# ANNUAL OF NAVIGATION 6/2003

5

Jaroslaw Artyszuk
Szczecin Maritime University

ANCHOR FORCES IN SHIP MANOEUVRING
MATHEMATICAL MODEL

ABSTRACT A compact and practical mathematical model of the
anchor-related manoeuvring forces is developed. The most useful and
original are non-dimensional lookup tables of the anchor cable
horizontal tension, which are valid for any geometrical relationship
between the ship hawse-pipe and the anchor itself. The anchor and/or
cable failure aspects due to an excessive ship anchoring velocity are
also raised.

INTRODUCTION

The catenary, a curve which is assumed by a heavy and flexible cable (chain),
is one of the well recognised optimisation problems in the variational calculus. The
catenary equation, though apparently relatively simple, poses some difficulties in
identifying its parameters based on given boundary conditions as imposed by many
Since its great practical advantages and implications, the catenary has been an
interest of mathematical and engineering sciences for years (besides pure
geometrical relationships much concern is put on the cable tensions as well). The
marine and/or nautical aspects of the catenary are seen during anchoring, mooring,
or towing operations - e.g. [NFEC, 1985], [Makin, 1977, 1988], [Hong, 1983],
[Shipp, 1977], [Polderdijk, 1985], [Liensdorf, 1986], [Gatzer et al., 1987].
The present study is devoted to a development of anchor manoeuvring force
sub-model, which is essential from the practical point of view in the general ship
manoeuvring mathematical model. The efforts are focused upon a compact formula
derivation as expressing such excitations for an arbitrary water depth, cable length,
and a horizontal distance between the anchor and the hawse-pipe. The obtained
below non-dimensional relationships in form of a lookup table are valid for any ship.

Jarosław Artyszuk
CATENARY EQUATION

The catenary curve is described in a general form by the following expression:
2
1
c
c
+ |
.
|
cosh
a
x
a y
\
| −
⋅ = (1)
where: a- catenary shape main parameter ([m], positive); c
1
, c
2
- other parameters.

All the above three parameters shall be identified based on given boundary
conditions. However, this is often not an analytical but numerical task. In view of
further derivations, it is appreciable to introduce a simpler (more famous)
relationship for the catenary:
|
.
|
−1
a
x

\
|
⋅ = cosh a y (2)
where the origin of coordinates (0,0) is assumed to be at the catenary extremum (the
slope angle is zero) and the catenary length is written by:
|
.
|

\
|
a
x
sinh
qag =
⋅ = a l (3)
In ship manoeuvring the most interesting things are the horizontal component
F
ANR
of the catenary (anchor cable) tension at the top (i.e. referring to the hawse-
pipe) and the cable slope angle α
D
at the seabed. In case of an underwater current
absence, the horizontal tension component is the same at any point of catenary and
described by:
F
ANR
(4)
where q is the unit weight of anchor cable [kg/m] in the water and g stands for the
gravity acceleration (9.81[m/s
2
]).

TWO-DIMENSIONAL (2D) CONCEPT OF ANCHOR FORCES

Looking at the anchor cable in a side view, three distinct cases (ranges) can be
specified, see Fig. 1, namely:

A- when the cable is leading vertically downwards from the hawse-pipe and the
some of it is lying loose and chaotically and on the seabed, there is no tension in
the cable (i.e. no force transmission),
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ANCHOR FORCES IN SHIP MANOEUVRING MATHEMATICAL MODEL
B- when the cable is hanging from the hawse-pipe at angle other than 90[°] and its
part is stretched over the bottom, the slope angle of the hanging piece at the
seabed equals zero,
C- when the whole length of cable is hanging and the bottom slope angle is non-
zero.

h-depth
A B
l-length
C

Fig. 1. Ranges of anchor cable behaviour

Defining the following variables (h- water depth, l- cable length):
|
.
|

\
|
−1
h
l
h = − =
min
h l x (5)
|
|
.
|

\
|
med
1
a
l
=

med med
sinh a x , where
(
(
¸
(
− |
.
|
1
2
h
l

¸

\
|
=

= 5 . 0
2
2 2
med
h
h
h l
a (6)
1
2
− |
.
|
h
l
2 2
max

\
|
= − = h h l x (7)
the above ranges A, B, and C are established as below (the water depth is considered
at a first approximation also as the hawse-pipe/seabed distance):

Range a ( 0 ≤ ):
min
x x ≤

¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
= ° α
=
] [
0 ] [
0 ] [
N F
m a
ANR
D
= 0 qag
(8)

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Jarosław Artyszuk
Range B (
med
x x ≤
min
x < ):

Let l
1
and l
2
be the lengths of the cable lying and hanging appropriately
(l
1
<x
min
, l
2
>h). The cable statics is then represented by:
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
= +

\
| −

¸

|
.
|

\
| −
l l
a
l x
a
a
l x
a
2 1
1
1
sinh
cosh
=
=
(
¸
(
l
h
2
1
|
.
|

l
or
¦
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
= +

=

¸

|
.
|

\
| + −
l l l
h
h l
a
a
l l x
a
2 1
2 2
2
2
2
cosh =
(
¸
(
− h 1
(9)
The main catenary parameter a could be numerically solved now from the
following non-explicit equation:
( ) 0
2
= + h 2 1 cosh
1
− − − |
.
|

\
|
+

ah l x
a
h
a (10)
1 , 0
med
=
a
a
a ∈ , and 1 , 0 ∈
min med
min
1

=
x x
x x
x (11)
the solution of (10) is given graphically in Fig. 2. as being solely dependent upon the
l/h ratio (so-called cable scope) irrespectively of the absolute values either of water
depth h or cable length l. This chart is thus universal for all ships and is saved in
a ship manoeuvring model kernel as a lookup table speeding up the real-time
calculations.
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
| | − a
1
1.2
1.5
2
2.5
3
4
6
l/h=

