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A TRAINING REPORT ON

PLCC 132KV GSS Hawa sarak, Jaipur (Raj.)


Submitted In partial fulfillment of the Requirements for Award of the Degree of BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN ELECTRONICS&COMMUNICATION From Rajasthan Technical University

Submitted To Mr.NITIN GUPTA (HOD of EC deptt.)

Submitted By ANTIMA GARG 4th year E.C R.C.E.W

DEPARTMENT OF ELECTONICS&COMMUNICATION RAJASTHAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING FOR WOMEN BHANKROTA, JAIPUR 302 005

Session 2008 2012

OFFICE OF ASSISTANT ENGINEER (PLCC) RAJASTHAN RAJYA VIDYUT PRASARAN NIGAM LIMITED 132KV G.S.S CHAMBAL POWER HOUSE JAIPUR TO WHOM SO EVER IT MAY CONCERN This is certify that ANTIMA GARG student of B.TECH 3rd year of Electronics & communication from RAJASTHAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING FOR WOMEN,BHANKROTA,JAIPUR has attended practical training program from 29-06-2011 to 29-07-2011 (30 working days) in this organization connected with power line carrier communication (PLCC). Her performance during the practical training period remained good/ very good/excellent and completed his training with full devotion. Date:-29-07-2011 (MOHD. FAROOQ NIRWAN)

PREFACE
Summer Training is an important part of our Engineering Curriculum. The B. Tech. course helps a student in getting acquainted with the manner in which his/her knowledge is being practically used at a large scale. Hence, when the student switched from the process of learning to that of implementing his/her knowledge, he/she finds an abrupt change. This is exactly why summer training during the B. Tech. curriculum becomes all the more important. Summer Training is prescribed for the student of Technical College as a part of the four-year degree course of Engineering by the AICTE. We are required to do training and it has to be completed within a particular period of time before completion of the 3rd year ending VI semester. This training report describes each and every detail of the work we performed to make a successful completion of project. This report also give us a brief idea of how we move ahead step by step reaching to specific height and ultimately completing the goal.

ANTIMA GARG B.Tech.VII Semester RCEW

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
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We are over helmed in all humbleness and gratefulness to acknowledge our depth to all those who have helped us to put these ideas, well above the level of simplicity and into concrete something. We are very thankful to all the instructors of PLCC, Jaipur for their valuable help. With the help of their valuable suggestions, guidance and encouragement. I would also like to thank to our institution RAJASTHAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING FOR WOMEN, BHANKROTA,JAIPUR and faculty members of the department, who often helped and gave me valuable guidence to prepare my presentation. Last but not the least, I would like to thank my parents who helped me a lot in gathering different information, collecting data and guiding me from time to time in making this project .despite of their busy schedules ,they gave me different ideas in making this project unique.

ANTIMA GARG B.Tech.7THSemester RCEW / ECE

TABLE OF CONTENTS
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1. Company profile 2.Introduction 3.Coupling devices 4.The yard 5.Lightning arrester 6.Circuit breaker
7.

Isolater

8.Relays 9.Battery charger 10. Precautions and Maintenance 11. Advantages and Disadvantages

COMPANY PROFILE
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INTRODUCTION OF RSEB "Rajasthan state electricity board" started working from Ist July, 1957. This is the body of big organization and is to function under provision electricity act, like public limited companies. The board does not have article and memorandum of association. In order to carry out its function, its rules & regulation and his mad other necessary administrative arrangement. After the acting of RSEB six dimensions along with 64 offices & about 300 employees were transferred to its control by the state Govt. The aim of RSEB is to supply electricity to entire Rajasthan State in the most economical way. There are no possibilities of staking or electricity so the target of board is to distribute the energy in the new area as possible. The board has to carry the business on profit without losses. After an efficient starting, for the better service privatization of RSEB has been done recently, it has been divided in five main parts, they are: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Electricity production authority: Distribution authority for Jaipur: Distribution authority for Ajmer: RRVUNL JVVNL AVVNL

Electricity transmission authority: RRVPNL Distribution authority for Jodhpur: JDVVNL

CHAPTER-1
INTRODUCTION

POWER LINE CARRIER COMMUNICATION (PLCC)


voltage transmission lines, distributed over medium voltage, and used inside buildings at lower voltages. Power line communications can be applied at each stage. Most PLC technologies limit themselves Electrical power is transmitted over high to one set of wires (for example, premises wiring), but some can cross between two levels (for example, both the distribution network and premises wiring). Typically the transformer prevents propagating the signal so multiple PLC technologies are bridged to form very large networks. Electrical power is transmitted over high voltage transmission lines, distributed over medium voltage, and used inside buildings at lower voltages. Power line communications can be applied at each stage. Most PLC technologies limit themselves to one set of wires (for example, premises wiring), but some can cross between two levels (for example, both the distribution network and premises wiring). Typically the transformer prevents propagating the signal so multiple PLC technologies are bridged to form very large networks

BASIC PRINCIPLE OF PLCC


In PLCC the higher mechanical strength and insulation level of high voltage power lines result in increased reliability of communication and lower attenuation over long distances. Since telephone communication system cannot be directly connected to the high voltage lines, suitably designed coupling devices have therefore to be employed. These usually 8

consist of high voltage capacitors or capacitor with potential devices used in conjunction with suitable line matching units (LMUs) for matching the impedance of line to that of the coaxial cable connecting the unit to the PLC transmit-receive equipment. Also the carrier currents used for communication have to be prevented from entering the power equipment used in G.S.S as this would result in high attenuation or even complete loss of communication signals when earthed at isolator.. Wave traps usually have one or more suitably designed capacitors connected in parallel with the choke coils so as to resonate at carrier frequencies and thus offers even high impedance to the flow of RF currents.

STA
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PLCC technology is used for the following these places which are given below:1. point to point communication (hot line comm.) 2. Data telemetry purpose 3. Tele protection purpose Point to point communication :- point to point communication states that the communication in between two particular stations now the question is arises that why we go towards that communication when mobile and telephone are available . two problems are arises in mobile communication.

