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Sensorless
Control
for Induction Motors via Fuzzy Observer Design
KuangYow Lian and ChengYao Hung
Department of Electrical Engineering ChungYuan Christian University ChungLi 32023, Taiwan TEL: 88632654815, FAX: 88632654899 Email: lian dgdec.ee.cycu.edu.tw
AbstractIn this paper, sensorless control for induction motors is developed based on fuzzy observer design. First, the TS fuzzy model is used to exactly represent the induction motor. Then, the fuzzy observer of the induction motor is straightforwardly constructed to estimate the immeasurable states of rotor speed and rotor flux, where the estimation gains are obtained by solving a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). This observer scheme gives the estimated states converging to the real states exponentially. For the controller design, in light of the principles of vector control, a new concept, namely virtualdesiredvariable synthesis is introduced to design the control law. Finally, numerical simulations and experiments are carried out to verify the theoretical results and show satisfactory performance.
I. INTRODUCTION
Induction motors (IMs) have been widely applied as electromechanical actuators because of their ruggedness, low maintenance, and low cost. Their usage in speed and torque tracking control application is expected to be quite popular in the near future [1], [2], [3], [4]. For advanced servo applications, the control technique mainly relies on high performance IM drive, where the need of precise rotor speed for feedback is essential. Optical encoders are usually used to detect the rotor speed. However, these speed sensors weaken the ruggedness, reliability and simplicity of an IM. It seems quite clear that the speed sensors cannot even be mounted in a hostile environment. In view of these points, many researches have focused on sensorless control. Due to the high order nonlinearity of IM's dynamics, the estimation of the rotor speed and flux becomes a challenging problem. To overcome these difficulties, various control algorithms have been proposed in the literature [5], [6], [7]. In this paper, we propose a new scheme for speed sensorless control for the full fifthorder model of IMs. The proposed scheme is mainly based on the fuzzy observer design. In recent years, fuzzy control has been widely applied to deal with nonlinear systems. Many researches on this issue are carried out based on TakagiSugeno (TS) fuzzy models [8], [9]. The TS fuzzy approach has been extensively used to model nonlinear systems. The basic idea for the approach is to decompose the model of a nonlinear system into a set of linear subsystems with associated nonlinear weighting functions. The stability analysis is carried out using Lyapunov direct method whereas the control problem is then fornulated into linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) [10], [11], [12]. This work pro1424404975/06/$20.00 © 2006 IEEE
poses a fuzzy observer scheme to estimate the immeasurable variables of rotor speed and rotor flux of an IM. In traditional fuzzy observer design, the premise variables of fuzzy rules are assumed to be measurable. This is a strict constraint and limits its application [13], [14]. For many physical systems, including IMs, it is inevitable to use immeasurable states as the premise variables. The immeasurable premise variables often lead to non void disturbance of which the effect make the estimation error only remain in a residue set. Fortunately, we will point out that the membership functions of fuzzy sets for IMs satisfy a linear proportion type of property. The benefit of this type of membership functions is that the estimation error can converge to zero exponentially. Then, we obtain the observer gains by solving a set of LMIs using MATLAB LMI Toolbox. After finishing the speed and flux estimation design, the speed tracking control is investigated based on separation principle, i.e., the estimation error is supposed to be zero in the control design. At first, the speed tracking control is reformulated into the torque tracking problem. To achieve vector control, a set of virtual desired variables (VDVs) is introduced to synthesize the controller. The VDVs are determined in a straightforward manner based on the goal of achieving all of the desired torque, the constant desired flux, and the system stability. In the design, a skewsymmetric property pertaining to the dynamics of the IM is utilized to simplify the structure of the controller. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme, a voltagefed model of drive system is set up to perform the task of speed tracking. The simulation and experimental results illustrate nice performance, even though in the case of low speed command is considered. II. DYNAMICAL MODEL OF INDUCTION MOTORS Let (isa, isb), (Aral Arb) and w denote the components of the stator current, rotor flux, and rotor speed, respectively. The induction motor is represented by a fifthorder model [15]:
Zsa
= ( Uf+cL2 crL )isa + c,2Ara + A,>b +
vUl
=sb
(
L
karsaA
Arb
+L
Zsb
L
)isb
ArbLTA WAra +I U2 *L