8
10
15
20
30
| | −
1
x
Fig. 2. Anchor forces for the partially lying cable (range B)
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ANCHOR FORCES IN SHIP MANOEUVRING MATHEMATICAL MODEL

In a compact form on gets finally:

¦
¹
¦
´
¦
=
= ° α
=
N F
a a m a
ANR
D
] [
0 ] [
] [
med
(12)
( )
qag
h l x ,
1

Range C (
max
x x <
med
x < ):
The shape of anchor cable in this zone is governed according to:
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
= −
− |
.
|

\
|

\
|
− |
.
|

\
|
x x
a
x
a
x
1 2
2
2
cosh cosh
sinh sinh
= |
.
|

\
|
= |
.
|
x
a
h
a
x
a
l
a
x
1
1
(13)
where x
1
and x
2
are the anchor and hawse-pipe abscissas from a virtual catenary
extremum (somewhere to the left and below the anchor location). The relationships
(13) can be simplified to:
¦
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
¦
´
¦
= −

\
| +
|
.
|

\
| −
= |
.
|

\
| +
x x x
x
a
x x
l
h
a
x x
1 2
2 1 2
1 2
2
cosh
2
sinh 2
2
tanh
= |
.
|
a
l
a
x
1
(14)
which in turn leads again to a non-explicit equation of a as the unknown:
0 = − |
.
|
x
2
sinh 2
max 1

\
|

a
x
a (15)
It appears that solution of (15) can be presented in an analogic manner to Fig. 2.
The non-dimensional ship horizontal displacement is determined nevertheless by:

med max
med
2

=
x x
x x
x (16) ) 1 , 0 ∈

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Jarosław Artyszuk

The equation (15) results in a family of curves (l/h dependent ones) as displayed
in Fig. 3.
0
2
4
6
8
10
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
| | − a
1.2
2÷30
1.5
l/h=

1.01
1.05
1.1
| | −
2
x
Fig. 3. Anchor forces for the wholly hanging cable (range C)

However both and a are unlimited in the range C (and thus in Fig. 3) while x
is approaching x
max
. For a more refined algorithm, Fig. 2 and 3 can be easily
combined together. The bottom slope angle and the anchor force read ultimately as
follows:
a

( )
( )
¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
=
=
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
|
|
.
|

\
|
− = ° α
=

qag N F
c
c a
h
c
h l x a a m a
ANR
D
] [
tanh 2 ,
5 . 0 sinh 2
sinh 5 . 0 sinh tan ] [
, ] [
1 1 -
2 med
|
.
|

\
|

l
h
1
(17)

It should be mentioned at the end that sizes of ranges A, B, and C are very
contrasting to each other (as outlined in Fig. 1)- e.g. when the water depth is 40[m]
and the cable scope l/h equals 3:

A: x
min
=80[m],
B: x
med
− x
min
=~30.9[m],
C: x
max
− x
med
=~2.2[m].

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ANCHOR FORCES IN SHIP MANOEUVRING MATHEMATICAL MODEL

ANCHOR DRAGGING RELATED TOPICS

So far it has been assumed that the horizontal component of the anchor cable
tension F
ANR
is within the anchor holding force F
HP
modelled as:
( )
D HP ANR HP
c gm F α = soil ' , ' type
dragging
holding
HP
F =
(18)

where: m
ANR
- anchor mass [kg],
c
HP
- non-dimensional constant expressing the anchor holding force
in anchor weight units (usually referring to the weight in water), e.g.
in case of the Hall anchor and null bottom slope angle α
D
the c
HP
is
More exact relationships for c
HP
can be found in literature, especially with
regard to a very important effect of the bottom slope angle (as reducing drastically
the anchor holding power).
In logic terms, two cases of ship behaviour shall be actually distinguished:
¹
´
¦
− >
− ≤
anchor
anchor
HP ANR
HP ANR
F F
F F
(19)
The ship movement while the anchor is holding the ground is restricted to
a relatively small area determined by the water depth, anchor cable length and
tension in the latter. The anchor cable works in such circumstances like follows.
Under external excitations (wind, current, waves, propeller thrust) the ship is
travelling according to her dynamics (inertia) and thus changing the hawse-pipe
(bow) position. The cable begins to stretch and develop a horizontal counter-force.
At last at some point the force equilibrium is achieved and the ship is steady.
Concerning the anchor dragging, if the anchor holding force is overcome the
anchor itself starts to move as well. Many more or less approximate methods are
available to simulate the anchor (and the captured soil) dynamics in such
circumstances. It seems that the anchor inertia maybe disregarded in view of
relatively high anchor cable tensions and thus the anchor position in each numerical
integration step is evaluated by the force balance condition (the static approach):
ANR
F (20)
which means that F
HP
is the upper limit for the horizontal projection of the anchor
cable tension F
ANR
. Other models of the anchor dragging can be found e.g. in [Brook
and Byrne, 1984].
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Jarosław Artyszuk

THREE-DIMENSIONAL (3D) CONCEPT OF ANCHOR FORCES

Let's take a ship-fixed right handed cartesian system of coordinates as in Fig. 4
(z-axis points downwards).

x
z
y
anchor
hawse-pipe
HPP
(x
0
, y
0
)
(x
0ANR
, y
0ANR
HPS
)
(north) x
0
y
0
(east)
z
0
ψ

