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# Unit Vector Notation

When we want to specify a vector by its components, it can be cumbersome to have to write the algebra symbol for each component:

A more compact notation is to write

where the vectors , called the unit vectors, are defined as the vectors that have magnitude equal to 1 and directions lying along the x, y, and z axes. In speech, they are referred to as "x-hat" and so on. A slightly different, and harder to remember, version of this notation is unfortunately more prevalent. In this version, the unit vectors are called

Rotational Invariance
Let's take a closer look at why certain vector operations are useful and others are not. Consider the operation of multiplying two vectors component by component to produce a third vector:

g / Component-bycomponent multiplication of the vectors in 1 would

and Gz + Fz . which are certainly the same three numbers as G x + Fx . As a simple example. the components of the vector F+G would be Fx +Gx . we choose vectors P and Q to have length 1. and the z component is of course zero because both vectors are in the x . we find The operation's result depends on what coordinate system we use. are rotationally invariant. we find: The x component is zero because Px = 0. so the angle θ can be found using any of the inverse trig functions. F + G is the same as G + F. If we compute the result of our new vector operation using the coordinate system in g/2. we simply translate the vector notation into ordinary algebra notation. Yes. In terms of ordinary numbers. and Fz + Gz . as shown in figure g/1. Fy +Gy . they don't just represent the same answer expressed in two different coordinate systems. F + G. and make them perpendicular to each other. come out the same regardless of the orientation of the coordinate system.produce different vectors in coordinate systems 2 and 3. how would we find the magnitude and direction of Δr? We find the magnitude of Δr from the Pythagorean theorem: We know all three sides of the triangle. and since the two versions of R have different lengths (one being zero and the other nonzero). such as addition and scalar multiplication.e. Finding the magnitude and angle from the components Given that the Δr vector from LA to Las Vegas has Δx = 290 km and Δy = 230 km. However. i. Order of addition If we are adding two force vectors.y plane. is it valid to assume as in ordinary algebra that F + G is the same as G + F? To tell if this algebra rule also applies to vectors. Gy + Fy . if we carry out the same operations in coordinate system g/3. we know the opposite and adjacent sides. Such an operation will never be useful in physics.. For example. so . the y component is zero because Q y = 0. because experiments show physics works the same regardless of which way we orient the laboratory building! The useful vector operations. rotated 45 degrees with respect to the previous one.

which would have her heading for the Baja California. as shown in the figure? If we make the traditional choice of coordinate axes. and it was up to you to add 180 °to it to find the right answer. An airplane pilot is setting course from San Diego to Los Angeles. What went wrong? The answer is that when you ask your calculator to take the arctangent of a number. there are two possible angles whose tangents equal -1. That is. . In this case. Her Δy is positive. At what angle should she set her course. because her final x value is less than her initial x value. Adding components Given the Δx and Δy values from the previous examples.25 Your calculator doesn't know which is the correct one. so we have Δx = -120 km Δy = 150 km . we get According to the usual way of defining angles in trigonometry. then her Δx is negative. so it just picks one. measured counterclockwise from east. find the Δx and Δy from San Diego to Las Vegas.25 tan-51 ° = -1. there are always two valid possibilities differing by 180 °. a negative result means an angle that lies clockwise from the x axis.Negative components San Diego is 120 km east and 150 km south of Los Angeles. If we work by analogy with the previous example. with x pointing to the right and y pointing up on the map.25: tan 129 ° = -1. the one it picked was the wrong one.