raWArb
b +
WAra
=T
T)
_w
(1)
2140
where (u1, u2) denotes the stator voltage; R5, Rr, L5, Lr and Lm are the stator resistance, rotor resistance, stator inductance, rotor inductance, and mutual inductance, respectively; a = Ls L2/Lr; J, D, T1, are the mechanical inertia, natural damping, and loading torque, respectively; and T is the electromechanical coupling torque expressed as:
n.Lj (Ararsb Arbsa) ' where np = (pole pair) x 3. Let us denote [X1 X2 X3 x41 = [ isa isb Ara Arb I
T
=
(2)
x
Plant Rule i: IF w is Fli and Ara is F2i and Arb iS F3i THEN (t) =AiC (t) + Bu (t) + b (6) y (t) = Cx(t), i =1, 2, .. 18 where W, Ara, and Arb are premise variables which are immeasurable. The fuzzy sets Fji (j = 1, 2, 3) and the system matrices Ai of subsystem i are set as follows:
model (1) can be rewritten as
The
F= l (z1)
=
d d+ D1+ d

F12 (Z1)
F21 (z2)
M3+G(w)x+R(w) JA + Dw
where
M
[
=
T
=
TT
(3) (4)
Lr,oI2
[I
0]
G(w) 0 0
I2
R(w)
T
=
J2
L
LR
=[
_Lm'2 r2
0
ImJ2
[
0 J2 J
0
1

1
0
Rr Lr
=
'2
R,
I
+
c2
[ LrUi LrU2 0
]', 7
A34 O A35 A44 A42 A45 'S A54 A55 A53 L A51 i A52 = D2, O I= D1, 02 = D3, 02 = D2, where 01 = D3, V1 Y02= di, 03 D3, 3 = d2, 503= D1; 04= D3, 4 = d2, ('4 = d, 05= d3, V5= D2,i50= D1, 06= d3, V6= D2, 9P6 = d1, 07= d3, V'7 d2, 07 = D108 = d3, V8 = d2, 508 = di. Using the singleton fuzzifier, product fuzzy inference and weighted average defuzzifier, the final output of the fuzzy system is inferred as follows: 8 ;z (t) E ti(x(t)) {Aix (t) + Bu (t)} + b
Ai
d2 +D2 d2 F22 (Z2) F31 (Z3) =D 3 + Dd F32 (3 d3 D3d3, 3 (z3) A A13 A12 A23 O A21 A22
=
D2 D2 d2
Didil
D1 i
D1id
D2d2 D3d3
X5 X4
X3
D3 D3 d3
A14'Oi
A31 A41
A32
A33 A43 O
A24
A15 A25
(x (t)) with (x (t)) / E ti (x (t)) = (x(t)) = H=1 Fji (x (t)). Note that i=1 i ((t)) =1 for all t, where ,ui (x (t)) > 0 for all i = 1, 2, **, 8. Based on Cx(t) the setting of Fji and Ai, it can be checked that the inferred where the overall states x (t) = ( X X5 ), i.e., x (t) = output is exactly equivalent to the model of induction motor Moreover, we note that all the [ isa isb Ara Arb wJ ] '; the measurable output y (t) = (5). () satisfy the following property: membership functions Fij [isa isb]T; the control input u = [u1 u2]T, and the associated matrix and vector: Fij (x t) Fij (X(t)) =Tlij (x() () A13 A14w A15 All A12 for some constant rij. Since Pi ( (0) A21 A22 A23w A24 A25 Fli (x) F2i (x) F3i (x), it follows that A32 A(x) = A34w A35 A31 A33
;z (t) y (t)
A (x) x (t) + Bu + b where
i
To express the induction motor (3) and (4) in terms of TS fuzzy model, we rewrite the equations in the following form:
y(t)
i=l
=
Cx(t),
8
(7)
AslArb As2Ara
B=
a
A41
A42
A43w
A53
A44
A54
A45 A55
_ J
I
Qoca o
C
O T , b=
0
0
[0
0 01
),
=
0 0 0
T
Pi( (t)  /i('(t)) i (X  )F2i (X) F3i (X) + Fli () yi22(X x)F3i (X) +Fli () F2i(x) Tyi3(X ) AT (X (t) x (t))
where AT
=1
0 1 0 0 0
where AI1 = A51 = A52
A22 =
_

n,L,
JL,
(L +
L2_R
A24
=
A15 = A21 = A25 = A32 = A35 = A41 = A45 =:::: A54 = 0. Then, according to [13], the TS fuzzy model representation of (5) can be expressed by the following rules:
A12 A53
=
,L A33
7
A13