Fig. 3. Earth and ship body coordinates

The port and starboard hawse-pipe are marked in Fig. 4 by 'HPP' and 'HPS'
correspondingly. Their locations in the ship reference system are:
| | | |
T
HPS
y ,
HPS HPS
T
HPP HPP HPP
x y x , , = = r r (21)
Both the ship and anchor positions on the earth are denoted by:
| | | |
T
ANR
y
0
( )
0
r −
ANR
ANR ANR
T
x y x
0 0 0 0 0
, , , = = r r (22)
In the below derivations only the port hawse-pipe is considered as the starboard
case is quite identical here (y
HPS
=− y
HPP
).
The anchor placement on the seabed is now expressed in ship body axes by:
0
cos sin
sin cos
r r
(
¸
(

¸

ψ ψ −
ψ + ψ
=
ANR
(23)
where ψ is the ship heading.
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ANCHOR FORCES IN SHIP MANOEUVRING MATHEMATICAL MODEL
The horizontal distance between the anchor and the port hawse-pipe, being
substantially the 'x-coordinate' of the previously analysed 2D concept, and the cable
horizontal direction are written according to:
HPP
r
ANR HPP ANR
r r − =

(24)
HPP ANR−
x = r (25)
( )
( )
° ° 180 , − ∈
|
|
.
|

\
|
= γ

180 tan
1 -
x HPP ANR
y HPP ANR
ANR
r
r
(26)

Finally, the anchor cable produced surge/sway forces and yaw moment are:

¦
¦
¹
¦
¦
´
¦
× =
(
¸
(

¸

γ
γ
=
(
¸
(

¸

=
ANR HPP ANR
ANR
ANR
ANR
yANR
xANR
ANR
F
F
F
F r M
F
1
see
sin
cos
|
.
|

\
|
h
l
x
43 42
concept 2D
,
(27)

ENERGY ABSORPTION BY ANCHOR CABLE - CASE STUDY

The current practise of designing both anchor and anchor cable for merchant
ships (see e.g. [OCIMF, 1982], [IACS, 1999] is that the anchor holding power is
much less than the cable breaking load. This way under rough weather conditions
the anchor is allowed intentionally to drag before the cable will break. Taking
a closer look at the [IACS, 1999] standards, concerning among others the anchor
strength data, there is one more issue- the anchor should sustain a damage first, just
before 'something' happens to the cable. The outcome is that at least under static
(slowly rising) external excitations and rather normal conditions of the bottom soil
the anchor cable and the anchor itself may not be broken. The situation changes if
the anchor encounters a hard object (e.g. a rock) and gets clutched firmly into it.
However, the latter is somewhat rare occurrence, where the widely reported
experimental data on the sea bottom holding power (in terms of anchor weight units)
are not applied. a real-time simulation of such a phenomenon should be addressed
stochastically by means of a risk (reliability) concept, also with regard to the fact
that the anchor and the cable are generally considered improperly as new ones i.e.
without noticeable wear and tear.
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Jarosław Artyszuk
14 Annual of Navigation
For a difficulty, the accident statistics of the anchoring equipment generally reports
a distribution of failure causes (a major one is always the 'human factor') in the total
sum of emergencies, rarely stating the whole number of successful operations, e.g.
[OCIMF, 1982], [King, Ojo, 1984]. The very important circumstances of accidents
are also rarely available (even to surveyors or superintendents) to perform a detailed
analysis and draw sound conclusions.
Moreover, a bit unclear though very important case is when the ship is subject
to suddenly developing (dynamic) loads e.g. wind gusts, wave action, rapid
alterations in a direction of wind/wave/current. Due to the huge ship inertia involved
in any ship motion it is purposeful to examine directly the resulting motions rather
than the external disturbances. The latter approach encompasses also an adequate
treatment of those cable dynamic loads (tensions) as being e.g. a result of 'quick'
arresting an excessive yaw and/or surge velocity even in a calm weather. After all,
the strength requirements of [IACS, 1999] are generally valid for static proof tests
and there is surprisingly little amount of data in open literature concerning the
dynamic strength of anchor equipment components. Moreover, the most of studies
have dealt so far (for the sake of solution availability) with the anchor/cable
breaking based on more or less justified quasi-static assumptions.
The anchor and/or cable breaking is a part of the ship manoeuvring
mathematical model which requires anyhow a further research.
Below is given an example of the ship kinetic energy absorption during the
absence (for simplicity and soundness) of wind/wave/current/shallow water effects
when the whole length of cable is already paid out. The anchor and/or cable
breaking possibilities are also investigated at the same time- nevertheless in the
quasi-static way. The anchor cable is deemed initially slack and the anchor believed
to be 'fixed to the ground' (i.e. no dragging is allowed which could safely put down
the ship speed without endangering the anchor equipment). Figures 2 and 3 are used
to calculate the cable potential energy increase (as product of force and horizontal
displacement) to which the ship energy is transformed, of course within limits of the
anchor maximum loads. Tab. 1 summarises data of three real-world tankers being
different in deadweight and analysed hereafter. If some anchor-related data are
missing for a particular ship model, due to different reasons, a reference is
recommended to e.g. [Gurovic et al., 1975], [IACS, 1999] (world-wide standards
rather narrowly complied with), or other design books of ship deck equipment.