8 cm.Vectors A vector is a quantity that has both a magnitude (amount) and a direction in space. . find the magnitude and angle of the Δr vector from San Diego to Las Vegas. B .Note how the signs of the x components take care of the westward and eastward motions. we measure the angle θ to be 71 °. Division by a scalar is defined similarly. this corresponds to drawing the vectors as two arrows laid tip-to-tail and drawing the sum vector from the tail of the first vector to the tip of the second one. as shown in the figure.2B No numbers are involved.B. graphically Given the magnitudes and angles of the Δr vectors from San Diego to Los Angeles and from Los Angeles to Las Vegas. Summary . Vector addition means adding the components of two vectors to form the components of a new vector. The vector notation amounts simply to an abbreviation for writing the vector's three components. as opposed to a scalar. With a protractor. Multiplying a vector by a scalar means multiplying each of its components by the scalar to create a new vector. which partially cancel. The two main operations on vectors are addition of a vector to a vector. In two dimensions. In graphical terms. A . Using a protractor and a ruler. which has no direction. Vector subtraction is performed by negating the vector to be subtracted and then adding. -2B. With a ruler. we measure the distance from San Diego to Las Vegas to be 3. The two ways of describing a vector can be related by trigonometry. A . LA to Vegas. a vector can be represented either by its two components or by its magnitude and direction. and multiplication of a vector by a scalar. Homework Problems 1 The figure shows vectors A and B. A scale of 1 cm ! 100 km was chosen for this solution.A. Graphically calculate the following: A + B. which corresponds to 380 km. we make a careful scale drawing.

and then 22 km at 230 ° counterclockwise from east. Stanford's friends were convinced that a galloping horse always had at least one foot on the ground. showing conclusively that all four feet did leave the ground at one point. [only for constant velocity] The Δr vector points in the direction of the motion. In this chapter. for instance. What are the distance and direction from the right-hand hole to the top one? Vectors and Motion In 1872. Since this is a high-precision job. but an attempt is made to tie things together and show examples of the power of the vector formulation of Newton's laws. find the distance and direction from your starting point to your destination. and force vectors. (Muybridge was a colorful figure in San Francisco history. for instance the expectation that a leaping horse would lose horizontal velocity while in the air with no force to push it forward. and then to the one on the right. so its ax is zero.) The losers of the bet had probably been influenced by Aristotelian reasoning. the horse accelerates up and down. then moves to the one on the left. she finishes by moving in the direction and at the angle that should take her back to the top hole. we will examine more carefully the properties of the velocity. √ 3 4 A machinist is drilling holes in a piece of aluminum according to the plan shown in the figure.2 Phnom Penh is 470 km east and 250 km south of Bangkok. capitalist and former California governor Leland Stanford asked photographer Eadweard Muybridge if he would work for him on a project to settle a \$25. not its direction. If you walk 35 km at an angle 25 ° counterclockwise from east. so that it would be more efficient for the horse to run without leaping. the velocity vector is v = Δr/Δt . and checks that she ends up in the same place. Hanoi is 60 km east and 1030 km north √ of Phnom Penh. the main one being a problem with the true but seemingly absurd statement that an object can have an acceleration vector whose direction is not the same as the direction of motion. but Stanford claimed that there was a moment during each cycle of the motion when all four feet were in the air. But even for students who have converted whole-heartedly to Newtonianism. But as anyone can tell you who has ridden a galloping horse. (b) Find the components of the Δr vector pointing from Bangkok to Hanoi. No new principles are introduced.000 bet (a princely sum at that time). The horse's acceleration vector therefore changes back and forth between the up and down directions. and his acquittal for the murder of his wife's lover was considered the trial of the century in California. When the velocity is not . and dividing it by the scalar Δt only changes its length. The horse. She √ starts with the top hole. and translate these data into Δx and Δy values with the proper plus and minus signs. has nearly constant horizontal velocity. acceleration. so the velocity vector points in the same direction as the motion. The human eye was simply not fast enough to settle the question. Muybridge finally succeeded in producing what amounted to a motion picture of the horse. (a) Choose a coordinate system. In 1878. but is never in the same direction as the horse's motion. The Velocity Vector For motion with constant velocity. the relationship between force and acceleration leads to some conceptual difficulties.