First is when we are using mobile that the networking problems may arises. Second thing is someone at any stations may busy talking with another person while /when you are try to call him.

Data telemetry :- PLCC terminals can be used for sending and receiving data signal for
telemetry etc. The input for this channel will be in 2000-3000Hz.

Tele Protection :- Protection coupler Equipment can be used along with PLCC terminals
telemetry purpose. During line fault other fault occurring between sub station trip Signals can be transmitted or received by a protection coupler through PLCC terminal for activation distance protection Relaying Equipment. In PLCC the higher mechanical strength and insulation level of high voltage power line communication and lower attenuation over long distance. The idea is to use the power line as a transmission line for communication purpose

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CHAPTER-2 COUPLING DEVICES

Earliest coupling devices used were antenna as similar to these used in radio work. This was because capacitors capable of withstanding the high voltages used in transmission of electrical power were not available at that time. The antennas used for coupling the PLC equipment to the transmission lines were usually erected below the line and parallel to it. They were usually more then 300 ft long and were tuned to the carrier frequency employed. These were rather inefficient and the systems were affected but interference from nearby long wave radio transmitters. By about 1930, suitably paper and oil capacitors were developed which could withstand the high voltage and serve as affectidive coupling units to PLC equipments. A modern coupling capacitor consists of stack of flat would elements of pure cellulose paper and aluminium coils held between insulating roads under optimum pressure to minimize capacitance the changes with time and temperature. The interconnection is designed to obtain. Highest possible range withstands capacity and highest cut-off frequency. The entire stack assembly as placed in a suitable pro claim insulating shall fill with insulation coils and hemetically sealed by metallic flanges and gaskets of synthetic rubber with a dry nitrogen gas cushion. The mechanical strength of the shell and flanges are carefully matched. Coupling capacitors are designed for outdoors use and withstand normal atmospheric phenomenon such as temperature and humidity rain, shown etc. The capacitor's used in modern PLCC systems have a capacity between 2000 and 8000 ft. The usual value is between 3000 and 5000 ft. The units are designed to have a very low (<0.5dB). There are usually mounted on pedestals below the line conductors. In many cases the capacitive voltage dividers are used for communication system and voltage is used for synchronizing purpose or voltage measurement.

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Coupling is necessary because, if power of power line is flow through the communication line it cause the burning of PLCC equipment. So overcome this problem a coupling capacitor is used to block the flow of power into the carrier signal line.

TYPE OF COUPLING
(A)Phase To Ground Coupling

(B)phase to phase coupling (C)inter circuit coupling

(A)Phase To Ground Coupling

ST
As can be seen from the figure, the wave traps and coupling capacitors are all connected to one conductor of the power line. The remaining two conductors, though not directly connected to the. 12

Line carry a portion of the returning carrier current because these two conductors do not have wave traps, a portion of the carrier energy is 1 lost. Also radiation losses are goes high as earth forms a part of the circuit and the noise pickup is correspondingly higher. The method of connecting is inefficient and the connection at the receiving and can not be made to match the line perfectly. This is because the impedance of the line can not be calculated correctly as it depends partly on the soil conductivity enrote the line which varies from place to place and time to time and parity on station switching condition.

b)Phase To Phase Coupling


This type of coupling was formally being used to improve the reliability of communication case of breakage of one of the coupled conductors the system used double the number of wave traps and coupling capacitors used in phase to ground and hence is costlier. This coupling capacitor at each and have the line are connected in parallel to the LMUs as shown in this sketch figure-

STATION A

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Through this type coupling increase the reliability of communication, the attenuation, interference from radio transmission and monitoring possibilities are all-higher than those of phase to ground coupling. Hence this type of coupling has been discontinued and super sided by the phase to phase coupling system.

(C)Inter Circuit Coupling


This type is coupling uses the same number of wave traps and the capacitor as two phase coupling but the capacitance are not connected in parallel as in the case of that type of coupling. The two power conductors used in this case may be considered as metallic go and return lines for the carrier currents. The conductor has no appreciable influences on the carrier currents. The third has no appreciable influence on the carrier current transmission. Hence the switching conditions attention is less because two conductors are used instead of one conductor and earth. This type of coupling is more reliable over longer distance and is generally used load dispatch work, though is lightly costlier than the two phase system.

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STATION A

STATION A
COMPARISON OF PHASE TO PHASE AND PHASE TO GROUND COUPLING
The phase-to-ground coupling has the advantage of requiring only half the number of wave traps and coupling capacitors in comparison to phase-to-phase coupling. But it is inferior to many respects as would be evident from the following points: 1. 2. 3. The phase-to-ground coupling has higher attenuation and unlike phase-to-phase coupling, the attenuation varies with station switching conditions. The variation of attenuation function with changes in weather condition is greater in phase-to-ground coupling. Reflection and echoes due to mismatch difficulties are much greater in phase-toground coupling.

PLCC

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LMU

4.

Signal-to-noise ratio is poorer due to longitudinal noise voltages induced in the line. In phase-to-phase coupling thee noise voltages tend to cancel themselves as equal voltages are induced in the coupled conductors, which oppose each other in the circuit.

5. 6.

Radiation from phase-to-ground case is about double than that in the other case. A break or fault of some other kind will hamper the transmission in phase-to-ground coupling much more seriously than in phase-to-phase coupling.

Hence, phase-to-ground coupling is used due to its cheapness, especially when frequency used and distances to be covered are suitable, and radiation not particularly objectionable, as may be the situation in sparsely populated areas.

