Improved Performance of Adaptive Hysteresis

Current Controller Based Vector Control of PMSM
Drive System
Amiya Naik, B.Chitti Babu, and A.K.Panda
Department of Electrical Engineering, National Institute of Technology, Rourkela
E-mail: naikamiya@gmail.com


Abstract— The conventional hysteresis current controller has
proved that, it is most suitable for current regulated VSI fed ac
drives due to its ease of implementation and fast current
tracking. However, it has certain limitations like large current
ripple in steady state and variable switching frequency operation
of IGBT inverter switch during motor load changes. This paper
presents an adaptive hysteresis current controller in which the
hysteresis band is programmed as a function of motor speed and
load current. The proposed current control strategy is applied in
the inner control loop of the vector controlled permanent magnet
synchronous motor (PMSM) drive system in order to reduce the
torque ripple during load variation and the obtained results are
compared with conventional hysteresis controller under steady
state and transient conditions with fixed and step changes in
load. The complete PMSM drive system is modeled and tested in
the MATLAB-Simulink environment for effectiveness of the
study.

Keywords-permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM);
adaptive hysteresis controller; constant torque mode; vector
control; modeling and simulation.

I. NOMENCLATURE

B Friction co-efficient
i
a
,i
b
,i
c
Three phase current
i
d
, i
q
d &q- axis stator current
I
f
Equivalent permanent magnet field current
J Moment of Inertia
L
d
& L
q
d & q-axis self inductance
L
dm
& L
qm
d & q-axis magnetizing inductance
F
c
Cross-over frequency
P No. of pole
PI Proportional Integral controller
R
s
Stator resistance
T
e
Electro magnetic torque
V
d
, V
q
d & q-axis voltage
ρ Derivative operator
λ
d
, λ
q
d & q-axis flux linkage
λ
f
field flux linkage
θ
r
Rotor position
ω
m
Rotor speed in rad/sec
ω
rated
Motor rated speed in rad/sec

II. INTRODUCTION
Along with the development of permanent magnet materials
and control technology, PMSM drive has gained an increasing
popularity in low and medium power applications such as
computer peripheral equipments, robotics, adjustable speed
drives and electric vehicles are due to its following merits:
high torque/inertia ratio, high power density and high
efficiency etc [1][2].However, the dynamic performance of
VSI fed PMSM drive system largely depends on the applied
current control strategy. The main function of current
controller is to force the load current to follow the reference
current trajectory in order to minimize the current error
[3][4].Variety of current control techniques has been proposed
in the literature for adjustable speed ac drive system like
induction motor drive and PMSM drive. L. Malesani et. all [5]
has proposed hysteresis current controller in the inner loop of
vector controlled PMSM drive system. We found though the
hysteresis current controller provides good dynamic response
and easy of implementation, it produces large current ripple
under the steady state and variable switching operation of
converter during load changes. B.K.Bose [3] has proposed
adaptive hysteresis current controller for adjustable speed ac
drive system in which the hysteresis band is programmed as a
function of load current [6]. However the current controller
performance is good during transient condition, it takes large
computation time while the control algorithm is being
implemented by micro controller or signal processors.
In this paper adaptive hysteresis current controller is
proposed in the inner loop of vector control of PMSM drive
system in which the hysteresis band is programmed a function
of speed of the motor during load variations. Ultimately it
reduces the large torque ripple during load variations, besides
it takes less computation time for implementing using signal
processors because of larger band width of inner loop. It acts
faster for tracking the current during load variations. In
addition to that, a closed loop control system with a PI
controller in the outer speed loop has been designed to operate
the drive in constant torque region. The obtained results are
compared with conventional hysteresis controller under steady
state and transient conditions with fixed and step change in the
load. The proposed scheme is modeled and tested in the
MATLAB-Simulink environment for effectiveness of the
study.
978-1-4244-8942-8/11/$26.00 ©2011 IEEE
Proceedings of the IEEE Student's Technology Symposium 2011
14-16/Jan/2011, IIT Kharagpur


III. VECTOR CONTROL OF PMSM DRIVE SYSTEM

According to the classical theory of electrical machines, the
PMSM drive system is equivalent to that of the dc motor when
a decoupling control is possible known as field oriented
control (FOC) or vector control. The vector control decouples
the torque component and flux producing current in the motor
through its stator excitation by applying instantaneous space
vector theory.
The vector control of the PM synchronous motor is derived
from its dynamic d-q model [7].
Considering the currents as inputs, the three phase currents are
given by
( ) sin
a m r
i I t e o = +
(1)

2
sin
3
b m r
i I t
t
e o
| |
= + ÷
|
\ .
(2)

2
sin
3
c m r
i I t
t
e o
| |
= + +
|
\ .
(3)

Where δ is the angle between the rotor field and stator current
phasor.
The currents assigned above are the stator currents that
must be transformed to the rotor reference frame with the rotor
speed ω
r,
using Park’s transformation. The q and d axis
currents are constants in the rotor reference frame since δ is a
constant for a given load torque. As these are constants, they
are similar to the armature and field currents in the separately
excited dc machine. The q axis current is distinctly equivalent
to the armature current (i
a
) and the d axis current is field
current (i
f
), but not in its entirety. It is only a partial field
current; the other part is contributed by the equivalent current
source representing the permanent magnet field. For this
reason the q axis current is called the torque producing
component of the stator current and the d axis current is called
the flux producing component of the stator current.