Solving for θ. |vBW|. vBL. x = vBW. it still points along the direction of motion. vy. but the river's current will tend to carry you downstream. Do the two cities have the same velocity vector (relative to the center of the earth)? If not.a constant |v| but not a constant velocity vector? Explain. and vz.e. i. we use the slope-of-the-tangent-line approach to define the components vx. To compensate. |vWL|. so the earth's rotation carries them both around nearly the same circle. then we need to have vBL. given the magnitude. Vector addition is the correct way to generalize the one-dimensional concept of adding velocities in relative motion.. B New York and Rome are at about the same latitude. x . when the x-t. vBL = vBW + vWL . If the boat is to travel straight across the river. problem 8 Discussion Questions A Is it possible for an airplane to maintain a constant velocity vector but not a constant |v|? How about the opposite . of which the boat is capable relative to the water. so → Solved problem: Annie Oakley page 217. and z-t graphs are not all linear.x = 0. y-t. you must steer the boat at an angle. Find the angle θ. from which we assemble the velocity vector. x + vWL. This x component equals the sum of the x components of the other two vectors. Velocity vectors in relative motion You wish to cross a river and arrive at a dock that is directly across from you. along the y axis. and the maximum speed. Even when the velocity vector is not constant. as shown in the following example: Velocity vectors in relative motion.constant. is there any way for two cities to have the same velocity vector? .e. i. or 0 = -|vBW| sin θ + |vWL| . The boat's velocity relative to the land equals the vector sum of its velocity with respect to the water and the water's velocity with respect to the land. we find sin θ = |vWL|/|vBW| .. of the water's velocity relative to the land.

as when a car accelerates while turning. and az components found by applying the slope-of. which would make sense. Either the magnitude or the direction of the velocity vector could change. This can be visualized with arrow diagrams as shown in figures b and c.the-tangent-line technique to the vx-t. is the object speeding up. and thus a nonzero acceleration vector. and vz -t graphs. When all three acceleration components are constant. (3) Speeding up produced a Δv vector in the same direction as the motion. (2) The result would be zero.t. i.. Only when the magnitude of the velocity changes while its direction stays constant do we have a Δv vector and an acceleration vector along the same line as the motion. c / A change in the direction of the velocity vector also produces a nonzero Δv vector. ay. vy -t. Now there are two ways in which we could have a nonzero acceleration. and vz . when the v x . we define it as the vector made out of the a x. Both the magnitude and direction can change simultaneously. or slowing down? (2) What would the diagram look like if viwas the same as vf ? (3) Describe how the Δv vector is different depending on whether an object is speeding up or slowing down. we can define the acceleration vector as a = Δv/Δt . vy . Self-Check (1) In figure b.vi)/Δt . [only for constant acceleration] If the acceleration is not constant. [only for constant acceleration] which can be written in terms of initial and final velocities as a = (vf . .e.t graphs are all linear. Answer (1) It is speeding up.t. Slowing down would have given a Δv that bointed backward. Δv/Δt.The Acceleration Vector b / A change in the magnitude of the velocity vector implies an acceleration. because the final velocity vector has the greater magnitude.

The horse's velocity vector as it moves from one point to the next can then be found simply by drawing an arrow to connect one position of the center of mass to the next. The Δv vector is the vector which we would have to add onto one velocity vector in order to get the next velocity vector in the series. The estimated location of the horse's center of mass is shown with a circle. but then you make a right turn. to your left. As you make a right turn. This produces a series of velocity vectors which alternate between pointing above and below horizontal. After accelerating and slowing down a few times. One way to understand those statements better is to imagine an object such as an air freshener or a pair of fuzzy dice hanging from the rear-view mirror of a car. perpendicular to your velocity vector. The Δv vector alternates between pointing down (around the time when the horse is in the air. what direction does the acceleration vector have? Answer As we have already seen. Such a hanging object. and periods of large acceleration and force. which bobs above and below the horizontal dashed line. It doesn't mean much to most physics students the first time someone tells them that acceleration is a vector. so a physically reasonable definition of the acceleration vector must allow for cases where it is not in the same direction as the motion. you're not alone. seventh. and ninth frames in Muybridge's series of photographs of the galloping horse. Rappelling. . If you apply the brakes and the car's acceleration vector points backward. If you watch the bob as you accelerate from a stop light. the rappeller's velocity has long periods of gradual change interspersed with short periods of rapid change. constitutes an accelerometer. The galloping horse Figure e on page 210 shows outlines traced from the first. so the acceleration vector is pointing straight down. The galloping horse. you think you've put your accelerometer through its paces. the projectile has ax = 0 and ay = -g. These correspond to periods of small acceleration and force. the bob swings outward. Rappelling In the figure. That means the car's acceleration vector is to your right. you'll see it swing backward. Surprise! Acceleration is a vector. and that the acceleration vector does not have to be in the same direction as the velocity vector. The horizontal direction in which the bob tilts is opposite to the direction of the acceleration. Self-Check In projectile motion. If we don't care about calculating velocities and accelerations in any particular system of units. the bob tilts forward. A useful definition of an acceleration vector should relate in a systematic way to the actual physical effects produced by the acceleration. called a bob. D). B) and up (around the time when the horse has two feet on the ground. and needn't point in the same direction as the velocity vector. then we can pretend that the time between frames is one unit. fifth.If this all seems a little strange and abstract to you. third.