A31
=
=
L2
A42
A14
=
L,R,
Lr
,
=
=
A44
=
Lr A34
A23 =
D J
7
A43
1, A55 A
property: Property: The error of grade functions _t (x(t)))t (x(t)) is proportional to the error (x(t) x(t)). Before designing the observer and controller, some assumptions are made as follows: A.1 The loading torque T1 is a known constant. A.2 The parameters J, D, Lm, L,r R5, Rr are known
constants.
[TIyIF2i (x) F3j (x) + Fli (x) y2F3i (x) + Fli () F2i(x) Ty31. Hence the grade functions ,ut have a nice
2141
A.3. The desired speed wd is a smooth and bounded signal. A.4. The stator current and voltage are measurable, while the rotor flux and speed are assumed to be unavailable.
III. FuzzY OBSERVER OF INDUCTION MOTORS
According to (12), we obtain
V0 (e) < E
8
i=l
pi (x')e (t)' Gie
In this section, we will design the fuzzy observer to estimate the immeasurable states under Assumptionsl4. According to the fuzzy model (5), the fuzzy observer is given as follows: Observer Rule i: IF w is Fli and Ara is F2i and Arb is F3i THEN (8) (t) = Ai;(t) +Bu(t) +b +Li (y(t)(t)) S (t) = C;z(t) I i = 1, 2,. ,8
where Gi = (Ai LiC)T P + P (Ai LiC) + UTU + PP. Hence, the exponential convergence of e (t) is concluded if Gi < 0. Using Schur complement [16] and letting PLi = Zi, the inequality Gi < 0 can be converted to the following LMIs: [ATPP+PAi CTZfT Z'c+U U P <
(13) Design of the Fuzzy Observer: For the fuzzy observer (8), suppose that all states and control input are bounded. If there exists a common positive definite matrix P and Zi such that the LMIs (13) are feasible, then the estimation error converges to zero exponentially by letting observer gains Li = P'Zi We can solve LMIs (13) using powerful packages like MATLAB Toolbox to obtain P and Zi. In turn, the observer gains are calculated from Li = P lZi.
IV. CONTROLLER SYNTHESIS BY VIRTUAL DESIRED VARIABLES
Vi=1, 2,
, 8.
where the premise variables W, Ara, and Arb are the estimated states of W, Ara, and Arb, respectively; x (t) and y (t) denote the estimations of x (t) and y (t), respectively; and Li is an observer gain to be determined. The inferred output of the observer is
:; (t)
y (t)
E pi (x(t)) {Ai (t) + Bu (t) + b i=l +Li(y (t)y (t))} C:z (t) .
=
8
(9)
Define the state estimation error e (t) ing (7) by (9), it leads to
e (t)
8
=
x
(t)

(t). Subtract
i=l
pi (x(t)) {(Ai LiC) e} + 1 (t)
8
(10)
(1 1)
where
The concept of control design for a sensorless induction motor is shown in Fig. 1. For simplicity, we assume the fuzzy observer provides a perfect estimation of x, i.e., we let A = A and w = w. The use of separation principle in the controller design is suggested by the exponential convergence of estimation error, which is endowed with the robustness for some amounts of uncertainty.
rl
_1
(t)
=
I i=l
(ti (X)lH i {Aix (t)} (X:))
The term 1 (t) in (11) arises due to immeasurable premise variables W, Ara, and Arb. Recalling the property in Section II, we have
Fuzzy ObserverBased
~0),IA MechanicalI Ivv IV
part
.I
i
I
lTl
=
CT EAi {Aix (t) } E {Aix (t) } AT ei=l
i=l
8
8
L __
v
Electrical part
Vsu, L/vn Vsw
s
Supposed that x (t) are bounded (this will be confirmed in controller design given later), the term 1 (t) has the following bounded fashion TIl < eTUTUe (12)
_
. . . .E
IM
er. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
with a constant matrix U. This undesired term 1 (t) will Fig. 1 The concept of control design for sensorless induction affect the estimation performance. Its effect, however, can be motor. exponentially attenuated to zero by suitably choosing observer gains Li. Now, we apply Lyapunov method to get the observer A. Speed Tracking Control gainsLi,i =1,2, ,8. First, denote the speed tracking error as w w Wd. The Choose the Lyapunov function candidate V0 (e (t)) = tracking error dynamics can be rewritten as 4 (t) Pe (t). Taking the time derivative, we have 8 Jw + (D + kw) = T Td + (Td YO + kw), (14) Z Vo (e) < + Hi P()e'K(Ai LiC)P+P(Ai LiC)] e where i=l Td denotes the desired torque which produces the desired speed; k, is an adjustable damping ratio; Tppe + lTl. +C
2142
Y= [1 CDd wdl is the regression vector; and the parameter vector 0= [Ti J D]T. For speed tracking control, the desired torque is selected as
Td
=
For the last term, we rewrite it as (T T) w = _X';, where L, [ X4d X3d X2 x1 .Since R (w) depends on w, we further reexpress (20) as
=
YO kw,
V7c
(15)
where
=
This yields the following
error
dynamics
=
s X(+ kw[ 0