Solving by using park’s transformation, we get
sin
q m
i I o =
(4)

cos
d m
i I o =
(5)

From the above equations electromagnetic torque is obtained
by
( )
2
3 1
. sin2 sin
2 2 2
e d q m f m
P
T L L I I o ì o
(
= ÷ +
(
¸ ¸
(6)

A. Constant Torque Operation

For vector control the knowledge of the position of the
instantaneous rotor flux or rotor position of PMSM is needed.
Knowing the position, the three phase currents can be
calculated by using the current matrix depends on the applied
control strategy. Some control options are constant torque and
flux weakening.
Constant torque control strategy is derived from field
oriented control, where the maximum possible torque is
desired at all times like the dc motor. This is performed by
making the torque producing current i
q
equal to the supply
current I
m
. That result in selecting the δ angle to be 90º
degrees by making the i
d
current equal to zero the torque
equation can be rewritten as:
3
.
2 2
e f q
P
T i ì
| || |
=
| |
\ .\ .
(7)

So,
.
e t q
T k i =
(8)

Where
3
2 2
t f
P
k ì
| || |
=
| |
\ .\ .

From the equation (7) the torque of the motor can be
controlled by controlling i
q
component of i
s
.

IV. ANALYSIS OF ADAPTIVE HYSTERESIS CURRENT
CONTROLLER IN THE INNER LOOP

Since the machine normally operating with isolated
neutral, this is the most practical case. Actually, with isolated
neutral, the machine phase voltages interact and no longer be
0.5V
dc
as with a connected neutral like as shown in fig.1.


Fig1. Adaptive Current controlled PMSM drive system

When Q
1
is on , the possible phase-a voltage may be 0 , 1/3,
2/3V
dc
, and when Q
4
is on , the corresponding voltage may
be 0 ,-1/3 , -2/3V
dc
. Typical PWM phase voltage and current
waves during a modulation cycle are shown in Fig.2. With the
assumed polarity of counter emf when Q
1
is on, the general
expression of incremental current rise A HB during Q
1
– on
period is given by
*
1 1
a a
n n
di di
HB t t
dt dt
+
A = ÷
(9)

( )
1
a
dc f
di
aV v
dt L
+
= ÷
(10)


Fig.2.Typical PWM voltage and current waveform with Calculation of
Hysteresis-band
Where a= 0, 1/3 or 2/3 & for simplicity let m=
*
a
di
dt

Hence
( )
1 1
1
n dc f n
HB t aV v t m
L
A = ÷ ÷
(11)

Therefore, summing up the total current
1 1
1 1
1
2
1
f
n n dc
f
n dc
v
HB HB t m t aV
L L
v
t m t aV
L L
( | |
= ¿A = ¿ ÷ + +
( |
\ . ¸ ¸
( | |
= ÷ + + ¿
( |
\ . ¸ ¸
(12)

The general expression of incremental current fall
during the Q
4
– on period is given by
*
2 2
a a
n n
di di
HB t t
dt dt
÷
÷A = ÷
(13)

But

( )
1
a
dc f
di
aV v
dt L
÷
= ÷ +
(14)

Hence
( )
2
2
n
dc f n
t
HB aV v t m
L
÷A = ÷ + ÷
(15)

Therefore, the total fall is

2 2
2 2
1
2 ( )
1
f
n n dc
f
n dc
v
HB HB t m t aV
L L
v
t m t aV
L L
( | |
÷ = ¿ ÷A = ¿ ÷ + ÷
( |
\ . ¸ ¸
( | |
= ÷ + ÷ ¿
( |
\ . ¸ ¸

(16)
t
1
& t
2
is the average current rise and fall duration respectively.
In equation (12) and (16), the second term can be expressed as
1 1
'
n dc dc
t aV t a V ¿ =
(17)


2 2
"
n dc dc
t aV t a V ¿ =
(18)

or
1
1
'
n
t a
a
t
¿
=
(19)


2
2
"
n
t a
a
t
¿
=
(20)
Where a' and a" are the respective applied voltage coefficients.
Although the average applied voltages in the two intervals
may have some asymmetry, still we assume a'= a" for
computational simplicity. The parameters a' and a" will
typically vary between 1/3 and 2/3.
Adding equation (12) & (16) we get
( )
1 2
' 1
0
f
dc
c
v
a V
m t t
f L L
| | ÷
= + + ÷
|
\ .
(21)

Where t
1
+t
2
=1/f
c,
f
c
is switching frequency
So, ( )
1 2
'
f
c dc
v
L
t t m
f a V L
| |
÷ = +
|
\ .
(22)
Now subtract equation (16) from (12)
( )
2 1
'
4
f
dc
c
v
a V
HB m t t
L Lf
| |
= + ÷ +
|
\ .
(23)

Putting the equation (22) in (23) and solving, we get
2
2
2 2
'
0.25 1
'
f
dc
c dc
v
a V L
HB m
Lf a V L
(
| |
( = ÷ +
|
( \ .
¸ ¸
(24)
From fig.3, which is showing phasor diagram of a PMSM
the following equation can be written
sin
f fm e
v V u =
(25)
Where 2
fm f e
V ¢ e =
(26)
sin( )
s sm e
I I u o | = + ÷
(27)

cos( )
qs sm
I I o | = ÷
(28)

sin( )
ds sm
I I o | = ÷
(29)