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CHAPTER-3 THE YARD

The yard is spread in very long area. The yard of 220 KV GSS at Heerapura has various equipment installed at the yard of 220 KV GSS, Heerapura are:. PLCC equipment including coupling capacitance

Lighting Arrester Wave Trap Circuit Breaker Isolater Bus Bars Insulator Static earthling system PLCC equipment including coupling capacitance

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Switch Yard

Switch yard

THE YARD

BUS BAR SYSTEM This bus bar arrangement is very useful for working purpose as every GSS. It is a conductor to which a number of cut .Are connected in 220 KV GSS there are two bus running parallel to the each other, one is main and another is auxiliary bus is only for stand by, in case of failure of one we can keep the supply continues. If more loads are coming at the GSS then we can disconnect any feeder through circuit breaker which is connected to the bus bar. This remaining all the feeders will be in running 18

position .if we want to work with any human damage. In this case all the feeders will be on conditions. According to bus voltage the material is used .Al is used because of the property & features and it is cheap. With the help of bus bar arrangement we can connect all the incoming supply which is coming from different higher order GSS.

PROPERTIES COPPER ALUMINIUM 1. Electricity resistively at 0.0172410.00403 2. Temp coff. of resistively 0.0041 0.00403 3. Softening tem.200 4. Thermal conductivity.932.503 5. Meting point1083657

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CHAPTER-4 LIGHTENING ARRESTER

Lightening arrester is first equipment of GSS. It is protecting all the equipment against the HV. The ground wire or earthing does not provide protection against the high voltage waves reaching the terminal equipment .so some protective device is necessary to produce power station, sub-station and transmission lines against the high voltage wave reaching here.This is connected between line and earth it acts as a safty value. Through the surge impedance of line limits the amplitude of the line to earth over voltage to a value which wills safe guard the insulation of the protected equipment. An ideal L.A should have following characteristics:1. It should not take any current under normal condition .i.e. its spark over voltage must be higher than the system voltage. 2. Any abnormal transient voltage above the break down voltage must caused it to break as quick as possible in order to provide an alternate path to earth. 3. It must be able to carry the resultant discharge current without causing damage to itself. For high voltage system the thirties type L.A are used .The value type is also known as non linear diverter .These arrester consist of a spark gape and a non linear resistance. Both resistance and spark gape are accommodated in series with a completely light porcelain condition humidity etc.

SPARK GAPE:They include a number of identical elements connected in series .Each element consist of with pre ionization device between each grounding resistance of high ohmic value connected in parallel. 20

NON LINEAR RESISTER:The resister disc comprises inorganic material having a silicon carbide base in a clay board. These discs form a block. The ohmic value of which decreases rapidly when the applied voltage and current increases as soon as the current wave resulting from the over voltage has been discharged. The resister block subjected to the sole. Alternating Voltage and resistance assumes great value .So that the amplitude of the resulting current becomes zero.

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Lightning arrester

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CHAPTER-5 WAVE TRAP

It is used to trap the communication signals & send PLCC room through CVT. Rejection filters are known as the line traps consisting of a parallel resonant circuit ( L and C in parallel) tuned to the carrier frequency are connected in series at each and of the protected line such a circuit offer high impedance to the flow of carrier frequency current thus preventing the dissipation. The carrier current used for PLC Communication have to be prevented from entering the power equipments such as attenuation or even complete loss of communication signals. For this purpose wave trap or line trap are used between transmission line and power station equipment toAvoid carrier power dissipation in the power plant reduce cross talks with other PLC Circuits connected to the same power station. Ensure proper operating conditions and signal levels at the PLC transmit receive equipment irrespective of switching conditions of the power circuit and equipments in the stations.

Line Matching Filter & Protective Equipments


For matching the transmitter and receiver unit to coupling capacitor and power line matching filters are provided. These flitters normally have air corral transformers with capacitor assumed. The matching transformer is insulated for 7-10 KV between the two windings and perform two functions. Firstly, it isolates the communication equipment from the power line. Secondly, it serves to match .

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Figure-4.1 Line Matching Filter & Protective Equipments

Transmitter
The transmitter consists of an oscillator and a amplifier. The oscillator generates a frequency signal with in 50 to 500 HZ frequency bands the transmitter is provided so that it modulates the carrier with protective signal. The modulation process usually involves taking one half cycle of 50 HZ signal and using this to create block to carrier.

Receivers
The receivers usually consist of and alternate matching transformer band pass filter and amplifier detector. The amplifier detector converts a small incoming signal in to a signal capable of operating a relatively intensive carrier receiver relay. The transmitter and receiver at the two ends of protected each corresponds to local as far as transmitting.

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CHAPTER-6 CIRCUIT BREKER

Breakers are switching and current interrupting devices. Basically a circuit breaker comprises a set of fixed and movable contacts. The contacts can be separated by means of an operating an arc. The arc is extinguished by a suitable medium such as dielectric oil vacuum, SF6 gas. The circuit breakers play an important role in the design and performance of a power system, in that these are the key pieces of apparatus protecting the system and thus ensure continuity of supply from consideration of cost, the circuit breakers represent a major items, and are, next only to the generator and transformer, since their quantity is greater than that of generators/transformer in a power system owing to the services required for control of transmission lines, bus-bar etc. in addition to control of transformers and generator.

Circuit breakers

FUNCTION OF CIRCUIT BREAKER


The expected functions of a circuit breaker are: i. It must be capable of closing on to and carrying full load currents for long period of time. 25

ii.

Under proscribed condition, it must open automatically to disconnect the load or some small overload.

iii.

It must successfully and rapidly interrupt the heavy current, which flow when a short circuit has to be cleared from the system.

iv.

It must be capable of closing on to a circuit in which a fault exists and immediately re-opening to clear the fault from system

It must be capable of carrying current of short circuit magnitude until, and for such time as, the fault is cleared by another breaker nearer to the pint of fault.

Types of Circuit Breaker


i. ii. iii. iv. v. Bulk oil Circuit Breakers Minimum oil Circuit Breakers. Air blast Circuit Breakers Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) Circuit Breakers. Vacuum Circuit Breakers

Bulk oil circuit breaker:Bulk oil circuit breakers are enclosed in metal-grounded waterproof tanks that are referred to as dead tanks. The tank type circuit breakers had 3 separate tanks for 72.5 KV and above (Fig. 12a). For 36 KV and below, single tank construction, phase barriers were provided between phase.

