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ÞkINCIÞLLS CI nLMCDIAL¥SIS
nIS1CkICAL 8ACkGkCUND
1homas Craham Ŵ a London chemlsLţ reporLed Lhe prlnclples of Lhe semlpermlable
membrane
Ŵ gave Lhe process of selecLlve dlffuslon Lhe name d|a|ys|s

Abelţ 8ownLree Ǝ 1urner Ŵ devlsed an apparaLus for Lhe dlalysls of blood
wlLh a number of collodlon LubesŦ

kolff Ǝ 8erk Ŵ Lhe flrsL cllnlcal arLlflclal kldney

Skeggs Ǝ Leonards Ŵ developed Lhe parallele plaLe dlalyzer
Ŵ 1
sL
dlsposable dlalyzer

Cambro Ŵ began producLlon of dlsposable dlalyzer


SCLU1L 1kANSILk
emo Ŵ means ºblood"
lalysls Ŵ a process for removing waste and excess water from the blood, and is primarily used to provide
an artificial replacement for lost kidney function in people with renal failure.
Hemodialysis ÷ a method for removing waste products such as creatinine and urea, as well as free water
from the blood when the kidneys are in renal failure. Hemodialysis is one of three renal replacement
therapies (the other two being renal transplant; peritoneal dialysis).

JasLe producLs are removed by dlalysls
8y means of d|ffus|on ln Lhe dlalysls
lacLorsťaŦ dlalysaLe LemperaLure Ŷ Lhe hlgher Lhe LemperaLure Lhe
more wasLe producLs are removedŦ
bŦ dlalysaLe flow raLe Ŷ Lhe fasLer Lhe flow raLe of Lhe dlalyslsţ
Lhe more wasLe producLs are removed
cŦ blood flow raLe Ŵ Lhe fasLer Lhe blood flow raLe of Lhe dlalyslsţ
Lhe more wasLe producLs are removedŦ

dŦ molecular welghL of soluLes Ŷ Lhe smaller Lhe parLlcles pass Lhrough Lhe
seml Ŷpermeable membraneţ Lhe more wasLe
producLs are removedŦ
eŦ concenLraLlon gradlenL Ŷ Lhe hlgher Lhe concenLraLlon of Lhe gradlenLŦ
Þrepared byť
t···· ÿ-_ 5. ¸-t~r··. 5·

Lhe more wasLe producLs are removedŦ

fŦ membrane permeablllLy Ŷ Lhe more permeable Lhe membraneţ
Lhe more wasLe producLs are removedŦ

Coalsť Manage uremlaţ fluld overloadţ elecLrolyLe lmbalances


1kANSÞCk1
lffuslve LransporL Ŵ the spread of particles through 7,3/42 motion from regions of
higher concentration to regions of lower concentration. The time dependence
of the statistical distribution in space is given by the diffusion equation.
eLermlnanLs of raLe Lransfer
aŦ concenLraLlon gradlenL Ŵ a gradual change in the concentration of solutes in a solution as
a function of distance through asolution.
bŦ surface area of Lhe membrane Ŵ a membrane that will allow certain molecules or ions to
pass through it by diffusion and occasionally specialized "facilitated diffusion".
cŦ mass Lransfer coeffleclenL Ŵ

Slevlng coefflclenL Ŵ a measure of equilibration between the
concentrations of two mass transfer streams.
onvecLlve LransporL Ŵ the movement of molecules within fluids (i.e. liquids, gases)
and rheids. Ìt cannot take place in solids, since neither bulk current flows
nor significant diffusion can take place in solids.
learance Ŵ method for measurement of mass and energy
transfer parameters (clearance and dialysance) in hemodialysis.
A sensor is provided in the dialysate flow path
downstream of the dialyzer and means are provided to add
concentrate upstream of the dialyzer.
DlLrafllLraLlon Ŵ a variety of membrane filtration in which hydrostatic pressure
forces a liquid against a semipermeable membrane.
O IolumeLrlc balanclng Ŵ an application of conservation of mass
to the analysis of physical systems.
O ServoŴfeedback

8everse fllLraLlon Ŵ a membrane technical filtration method that removes
many types of large molecules and ions from solutions by applying
pressure to the solution when it is on one side of a selective membrane.
Ŵ
Sodlum modellng Ŵ ser interest in these options and the eventual
response of industry was driven by an attempt to
improve tolerance for ultrafiltration as dialysis session
time became shorter and an associated increase in patient
intolerance for the consequent higher UF rate was observed.
AcldŴbase balance Ŵ the part of human homeostasis concerning the
proper balance between acids and bases, in other words,
the pH. The body is very sensitive to its pH level, so strong
mechanisms exist to maintain it.
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t···· ÿ-_ 5. ¸-t~r··. 5·

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