Fig.3.Phasor diagram of PMSM drive system
The phase current i
s
(i.e., i
a
) can be consider to be tracking
accurately with respective commanded current (i
a
*
) with the
hysteresis-band current control. Therefore, differentiating (27)
we get
| |
cos cos( ) sin sin( )
s
e e sm e sm
di
m I I
dt
e u o | u o | = = ÷ ÷ ÷
(30)
Then substituting (28) and (29) in (30)
( )
cos sin
e qs e ds e
m I I e u u = ÷
(31)

Putting (25) & (31) in (24) and solving for HB we get

2
2 2
2 2
2
0.25 '
1 ( )sin cos
'
f
dc e
ds e qs e
c dc
aV L
HB I I
f L a V L
¢
e
u u
(
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
(
= ÷ ÷ +
´ `
(
¦ ¦
¹ )
¸ ¸
(32)

For constant torque operation
0
ds
I =
(33)

So the (32) becomes
2
2 2
2 2
2
0.25 '
1 sin cos
'
f
dc e
e qs e
c dc
a V L
HB I
f L a V L
¢
e
u u
(
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
(
= ÷ +
´ `
(
¦ ¦
¹ )
¸ ¸
(34)
For the symmetrical operation of three phases, it is expected
that the band profiles of all the phases will be same but phase
will be displaced with 120
0
.

A. Design of outer speed controller loop

The closed loop control system consists of a speed feedback
system, a motor, an inverter, a controller and a speed setting
device. A properly designed feedback controller makes the
system insensitive to disturbance and changes of the
parameter. Speed controller calculates the difference between
the reference speed and the actual speed producing an error,
which is fed to the PI controller. PI controllers are used widely
for motion control systems. They consist of a proportional
gain that produces an output proportional to the input error
and an integration to make the steady state error zero for a step
change in the input.
The design of the speed loop assumes that the current loop
is at least 10 times faster than speed loop, allowing to reduce
the system block diagram by considering the current loop to
be of unity gain as shown in figure (4).
-
+

Fig.4.Outer speed control loop of PMSM drive system

The open loop transfer function of the motor is given by:
( ) 2
1 /
p i
i T
s
sk k
k k
GH
J s
o
+ | |
| |
=
| |
\ .
\ .
(35)

The crossover frequency has been selected an order smaller
than the current loop. To satisfy dynamic response without
oscillations the phase margin (φ
PM
) should be greater than 45
0
,
preferably close to 60
0
. Knowing the motor parameters and
phase margin, the k
i
and k
p
gains can be obtained for the motor
controller using equations (36) and (37)
Phase Margin =φ
OL
+ 180
0

( )
2
1 / 1
.
i T
p i
s j
k k
sk k
J s
e
o
=
+ =
(36)

( )
0
2
1 / 180
.
i T
p i PM
k k
Angle sk k
J s
o
| + = +
(37)

The gains for the PI controller is obtained using motor
parameters and by selecting a cross-over frequency. The
obtained values are given in APPENDIX.

V. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The studied PMSM drive is system modeled and tested in
the MATLAB-Simulink environment with the parameters
given in the APPENDIX. Here the reference speed taken for
simulation is 200 (rad/sec) which is below rated speed.

A. Steady state Analysis with Conventional Hysteresis
Current Controller.

Here applied step load T
L
=1N-m for t≥0
The fig.5(a) Shows the response of motor speed.The
controller tracks the speed within 10 msec and it is same as
that of reference speed.The torque(T
e
) developed by the motor
is shown in fig.5(b) and T
e
reaches steady state value at 5
msec.But the torque ripple is larger from the evidence of
fig.5(d). actually the ripple in torque is due to larger current
error in the 3-Φ stator current which is shown in fig.5(c).
Fig.5(d) shows current error which is varying within the fixed
band and fig.5(e) shows the variation of d-q stator current
component. Here due to constant torque mode f operation i
d
=0
and i
q
is responsible for Te.

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
0
100
200
S
p
e
e
d
(
r
a
d
/
s
e
c
)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
0
2
4
6
T
e
(
N
-
m
)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
-10
0
10
I
a
b
c
(
A
)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
-1
0
1
E
r
r
o
r
(
A
)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
-10
0
10
Time(Sec)
I
q
d
o
(
A
)

Fig.5,(a)Response of speed;(b) Response of Te; (c) Stator current
waveform;(d) Current error;(e) d-q components of stator current.
-0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
x-y plot of stator flux

Fig.6.Response of stator flux during steady state conditions

This fig. 6 shows the variation of stator flux in x-y plot
contains large ripples due to fixed band.

B. Steady state Analysis with Adaptive Hysteresis Current
Controller.

As shown in fig.7 (a) shows the speed of the motor which
reaches the steady state 10 msec. The torque T
e
developed by
PMSM drives is shown in fig.7 (b). It reveals that, almost
entire torque ripple is minimized by the action of adaptive
hysteresis current controller. The corresponding stator current
waveforms and current error is shown in fig. 7 (c) and (d).
Fig.7 (e) shows the d-q components of stator current.
Fig.8 (b).shows x-y plot of stator flux which is almost ripple
free due to adaptive-band of adaptive hysteresis current
controller which is depicted by fig.8 (a).