What does the student think Newton's laws are predicting? The Force Vector and Simple Machines Force is relatively easy to intuit as a vector. for example. what force? Similarly. then suddenly begins firing its sideways maneuvering rocket as well. His force has both a horizontal component and a vertical one. B The following is a question commonly asked by students: "Why does the force vector always have to point in the same direction as the acceleration vector? What if you suddenly decide to change your force on an object. The force vector points in the direction in which it is trying to accelerate the object it is acting on. so that your force is no longer pointing the same direction that the object is accelerating?" What misunderstanding is demonstrated by this question? Suppose. with sides in newtons. In both cases. and the other's is the magnitude of the force. (The vertical component just partially cancels the force of gravity. but only the horizontal one accelerates the sled. the horizontal leg is 93% as long . but they are not the same triangle. shows a boy pulling another child on a sled. redrawn from a classic 1920 textbook. A component of a force vector f / Example 4 Figure f. One is a distance triangle. with sides measured in meters. and then use that information to determine the direction of the acceleration vector. it is often helpful to first find the direction of the (total) force vector acting on an object. describe what happens in the other cases described above. causing a decrease in the normal force between the runners and the snow. so their internal angles are all the same. a spacecraft is blasting its rear main engines while moving forward.Discussion Questions A When a car accelerates. Newton's second law. why does a bob hanging from the rearview mirror swing toward the back of the car? Is it because a force throws it backward? If so.) There are two triangles in the figure. A component of a force vector. Ftotal = ma. tells us that the two must be in the same direction. the other a force triangle. These triangles are similar. One triangle's hypotenuse is the rope. Since force vectors are so much easier to visualize than acceleration vectors.

however. i / If the block is to move at constant velocity.the force triangle is not smaller in any meaningful sense. m.as the hypotenuse. to compare the sizes of the triangles . and the angle of the ramp. Figure (g) shows a block being pushed up a frictionless ramp at constant speed by an applied force FA. How much force is required. Pushing a block up a ramp g / The applied force FA pushes the block up the frictionless ramp. Newton's first law says that the three force vectors acting on it must add up to zero. It does not make sense. so each one's tail goes against the tip of the . To perform vector addition. in terms of the block's mass. Pushing a block up a ramp. we put the vectors tip to tail. Their vector sum is zero. and in this case we are adding three vectors. θ? h / Three forces act on the block.

B The figure shows a roller coaster car rolling down and then up under the influence of gravity. i. including their directions. and since the applied force is perpendicular to the normal force. the definitions of the velocity and acceleration components given in chapter 6 can be translated into calculus notation as and .e. created by the ramp. Figure (h) shows the other two forces acting on the block: a normal force. the applied force is always less than mg. problem 11 → Solved problem: A wagon page 218.previous one. Since they are supposed to add up to zero. Sketch the car's velocity vectors and acceleration vectors. FW. Since the sine is always less than one. This is presumably the principle on which the pyramids were constructed: the ancient Egyptians would have had a hard time applying the forces of enough slaves to equal the full weight of the huge blocks of stone. the third vector's tip must come back to touch the tail of the first vector. Essentially the same analysis applies to several other simple machines. → Solved problem: A cargo plane page 217. pushing the block up the ramp is easier than lifting it straight up. Pick an interesting point in the motion and sketch a set of force vectors acting on the car whose vector sum could have resulted in the right acceleration vector. FN. Analyze the forces involved. such as the wedge and the screw. and the total force on it must be zero. problem 10 Discussion Questions A The figure shows a block being pressed diagonally upward against a wall. They form a triangle. it has zero acceleration. problem 9 → Solved problem: The angle of repose page 218. From figure (i). it is a right triangle. we find |FA| = |FW| sin θ = mg sin θ . causing it to slide up the wall.. created by the earth's gravity.4. Calculus With Vectors Using the unit vector notation introduced in section 7. and the weight force. Because the block is being pushed up at constant speed.

