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Numbers and counting are a part of everyone‟s life and understanding the numbers and their structure is essential to progress the in mathematics, mostly in arithmetic and algebra (Nataraj & Thomas, 2009). Arithmetic from the Greek word (ἀριθμός, arithmos meaning number) is the oldest and most basic branch of mathematics. It is used by almost everyone, for tasks ranging from simple daily counting to advanced science and business calculations. It is also known as "science of numbers." From the fact that computations were commonly performed on the abacus, the name of this instrument was used in the early Middle Ages as a synonym of logistic. Finally, however, the word „abacus‟ came to mean any kind of elementary arithmetic and this usage obtained long after printing was invented. In the Middle Ages the name “arithmetic” was apparently not in full favor, perhaps because it was not of Latin origin. Thus, in a manuscript attributed to Gerbert the word is spoken of as Greek, the Latin being “numerorum scientia.” In common usage, arithmetic refers to a branch of mathematics that records elementary properties of certain operations on numbers. Professional mathematicians sometimes use the term higher arithmetic (Davenport, 1999) as a synonym for number theory, but different with elementary arithmetic. The traditional arithmetic operations are addition, subtraction,

multiplication, and division although more advanced operations such as manipulations of percentages, square root, exponentiation, and logarithmic functions are also sometimes included in this subject. Any set of objects upon which all four operations of arithmetic can be performed (except division by zero), and where in these four operations obey the usual laws, is called a field. Addition is the simplest form and combines two numbers, such as 1+1=2. This can be used for simple tasks such as adding grocery amounts or the money in one's pocket. Subtraction is the process of finding the difference between two numbered quantities, such as 5-3=2. This process can be used in tasks such as calculating the balance in a bank account after withdrawing some cash.

20 can be divided into 5 equal groups.000 and 18. Egyptians were one of the first civilizations to use mathematics in an extensive setting. for more understanding about the concept of arithmetic. dating from somewhere between 20. History of Arithmetic The prehistory of arithmetic is limited to a very small number of small artifacts which may indicate conception of addition and subtraction. These artifacts do not always reveal the specific process used for solving problems. which are written as 3x5=15. Their system was derived from base ten and this was probably so because of the number of fingers and toes. The earliest written records indicate the Egyptians and Babylonians used all the elementary arithmetic operations as early as 2000 BC. the best-known being the Ishango bone from central Africa. Decimal Number Egyptian Symbol 1= a rod 10 = a heel bone . the history of the origin and the development of the arithmetic has been discussed below. It consists of dividing a number into groups of equal amounts. with 4 units in each group. but the characteristics of the particular numeral system strongly influence the complexity of the methods. to divide the number 20 into several groups. adding 3 to it 5 times give 15. For example. which would yield 5. Therefore.Multiplication consists of adding a number (the multiplicand) to itself a certain number of times. In other words. each containing 4 units. one would write 20/4 (or 20÷4). For example. Division is the inverse of multiplication.000 BC although its interpretation is disputed.

In one example. and departing for subtraction. from the Rhind Papyrus. 10. Example. The numbers were grouped together in no particular order and the operation was performed.000 = Their number system worked very well when doing addition or subtraction.100 = a snare Their number system worked very well when doing addition or subtraction. addition and subtraction signs were represented through figures which resemble the legs of a person advancing for addition.000. from the Rhind Papyrus. The numbers were grouped 1000 = a lotus flower a pointing finger a burbot fish a kneeling figure together in no particular order and the operation was performed. Our Way Egyptian Way 255 = = + 827 = 1082 .000 = 1. addition and subtraction signs were represented through figures which resemble the legs of a person advancing for addition. and departing for subtraction. In one example.000 = 100.