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
0
100
200
S
p
e
e
d
(
r
a
d
/
s
e
c
)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
0
2
4
6
T
e
(
N
-
m
)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
-10
0
10
I
a
b
c
(
A
)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
-1
0
1
E
r
r
o
r
(
A
)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
-10
0
10
Time(Sec)
I
q
d
o
(
A
)

Fig.7,(a)Response of speed;(b) Response of Te; (c) Stator current
waveform;(d) Current error;(e) d-q components of stator current.
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
-0.02
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
Time(sec)
B
a
n
d
(
A
)

Fig.8. (a) Adaptive band
-0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
x-y plot of stator flux

Fig.8 (b).Response of stator flux during steady state conditions

C. Transient Analysis with Conventional Hysteresis Current
Controller

Here variable step load is applied which is varying from
1N-m to 0N-m at the interval of 0.02 sec.
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
0
100
200
S
p
e
e
d
(
r
a
d
/
s
e
c
)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
0
2
4
6
T
e
(
N
-
m
)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
-10
0
10
I
a
b
c
(
A
)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
-1
0
1
E
r
r
o
r
(
A
)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
-10
0
10
Time(Sec)
I
q
d
o
(
A
)

Fig.9,(a)Response of speed;(b) Response of Te; (c) Stator current
waveform;(d) Current error;(e) d-q components of stator current.

Fig.9 (a) shows the response of motor speed which tracks the
reference speed at 10 msec and it maintains constant
irrespective of load variation by the action of PI controller in
the outer loop of PMSM drive system. Fig.9 (b) shows the
response of electromagnetic torque T
e
during transient
condition. In this case the steady state is reached within 10
msec and torque ripple is quite larger due to load changes. The
corresponding stator current and current error is shown in fig.
Fig.9 (c) and Fig.9 (d). Fig.9 (e) shows the variation of d-q
components of stator current.
-0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
x-y plot of stator flux

Fig.10.Response of stator flux during transient conditions

The fig.10 shows the variation of stator flux in x-y plot.
During the transient period of load variation the stator flux is
attaining steady state at faster rate.

D. Transient Analysis with Adaptive Hysteresis Current
Controller

0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
0
100
200
S
p
e
e
d
(
r
a
d
/
s
e
c
)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
0
2
4
6
T
e
(
N
-
m
)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
-10
0
10
I
a
b
c
(
A
)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
-1
0
1
E
r
r
o
r
(
A
)
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
-2
0
2
4
6
8
Time(Sec)
I
q
d
o
(
A
)

Fig.11,(a)Response of speed;(b) Response of Te; (c) Stator current
waveform;(d) Current error;(e) dq component of stator current
-0.4 -0.2 0 0.2 0.4 0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
x-y plot of stator flux

Fig.12.Response of stator flux during transient conditions
0 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.1 0.12
-0.02
0
0.02
0.04
0.06
0.08
Time(sec)
B
a
n
d
(
A
)

Fig.13.Adaptive band
In this case the response of motor speed, T
e
and stator
current waveforms are similar to the previous case. But the
torque ripple has been reduced drastically due to constant
switching frequency operation of adaptive hysteresis current
controller. This is evident from the current error which is
shown in fig.11 (d). Fig.12 shows the x-y plot of stator flux
during transient conditions and Fig.13 show the adaptive band
of adaptive hysteresis current controller.
E. Comparison Analysis

The current tracking performance of both
conventional and adaptive hysteresis current controller are
shown in fig.14 and 15 respectively. Due to variable
switching frequency operation of hysteresis current
controller, stator current ripple is more. But the current
error is entirely minimized by the action of proposed
adaptive hysteresis current controller and the stator current
almost same as that of reference current commend. This is
because of variable hysteresis band during load current
changes.

0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05 0.055 0.06
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
Time(Sec)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
(
A
)


Ia*
Ia
Iea

Fig.14.Current control action by hysteresis current controller
0.03 0.035 0.04 0.045 0.05 0.055 0.06
-8
-6
-4
-2
0
2
4
6
8
Time(Sec)
C
u
r
r
e
n
t
(
A
)

Ia*
Ia
Iea

Fig.15 Current control action by adaptive hysteresis
current controller


Fig.16 Variation of average switching frequency with load.
From fig.16 we observed that, the switching frequency is
varying nearly about 2 kHz during variation of load in
conventional hysteresis current controller, but it is nearly
constant for adaptive hysteresis current controller irrespective
of load variations.

VI. CONCLUSION

In this paper, the performance improvement of vector
controlled PMSM drive system has been studied by employing
adaptive hysteresis current controller in the inner current
control loop. From the study we observed that, during
transient conditions adaptive hysteresis current controller
largely reduces the torque ripple in turn; it can provide smooth
running of PMSM drive system during low speed operation
when compared to classical hysteresis current controller. In
addition, we found that the adaptive hysteresis current
controller can enable to track the load current with reference
current at a faster rate in order to improve the dynamic
response of the system and it takes less computation time
while it will be practically implemented in the digital
processor platform.