ANCHOR FORCES IN SHIP MANOEUVRING MATHEMATICAL MODEL
Table. 1. Ship particulars.
deadweight[t]- DWT 6k 87k 135k
mass[t] 9000 104000 155000
anchor weight in air[t] 3.3 11.1 12.0
anchor holding factor - average
(in anchor weight units) [-]
3.5 3.5 10
anchor type [-] Hall (SS) Hall (SS) AC14
anchor proof load [t] 51 107 130
anchor break load [t]-'BL
ANR
', estimated 73 153 186
cable link dia.[mm] 50 81 97
cable type [-] Gr. 2 Gr. 3 Gr. 3
cable max. length [m] 250 343 370
cable proof load [t] 98 338 468
cable break load [t] 137 482 669
cable unit weight in air [kg/m] - 'q
air
' 53.9 145.5 210

Taking the anchor breaking load as a more critical one, the maximum
allowable value of the catenary parameter a (also in relative measures) can be
specified (see Tab. 1):
med
a
a
BL
= ,
' ' 87 . 0
' '
a
q
BL
a
BL
air
ANR
BL
= (28)
For the water depth 40[m] and three representative cable scopes i.e. the cable
length equal to 1.5, 3, and 6 times the water depth, the outcome of eqs. (28) is
showed in Tab. 2. It appears that the anchor failure is possible only just in the range
C of the cable behaviour (Fig. 3)- is greater than 1.
BL
a

Table. 2. Non-dimensional maximum allowable a parameter- a .
BL
DWT 6k 87k 135k
a
BL
1557 1209 1018
h/l= 1.5 a
med
= 25 62 48 41
3.0 160 10 7.6 6.4
6.0 700 2.2 1.7 1.5
The initial kinetic energy according to two characteristic ship forward
velocities, namely 0.25 and 0.50 [m/s], is computed in Tab. 3. The energy
absorbable in both ranges of the anchor cable operation, namely B and C
(see before), up to the anchor breaking load is presented in Tab. 4.
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Jarosław Artyszuk
16 Annual of Navigation
Table. 3. Ship kinetic energy [kJ]
DWT 6k 87k 135k
v
x
[m/s]= 0.25 281 3250 4844
0.50 1125 13000 19375

Table. 4. Cable energy absorption [kJ] within anchor maximum loads
DWT 6k 87k 135k 6k 87k 135k
h/l= 1.5 70 190 274 173 468 675
3.0 409 1105 1595 708 1873 2686
6.0 1143 3086 4454 1526 3869 5363
Range B Range B+C

It could be concluded that 6kDWT ship is able to come safely to rest from the
initial 0.5[m/s] velocity already in the range B providing the cable scope equal 6.
The lower velocity, e.g. 0.25[m/s], a complete stoppage is achieved at lower cable
scopes, here of order 3. The larger ships can be decelerated only from velocity
0.25[m/s] and if the cable is long enough i.e. 6 times the water depth. In other
conditions, not enumerated above, the anchor will be damaged.
As mentioned before, this analysis is rather static and excludes the usual anchor
dragging during a cable deployment phase. So this is an extreme situation and does
not mean at all that the anchor would fail actually. Though the cable break load is
2-3 times higher than those corresponding to the anchor itself, the safe anchoring
velocity for larger ships seems to remain however nearly the same to some extent if
the cable maximum load instead of the anchor related one is incorporated into (28).
Such an increase in the cable tension is without significant effect on the cable
potential energy.
The obtained restrictions in velocity for larger ships are more serious than those
quoted e.g. in [Nowicki, 1999]. However, it is difficult to make a deeper reference to
the latter data as detailed computational assumptions are not published at all. It
should be also pointed out that safe anchoring velocities cited elsewhere in literature
are sometimes referred to quite different criteria- like e.g. a prohibition of anchor
dragging or those pertaining to specific rough weather conditions ([Brook and
Byrne, 1984]). Such data when applied for comparison purposes should be
considered with care.
ANCHOR FORCES IN SHIP MANOEUVRING MATHEMATICAL MODEL
6/2003 17

FINAL REMARKS

In the present study the sea current profile and wave effects upon the anchor
cable performance have been omitted as they are relatively small, see e.g.
[Polderdijk, 1985], and the actual current/wave estimations are generally unreliable
(uncertain).Further research should go towards more adequate modelling of all
anchor equipment failures and the associated windlass technical operation, since
many wrong conclusions can be drawn with regard both to the anchor performance
limits and anchoring procedure itself. This concerns the anchor application not only
for a ship stay but for her manoeuvring ability improvement as well. Particular
aspects of modelling could refer e.g. to a cable deployment technique (i.e. the
windlass operation dynamics) during the anchoring initial phase when the whole
length of anchor cable has not been yet paid out- see e.g. [Brook and Byrne, 1984].
This is required among others for an appropriate simulation of anchor early dragging
due to still large cable bottom slope angles α
D
at that moment.