LrJ2w ] ~ f +
(D +kwA) 6J2 +
Lro7yI2 + L,R, Lr
f;T
K'2
Jw + (D + kw)
T Td
Since the damping ratio D of induction motors is usually small, the damping term k,Cw plays a dominant role on improving the transient response for speed tracking. If T Td is driven to zero, the rotor speed will converge to the desired value. In other words, the speed tracking control problem has been reformulated into the torque tracking problem, where the objective is T Td. The concept of virtual desired variables (VDVs) is introduced in the following to achieve the objective.

&LtR I2
R
r2
,
1we
After setting
V
p=
[

12x
obtain
(t),w)
xRx
(D + k,)2
It
can
be checked that the matrix R > 0 by choosing
K >LrRs.
B. Concept of VDVs The VDVs consist with the virtual desired current (X1ld X2d) and virtual desired flux (X3d, X*4d). They will be specified by satisfying (i) the desired torque
Td
=
Hence the exponential stability is shown if the VDVs defined.
are
well
nL. (Xx2dX3dXldX4d);
(16)
(ii) the constant desired flux
c= X3cd + X4d;
x
D. Specijying VDVs In the remaining design procedure, control law u and VDVs Xd are chosen such that (P = 0. The perturbed term (19) is explicitly rewritten as:
p
2
2
2
(17)
=
[ (pl
(p2
(p3
(p4
I
3d
(iii) the stability when the true state variables (t) track the VDVs. Notice that the condition (17) for desired flux is to achieve the optimal torque [4]. Define the error signal for the electrical part as 5 = d, where Xd = [ Xld X2d X3d X4d ] The control objective of steering T to track Td can be achieved if 0. To this end, the equation (3) is rewritten in terms
x
÷
LrU1
Lr U2
LrUi7;d + LmWX4d
XL(7yld +L
LrU7;2d LmWX3d LrO77X2d + RL X4d  JX4d + L Xld X3d R 4d L 'C4d + bJXf3d +LLR, X2d
=
X4d
1(P
To satisfy (p3
X3d
';4d
(p4
(_
=
0,
we can
obtain
X3d
X4d
(21)
1ld
of
as
Mx+G(w)x+R(w)
where form
=
p
+
p
(18)
RrI2
+
JJ2)
X1
[
+
LmRr
Lr
X, 2d
I
J
(P
is regarded
as a
perturbed term with the following
From
+J L
Lr PJ2
Xf2
(22)
be addressed in Subsection D.
(19) (p = T [Mid + G (w)Xd+ R (w) Xdl ~p. We will intend to set (P = 0 to specify the VDVs, which will
(17), ( X3d X4d ) = ( coCs (p (t)) csin (p (t)) ) for variable p (t) to be determined later. It follows that
X3d
X4d
J
PX4d
=
J
X3d
PX3d
X4d
J
(23)
C. Stability Analysis To analyze the stability of the system and design (P as well, we choose the following Lyapunov function candidate:
Substituting (23) into (22),
Xld 0
=
1
we
obtain
(r wp)J2+I2)[X3d]
1
VC (t)i ) 2 (t)T M (t) + ijsJ2 The time derivative of Vc along (I15) and (I18) is
VC
wnpJ2 C
Rr
L
2
(24)
(x (t), w)

