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TsunamI In Japan 2011: Waves StIrred Up by

Earthquake Cause WIde 0estructIon


Learn about the scIence behInd tsunamIs and earthquakes

Local|or ol lre earlrqua|e. $ouroe. u.$. Seo|o|oa| $urvey
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TsunamI In Japan
apar Was r|l oy a 9.0 ragr|lude earlrqua|e or Varcr 11, 2011, lral lr|ggered a dead|y 23-lool lsurar| |r lre courlry's rorlr.
Tre g|arl Waves de|uged c|l|es ard rura| areas a|||e, sWeep|rg aWay cars, rores, ou||d|rgs, a lra|r, ard ooals, |eav|rg a palr ol
dealr ard devaslal|or |r |ls Wa|e. v|deo loolage sroWed cars rac|rg aWay lror surg|rg Waves. Tre earlrqua|elre |argesl |r
apar's r|sloryslruc| aooul 230 r||es rorlreasl ol To|yo. Tre Pac|l|c Tsurar| warr|rg Cerler |ssued Warr|rgs lor Russ|a,
Ta|War, laWa||, lrdores|a, lre Varsra|| ls|ards, Papua NeW 0u|rea, Auslra||a, ard lre Wesl coasls lre u.3., Vex|co, Cerlra|
Arer|ca, ard 3oulr Arer|ca. Accord|rg lo lre oll|c|a| lo||, lre d|saslers |ell 15,839 dead ard 3,1Z r|ss|rg.
Earthquake Causes NucIear 0Isaster
wral's rore, coo||rg syslers |r ore ol lre reaclors al lre Fu|usr|ra 0a||cr| Nuc|ear PoWer 3lal|or |r lre Fu|usr|ra preleclure
or lre easl coasl ol apar la||ed srorl|y aller lre earlrqua|e, caus|rg a ruc|ear cr|s|s. Tr|s |r|l|a| reaclor la||ure Was lo||oWed oy
ar exp|os|or ard everlua| parl|a| re|ldoWrs |r lWo reaclors, lrer oy a l|re |r arolrer reaclor Wr|cr re|eased rad|oacl|v|ly d|recl|y
|rlo lre alrosprere. Tre ruc|ear lrouo|es Were rol ||r|led lo lre 0a||cr| p|arl; lrree olrer ruc|ear lac|||l|es a|so reporled
proo|ers. Vore lrar 200,000 res|derls Were evacualed lror allecled areas.

0r Apr|| 12, apar ra|sed |ls assessrerl ol lre s|lual|or al lre Fu|usr|ra 0a||cr| ruc|ear poWer p|arl lo Leve| Z, lre Worsl
ral|rg or lre |rlerral|ora| sca|e, pull|rg lre d|sasler or par W|lr lre 198 Crerrooy| exp|os|or. 0eve|oped oy lre lrlerral|ora|
Alor|c Erergy Agercy (lAEA) a|org W|lr courlr|es Wro use ruc|ear erergy, lre sca|e del|res |eve| Z as a ruc|ear acc|derl lral
|rvo|ves W|despread rea|lr ard erv|rorrerla| ellecls ard lre exlerra| re|ease ol a s|gr|l|carl lracl|or ol lre reaclor core
|rverlory. A|rosl lWo rorlrs |aler, lre lAEA ca||ed lre slalus ol lre Fu|usr|ra 0a||cr| ruc|ear p|arl very ser|ous.
Al a reWs corlererce or Varcr 13, Pr|re V|r|sler Naolo Kar, Wro |aler gave lre d|sasler lre rare 0real Easl apar
Earlrqua|e, erpras|zed lre grav|ly ol lre s|lual|or: l lr|r| lral lre earlrqua|e, lsurar|, ard lre s|lual|or al our ruc|ear
reaclors ra|es up lre Worsl cr|s|s |r lre 5 years s|rce lre War. ll lre ral|or Wor|s logelrer, We W||| overcore. Tre
goverrrerl ca||ed |r 100,000 lroops lo a|d |r lre re||el ellorl. Tre dep|oyrerl Was lre |argesl s|rce wor|d war ll.
Tre lsurar| |r apar reca||ed lre 2001 d|sasler |r lre lrd|ar 0cear. 0r 0ec. 2, a 9.0 ragr|lude earlrqua|elre |argesl
earlrqua|e |r 10 yearsruplured |r lre lrd|ar 0cear, oll lre rorlrWesl coasl ol lre lrdores|ar |s|ard ol 3uralra. Tre
earlrqua|e sl|rred up lre dead||esl lsurar| |r Wor|d r|slory, so poWerlu| lral lre Waves caused |oss ol ||le or lre coasl ol Alr|ca
ard Were ever delecled or lre Easl Coasl ol lre ur|led 3lales. Vore lrar 225,000 peop|e d|ed lror lre d|sasler, a ra|l a r||||or
Were |rjured, ard r||||ors Were |ell rore|ess.
The ScIence of TsunamI
A lsurar| (prorourced soo-NAlV-ee) |s a ser|es ol ruge Waves lral occur as lre resu|l ol a v|o|erl urderWaler d|sluroarce,
sucr as ar earlrqua|e or vo|car|c erupl|or. Tre Waves lrave| |r a|| d|recl|ors lror lre ep|cerler ol lre d|sluroarce. Tre Waves
ray lrave| |r lre oper sea as lasl as 150 r||es per rour. As lrey lrave| |r lre oper ocear, lsurar| Waves are gerera||y rol
parl|cu|ar|y |argererce lre d|ll|cu|ly |r delecl|rg lre approacr ol a lsurar|. 8ul as lrese poWerlu| Waves approacr sra||oW
Walers a|org lre coasl, lre|r ve|oc|ly |s s|oWed ard lrey corsequerl|y groW lo a greal re|grl oelore srasr|rg |rlo lre srore.
Trey car groW as r|gr as 100 leel; lre lrd|ar 0cear lsurar| gereraled Waves reacr|rg 30 leel.
%8unam| |s lre aparese Word lor raroor Wave. Trey are sorel|res r|sla|er|y relerred lo as l|da| Waves, oul lsurar|s rave
rolr|rg lo do W|lr lre l|des. Tsurar|s rave oeer re|al|ve|y rare |r lre lrd|ar 0cear, ard are rosl corror |r lre Pac|l|c 0cear.
For more deta||s on Tsunam|, see our encyc|oped|a art|c|e and Tsunam| FA0s.
Tsunam|s and Earthquakes: Facts and 8tats
O Tsurar| FA0s
O 0ead||esl Tsurar|s
O Ercyc|oped|a: Tsurar|s