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Figure 19 breaker

Schematic diagram of bulk oil circuit

The contact separation takes place in steel tanks filled with oil. The gases formed, due to the heat of the arc, expand and set the turbulent flow in the oil. The arc was drawn directly inside of the container tank without any additional arc extinguishing but the one provided by the gas bubble surrounding the arc. Plain break breakers were superseded by arc controlled oil breakers. To assist arc extinction process, arc control devices were fitted to the contact assembly. These were semi-enclosed chamber of dielectric materials.The purpose of the arc control devices is to improve operating capacity, speed up the extinction of arc, and decrease pressure on the tank. The performance of oil circuit breaker depended on the effectiveness of the arc control devices.

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The breakers incorporate arc control are called arc control circuit breakers. These are two types of such breakers:
1. Self blast oil circuit breakers In which arc control is provided by internal means i.e. are itself facilitates its own extinction efficiency. There are three types of pot: Plain explosion pot Cross jet explosion pot Self compensated explosion pot

2. Forced blast oil circuit breakers - in which arc control is provided by mechanical means external to the circuit breaker. In this type of circuit breaker there is a piston attached to a moving contact. When fault occurs the moving contact moves and hence the piston associated with it also moves producing pressure inside the oil chamber. So the oil gets movement or turbulates and quenching the arc. The arc control devices can be classified into two groups: cross-blast and axial blast interrupters.

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Figure 16 Classification of arc control devices

Figure content:1. Fixed contact assembly 2. Arc 3. Moving contact with tungsten-copper tip 4. Fiber reinforced tube 5. Gas evolved by decomposition of oil 6. Dielectric oil 7. Outer enclosure (Porcelain or Fiber Reinforced Epoxy )

The major disadvantages of tank type circuit breakers are ;


1. Large quantity of oil is necessary in oil circuit breakers though only a small quantity is necessary for arc extinction. 2. The entire oil in the tank is likely to get deteriorated due to sludge formation in proximity of the arc. Then the entire oil needs replacement. 3. The tanks are too big, at 36 KV and above, and the tank type oil circuit breaker loses its simplicity.

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Minimum oil circuit breaker


This type is also known as poor oil or small oil circuit breaker. In the bulk oil circuit breakers, the oil serves as both arcs extinguishing medium and main insulation. The minimum oil circuit breakers were developed to reduce the oil volume only to amount needed for extinguishing the arc - about 10% of bulk oil amount. The arc control for the minimum oil breakers is based on the same principle as the arc control devices of the bulk oil breakers. To improve breaker performance, oil is injected into the arc. In MOCB, The current interruption takes place inside "interrupter". The enclosure of the interrupter is made of insulating material, like porcelain. Hence, the clearance between the line and the enclosure can be reduced and lesser quantity of oil would be required for internal insulation. The interrupter containers of the minimum oil circuit breakers are insulated from the ground. This is usually referred to as live tank construction. For high voltage (above 132 KV), The interrupter are arranged in series. It essential to ensure that each interrupter carries its share of the duty. Care must be taken that all breaks occur simultaneously, and that the restriking voltage is divided equally across the breaks during the interrupting process. The thermal voltage division depends on stray capacitances between the contacas and the ground, and therefore is in very uneven. This is corrected by connecting capacitances or resistors in parallel with the interrupting heads. Figure 20 shows a three phase minimum oil circuit breaker along with cross-section through a single phase.

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Minimum oil circuit breaker Figure content:1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Vent valve Terminal pad Oil level indicator Moving contact lower fixed contact Separating piston Terminal pad Upper drain value

Air blast circuit breaker


1 Introduction Air blast circuit breakers are used today from 11 to 1100 KV, for various application. They offer several advantages such as faster operations, suitability for related operation, auto-reclosure, unit type multi-break construction, simple, assembly, modest maintenance, etc. A compressor plant is necessary to maintain high air pressure in the receiver. Air-blast circuit breakers operates repeatedly. Air-blast circuit breakers are used for interconnected lines and important lines when rapid operation is desired. 31

Construction of Air-Blast Circuit-Breaker


In air blast circuit breaker (also called compressed air circuit breaker) high pressure air is forced on the arc through a nozzle at the instant of contact separation. The ionized medium between the contacts is blown away by the blast of the air. After the arc extinction the chamber is filled with high pressure air, which prevents restrike. In some low capacity circuit breakers, the isolator is an integral part of the circuit breaker. The circuit breaker opens and immediately after that the isolator opens, to provide addition gap. In EHV circuit of today, isolators are generally independently mounted.

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Schematic diagram of air blast circuit breaker

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Principle

Description
High pressure air between 20 to kgf/cm2 , is stored in the air reservoir (item 1 in Fig. 7). Air is taken from compressed air system. Three hollow insulator columns (item 2) are mounted on the resrvoir with valves (6) at their base. The double arc extinguishing chambers (3) are mounted on the top of the hollow insulator chambers. The current carrying parts (7) connect the three arc extinction chambers to each other in series and the pole to the neighboring equipment. since there exist a very high voltage between the conductor and the air reservoir, the entire arc extinction chamber assembly is mounted on insulators.

Sulphur Hexafluoride (SF6) Circuit Breaker and SF6 Insulated Metalclad switchgear
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Introduction
Sulpher hexafluoride (SF6) is an inert, heavy gas having good dielectric and arc extinguishing properties. The dielectric strength of the gas increases with pressure and is more than that of dielectric oil at pressure of 3 kgf/cm 2 . This gas is now being very widely used in electrical equipment like high voltage metal enclosed cables; high voltage metal clad switchgear, capacitors, circuit breakers, current transformers, bushings, etc. This gas liquefies at certain low temperatures, the liquefaction temperature increases with pressure. This gas is commercially manufactured in many countries and is now being extensively used by electrical industry in Europe, U.S.A. and Japan. Several types of SF6 circuit breakers have been developed by various manufacturers in the world, for rated voltage from 3.6 to 760 KV. However, at present they are generally preferred for voltages above 72.5 KV. Sulphur hexafluoride gas is prepared by burning coarsely crushed roll sulphur in the fluorine gas, in a steel box, provided with staggered horizontal shelves, each bearing about 4 kg of sulphur. The steel box is made gas-tight. The gas thus obtained contains other fluoride such as S2F10 , SF4 and must be purified further. SF6 gas is generally supplied by chemical firms. The cost of gas is low if manufactured on a large scale.

