the

is

^ of the original

prism.

second

the

element-rectangles

inscribed

to

figure

are

auxiliary

parabola,

the circumscribed and inscribed element-

(the length of

figures,

first

figure

GM is

and the breadths of the elementrectangles are the same as the heights of the element-prisms)

mention that this has already been done by Th. Eeinaoh in ("Un Traits de G6om6trie in^dit d'Archim^de " in Revue gSnSrale des sciences pures et appliquees, 30 Nov. and 15 Dee. 1907)

his version of the treatise

;

* It is right to

but I prefer

my own

46

the

ARCHIMEDES

corresponding

element-rectangles

forming part

of

the

rectangle

GD

even number of equal parts, so that

OE

is

divided into an

OK

contains an integral

number

of these parts.

prisms of which

For the sake of brevity we will call each of the two elementOM is an edge "el. prism (0)" and each of

MNN'

is

common

face "el.

prism

(iV)."

el.

Similarly

we

tions "

rect.

the corresponding

the second figure.

Now

it

is

is less

made up

of

all

the

inscribed prisms

scribed prisms

to

by twice the

" el.

"

;

prism

prism {N)

as small as

we

please by dividing

GK

into

and circumscribed solid figures made up of element- prisms can be drawn differing by less than any assigned solid figure.

sufficiently small parts, it follows that inscribed

(1)

Suppose,

if possible,

that

(portion of cylinder)

or

(prism cut

Let

(prism cut

off)

> | (prism cut off), < | (portion of cylinder). = | (portion of cylinder X), say.

off)

element-prisms, such that

(circumscr.

l

made up

of

fig.)

(inscr.

Therefore

(inscr. fig.)

arid

a fortiori

It follows that

fig.)

(prism cut

off)

<

f (inscribed figure).

Considering

now

and those

el.

:

we have

prism (N)

el.

prism (0)

= MN'' MO'' = MJSr ML [as in Prop. 13] = el. rect. (N) el. rect. (L).

:

:

THE METHOD

It follows that

47

{el.

prism (N)]

:

rect. (L)}.

first

and third than there are in the second and fourth terms

but this makes no difference because the

first

respectively;

may be

multiplied by a

common

factor as

n/(n2) without affecting the truth of the proportion. Of. the proposition fi-om On Conoids and Spheroids quoted on p. 15

above.)

Therefore

(prism cut off)

:

= (rect. GD)

But

it

(fig. inscr.

in parabola).

therefore

(rect.

inscr. in

portion of

cyl.)

inscr. in parabola),

and, a fortiori,

(rect.

GD) <

f (parabolic segmt.)

which

is

impossible, since

(rect.

GD) = | (parabolic

segmt.).

Therefore

(portion of cyl.)

is

off).

In the second lacuna must have come the beginning of ad absurdurii demolishing the other possible assumption that the portion of the cylinder is < | of the prism

(2)

cut

off.

(prism cut off)

is

that

of cylinder)

> I (portion

> f (fig.

cyl.).

48

ARCHIMEDES

We

now

respectively,

(prism cut off)

:

(fig.

:

= (rect. GD)

whence

it

(fig.

follows that

(rect.

(rect.

and, a fortiori,

GB) = f (parabolic

is

which

is

impossible, since

(rect.

segmt.).

Therefore

(portion of cyl.)

not less than | (prism cut

is it

off).

But

it

was

also

greater

therefore

(portion

[Proposition

[This proposition, which

of

is

15.]

would be the mechanical two special problems mentioned in the preface to the treatise, namely that of the cubature of the figure included between two cylinders, each of which is inscribed in one and the same cube so that its opposite bases are in two opposite faces of the cube and its

lost,

investigation

the

second

of

the

applied to this case*.

In the accompanying figure is a section of the cube by a plane (that of the paper) passing through the axis

VWYX

BD

to

of one of the cylinders inscribed in the cube and two opposite faces.

parallel

A BOB

VII3,

as the section of

*

THE METHOD

49

side of the plane plane of the paper and extending on each of the circle or half the side to a distance equal to the radius

of the cube.

AG

to

is

is

perpendicular

BD.

Join

AB,

AD

to the circle in

E, F.

Then

Let

EC = OF =GA.

be the tangent at A, and complete the rectangle

LG

EFGL.

50

This plane cuts

(1) the solid included

AKCHIMEDBS

side equal to

(2) the

(3) the

MN,

and

pyramid

in

Produce

GA

to

H, making

HA

equal to

HG

Now,

as in Prop.

Also

: :

SQ

= MS'' {OS' + SQ'), from above, = MN' (OP' + QR') = (square, side MN) (sq., side OP + sq., side

: :

QR).

MN,

in the place

where

it is, is

in equilibrium about

sides equal to

OP,

QR

gravity at H.

Proceeding

in the

sections

produced by other planes perpendicular to AG, we finally prove that the prism, in the place where it is, is in equilibrium

about

Now

or

is

at

K.

Therefore

HA AK = (prism)

:

(solid (solid

2:1= (prism)

Therefore

2 (solid)

+ +

pyramid)

^ prism).

(prism) = (prism).

It follows that

(solid included

by cylinders)

= ^ (prism) = I (cube).

Q.E.D.

THE METHOD

There

exhaustion.

is

51

to, and by the method of

As observed by

present proposition

Prof. C. Juel

is

(Zeuthen

I.e.),

made up

As however

is

that Archimedes' proofs of

no doubt

them were

distinct.

In this case

of equal parts

of division

AG would be divided into a very large number and planes would be drawn through the points perpendicular to AG. These planes cut the solid,

cube VY, in square sections.

and

also the

Thus we can

inscribe

up of element-prisms and differing by less than any assigned solid magnitude; the prisms have square bases and their

heights are the small segments of

in the inscribed

AG.

The element-prism

equal to

and circumscribed figures which has the square OP^ for base corresponds to an element-prism in the

side"

equal to that of

is

the ratio

BK', we can use the same auxiliary parabola, and work out the proof in exactly the same way, as in Prop. 14.j

OS^

:

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