O Earlrqua|e Facll||e
O Tre sc|erce oer|rd earlrqua|es
O Ter Largesl Earlrqua|es 3|rce 1900
O 0ead||esl Earlrqua|es or Record
O Vajor Earlrqua|es arourd lre wor|d, 2010
O Esl|raled 0ealrs lror Earlrqua|es, 2010
O Ercyc|oped|a: Earlrqua|es
uc|ear Acc|dents: Facts and 8tats
O Tre 2011 Nuc|ear Cr|s|s |r apar
O Nuc|ear ard Crer|ca| Acc|derls ard F|res
O Ercyc|oped|a: Tsurar|s
O F|res ard Exp|os|ors
O Crerrooy|
O Earlr-A|ler|rg Acc|derls
ead||est Tsunam|s |n h|story
Fata||t|es Year Hagn|tude
350,000 2001 9.0 lrd|ar 0cear
100,000 1110 o.c. Crele-3arlor|r|, Arc|erl 0reece
100,000 1Z55 8.5 Porluga|, Vorocco, lre|ard, ard lre ur|led K|rgdor
ead||est Tsunam|s |n h|story
Fata||t|es Year Hagn|tude
100,000 1908 Vess|ra, lla|y
10,000 1Z82 Z.0 3oulr Cr|ra 3ea, Ta|War
3,500 1883 Kra|alau, lrdores|a
30,000 1Z0Z 8.1 To|a|do-Nar|a|do, apar
2,30 189 Z. 3arr||u, apar
25,Z1 188 8.5 Norlrerr Cr||e
15,030 1Z92 .1 Kyusru ls|ard, apar
$ouroe. Nal|ora| 0eoprys|ca| 0ala Cerler, Nal|ora| 0cear|c ard Alrosprer|c Adr|r|slral|or.
ead||est Earthquakes |n h|story
Fata||t|es Year Hagn|tude
830,000 155 8.0 3ra
255,000 19Z 8.0 Tar
230,000 2001 9.1 oll
230,000 1138 r.a. A|e
222,5Z0 2010 Z.0 la|
200,000 1920 8. 0a
200,000 192Z Z.9 rea
200,000 85 r.a. 0ar
150,000 893 r.a. Ard
113,000 1923 Z.9 KW
8Z,58Z 2008 Z.9 3|c
$ouroe. Nal|ora| Earlrqua|e lrlorral|or Cerler, u.3. 0eo|og|ca| 3urvey. 0ala corp||ed lror severa| sources.


Read rore: Tsurar| Facll||e: Learr aooul lre lsurar| lral slruc| apar |r Varcr 2011
lrlop|ease.cor rllp://WWW.|rlop|ease.cor/sc|erce/Wealrer/japar-lsurar|-2011.rlr|#|xzz1lqgj3WAj