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The gas is transported in liquid from in cylinders. Before filling the gas, the circuit breaker is evacuated to the pressure of about 4 mm of mercury so as to remove the moisture and air. The gas is then filled in the circuit breaker. The gas can be reclaimed by the gas-handling unit. There are tow types of SF6 circuit breakers: 1. Single pressure puffer type SF6 circuit In which the entire circuit breaker is filled with SF6 gas at single pressure ( 4 to 6 kgf/cm2) . The pressure and gas flow, required for arc extinction, is obtained by piston action. 2. Double pressure type SF6 circuit breaker In which the gas from high pressure system is released into low pressure system over the arc during the arc quenching process. This type has been superseded by puffer type.

Properties of SF6 Gas


Sulphur hexafluoride (SF6) gas has good dielectric and arc extinguishing properties. The dielectric strength of the gas increase with pressure and is more than that of the 36

dielectric oil at high pressures. SF6 is now very widely used in electrical equipments like high voltage metal enclosed cables, high voltage metal clad switchgear, capacitors, circuit breakers, current transformers, high voltage bushing, etc. Sulphur hexafluoride gas is of low cost if manufactured on a large scale. It is transported in liquid from cylinders. Before filling the gas, the circuit breaker is evacuated to the pressure of about 4mm of mercury so as to remove the moisture and air. The gas is then filled in the C.B.

Physical properties of SF6 gas


Colorless. Odorless. Nontoxic. Pure SF6 gas is not harmful to health. However, impure SF6 gas contains toxic impurities. Inflammable. Stat: gas at normal temperature and pressure. Density : heavy gas with density 5 times that of air at 20 C and atmospheric pressure.

Chemical properties of SF6 Gas


1. Stable up to 500 C. 2. Inert. The chemical inertness of this gas is advantageous in switchgear. The life of metallic part, contacts is longer in SF6 gas. The components do not get oxidized or deteriorated. Hence the maintenance requirements are reduced. Moisture is very harmful to the properties of the gas. In the presence of moisture, hydrogen fluoride is formed during arcing which can attack the metallic and insulating parts in the circuit breaker. 3. Electronegative gas. 4. Does not react with structural material up to 500 C. 5. Products of decomposition. During arc extinction process SF6 is broken down to some extent intoSF4, SF2. The products of decomposition recombine upon cooling to form the original gas. The remainder is removed by filters containing activated alumina ( AL2O3) Loss factor is small. The products of decomposition are toxic and attack certain structural materials. 37

6. The metallic fluorides are good dielectric materials hence are safe for electrical equipment. 7. Moisture content in the gas, due to influx from outside, present a various problems in SF6 circuit breakers. Several failures have been reported recently due to this cause.

Dielectric properties of SF6 Gas


1. Dielectric strength of SF6 gas atmospheric pressure is 2.35 times that of air, it is 30% less than of dielectric oil used in oil circuit breakers. 2. At higher pressure the dielectric strength of the gas increases. At pressure about 3 kgf/cm2 the dielectric strength of SF6 gas is more than that of dielectric oil. This property permits smaller clearance and small size of equipments for the same KV. 3. The breakdown voltage in SF6 gas depends on several aspects such as electrode configuration, roughness of electrodes, distribution of electric field, vicinity of insulating supports, moisture, wave shape etc. Other parameters remaining constant, the breakdown voltage in SF6 increases with pressure. The gas follows paschen's law which states that "in uniformly distributed electric field, the breakdown voltage (Vb ) in a gas is directly proportional to the product of gas pressure (p) and electrod gap (d)" Vbpd 4. With the non uniform field, the breakdown voltage versus pressure curve does not follow the paschent's law strictly. The breakdown voltage increases with pressure. However after about 2.5 kgf/cm2 it starts reducing and then rises again. The pressure at which the breakdown voltage starts reducing is called 'Critical pressure'. The dielectric strength at pressure between 2-3 kgf/cm 2 is high. Hence this pressure range preferred in SF6 insulated metal enclosed switchgear. However, in circuit breaker compartment, the pressure of the order of is kgf/cm 2 preferred for arc quenching process. 5. Rough electrode surface reduces the breakdown voltage with rough surface the ionization starts earlier near the sharp points on conductors. Hence conductor surfaces should be smooth 6. Thew conductor in SF6 insulating equipment are supported on epoxy or porcelain insulators. The flashover invariably takes place along the surface of the support 38

insulators. The breakdown can occur at extremely low values if the insulators supports are covered by moisture and conducting dust. Hence the insulators should be extremely clean and should have anti-tracking properties. 7. The breakdown is initiated at sharp edges of conducting parts and parts having maximum stress concentration. The limiting value of breakdown stress is of the order of 20 P KV/cm for pure SF6 and P is pressure of gas in kgf/cm2 . Good stress distribution is very important in SF6 insulated equipment. 8. The breakdown value depends on the wave-shape characterized by peak value, wave front, wave-tall, polarity in case of impulse wave. Voltage withstand value reduces with increase in steepness and increase in duration of the wave. Negative polarity is generally more severe than positive. 9. SF6 gas maintain high dielectric strength even when diluted by air (Nitrogen). 30% SF6 + 70 % of air, by volume, has a dielectric strength twice that of air ( at the same pressure). Below 30% by volume, the dielectric strength reduces quickly.

Vacuum circuit breaker


In this breaker, vacuum is being used as the arc quenching medium. Vacuum offers highest insulating strength, it has far superior arc quenching properties than any other medium. When contacts of a breaker are opened in vacuum, the interruption occurs at first current zero with dielectric strength between the contacts building up at a rate thousands of times that obtained with other circuit breakers.