REFERENCES

1. Brook A.K., Byrne D., The Dynamic Behaviour of Single and Multiple Moored
Vessels. RINA Trans., vol. 126, 1984
2. Gatzer H., Messerschmidt W., Liensdorf M., Towing in Seaway. Seawirtschaft,
vol. 19, no. 9, 1987 (in German)
3. Gurovic A.N., Asinovskij V.I., Lozgacev B.N., Grinberg D.A., Handbook on
\Ship Equipment, vol. 1 (Rudder, Anchor, and Mooring Equipment).
Sudostroenie, Leningrad, 1975 (in Russian)
4. Hong C.S., Mechanics of Static Catenary with Current Loading. ASCE Journal
of Waterway, Port, Coastal, and Ocean Engineering, vol. 109, no. 3 (Aug), 1983
5. IACS, Requirements Concerning Mooring and Anchoring. International
Association of Classification Societies, 1999
6. King J., Ojo A., Some Practical Aspects of Anchoring Large Ships. RINA
Trans., vol. 126, 1984
7. Liensdorf M., Dynamic Reactions Analysis of a Horizontally Towed Partially
Submerged Cable in Seaway. Schiffbauforschung (S/BF), vol. 25, no. 1 (Part 1 -
Cable Forces and Configuration for Stationary Towing Conditions) and no. 2
(Part 2 - Cable Dynamic Reactions in Seaway), 1986 (in German)
8. Makin V.I., Graphical-Analytical Method in Determining Loads in Elastic
Cable. Sudostroenie, no. 8, 1977 (in Russian)
9. Makin V.I., Graphical-Analytical Method of Anchor Cable Statics.
Sudostroenie, no. 9, 1988 (in Russian)
10. NFEC, Fleet Moorings, Basic Criteria and Planning Guidelines. Design Manual,
DM-26.5, Naval Facilities Engineering Command, Alexandria, 1985
Jarosław Artyszuk
18 Annual of Navigation
11. Nowicki A., Knowledge on Seagoing Ship Manoeuvring (Theory and Practice
Basics). Trademar, Gdynia, 1999
12. OCIMF, Anchoring Systems and Procedures for Large Tankers. Witherby
& Co., London, 1982
13. Polderdijk S.H., Response of Anchor Lines to Excitation at the Top. Behaviour
of Offshore Structures (BOSS'85), 4th International Conference (Elsevier,
Series: Developments in Marine Technology, v.2, ed. Battjes J.A.), Jul 1-5,
Delft, 1985
14. Shipp J.G., Single Leg Catenary Mooring and Anchors. ASCE Journal of the
Waterway, Port, Coastal and Ocean Division, vol. 103, no.4 (Nov), 1977

Reviewed October 2003

namely: A. the horizontal tension component is the same at any point of catenary and described by: FANR = qag (4) where q is the unit weight of anchor cable [kg/m] in the water and g stands for the gravity acceleration (9. TWO-DIMENSIONAL (2D) CONCEPT OF ANCHOR FORCES Looking at the anchor cable in a side view. c1. positive).0) is assumed to be at the catenary extremum (the slope angle is zero) and the catenary length is written by:  x l = a ⋅ sinh   a (3) In ship manoeuvring the most interesting things are the horizontal component FANR of the catenary (anchor cable) tension at the top (i. it is appreciable to introduce a simpler (more famous) relationship for the catenary: x   y = a ⋅  cosh − 1 a   (2) where the origin of coordinates (0. referring to the hawsepipe) and the cable slope angle αD at the seabed. In view of further derivations.Jarosław Artyszuk CATENARY EQUATION The catenary curve is described in a general form by the following expression:  x − c1  y = a ⋅ cosh   + c2  a  (1) where: a. three distinct cases (ranges) can be specified.catenary shape main parameter ([m].other parameters. 1.when the cable is leading vertically downwards from the hawse-pipe and the some of it is lying loose and chaotically and on the seabed.81[m/s2]). no force transmission). this is often not an analytical but numerical task. In case of an underwater current absence. see Fig. there is no tension in the cable (i. c2.e. However.e. 6 Annual of Navigation . All the above three parameters shall be identified based on given boundary conditions.

C. and C are established as below (the water depth is considered at a first approximation also as the hawse-pipe/seabed distance): Range a ( 0 ≤ x ≤ x min ): a[m] = 0  α D [°] = 0  F [ N ] = qag = 0  ANR (8) 6/2003 7 .when the whole length of cable is hanging and the bottom slope angle is nonzero. Ranges of anchor cable behaviour B C Defining the following variables (h.when the cable is hanging from the hawse-pipe at angle other than 90[°] and its part is stretched over the bottom. where a med = = 0.ANCHOR FORCES IN SHIP MANOEUVRING MATHEMATICAL MODEL B. 1.5h   − 1 (6)  2h  h      2 l x max = l 2 − h 2 = h   − 1 h (7) the above ranges A. B. l. h-depth l-length A Fig.water depth. the slope angle of the hanging piece at the seabed equals zero.cable length): l  x min = l − h = h − 1 h   l x med = a med sinh −1  a  med (5)  l  2   l 2 − h2  .

8 x1 [−] 1 Fig.Jarosław Artyszuk Range B ( x min < x ≤ x med ): Let l1 and l2 be the lengths of the cable lying and hanging appropriately (l1<xmin.6 l/h= 1.1 . The cable statics is then represented by:     x − l + l 2    x − l1    − 1 = h  − 1 = h a cosh  a cosh a    a       2   l2 − h 2 x − l1    a= or   = l2  a sinh  a  2h    l1 + l 2 = l l1 + l 2 = l        (9) The main catenary parameter a could be numerically solved now from the following non-explicit equation: h  a cosh −1  + 1 − (x − l ) − 2ah + h 2 = 0 a  Adopting non-dimensional variables: a= a a med ∈ 0. 2.1 x med − x min (11) (10) the solution of (10) is given graphically in Fig.2 1.6 0 . l2>h).2 6 3 4 8 10 15 20 30 0 0 0 . This chart is thus universal for all ships and is saved in a ship manoeuvring model kernel as a lookup table speeding up the real-time calculations. Anchor forces for the partially lying cable (range B) 8 Annual of Navigation .8 1 0 .4 2 2.5 0 .5 0 . and x1 = x − x min ∈ 0. as being solely dependent upon the l/h ratio (so-called cable scope) irrespectively of the absolute values either of water depth h or cable length l.4 0 . 1 a[−] 0 . 2.2 0 .