and we really did need calculus to find the corresponding acceleration.To make the notation less cumbersome. The second derivative of a vector Two objects have positions as functions of time given by the equations and Find both objects' accelerations using calculus. you take the derivatives of its components and make a new vector out of those. a flying saucer of mass m is observed to vary its propulsion with mathematical precision according to the equation . This definition means that the derivative of a vector function has the familiar properties and The integral of a vector is likewise defined as integrating component by component. so that we can abbreviate the above equations as and In words. we generalize the concept of the derivative to include derivatives of vectors. The second equation. isn't just a second-order polynomial in t. Could either answer have been found without calculus? Taking the first derivative of each component. The first object's acceleration could have been found without calculus. The integral of a vector. so the acceleration isn't constant. The second derivative of a vector. simply by comparing the x and y coordinates with the constantacceleration equation Δx = voΔt + 1/2aΔt2. however. to take the derivative of a vector. we find and taking the derivatives again gives acceleration. The integral of a vector Starting from rest.

Find the professor's velocity as a function of time. Breaking the force down into x and y components. . where b and c are constants. i. we have In unit vector notation.e. this is Newton's second law gives To find the velocity vector as a function of time.) Find the saucer's velocity as a function of time. Climbing out onto the ice without any skates on.. but then dies down according to the equation |F| = b -ct. Measured counterclockwise from the x axis. he sits down and pushes off from the wall with his feet. The fire extinguisher's force is strong at first. A fire-extinguisher stunt on ice Prof. and integrating component by component gives where we have omitted the constants of integration. . Puerile smuggles a fire extinguisher into a skating rink. along the negative y axis and the positive x axis. we can easily find the acceleration The velocity vector v is the integral with respect to time of the acceleration. acquiring an initial velocity At t=0. the angle of the force vector becomes 315 °. A fire-extinguisher stunt on ice. he then discharges the fire extinguisher at a 45-degree angle so that it applies a force to him that is backward and to the left. we need to integrate the acceleration vector with respect to time.(The aliens inform us that the numbers 42 and 137 have a special religious significance for them. since the saucer was starting from rest. From the given force.

i. so this can be broken down into two integrals. x = vBW. along the y axis. Here the physical significance of the two constants of integration is that they give the initial velocity. and constant #2 must equal vo.e. given the magnitude..x = 0. and the maximum speed. The boat's velocity relative to the land equals the vector sum of its velocity with respect to the water and the water's velocity with respect to the land. x + vWL. of which the boat is capable relative to the water. x . |vBW|. vBL. If the boat is to travel straight across the river. but the river's current will tend to carry you downstream. Find the angle θ. you must steer the boat at an angle. Constant #1 is therefore zero. of the water's velocity relative to the land. vBL = vBW + vWL . |vWL|.A vector function can be integrated component by component. or . To compensate. This x component equals the sum of the x components of the other two vectors. The final result is Velocity vectors in relative motion You wish to cross a river and arrive at a dock that is directly across from you. then we need to have vBL.

What are the magnitude and direction of its acceleration vector during that one second time interval? (Assume its acceleration was roughly constant. stretching and lengthening the rope slightly. and use graphical addition of vectors to find the magnitude and the direction of the fossil's velocity relative to the continent. (a) If the tightrope walker wants the rope to sag vertically by no more than a height h. sin θ = |vWL|/|vBW| . Homework Problems 1 √ A dinosaur fossil is slowly moving down the slope of a glacier under the influence of wind. At the same time. g.) √ A person of mass M stands in the middle of a tightrope. (b) Based on your equation.Solving for θ. Pick a scale. 5 √* Your hand presses a block of mass m against a wall with a force FH acting at an angle θ. You will need a ruler and protractor.1 m/s. T. The dashed lines represent the directions but not the magnitudes of the velocities. and L. the glacier is moving relative to the continent underneath. in terms of h. why not? A bird is initially flying horizontally east at 21. . but one second later it has changed √ direction so that it is flying horizontally and 7 ° north of east. that the rope must be able to withstand without breaking. and give a physical interpretation. M. rain and gravity. what would be going on? If not. we find so 0 = -|vBW| sin θ + |vWL| . at the same speed. The rope sags in the middle. 2 3 4 Is it possible for a helicopter to have an acceleration due east and a velocity due west? If so. which is fixed at the ends to two buildings separated by a horizontal distance L. explain why it is not possible to get h = 0. find the minimum tension.