the ancient mathematician Archimedes (287 . . including the sexagesimal (base 12) system for Babylonian numerals and the vigesimal(base 20) system that defined Maya numerals. The oldest known counting board in 300 BC was discovered on the Greek island of Salamis in 1899. Nicomachus describes how natural numbers and basic mathematical ideas are eternal and unchanging. The counting board is ancestor of the abacus. Nicomachus referred to Plato (429 . In both cases. which represents numbers by lines where Nichomachus used arithmetical notation expressed in ordinary language. The continuous historical development of modern arithmetic starts with the Hellenistic civilization of ancient Greece.347 BC) quite often. For this place-value concept. It covers Pythagorean number theory and contains the multiplication table of Greek origin. and the counting was done on the board with beads or pebbles. descended from tally marks used for counting. multiplication in Roman arithmetic required the assistance of a counting board to obtain the results. the ability to reuse the same digits for different values contributed to more simple and more efficient methods of calculation. and in an incorporeal realm. This is his only complete book that has survived to our day.The hieroglyphic system for Egyptian numerals. The derivation of the Greek numerals of hieratic Egyptian system lacked positional notation. like the later Roman numerals. His book was different with Euclid's book. although it originated much later than the Babylonian and Egyptian examples. and wrote about how philosophy can be possible only if one knows enough math. and the earliest known form of a counting device excluding fingers and other very simple methods. Greek studies in mathematics overlapped with philosophical and mystical beliefs.000 years ago and contains both philosophical prose and very basic mathematical ideas. The book Introduction to Arithmetic was written by Nicomachus almost 2. this origin resulted in values that used a decimal base but did not include positional notation. Early number systems that included positional notation were not decimal. Counting boards were made of stone or wood. Although addition was generally straightforward. For example. and therefore imposed the same complexity on the basic operations of arithmetic. Prior to the works of Euclid around 300 BC.212 BC) devoted an entire work The Sand Reckoner merely to devising a notation for a certain large integer where he computed the number of grains of sand to fill the universe. It is thought to have been used by the Babylonians in about 300 BC and is more of a gaming board than a calculating device.

This approach eventually replaced all other systems. arithmetic was one of the seven liberal arts taught in universities. were "almost a mistake" in comparison. Brahmagupta established the use of zero as a separate number and determined the results for multiplication. In the 7th century.valuable methods of calculation which surpass description". The flourishing of algebra in the medieval Islamic world and in Renaissance Europe was an outgrowth of the huge simplification of computation through decimal notation. Fibonacci was primarily responsible for spreading their use throughout Europe after the publication of his book Liber Abaci in 1202..The gradual development of Hindu-Arabic numerals independently devised the place-value principle and positional notation. the Indian mathematician Aryabhata incorporated an existing version of this system in his work. except for the result of division by zero. In the middle Ages. for the game of “even and odd” has been played in one form or another almost from time immemorial.. It must have been common to a considerable part of the race. The Pythagoreans knew it and their founder may well have learned it in Egypt or in Babylon. so fundamental that all related mathematical foundations. and trigonometry) and nomographs in addition to the electrical calculator. the Syriac bishop Severus Sebokht described the excellence of this system as ". addition and subtraction of zero and all other numbers. which he styled the "Method of the Indians" (Latin Modus Indorum). This allowed the system to consistently represent both large and small integers. division. Odd and even number The distinction between odd and even number is one of the most ancient features in the science of arithmetic. division. Examples include slide rules (for multiplication. Although the Codex Vigilanus described an early form of Arabic numerals (omitting zero) by 976 AD. Various types of tools exist to assist in numeric calculations. being ancient even in Plato‟s time the game consisted simply in guessing odd or even with respect to the number of coins or other objects held in the hand. including the results of Pythagoras and the algorism describing the methods for performing actual calculations. which combined the simpler methods for computations within decimal base and the use of a digit representing zero to nine. In the early 6th century AD. The Arabs also learned this new method and called it as hesab. . and experimented with different notations. He considered the significance of this "new" representation of numbers. His contemporary.

Figurate Number The Greek were deeply interested in numbers which are connected with geometric form and which therefore received the name of figurate number. FIGURATE NUMBERS From the first printed edition of the arithmetic of Boethius (1488) . such as and are then of the form n2. These are triangular if capable of being pictured thus : And are therefore of the form They are square if they can be represented by squares. They are pentagonal if in the form of a square with a triangle on top. In the Greek manuscripts they appeared in such forms as those here shown. thus : So that the form is . Similarly. the a‟s standing for I‟s or possibly for arithmos‟ (number). there are hexagonal numbers and other types of polygonal numbers.

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