The non-dimensional ship horizontal displacement is determined nevertheless by: x − x med ∈ 0.ANCHOR FORCES IN SHIP MANOEUVRING MATHEMATICAL MODEL In a compact form on gets finally: a[m] = a med a(x1 .1) x max − x med 6/2003 x2 = (16) 9 . The relationships (13) can be simplified to:   x + x1  h tanh  2 =   2a  l   x 2 − x1   x + x1  l   cosh 2 = 2 sinh   2a   2a  a  x 2 − x1 = x    (14) which in turn leads again to a non-explicit equation of a as the unknown: x  2a sinh −1  max  − x = 0  2a  (15) It appears that solution of (15) can be presented in an analogic manner to Fig. l h )  α D [°] = 0  F [ N ] = qag  ANR Range C ( x med < x < x max ): The shape of anchor cable in this zone is governed according to:   x2   x1  l  sinh   − sinh   =  a  a a   x2   x1  h  cosh   − cosh   = a   a a  x 2 − x1 = x    (12) (13) where x1 and x2 are the anchor and hawse-pipe abscissas from a virtual catenary extremum (somewhere to the left and below the anchor location). 2.

9[m]. 1). The bottom slope angle and the anchor force read ultimately as follows: a[m] = a med a(x 2 .5c − sinh   2a sinh (0. 10 Annual of Navigation . B.4 0 . Anchor forces for the wholly hanging cable (range C) However both a and a are unlimited in the range C (and thus in Fig. 3.1 1.5 2 2÷30 0 0 0 .6 0 .2[m]. l h )      h  -1 −1  −1  h  α D [°] = tan sinh  0. c = 2 tanh  l               F [ N ] = qag  ANR (17) It should be mentioned at the end that sizes of ranges A. 3) while x is approaching xmax.01 l/h= 6 1. 10 a[−] 8 1. 2 and 3 can be easily combined together.Jarosław Artyszuk The equation (15) results in a family of curves (l/h dependent ones) as displayed in Fig.2 0 .e.2 1. 3. C: xmax− xmed=~2. B: xmed− xmin=~30.05 4 1.8 x2 [−] 1 Fig.g. and C are very contrasting to each other (as outlined in Fig. For a more refined algorithm. when the water depth is 40[m] and the cable scope l/h equals 3: A: xmin=80[m].5c )   . Fig.

in case of the Hall anchor and null bottom slope angle αD the cHP is about 3. especially with regard to a very important effect of the bottom slope angle (as reducing drastically the anchor holding power).ANCHOR FORCES IN SHIP MANOEUVRING MATHEMATICAL MODEL ANCHOR DRAGGING RELATED TOPICS So far it has been assumed that the horizontal component of the anchor cable tension FANR is within the anchor holding force FHP modelled as: FHP = gm ANR c HP (' soil type' .g. α D ) (18) where: mANR . two cases of ship behaviour shall be actually distinguished:  FANR ≤ FHP   FANR > FHP − anchor holding − anchor dragging (19) The ship movement while the anchor is holding the ground is restricted to a relatively small area determined by the water depth.5. e. Concerning the anchor dragging. current. 6/2003 11 . Under external excitations (wind. waves. It seems that the anchor inertia maybe disregarded in view of relatively high anchor cable tensions and thus the anchor position in each numerical integration step is evaluated by the force balance condition (the static approach): FANR = FHP (20) which means that FHP is the upper limit for the horizontal projection of the anchor cable tension FANR.anchor mass [kg]. At last at some point the force equilibrium is achieved and the ship is steady. anchor cable length and tension in the latter. in [Brook and Byrne. cHP . The cable begins to stretch and develop a horizontal counter-force. if the anchor holding force is overcome the anchor itself starts to move as well.g. More exact relationships for cHP can be found in literature. Other models of the anchor dragging can be found e. The anchor cable works in such circumstances like follows. 1984].non-dimensional constant expressing the anchor holding force in anchor weight units (usually referring to the weight in water). Many more or less approximate methods are available to simulate the anchor (and the captured soil) dynamics in such circumstances. propeller thrust) the ship is travelling according to her dynamics (inertia) and thus changing the hawse-pipe (bow) position. In logic terms.

anchor (x0ANR. 3. r0 ANR = [x 0 ANR . Earth and ship body coordinates The port and starboard hawse-pipe are marked in Fig. 4 by 'HPP' and 'HPS' correspondingly. y 0 ] T . y0) HPS z y (north) x0 ψ y0 (east) z0 Fig. Their locations in the ship reference system are: rHPP = [x HPP . 12 Annual of Navigation (23) . The anchor placement on the seabed is now expressed in ship body axes by:  cos ψ + sin ψ  r ANR =   (r0 ANR − r0 ) − sin ψ cos ψ  where ψ is the ship heading. y0ANR) x HPP hawse-pipe (x0. y HPS ] T (21) Both the ship and anchor positions on the earth are denoted by: r0 = [x 0 . y HPP ] T .Jarosław Artyszuk THREE-DIMENSIONAL (3D) CONCEPT OF ANCHOR FORCES Let's take a ship-fixed right handed cartesian system of coordinates as in Fig. 4 (z-axis points downwards). rHPS = [x HPS . y 0 ANR ] T (22) In the below derivations only the port hawse-pipe is considered as the starboard case is quite identical here (yHPS=− yHPP).