REFERENCES

[1] P. Pillay and R. Krishnan, "Modeling of permanent magnet motor
drives," IEEE Trans., on Ind. Electron. , vol. 35, pp. 537-541, 1988.
[2] P. Pillay and R. Krishnan, "Modeling, simulation, and analysis of
permanent-magnet motor drives." IEEE Trans., on Ind. Appl., vol. 25,
pp. 265-273, 1989.
[3] B. k. Bose, "An adaptive hysteresis-band current control technique of a
voltage - fed PWM inverter for machine drive system", IEEE Trans., on
Ind. Appl., Vol.IA-37, pp.402-408, 1990
[4] A. B. Plunkett, “A current controlled PWM transistor inverter drive,” in
Proc. Conf. Rec. IEEE IAS Ann. Mtg., pp.785-792, 1979
[5] L. Malesani and P. Tenti, “A novel hysteresis control method for
Current-controlled VSI PWM inverters with constant modulation
frequency,” in Proc. Conf. Rec. IEEE IAS Ann. Mtg., pp.851-85, 1987
[6] Tae-Won Chun; Meong-Kyu Choi;” Development of adaptive hysteresis
band current control strategy of PWM inverter with constant switching
frequency“Applied power electronics conf. and exposition, APEC.
vol.1,pp.194-199, 1996
[7] B. Cui, J. Zhou, and Z. Ren, "Modeling and simulation of permanent
magnet synchronous motor drives," Electrical machines and
system,.ICEMS, vol.2, pp.905-908, 2001
[8] X. Jian-Xin, S. K. Panda, P. Ya-Jun, L. Tong Heng, and B. H. Lam, "A
modular control scheme for PMSM speed control with pulsating torque
minimization, “, IEEE Trans., on Ind. Electron., vol. 51, pp. 526-536,
2004.
[9] M.Kale, E.Ozdemir, “An adaptive hysteresis band current controller for
shunt active power filters”, ELSEVIER Journal of Electric power
systems research, 73, pp. 113-119, 2005.
[10] B. K. Bose, “Power Electronics and AC Drives. Prentice-Hall, 1986.

APPENDIX:
PMSM Drive system parameters for simulation
Rated voltage V
LL
220 V
Output power P
out
900 W
No. of poles P 4
Rated Speed ω
m
1700 rpm
Stator resistance R
S
4.3 Ω
PM flux linkage λ
af
0.272Wb
d-axis Inductance L
d
27 mH
q-axis Inductance L
q
67 mH
Rated current I
S
3 A
Maximum current I
SMAX
2I
Srated

Input voltage of inverter V
dc
300 V
Motor inertia J 0.000179 kg m
2

Damping coefficient B 0.05
Proportional constant k
p
0.3581
Integral constant k
i
129.9014
switching frequency f
c
5kHz

where the maximum possible torque is desired at all times like the dc motor. The vector control decouples the torque component and flux producing current in the motor through its stator excitation by applying instantaneous space vector theory. The vector control of the PM synchronous motor is derived from its dynamic d-q model [7]. For this reason the q axis current is called the torque producing component of the stator current and the d axis current is called the flux producing component of the stator current. 2/3Vdc . the general expression of incremental current rise  HB during Q1 – on period is given by . but not in its entirety. Adaptive Current controlled PMSM drive system For vector control the knowledge of the position of the instantaneous rotor flux or rotor position of PMSM is needed. The currents assigned above are the stator currents that must be transformed to the rotor reference frame with the rotor speed ωr. the other part is contributed by the equivalent current source representing the permanent magnet field. we get Since the machine normally operating with isolated neutral. Actually. the three phase currents can be calculated by using the current matrix depends on the applied When Q1 is on . ANALYSIS OF ADAPTIVE HYSTERESIS CURRENT CONTROLLER IN THE INNER LOOP (3) Where δ is the angle between the rotor field and stator current phasor. the machine phase voltages interact and no longer be 0. and when Q4 is on . Constant torque control strategy is derived from field oriented control. The q axis current is distinctly equivalent to the armature current (ia) and the d axis current is field current (if). this is the most practical case.1.   Ld  Lq  Im sin2  f Im sin  2 2 2  A. Knowing the position. using Park’s transformation. the corresponding voltage may be 0 . with isolated neutral.III. Some control options are constant torque and flux weakening. the PMSM drive system is equivalent to that of the dc motor when a decoupling control is possible known as field oriented control (FOC) or vector control.iq Where (1) (2)  3  P  kt      f  2  2  From the equation (7) the torque of the motor can be controlled by controlling iq component of is. It is only a partial field current.5Vdc as with a connected neutral like as shown in fig. the three phase currents are given by control strategy.iq  2  2  So.-1/3 .2. That result in selecting the δ angle to be 90º degrees by making the id current equal to zero the torque equation can be rewritten as:  3  P  Te      f . With the assumed polarity of counter emf when Q1 is on. IV. 1/3. iq  I m sin  (4) (5) From the above equations electromagnetic torque is obtained by id  I m cos  3 P 1  2 Te  . This is performed by making the torque producing current iq equal to the supply current Im. the possible phase-a voltage may be 0 . VECTOR CONTROL OF PMSM DRIVE SYSTEM According to the classical theory of electrical machines. The q and d axis currents are constants in the rotor reference frame since δ is a constant for a given load torque. Solving by using park’s transformation. -2/3Vdc. (7) (8) ia  I m sin r t    2  ib  I m sin  r t    3  2  ic  I m sin  r t    3        Te  kt . they are similar to the armature and field currents in the separately excited dc machine. Considering the currents as inputs. Constant Torque Operation (6) Fig1. Typical PWM phase voltage and current waves during a modulation cycle are shown in Fig. As these are constants.