Principal:- When the contacts of the breaker are opened in vacuum (10 -7 to 10 -5 torr),
an arc is produced between the contacts by the ionization of metal vapours of contacts. The arc is quickly extinguished because the metallic vapours, electrons, and ions produced during arc condense quickly on the surfaces of the circuit breaker contacts, resulting in quick recovery of dielectric strength. As soon as the arc is produced in vacuum, it is quickly extinguished due to the fast rate of recovery of dielectric strength in vacuum.

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Working :- When the breaker operates the moving contacts separates from the fixed contacts and an arc is struck between the contacts. The production of arc is due to the ionization of metal ions and depends very much upon the material of contacts. The arc is quickly extinguished because the metallic vapours, electrons and ions produced during arc 40

are diffused in short time and seized by the surfaces of moving and fixed members and shields. Since vacuum has very fast rate of recovery of dielectric strength, the arc extinction in a vacuum breaker occurs with a short contact separation.

CHAPTER-7 ISOLATOR

When carrying out inspection or maintains work in substation ,it is essential to disconnect reliability the unit of other station on which the work is done from all other parts on installation in order to ensure full safety of working staff .So guard against mistake it is desirable that should be done by an apparatus is called ISOLATOR. In other words a device which is used to open or close the circuit either when negligible current is interrupted or when no significant change in voltage across the terminal of each pole of the isolator will result from operation .they must only be opened or closed when current is zero. There is single ear thing Isolator used Isolator is switching device used to open (or close) a circuit either when a negligible current exists or when no significant change in voltage across the terminal of each pole of the isolator, will result from the operation. Broadly speaking isolator are the switches whichs operate under "No current condition. Thus, isolator is an apparatus which makes a visible and reliable disconnection of the unit or the section after opening the circuit breaker. Isolators are file with earthing blades as an integral part of it. They may be isolators with single ear thing blades or two earthling blades on either side of it. The isolators used at

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220 KV GSS, heerapura have single earthing blades either side of it.They must only be opened or closed when current is zero. Isolators are classified into following categories. 1. Bus isolator 2. Line isolator 3. Transformer isolating switch

From constructional point of view the isolator may be classified as1.The post- centre post rotating part, double post break type. 2.Two post single type. 3.Base: - Each pipe phase isolator is mounted on a robust base of steal construction.

Isolator 42

MOUNTING: The central post rotates in gun metal bushing and tapered roller bearing provided with grease nipples for lubrication required to be alone at regulars intervals during routine check up. OPERATING MECHANISM:-1.Hand operated: - It consists of a fulcrums and level system for easy operation of isolators. 2.The isolators used in G.S.S heerapura at are three post types. Each isolator has three insulators post per phase mounted on a phase of steal construction.

CHAPTER-8 RELAYS

Introduction: In order to generate the electric power and transmit it to consumer millions of rupees must be spent on power system equipment. These equipment are to work under specified normal conditions. However, a short circuit may occur due to failure of insulation called by:

Over voltage due to switching. Over voltage due to direct and indirect lightning strokes. Briding of conductors by birds. Break damage of insulation due to decrease of its di-electric strength. Mechanical damage of the equipment. The fault takes place in following properties.

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VARIOUS FAULTS:Phase to phase 20-25% Single phase short circuit 50-60% Double phase S.S. 3-5% 20-25% Three phase short circuit 3-5% Phase to Phase and Phase to guard 10-15% Fault may be defined as the rise of current in the several times to normal current, resulting the high temperature rise which can damage the equipment. It reduces the voltage immediately and considerably.

Basic Requirement of protective relays are as follows: Speed


Protective relaying should dos connect a faulty element as quickly as possible.

Selectivity
The ability of the protective relay to determine the point of which have the fault occurs and select the nearest circuit breaker tripping of which will lead the clearing of fault with min-or so damage to the system.

Sensitivity
It is the capacity of the relaying to operate relay under the actual condition that produces the last operating condition tendency. Depending upon the method of element connected primary relay (series element connect directly on the circuit of protective element) and secondary relay 9sensing element connected through a current and voltage transformer.

Types of Relays
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These are called normally opened, normally closed in GSS control room there is panel in which the relays are set and there are many types of relays. Over voltage relays Over current relays I.D.M.T. fault relay Earth fault relay Buchelozs relay Differential relay

Over voltage relay This protection is required to avoid damage of system in case line
becomes open circuited at one end. These fault would trip the local circuit breaker thus block the local and remote ends. This relay is operated i.e., energized by CVT connected to lines.

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Fig 3. Relays on panel

Over Current relay This relay has the upper electromagnet of non-directional relay
connected in series with lower non-directional electromagnet. When the fault current flow through relay current coil which produces flux in lower magnet of directional element. Thus the directional relay has the winding over the electromagnets of non-directional element and produces a flux in lower magnet and thus over current operates. Earth fault relay: - when a conductor breaks due to some reason and it is earthen then earth fault occurs. The fault current is very high thus, there is need to of over current relay. This relay has minimum operating time.

Directional relay: - It allows to flow the current only in one direction then only this relay
operates. It has a winding connected through the voltage coil of relay to lower magnet winding called current coil. Which is energized by C.T. if fault occurs. This relay operates when v/I is less than theoretical value. The v/I is normally constant.

Differential relay:- This relay operates when phase difference of two electrical
quantities exceeds the predetermined value. It has always two electrical quantities; hence in 400kv GSS for transformer differential relay is used. Inverse time characteristics relay:- The relay using here having the inverse time characteristics having the time delays dependent upon current value. This characteristic is being available in relay of special design. There are:Electromagnetic Induction type Permanent magnetic moving coil type Static type

Buchholzs relay: - It is the protective device of the transformer. When any fault occurs
in the transformer then it indicates about fault and we disconnect the transformer from the circuit. It is used in the power transformer. It is connected between the tank and conservator. It has two floats on which two mercury switch are attached. One float is used for the bell indication and other float is used for the tripping. In the normal position the relay 46

is filled with the oil and contacts of the mercury switch are opened. When the earth fault occurs in the transformer then it increases the temperature of oil and oil flows into the conservator through relay. On the way it makes the contacts of the tripping circuit short. So in the we can say that this relay works as circuit breaker.