(D + kwg)
+ (t)T R (w)j2 (t)(T (t)T (
+
(16) yields
Since the desired states also satisfy (16), substituting (24) into
p
(t)
Td)

(20)
2143
=
np
c2 Td
+
+
Lc L 'A
(X1X3d
+
X2X4d),
where p (t) is thus defined. On the other hand, to satisfy (P1 (p2= 0 in (21), the control law is formulated as follows:
U2
U2
Xld
[
lFXldlI
XIi
X2d
+
[X2dJ
(('
Lr
[X2J
L,
+L'wJ
L_ R, _2
L
[
L
+
) J2
(2
[X3d
X4d
T
Indeed, the implementation of the control law (25) is complicated due to the first term on the righthand side, which includes the time derivative of Xld and X2d. But, we note that the exponential stability shown in Subsection C give a very nice robustness to the uncertainty. This property permits us to approximate the 'id by using aid XidXid, where Xid + Xid = Xid. The resulting simplified control law will be adopted in our simulation and experiment.
V. EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS
In this section, the performance of the control scheme will be verified by numerical simulations and experiments. For comparison, numerical simulation results are put next to associated experiments results. The specifications and parameters of the induction motor are listed in Table I.
TABLE I THE SPECIFICATION AND PARAMETERS OF THE INDUCTION MOTOR
Rated Specification Pole Pair 3 Power 0.4 kW 120 V Voltage Current 3.4 A 1500 rpm Speed Parameters 2.85Q R, Rr 4.0Q 0.19667 H LI Lr 0.19667 H Lm 0.1886 H J 0.001 kg n2
the power inverter. Meanwhile, a set of I/0 modules are constructed in the card for the voltage/current measurement, encoder interface and some protections. For the purpose of comparison, the motor's instantaneous speed is measured by an optical incremental encoder with 1000 pulse/revolution. The software we adopt is Simulink 3.0 and Matlab 5.3. In addition, the system combines the motor control card with the Simulink/Real Time Workshop Toolbox such that the setup of the control law in the simulation can be directly applied to the experiment. The overall execution time interval is set as 6 sec for both simulations and experiments. Consider tacking of speed wd 30 + 20 sin(X) rad/sec. The control parameters are chosen as: k, = 0.47, c = 0.53. The simulation and experiment results of speed tracking for desired and actual speed are shown in Fig. 2(a). The maximal tracking error are 0.3 and 1 rad/sec for simulation and experiment, respectively. The desired and estimation rotor speed are shown in Fig. 2(b). The maximal tracking error are 0.4 and 0.5 rad/sec for simulation and experiment, respectively. The actual and estimation rotor speed are shown in Fig. 2(c). The speed estimation error (w ) is shown in Fig. 2(d). The experiment results of stator voltage and stator current for one phase are shown in Figs. 3. From these figures, we can find that the tracking error will tend to zero asymptotically when time goes to infinity. Furthermore, the stator current response, stator voltage, are satisfactorily. From the results, we can conclude the performance of the proposed control scheme. VI. CONCLUSION A fuzzy observerbased controller has been proposed to achieve speed tracking. To this end, some new concepts, such as virtual desired variables and Lipschitzlike condition are introduced to benefit the control design. Here, the general fuzzy model of induction motors is used to accomplish the design. The TS fuzzy observer algorithm has been developed for the estimation of the rotor speed and the flux of an induction motor. The observer gains are obtained by solving a set of LMIs. The twostage design technique is applied to construct a controller for speed tracking control. The numerical simulations and experimental results have illustrated the expected performance and indicate that the integration of the fuzzy observer and VDVsynthesis controller are very suitable in induction motor applications.
ACKNOWLEDGMENT
This work was supported by the National Science Council, R.O.C., under Grant NSC 932213E033008.
REFERENCES