which is showing phasor diagram of a PMSM the following equation can be written a 'Vdc  L2 1  2 2 HB  0. 1/3 or 2/3 & for simplicity let m= a dt 1 Hence HB  t1n  aVdc  v f   t1n m L Therefore. In equation (12) and (16). Although the average applied voltages in the two intervals may have some asymmetry. Adding equation (12) & (16) we get di* Where a= 0.3.25 Lf c  a ' Vdc  v f  V fm sin  e 2 vf    m   L    (13) Where (14) (15) (25) (26) (27) (28) (29) di 1    aVdc  v f  dt L t Hence  HB   2 n  aV dc  v f   t 2 n m L Therefore. H B  t1 n  a dia di *  t1 n a dt dt (9)  vf  1   2 HB  (HB)    t2 n  m    t2 n aVdc  L L      vf  1    t2  m     t2 n aVdc  L L    (16) t1 & t2 is the average current rise and fall duration respectively. we get (23) The general expression of incremental current fall during the Q4 – on period is given by HB  t2 n But  a di di  t2 n dt dt  a * a (24) From fig.Typical PWM voltage and current waveform with Calculation of Hysteresis-band (20) Where a' and a" are the respective applied voltage coefficients.2. the second term can be expressed as di 1   aVdc  v f dt L  (10)  t1n aVdc  t1a 'Vdc  t2n aVdc  t2 a "Vdc or (17) (18) t a a '  1n t1 t a a "  2n t2 (19) Fig. fc is switching frequency (11) So. The parameters a' and a" will typically vary between 1/3 and 2/3.  t1  t2   (22)  vf  2 HB   HB    t1n  m  L     vf   t1  m  L     1    t1n aVdc   L    1   t1n aVdc   L  (12) Now subtract equation (16) from (12) v   a 'Vdc 4 HB   m  f   t2  t1   L Lf c  Putting the equation (22) in (23) and solving. the total fall is V fm  2 f e I s  I sm sin( e     ) I qs  I sm cos(   ) I ds  I sm sin(   ) . still we assume a'= a" for computational simplicity. summing up the total current 0 vf 1  m fc  L  a 'Vdc  t1  t2   L  L f c a 'Vdc vf   m   L  (21) Where t1+t2=1/fc.

e. Here due to constant torque mode f operation id=0 and iq is responsible for Te. The studied PMSM drive is system modeled and tested in the MATLAB-Simulink environment with the parameters given in the APPENDIX.. which is fed to the PI controller.s (36) (32) (33) For constant torque operation I ds  0 So the (32) becomes 2   0. V. a motor. The obtained values are given in APPENDIX.4. PI controllers are used widely for motion control systems. Therefore. it is expected that the band profiles of all the phases will be same but phase will be displaced with 1200. A. differentiating (27) we get m dis  e  coseIsm cos( ) sine Ism sin( ) dt (30) Then substituting (28) and (29) in (30) m  e  I qs cos  e  I ds sin  e  Putting (25) & (31) in (24) and solving for HB we get 2   0. Design of outer speed controller loop The closed loop control system consists of a speed feedback system.5(c).3. Fig. A properly designed feedback controller makes the system insensitive to disturbance and changes of the parameter.5(e) shows the variation of d-q stator current component.The torque(Te) developed by the motor is shown in fig.Outer speed control loop of PMSM drive system The open loop transfer function of the motor is given by: Fig.5(a) Shows the response of motor speed. a controller and a speed setting device. the ki and kp gains can be obtained for the motor controller using equations (36) and (37) Phase Margin =φOL + 1800  k k    1  sk p / ki  GH  s    i T    s2  J   ki kT  1  sk p / ki   1 J . Here applied step load TL=1N-m for t≥0 The fig.25a'Vdc  L2e2  2f   HB  1 sine  Iqs cose  2 fcL  a'2 Vdc  L     (37) The gains for the PI controller is obtained using motor parameters and by selecting a cross-over frequency. A.The controller tracks the speed within 10 msec and it is same as that of reference speed. Knowing the motor parameters and phase margin.5(d).The design of the speed loop assumes that the current loop is at least 10 times faster than speed loop. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION (34) For the symmetrical operation of three phases. actually the ripple in torque is due to larger current error in the 3-Φ stator current which is shown in fig. They consist of a proportional gain that produces an output proportional to the input error and an integration to make the steady state error zero for a step change in the input.But the torque ripple is larger from the evidence of fig. + Fig.25a'Vdc  L2e2  2f   Ids )sine  Iqs cose  HB  1 ( 2 fcL  a'2 Vdc  L     (31) (35) The crossover frequency has been selected an order smaller than the current loop. allowing to reduce the system block diagram by considering the current loop to be of unity gain as shown in figure (4). Here the reference speed taken for simulation is 200 (rad/sec) which is below rated speed. ia) can be consider to be tracking accurately with respective commanded current (ia*) with the hysteresis-band current control. To satisfy dynamic response without oscillations the phase margin (φPM) should be greater than 450.5(b) and Te reaches steady state value at 5 msec.s 2 s  j kk  Angle i T 2 1  sk p / ki   1800  PM J . .5(d) shows current error which is varying within the fixed band and fig. an inverter. preferably close to 600. Steady state Analysis with Conventional Hysteresis Current Controller. Speed controller calculates the difference between the reference speed and the actual speed producing an error.Phasor diagram of PMSM drive system The phase current is (i.