a rock) and gets clutched firmly into it.ANCHOR FORCES IN SHIP MANOEUVRING MATHEMATICAL MODEL The horizontal distance between the anchor and the port hawse-pipe. being substantially the 'x-coordinate' of the previously analysed 2D concept. 6/2003 13 .g. The situation changes if the anchor encounters a hard object (e. However. 1999] standards.    h  F yANR   sin γ ANR  14243  see 2D concept  M ANR = rHPP × F ANR  (27) ENERGY ABSORPTION BY ANCHOR CABLE . and the cable horizontal direction are written according to: r ANR − HPP = r ANR − rHPP x = r ANR − HPP  (r ANR − HPP ) y γ ANR = tan -1   (r  ANR − HPP ) x   ∈ − 180°.180°   (24) (25) (26) Finally. concerning among others the anchor strength data.CASE STUDY The current practise of designing both anchor and anchor cable for merchant ships (see e. a real-time simulation of such a phenomenon should be addressed stochastically by means of a risk (reliability) concept. where the widely reported experimental data on the sea bottom holding power (in terms of anchor weight units) are not applied. also with regard to the fact that the anchor and the cable are generally considered improperly as new ones i. 1999] is that the anchor holding power is much less than the cable breaking load. there is one more issue. just before 'something' happens to the cable. [OCIMF.g. The outcome is that at least under static (slowly rising) external excitations and rather normal conditions of the bottom soil the anchor cable and the anchor itself may not be broken. [IACS. the latter is somewhat rare occurrence.the anchor should sustain a damage first. the anchor cable produced surge/sway forces and yaw moment are:   FxANR  cos γ ANR   l F ANR =  =  FANR  x. Taking a closer look at the [IACS. This way under rough weather conditions the anchor is allowed intentionally to drag before the cable will break.e. 1982]. without noticeable wear and tear.

or other design books of ship deck equipment. wave action. Below is given an example of the ship kinetic energy absorption during the absence (for simplicity and soundness) of wind/wave/current/shallow water effects when the whole length of cable is already paid out. 1982]. 1984]. After all. the accident statistics of the anchoring equipment generally reports a distribution of failure causes (a major one is always the 'human factor') in the total sum of emergencies. The anchor and/or cable breaking is a part of the ship manoeuvring mathematical model which requires anyhow a further research. a bit unclear though very important case is when the ship is subject to suddenly developing (dynamic) loads e. e. a result of 'quick' arresting an excessive yaw and/or surge velocity even in a calm weather. Tab. the most of studies have dealt so far (for the sake of solution availability) with the anchor/cable breaking based on more or less justified quasi-static assumptions. [IACS..nevertheless in the quasi-static way. 1999] (world-wide standards rather narrowly complied with). The latter approach encompasses also an adequate treatment of those cable dynamic loads (tensions) as being e. [OCIMF. of course within limits of the anchor maximum loads. [King.g. 14 Annual of Navigation . 1 summarises data of three real-world tankers being different in deadweight and analysed hereafter. Due to the huge ship inertia involved in any ship motion it is purposeful to examine directly the resulting motions rather than the external disturbances.Jarosław Artyszuk For a difficulty. Moreover. The very important circumstances of accidents are also rarely available (even to surveyors or superintendents) to perform a detailed analysis and draw sound conclusions.g. a reference is recommended to e. Moreover. due to different reasons. The anchor cable is deemed initially slack and the anchor believed to be 'fixed to the ground' (i. wind gusts. The anchor and/or cable breaking possibilities are also investigated at the same time. rarely stating the whole number of successful operations.e.g. no dragging is allowed which could safely put down the ship speed without endangering the anchor equipment). Figures 2 and 3 are used to calculate the cable potential energy increase (as product of force and horizontal displacement) to which the ship energy is transformed. [Gurovic et al. 1975].g. rapid alterations in a direction of wind/wave/current. If some anchor-related data are missing for a particular ship model. the strength requirements of [IACS. 1999] are generally valid for static proof tests and there is surprisingly little amount of data in open literature concerning the dynamic strength of anchor equipment components. Ojo.

2 87k 1209 48 7. and 6 times the water depth. 2 250 98 137 53. Ship particulars. the maximum allowable value of the catenary parameter a (also in relative measures) can be specified (see Tab. estimated cable link dia. up to the anchor breaking load is presented in Tab.5 Hall (SS) 51 73 50 Gr.9 87k 104000 11.4 1.5 3. (28) is showed in Tab. It appears that the anchor failure is possible only just in the range C of the cable behaviour (Fig.a BL . deadweight[t]. 3. the outcome of eqs.DWT mass[t] anchor weight in air[t] anchor holding factor . 1): a BL = ' BL ANR ' a . 4. DWT aBL amed= 25 160 700 6k 1557 62 10 2. 6/2003 15 . Table. 3). the cable length equal to 1.0 The initial kinetic energy according to two characteristic ship forward velocities. is computed in Tab.50 [m/s]. 3 343 338 482 145.[mm] cable type [-] cable max.87' q air ' a med (28) For the water depth 40[m] and three representative cable scopes i.a BL is greater than 1.3 3.5 135k 155000 12.average (in anchor weight units) [-] anchor type [-] anchor proof load [t] anchor break load [t]-'BLANR'.5.5 h/l= 1.1 3. 3. 3 370 468 669 210 Taking the anchor breaking load as a more critical one.7 135k 1018 41 6. a BL = BL 0. The energy absorbable in both ranges of the anchor cable operation. namely 0.0 6.6 1.e. 2.25 and 0. namely B and C (see before).5 Hall (SS) 107 153 81 Gr. 2.0 10 AC14 130 186 97 Gr. Non-dimensional maximum allowable a parameter.'qair' 6k 9000 3. 1. length [m] cable proof load [t] cable break load [t] cable unit weight in air [kg/m] .ANCHOR FORCES IN SHIP MANOEUVRING MATHEMATICAL MODEL Table.