Buchholzs relay

CHAPTER-9

BATTERY CHARGER

PLCC (Power Line Carrier Communication) works on rectified AC or main when supply goes off. We make use of a device for proper functioning of PLCC, called BATTERY CHARGER. this is the device that provides supply to the PLCC equipment for uninterrupted working. It provides DC to the panel by battery of 48 V. In this type 24 batteries are connected in series and individually per battery has approximately 2 V capacities. 1.

General Description
1. 2. 3. 4. Float charger Boost charger section Control section Alarm section

Battery charger mainly consists of 4 sections -

All the four sections are situated in mounted sheet steel. The sides and tops of the frame are provided with removable panels suitable recess has been provided in front panel to 47

prevent the compenent from projecting out. All meters indicating lamps, push buttons have been mounted on front panel. 2. Technical Specifications - Normal Input Float charger DC output Output current Ripple Efficiency Boost charger DC output Output current Over load Efficiency - 43.2 to 67.2 V - 25-70 Amps. - 10% - > 80% - 50 V +/-1% - 20 to 40 ampere - 0.6 Vpp (peak to peak) - > 70% 415 V AC 3 phase - Input variation- +/20% of voltage

Line regulation & load regulation - +/-1% individual

1.

Float Charger -

The float charger is basically static type 3-phase charger with stabilized output dc voltage. The charger output dc voltage is constantly compared with standard dc reference voltage and error voltage is again amplified. This amplified voltage control the triggering signals of all the 3 phase bridge control rectifier, as the output voltage tends to decrease than it's selected value, it makes the triggering signals of each thyristor of all 3 phase, to advance for firing them, so that the output voltage remains within the specified accuracy. If the output voltage tends to increase more than the selected value, the triggering pulses of these thyristors of all 3 phase are delayed in firing operations in such a way so that the output dc voltage is again brought back to its stabilized voltage.

Circuit Description The 3-phase AC input is applied through the 3 poles 2 way switch (RS-I) and fuse F-18 to F-20 to the float input contractor (CON-1). 48

The AC voltage is applied after CON-1 to the float transformer TX-1. The pilot lamp LED 4 To LED 6 indicates 'ON' condition of the float charger. The secondary of the TX -1 is connected to the 3-phase full wave half controlled bridge rectifier, which consists of silicon diodes D-2 to D-4, and SCR-1 to SCR-3, D-1 is the free wheeling diodes. HRC fuses F1 to F7 protect all diodes and SCR's, Special surge circuits have also been provided to protect SCR's. The rectified output is filtered by the choke XL-1 and KL-2 and the capacitor bank C-1 and C-2, which are protected by the HRC fuse F-8. The filtered DC output is protected by the HRC fuses F-9 and LK-1. BR-1 is the bleeder is the resister for the capacitor bank.

Control Circuit of Float Charger The output of the charger is controlled through the electronic controller. Using phase control of the SCR's feedback control the output. The control circuit has plug in type cards with hard type connectors for external connections. The control circuit consists of following functional circuits: 1. 2. 3. 4. Power supply UOT firing for SCR phase control Amplifier DC under voltage/over voltage sensing

Power Supply:
This card provides regulated power supplies of +/-12% and u unregulated24 V used for ICs and relays respectively, regulated output is 200 (maximum)., Auxiliary transformer TR-5 gets supply from main transformer's phase and neutral points. The two identical secondary circuits consisting of bridge rectifier, filter and IC regulator provide +/- 12V stabilized output and 24V unregulated DC output. The output of the bridge is filtered using L-C filter comprising of filter Choke CH-1 and capacitor bank consisting of capacitor C-1. The capacitor is protected by HRC fuses. BR-1 is bleeder resistance dummy load connected across the DC output; the filtered output is then connected to the load circuit or to the battery through a rotary switch. Shunt SH-1 is used for current limit control, which is also used for measuring output current on ammeter. A DC volt- meter indicates the DC output voltage. An indicating lamp indicates DC 'ON' condition. Blocking diodes are used to prevent reverse current flowing from the battery to the charger when the charger voltage 49

goes below the battery voltage or charger is 'OFF'. The DC voltmeter V-2 reads voltage across the load bus.

UOT Firing Card:


There are three (3) identical firing cards, each for triggering one SCR in the main bridge. Zener diodes DZ-1 to DZ- 6 and resistance R-15, R-16, R-17 connected to the secondary of the TX-2, TX-2 and TX-4 clamp the positive half of the input sine wave to the Zenor voltage. RV-1 and RV-2 are adjusted to equalize the conduction angle of the SCR's resulting in law ripple. All SCR's at the same conduction angle +/-10% input and output adjusted to 5V. RV2 again adjusted in full load to keep conduction angle of the SCR's equal. C-1 beings charging at the start of the cycle, through current supplied by the R-2, RV-2 and TR-1. When voltage across C-1 reaches the threshold value, UOT fires and C-1 discharge through the pulse transformer. This pulse fires the main SCR via auxiliary transistor. Output voltage control is obtained by varying the base ammeter bias of TR-1. An increase/decrease in charging current leads to a decrease/increase in firing andgle and a corresponding increase/decrease in the output voltage. Senor DZ-1 limits the gate voltage of the main SCR to the Zenor voltage.

Amplifier Card:
This card consists of two operational amplifiers IC-1 and IC-2 reference Zenor diodes DZ-1, emitter follower TR-1 and buffer amplifier TR-3 and TR-4; IC-1 is the error detector amplifier. A negative reference by a Zenar diode DZ-1 and voltage sensing singles are given to the inverting input of operational amplifier IC-1 the output is taken through a diode D-1 to the base of transistor TR-1 from whose emitter the output is taken to the UOT driver cards. Ratio of R-4 and R-5 determine the voltage gain of the operational amplifier and Rv-1 is used for offset nulling.