12 0.4 -0.02 0.7 (a) shows the speed of the motor which reaches the steady state 10 msec.06 0.1 0.2 0 -0. -10 0 0.8 (b).04 0.6 0.02 0.4 0.2 x-y plot of stator flux 0.1 0.02 0.7 (b).6.1 0.06 0.04 0.2 0 0.1 0.04 0. Transient Analysis with Conventional Hysteresis Current Controller Here variable step load is applied which is varying from 1N-m to 0N-m at the interval of 0.(d) Current error. (a) Adaptive band 0. (c) Stator current waveform. 0. Steady state Analysis with Adaptive Hysteresis Current Controller.08 0.shows x-y plot of stator flux which is almost ripple free due to adaptive-band of adaptive hysteresis current controller which is depicted by fig.Speed(rad/sec) 200 100 0 0 6 4 2 0 0 10 0.04 0.04 0.08 0.(b) Response of Te. 0.(d) Current error. It reveals that.04 0.12 0.2 0 -0.08 Time(Sec) 0.4 -0.4 -0.08 0.08 0. 7 (c) and (d).6 Fig.1 0.06 0.12 0.04 0.5.1 0. Fig.(e) d-q components of stator current. The torque Te developed by PMSM drives is shown in fig.02 Fig. 6 shows the variation of stator flux in x-y plot contains large ripples due to fixed band.04 0.(e) d-q components of stator current. B.02 0.06 0.Response of stator flux during steady state conditions C.(a)Response of speed.08 Time(sec) Fig.02 0.2 x-y plot of stator flux 0.04 0.02 0.06 0.06 0. Fig.02 0.08 0.12 -10 0 1 Error(A) -10 0 1 0 -1 0 10 Error(A) 0 -1 0 10 0.Response of stator flux during steady state conditions 0.06 0.12 Iabc(A) 0 0.1 0.1 0.8 (a).02 0 -0.4 0.04 0.02 sec.2 -0.08 0.08 0.6 Fig.02 0.4 0.06 0. The corresponding stator current waveforms and current error is shown in fig.12 0.06 0.7.08 0.2 0 0.6 This fig.7 (e) shows the d-q components of stator current. (c) Stator current waveform.02 0.4 0.12 Iabc(A) Te(N-m) Te(N-m) 0 0. .1 0.1 0.04 0.8.4 -0.06 0.02 0 0. As shown in fig.08 Time(Sec) 0.2 -0.12 Iqdo(A) Iqdo(A) 0 -10 0 0 0.1 0. almost entire torque ripple is minimized by the action of adaptive hysteresis current controller.06 0.12 Fig.(b) Response of Te.08 0.(a)Response of speed.12 0.06 Band(A) 0.02 0.04 0.8 (b).12 Speed(rad/sec) 200 100 0 0 6 4 2 0 100 0.

Fig.06 0.4 0. Fig.9 (c) and Fig.1 0.11 (d).9 (e) shows the variation of d-q components of stator current.08 0.12 shows the x-y plot of stator flux during transient conditions and Fig. In this case the steady state is reached within 10 msec and torque ripple is quite larger due to load changes.06 0.06 Time(sec) 0.08 0.(b) Response of Te. Transient Analysis with Adaptive Hysteresis Current Controller In this case the response of motor speed.2 0 0.02 0.1 0.04 0. 0.08 0. Fig.08 0.02 0.10 shows the variation of stator flux in x-y plot.Adaptive band The fig.12 Fig.(b) Response of Te. Fig.06 0.08 Time(Sec) 0.08 0.2 0 -0.12 Speed(rad/sec) Speed(rad/sec) 200 100 0 0 6 4 2 0 0 10 0.12.02 0.02 0 -0.1 0.12 0.12 Error(A) Error(A) 0 -1 0 10 0.4 -0. (c) Stator current waveform.11. The corresponding stator current and current error is shown in fig.06 0.06 0. .12 Te(N-m) -10 0 1 0 -10 10 0.2 -0.04 0.1 0.12 0.2 -0.12 T ime(Sec) Fig.1 0.08 0.04 0.(d) Current error.2 x-y plot of stator flux 0.04 0.04 Fig.06 0.6 0.04 0.4 -0. D.6 Fig.06 0.(a)Response of speed.06 Band(A) -0. During the transient period of load variation the stator flux is attaining steady state at faster rate.04 0.2 0 0.02 0.06 0.9 (a) shows the response of motor speed which tracks the reference speed at 10 msec and it maintains constant irrespective of load variation by the action of PI controller in the outer loop of PMSM drive system.10.1 0.(e) d-q components of stator current.2 x-y plot of stator flux 0.(a)Response of speed.02 0.02 0.06 0.4 -0.(d) Current error.02 0.Response of stator flux during transient conditions 0.04 0.08 0.04 0.9 (b) shows the response of electromagnetic torque Te during transient condition. Fig.200 100 0 0 6 4 2 0 0 10 0.6 0.9 (d). Te and stator current waveforms are similar to the previous case.2 0 0.13 show the adaptive band of adaptive hysteresis current controller.06 0.08 0.02 0.4 0.04 0.02 0 0.4 -0.Response of stator flux during transient conditions 0.1 0.02 0.1 0.6 0.04 0.12 0 -1 80 6 4 2 0 -2 0 0. (c) Stator current waveform.1 0.08 0.1 0.08 0. But the torque ripple has been reduced drastically due to constant switching frequency operation of adaptive hysteresis current controller.02 0. This is evident from the current error which is shown in fig.4 0.(e) dq component of stator current 0.12 Iqdo(A) 0 -10 0 0.4 0.1 0.02 0.04 0.13.12 Iqdo(A) Fig.08 0.9.12 Te(N-m) Iabc(A) Iabc(A) 0 0.