25[m/s] and if the cable is long enough i. The larger ships can be decelerated only from velocity 0. 0. this analysis is rather static and excludes the usual anchor dragging during a cable deployment phase. It should be also pointed out that safe anchoring velocities cited elsewhere in literature are sometimes referred to quite different criteria.0 6k 70 409 1143 87k 190 1105 3086 Range B 135k 274 1595 4454 6k 173 708 1526 87k 468 1873 3869 Range B+C 135k 675 2686 5363 It could be concluded that 6kDWT ship is able to come safely to rest from the initial 0.0 6. e. The lower velocity. In other conditions. it is difficult to make a deeper reference to the latter data as detailed computational assumptions are not published at all.5[m/s] velocity already in the range B providing the cable scope equal 6.g. As mentioned before.Jarosław Artyszuk Table.like e. Such data when applied for comparison purposes should be considered with care. not enumerated above. Ship kinetic energy [kJ] DWT vx[m/s]= 0.25[m/s].25 0. The obtained restrictions in velocity for larger ships are more serious than those quoted e. here of order 3.5 3. in [Nowicki.g. Such an increase in the cable tension is without significant effect on the cable potential energy. However.e. the safe anchoring velocity for larger ships seems to remain however nearly the same to some extent if the cable maximum load instead of the anchor related one is incorporated into (28).g. a complete stoppage is achieved at lower cable scopes. So this is an extreme situation and does not mean at all that the anchor would fail actually. 3. a prohibition of anchor dragging or those pertaining to specific rough weather conditions ([Brook and Byrne. the anchor will be damaged. Though the cable break load is 2-3 times higher than those corresponding to the anchor itself. 1999]. 16 Annual of Navigation . Cable energy absorption [kJ] within anchor maximum loads DWT h/l= 1.50 6k 281 1125 87k 3250 13000 135k 4844 19375 Table. 6 times the water depth. 4. 1984]).

see e. Dynamic Reactions Analysis of a Horizontally Towed Partially Submerged Cable in Seaway. and Mooring Equipment). 19. 1 (Rudder. Grinberg D. 1999 6.I...e. 126. 109. This is required among others for an appropriate simulation of anchor early dragging due to still large cable bottom slope angles αD at that moment. 1984 7. Asinovskij V. 25. REFERENCES 1. Alexandria. vol. no. The Dynamic Behaviour of Single and Multiple Moored Vessels. Leningrad. Some Practical Aspects of Anchoring Large Ships. Fleet Moorings.. Graphical-Analytical Method of Anchor Cable Statics. vol. 1984]. 1987 (in German) 3. 1984 2. This concerns the anchor application not only for a ship stay but for her manoeuvring ability improvement as well. 1988 (in Russian) 10. [Polderdijk. Messerschmidt W. Design Manual. 1975 (in Russian) 4.. RINA Trans. 1985]. vol.. Gurovic A. 1977 (in Russian) 9. IACS. vol. 8..S. Schiffbauforschung (S/BF). 1985 6/2003 17 . the windlass operation dynamics) during the anchoring initial phase when the whole length of anchor cable has not been yet paid out. King J. Brook A. Anchor. 2 (Part 2 .. no. ASCE Journal of Waterway. Port.g. Byrne D.I.N. Sudostroenie.. vol.ANCHOR FORCES IN SHIP MANOEUVRING MATHEMATICAL MODEL FINAL REMARKS In the present study the sea current profile and wave effects upon the anchor cable performance have been omitted as they are relatively small. Naval Facilities Engineering Command. Mechanics of Static Catenary with Current Loading..A. 3 (Aug). Ojo A.. [Brook and Byrne..g.K. and the actual current/wave estimations are generally unreliable (uncertain). Liensdorf M. Towing in Seaway..I. Makin V. no..Further research should go towards more adequate modelling of all anchor equipment failures and the associated windlass technical operation.Cable Dynamic Reactions in Seaway). no. Handbook on \Ship Equipment. 1 (Part 1 Cable Forces and Configuration for Stationary Towing Conditions) and no. Coastal. DM-26.N. Liensdorf M. International Association of Classification Societies. and Ocean Engineering. 9... Sudostroenie. vol.5. no. 126. since many wrong conclusions can be drawn with regard both to the anchor performance limits and anchoring procedure itself.. Seawirtschaft. Particular aspects of modelling could refer e. NFEC. Graphical-Analytical Method in Determining Loads in Elastic Cable.. Requirements Concerning Mooring and Anchoring.see e. 9. 1986 (in German) 8. RINA Trans. Hong C. Lozgacev B. Basic Criteria and Planning Guidelines. Makin V. to a cable deployment technique (i.g. Gatzer H. 1983 5. Sudostroenie.

Nowicki A. 103. ASCE Journal of the Waterway.A. Port. London. 1999 12.. 1977 Received August 2003 Reviewed October 2003 18 Annual of Navigation . Coastal and Ocean Division. Anchoring Systems and Procedures for Large Tankers. Trademar..H.. Behaviour of Offshore Structures (BOSS'85). Knowledge on Seagoing Ship Manoeuvring (Theory and Practice Basics).). v.2. Single Leg Catenary Mooring and Anchors.. Series: Developments in Marine Technology. 1985 14. 1982 13. Jul 1-5. Gdynia. Shipp J. 4th International Conference (Elsevier.Jarosław Artyszuk 11. vol.4 (Nov). Battjes J. Witherby & Co. OCIMF.G. Response of Anchor Lines to Excitation at the Top. no. ed. Delft. Polderdijk S.

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