[1] J. Li, L. Xu and Z. Zhang, "An adaptive slidingmode observer for induction motor sensorless speed control," IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 10391046, Jul./Aug. 2005. [2] A. M. Lee, L. C. Fu, C. Y Tsai, and Y C. Lin, "Nonlinear adaptive speed and torque control of induction motors with unknown rotor resistance," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 391401, Apr. 2001. [3] K. K. Shyu, L. J. Shang, H. Z. Chen, and K. W. Jwo, "Flux compensated direct torque control of induction motor drives for low speed operation," IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 16081613, Nov. 2004.
According to LMI (13), where we let U diag {0.9, 0.9, 0.9, 0.9, 0.9}, the observer gains obtained via LMI toolbox of Matlab. The induction motor is driven by a PCbased DSP controller. The overall system consists of the PC, DSP controller card, power inverter, encoder, and an induction motor. For implementing the control law, the DSP card provides not only a high speed floatingpoint computation but also a 100kHz PWM signal generation to
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[4] K. Y Lian, C. Y Hung, C. S. Chiu, and P. Liu, "Induction motor control with friction compensation: an approach of virtualdesiredvaruable synthesis," IEEE Trans. Power Electron., vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 10661074, Sept. 2005. [5] H. T. Lee, L. C. Fu, and H. S. Huang, "Sensorless speed tracking of induction motor with unknown torque based on maximum power transfer," IEEE Trans. Ind. Electron., vol. 49, no. 4, pp. 911924, Aug. 2002. [6] M. Feemster, P. Aquino, D. M. Dawson, and A. Behal, "Sensorless rotor velocity tracking control for induction motors," IEEE Trans. Contr Syst. Technol., vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 645653, Jul. 2001. [7] J. Holtz and J. Quan, "Sensorless vector control of induction motors at very low speed using a nonlinear inverter model and parameter identification," IEEE Trans. Ind. Appl., vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 10871095, Jul./Aug. 2002. [8] T. Takagi and M. Sugeno, "Fuzzy identification of system and its applications to modeling and control," IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern., vol. SMC15, no. 1, pp. 116132, 1985. [9] Q. Gan and C. J. Harris, "Fuzzy local linearization and local basis function expansion in nonlinear system modeling," IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern. B, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 559565, Aug. 1999. [10] K. Tanaka and H. 0. Wang, Fuzzy Control Systems Analysis and Design: A Linear Matrix Inequality Approach. New York: Wiley, 2000. [11] X. J. Ma, Z. 0. Sun, and Y Y He, "Analysis and design of fuzzy controller and fuzzy observer," IEEE Trans. Fuzzy syst., vol. 6, no. 1, pp. 4151, Feb. 1998. [12] A. Jadbabaie, M. Jamshidi, and A. Titli, "Guaranteedcost design of continuoustime TakagiSugeno fuzzy controller via linear matrix inequalities," in Proc. FUZZIEEE, May 1998, pp. 268273. [13] K. Y Lian, C. S. Chiu, T. S. Chiang, and P. Liu, "Secure communications of chaotic systems with robust performance via fuzzy observerbased design," IEEE Trans. Fuzzy syst., vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 212220, Feb. 2001. [14] B. S. Chen, C. S. Tseng, and H. J. Uang, "Mixed H21Ho, fuzzy output feedback control design for nonlinear dynamic systems: an LMI approach," IEEE Trans. Fuzzy syst., vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 249265, Jun. 2000. [15] B. K. Bose, Power Electronics and AC Drives. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1986. [16] S. Boyd, L. El Ghaoui, E. Feron, and V. Balakrishnan, Linear Matrix Inequalities in System and Control Theory. Philadelphia, PA: SIAM, 1994.
cn
cn
II
II
II
3
1
4
5 6 1~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~
cn
II
3 (c)
1
4
5 6 Time(s)
cn
I1
3
1
4
Il
cn
a
.w_
Times
4 3 (d) Fig. 2 The simulation and experimental results: (a) desired () an d actual () speed, (b) desired () and estimated () speed, (c) actual ( ) and estimated () speed, (d) speed estimation error.
0
II
l
1
2
50
o
I~~ .
0
1 2
.
3
4
I
100 0 100
1M

I1
   
I
 
U)
5
6
50 cn
CZ
0v
0
50
,
cn U)
1
,
2
(a)
3
4
5
Time(s)
6
5 6 Time(s) Fig. 3 The experimental results of stator voltage and stator current for one phase.
1 2 4
0
3
cn
II
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
,.
0
1
50
. .~~~~~~~~I
2
3 (b)
4
5 6 Time(s)
2145
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