1990 [4] A. Tenti. But the current error is entirely minimized by the action of proposed adaptive hysteresis current controller and the stator current almost same as that of reference current commend. 1979 [5] L. This is because of variable hysteresis band during load current changes. Electron. P. Jian-Xin. IEEE IAS Ann. and Z. [9] M. on Ind. "An adaptive hysteresis-band current control technique of a voltage ...03 0.IA-37. 2001 [8] X. Mtg. Electron. Comparison Analysis The current tracking performance of both conventional and adaptive hysteresis current controller are shown in fig.14 and 15 respectively. CONCLUSION In this paper. "A modular control scheme for PMSM speed control with pulsating torque minimization. K.06 Fig. simulation. E. during . In addition.” in Proc. Zhou.E. "Modeling and simulation of permanent magnet synchronous motor drives.905-908. J.000179 kg m2 0.194-199.Kale.pp.fed PWM inverter for machine drive system".04 0." IEEE Trans. k..2. Pillay and R. APEC. From fig. pp. Rec. it can provide smooth running of PMSM drive system during low speed operation when compared to classical hysteresis current controller. the switching frequency is varying nearly about 2 kHz during variation of load in conventional hysteresis current controller. Pillay and R.. Appl.3581 129. on Ind.851-85.04 0. 526-536. IEEE Trans. pp. vol. "Modeling. Rec.. the performance improvement of vector controlled PMSM drive system has been studied by employing adaptive hysteresis current controller in the inner current control loop. S. K. vol. vol..1.” in Proc. Appl. but it is nearly constant for adaptive hysteresis current controller irrespective of load variations. ELSEVIER Journal of Electric power systems research. B. 1989. Meong-Kyu Choi.035 0. Plunkett. Due to variable switching frequency operation of hysteresis current controller. Krishnan.06 Fig. Bose.. Krishnan.045 Time(Sec) 0.402-408. H. IEEE Trans. Tong Heng. vol.9014 5kHz Fig. “A novel hysteresis control method for Current-controlled VSI PWM inverters with constant modulation frequency.785-792. 1996 [7] B.Current control action by hysteresis current controller 8 6 4 Ia* Ia Iea Current(A) 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 0.055 0. 35. Malesani and P. 1988. VI. 73.035 0.” Development of adaptive hysteresis band current control strategy of PWM inverter with constant switching frequency“Applied power electronics conf.Ozdemir. “Power Electronics and AC Drives. Ya-Jun. Mtg. Ren. "Modeling of permanent magnet motor drives. of poles Rated Speed Stator resistance PM flux linkage d-axis Inductance q-axis Inductance Rated current Maximum current Input voltage of inverter Motor inertia Damping coefficient Proportional constant Integral constant switching frequency VLL Pout P ωm RS λaf Ld Lq IS ISMAX Vdc J B kp ki fc 220 V 900 W 4 1700 rpm 4.05 0. L.14. on Ind. Prentice-Hall. Conf.. “.. Conf. vol. 1987 [6] Tae-Won Chun.3 Ω 0. 51.05 0.03 0. “A current controlled PWM transistor inverter drive. 265-273." Electrical machines and system. Bose. REFERENCES [1] P. [2] P. pp. pp. [10] B. 113-119..ICEMS. Cui. we found that the adaptive hysteresis current controller can enable to track the load current with reference current at a faster rate in order to improve the dynamic response of the system and it takes less computation time while it will be practically implemented in the digital processor platform. 1986. Vol.16 Variation of average switching frequency with load. pp. and exposition. 25.055 0. IEEE IAS Ann. . pp." IEEE Trans. Current(A) 2 0 -2 -4 -6 -8 0. on Ind. 2004. 537-541.15 Current control action by adaptive hysteresis current controller APPENDIX: PMSM Drive system parameters for simulation Rated voltage Output power No. [3] B.16 we observed that.05 0. 2005. From the study we observed that. 8 6 4 Ia* Ia Iea transient conditions adaptive hysteresis current controller largely reduces the torque ripple in turn. pp. “An adaptive hysteresis band current controller for shunt active power filters”. and B. and analysis of permanent-magnet motor drives. Lam. pp. Panda. stator current ripple is more.045 Time(Sec) 0.272Wb 27 mH 67 mH 3A 2ISrated 300 V 0.

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