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The voltage sensing input is supplied to the OPAM IC-2 through an 'OR' gate formed by diode D-2 & D-15. Whichever signal in higher the amplifier will respond to that signal. D-2 accepts the battery current signal while D-15 accepts the float or voltage limit signal at any time only one of the above signals will be commanding the amplifier. The overall working of the feedback control can be explained as follows :If the inverting input tends to rise or increase in loading during current limit, the output of the operational amplifier IC-1 decrease which in turns makes the emitter voltage or TR 1 lower. This reduces the bias on transistor TR 1 on firing cards so that charging current supplied by them to the capacitor are reduced. Hence the triggering pulses are retarded and make the output lower. Thus the negative feedback is complete so that the increase in output voltage will reduce or if the unit is in load limit condition. The increase in output current will also be reduced to bring the current to the original condition. Resistance R-3, capacitor C-2 and also resistance R-2, capacitor C-1 are incorporated to remove the instabilities like hunting. Operational amplifier IC-2 l liner amplifier the mv drop across shunt. The ratio of R-14/R-15 determine the gain of the amplifier and RV-2 on sub assemble sets the charging current. When charging current increases the mv drop across pin No. 2 & 3 of IC-2 will increased. This voltage is applied to the base of TR-3 and TR-3 through R-11. Transistor TR-4 will be the base current of TR-3 and TR-3 will increase the voltage from D-2 will control in DC output voltage to keep the battery current at set level, which can be adjusted by potentiometer RV-2. It is desired that output of the rectifier attain its steady state value slowly rather than by step.

Fuse Fail Alarm:


Fuse Fail alarm is also available in float charger. In the event of any HRC fuse failure. Corresponding types fuse blows and trip the corresponding relay. 2.

Boost Charger Section

The battery can be charged by using the two rotatory switches provided on front panel for coarse and fine control and that charging current can be read by ammeter A-3 provided on the front panel. The operator must ensure that the rotatory switches are in minimum position before switching on the boost charger. 51

PRECAUTIONS AND MAINTENANCE

In normal rooms the ETI equipment generally erected on an open rack on a frame of freestanding cabinet. The rooms for the erection of the equipment should have a dust free floor, which is washable. The room should be well ventilated and of normal temperature & humidity and where necessary provided with a ventilator fan having a dust filters. The cabinets should be checked for damage before mounting. Caution - before opening the hinged frame, make sure that the cabinet cannot tip forward.

Fault Analysis, Test Equipment And Test Procedure (1)Test Equipments (A)

Test Oscillator

Test oscillator enables the commissioning of the PLC link without aid of external signals, pressing the CALL button initiate a test tone of 1 KHZ which is fed to the voice amplifier and passes through all transmit stages of the PLC equipment with the exception of the telephone adapter. It is possible to check at any test point the DBR value printed in the front 52

side of the equipment is against the measured dB reading. It simplifies also the setting of the transmitting (Tx) output power, which is measured by T (HF) on the transmitting level test point.

(B)

Dummy Load And Hf Loop Test

Faultfinding is much simplified when the HF output is connected to a definite resistive load in place of the more or less ill defined characteristics of the power line. The ohmic load with additional isolates the line, takes the form of a 50 ohms artificial load, which insert in place of P3EO at the time of testing. Connecting back-to-back transmitter and receiver can test the complete PLC equipment. This is achieved by to feeding a reduced transmitting voltage. The dummy load automatically adjusts the receiver to accept the transmitter frequency.

(C)

Audio Test

For a quick and simple check of the equipment and audio test circuit is provided. The audio test (voice amplifier) is to patch on the front side of the equipment to any desired signal path and the received signal will be heard in the handset of the service telephone via amplifier. The following signals can be checked in the AF section of the equipment: Speech,Tele operation/data dialing. (2)

Fault Analysis
In fault analysis the faulty devices are checked in this serial or manner: Telephone or Tele operation signals Cabling-low frequency circuits or DC power supplies PLC equipments HF transmission path

Comparisons with the transmission levels and working voltages measured under health conditions are valuable aids to fault analysis. The back-to-back testing of the equipment using the dummy load is also a very useful aid.The presence of AF signals in the various 53

stages of the equipment can be checked using the telephone handset and test load connected between the associated measuring point and audio testing.

ADVANTGES & DISADVANTAGES OF PLCC


Advantages 1. No separate wires are needed for communication purposes, as the power lines themselves carry power as well as communication signals. Hence the cost of constructing separate telephone lines is saved. 2. When compared with ordinary lines the power lines have appreciably higher mechanical strength. They would normally remain unaffected under the conditions, which might seriously damage telephone lines. 3. 4. Power lines usually provide the shortest route between the power stations. Power lines have large cross-sectional areas resulting in very low resistance per unit length. Consequently the carrier signals suffer much less attenuation then when they travel on usual telephone lines of equal lengths. 5. 6. Power lines are well insulated to provide only negligible leakage between conductors and ground even in adverse weather conditions. Largest spacing between conductors reduces capacitance, which results in smaller attenuation at high frequencies. The large spacing also reduces the cross talk to a considerable extent.

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Disadvantages 1. Proper care has to be taken to guard carrier equipment and persons using them against high voltages and currents on the lines. 2. Reflections are produced on spur lines connected to high voltage lines. This increases attenuation and creates other problems. 3. High voltage lines have transformer connections, attenuate carrier currents. Substation equipments adversely affect the carrier currents. 4. Noise introduced by power lines is far more than in case of telephone lines. This is due to the noise generated by discharge across insulators, corona and switching processes.

CONCLUSION
The Practical training has proved to be knowledge buster for me and I have acquired a good practical knowledge of the field which cant be gained nearly by reading books. As PLCC is the power line carrier communication that is used to transmit the signal with power line network for such large distances, the power line themselves provides a very good medium of transmission of information. So the power line carrier communication (PLCC) is mostly used. The training has proved me with a good knowledge of working of PLCC and base for relating the theoretical knowledge with the practical one. It was a very exciting adventurous and exhaustive training which has raised my practical skills to a great extent.

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BIBLIOGRAPHY
The reference of the books and author I have referred to complete my training report are as follows: 1). www.google .com 2). www.wikipedia .org 3). Help from executive engineer of plcc.

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