Its engines supply a thrust of Fthrust = 200 kN. although a soft and wet surface actually behaves a little differently.Find the minimum and maximum possible values of |FH| that can keep the block stationary. and is climbing at constant speed. c. g. The bullet's position vector as ∫ a function of time is where b. in terms of m. The muzzle speed of the rifle is 140 mi/hr. c. in kg? 10 Solution. When the bullet hits a p. and give a physical explanation of what is happening for θ < θmin. 281 A cargo plane has taken off from a tiny airstrip in the Andes. µk. aiming horizontally Solution. and fired at t = 0. where b is a constant. and d need to have for the equation to make sense? (b) Find the bullet's velocity and acceleration as functions of time. θ. riding north on horseback at 30 mi/hr. and the lift from its wings is Flift = 654 kN. g. c. shoots her rifle. 6 A skier of mass m is coasting down a slope inclined at an angle θ compared to horizontal. lift. and µs. 282 A wagon is being pulled at constant speed up a slope θ by a rope that makes an angle φ with the vertical. (b) For angles below a certain minimum angle θmin. in terms of the variables m. p. A gun is aimed horizontally to the west. Assume that air resistance (drag) is negligible. p. (a) What units would b. d. and in addition the skier experiences an air friction force of magnitude bv2. and b. The coefficient of kinetic friction acting between the skis and the snow is µk. 281 defenseless fuzzy animal. and d are constants. ´ 7 8 9 Annie Oakley. and to the northeast. so the only forces acting are thrust. the coefficient of static friction between the block and the wall. show that the tension in the rope is given by the equation . what is its speed of impact? Neglect air resistance. Solution. Find an equation for θmin. and weight. (a) Find the maximum speed that the skier will attain. (c) Give physical interpretations of b. √ Assume for simplicity that the treatment of kinetic friction given in chapter 5 is appropriate here. What is its mass. and ignore the vertical motion of the bullet. (a) Assuming negligible friction. the equation gives a result that is not mathematically meaningful. at an angle of θ=17 °with respect to horizontal. θ.

and starts an electronic timer running. using a table in the format introduced insection 5. 282 whether dust or rubble will stay on a slope is whether the slope is less steep than the angle of repose. On airless. and the timer stops. a cardboard vane mounted on the cart enters the light beam. The point of the experiment is to determine the cart's acceleration. Assume friction is negligible. (b) On an asteroid.where FW is the weight force acting on the wagon. deciding for yourself what are the relevant variables. would rubble be able to lie at a steeper angle of repose? √ 12 The figure shows an experiment in which a cart is released from rest at A. 13 Problem 13 (Millikan and Gale. (c) Analyze the forces in which the cart participates. tb.3. Compare the tension in his arms in the three cases. At C. (a) Find the final velocity of the cart in terms of the width w of the vane and the time tb for which the sensor's light beam was blocked. . The figure shows a boy hanging in three positions: (1) with his arms straight up. and the strength g of the gravitational field. (a) Find an equation for the angle of repose.θ. and w. blocking the light beam. geologically inert bodies like the moon or an asteroid. Express the theoretical value in terms of the angle θ of the slope. At B. (d) Find a theoretical value for the acceleration of the cart. where g can be thousands of times lower than on Earth. (b) Interpret this equation in the special cases of φ = 0 and φ = 180 ° . and (3) with his arms at 60 degrees with respect to the vertical. which could be compared with the experimentally observed value extracted in part b. Solution. 11 The angle of repose is the maximum slope on which an object will not slide. (b) Find the magnitude of the cart's acceleration in terms of the measurable quantities x. the only thing that determines p. (2) with his arms at 45 degrees. the vane emerges from the beam. and accelerates down the slope through a distance x until it passes through a sensor's light beam. 1920).

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