RAMACHANDRA COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

TITLE OF THE PROJECT- SIGNALS & SYSTEMS

ABSTRACT- This presentation gives you brief information about signals and systems and
Its types

SUB TITLE:1) INTRODUCTION 2) SIGNAL DEFINITION 3) TYPES OF SIGNALS 4) COMPARISION OF ANALOG AND DIGITAL SIGNALS 5) CONVERSION OF ANALOG TO DIGITAL 6) CONVERSION OF DIGITAL TO ANALOG 7) ADVANCED TECHNIQUES OF DIGITAL SIGNALS 8) ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SIGNALS

TO BE PRESENTED BY : MD.ISHAK & MD.HAFEEZ

1) INTRODUCTION:

2)

SIGNAL DEFINITIONS:

3)

TYPES OF SIGNALS:

DIGITAL SIGNAL:
• • DEFNITION Discrete or discontinuous consisting of 'on' and 'off' states. In comparison, an analog signal is a continuous wave that fluctuates infinitely within its frequency range

4) COMPARISON OF ANALOG AND DIGITAL:

Analog vs Digital
Analog and digital signals are used to transmit information, usually through electric signals. In both these technologies, the information, such as any audio or video, is transformed into electric signals. The difference between analog and digital technologies is that in analog technology, information is translated into electric pulses of varying amplitude. In digital technology, translation of information is into binary format (zero or one) where each bit is representative of two distinct amplitudes.

Comparison chart
Improve this chart Uses: Analog Can be used in various computing platforms and under operating systems like Linux, Unix, Mac OS and Windows. Analog signal is a continuous signal which transmits information as a response to changes in physical phenomenon. Analog clocks indicate time using angles. Analog computer uses changeable continuous physical phenomena such as electrical, mechanical, hydraulic quantities so as to solve a problem. Analog technology records waveforms as they are. Digital Computing and electronics

Signal:

Digital signals are discrete time signals generated by digital modulation.

Clocks:

Digital clocks use numeric representation to indicate time. Digital computers represent changing quantities incrementally as and when their values change.

Computer:

Technology:

Converts analog waveforms into set of numbers and records them. The numbers are converted into voltage stream for representation. Uses discrete or discontinuous values to represent information.

Representation:

Uses continuous range of values to represent information.

5) CONVERSION OF ANALOG TO DIGITAL:
An analog-to-digital converter (abbreviated ADC, A/D or A to D) is a device that converts a continuous quantity to a discrete time digital representation. An ADC may also provide an isolated measurement. The reverse operation is performed by a digital-to-analog converter (DAC). Typically, an ADC is an electronic device that converts an input analog voltage or current to a digital number proportional to the magnitude of the voltage or current. However, some non-electronic or only partially electronic devices, such as rotary encoders, can also be considered ADCs. The digital output may use different coding schemes. Typically the digital output will be a two's complement binary number that is proportional to the input, but there are other possibilities. An encoder, for example, might output a Gray code.

CONVERSION OF DIGITAL TO ANALOG:
In electronics, a digital-to-analog converter (DAC or D-to-A) is a device that converts a digital (usually binary) code to an analog signal (current, voltage, or electric charge). An analog-to-digital converter (ADC) performs the reverse operation. Signals are easily stored and transmitted in digital form, but a DAC is needed for the signal to be recognized by human senses or other non-digital systems. A common use of digital-to-analog converters is generation of audio signals from digital information in music players. Digital video signals are converted to analog in televisions and cell phones to display colors and shades. Digital-to-analog conversion can degrade a signal, so conversion details are normally chosen so that the errors are negligible. Due to cost and the need for matched components, DACs are almost exclusively manufactured on integrated circuits (ICs). There are many DAC architectures which have different advantages and disadvantages. The suitability of a particular DAC for an application is determined by a variety of measurements including speed and resolution.

6) ADVANCED TECHNIQUES OF DIGITAL SIGNALS:
In remote sensing, the data captured by the satellite have to be processed before they transform into a useable from. These were mainly done by software programmes that were written to process the data in a computer. Due to the high quantum of data and the extensive processing required, it takes quite a long time to output data in a useable from. Since data mainly contain on images, signal processing that is done is called image processing. This paper tries to explain the potential of computers that are based on general purpose processors which have high processing power. Since the invention of Von Neumann architecture, we have been using this architecture for general purpose microprocessors for nearly three decades. During the last two decades special architectures were developed for very specific applications such as digital signal processing in the audio and video industry. However these were restricted only to those applications and not incorporated into general processors until the Pentium adopted certain of their features. These processors can be used to process image data from satellite.

1. Image Processing
To develop a map using remote sensed row data have to be processed using algorithms. These algorithms are software programmes which may be a filter, an edge detection or image enhancement. Due to large quantum of data per iamge will take a long time to process an image. In image processing simple operations such as addition subtraction division by 2 etc. are carried out repeatedly. Therefore in signal processing smaller set of instructions are repeatedly used. However in a general purpose processor we find only one processing element in the microprocessor. This is a bottle neck in signal processing with processors of fourth generation and below.

2.

Conventional Microprocessor

Architecture Conventional microprocessors use the Von Neumann architecture. This is the first and most popular architecture of microprocessors in use for the past three decades. It consists of three phases or cycles where "stored programmes" and data are retrieved, interpreted and executed. This architecture has so many bottle necks and most fast enough for I today's applications

7) ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF SIGNALS:
The advantages of digital signals: • Optical fibres can transmit digital signals (and optical fibres are cheap). • Digital signals can be compressed so more channels can be transmitted along the same fibre • The electronic circuitry for digital electronics is cheap • It’s easy to combine several types of information on once channel (e.g. video and audio) by multiplexing. Video phones would be impossible with analogue systems as there wouldn't be enough channels available to send all the information for eveyone's phonecalls. • Digital signals are more secure – it is easier to encrypt digital signals making internet shopping less risky for examole. • Can connect several different users to the same link – such as video conferencing. • Digital signals suffer less from noise because any errors can be detected and corrected using regnerators. Therefore the signal you receive is more easily decoded and, on television, you will see a clearer picture or hear a clearer sound, for example. • The electronics can make corrections to the signal if it has been corrupted during transmission which means that the image or sound is complete. The disadvantages of digital signals: • Digital signals need more ‘bandwidth to transmit the same information • The transmitter and receiver have to synchronise very carefully so that the information makes sense. If you start counting half way through a digital number, you might receive 10110001 whereas you should have received 1110110001 – very different! Advantages The main advantage is the fine definition of the analog signal which has the potential for an infinite amount of signal resolution. Compared to digital signals, analog signals are of higher density.Another advantage with analog signals is that their processing may be achieved more simply than with the digital equivalent. An analog signal may be processed directly by analog components, though some processes aren't available except in digital form. Disadvantages The primary disadvantage of analog signaling is that any system has noise – i.e., random unwanted variation. As the signal is copied and re-copied, or transmitted over long distances, these apparently random variations become dominant. Electrically, these losses can be diminished by shielding, good connections, and several cable types such as coaxial or twisted pair.The effects of noise create signal loss and distortion. This is impossible to recover, since amplifying the signal to recover attenuated parts of the signal amplifies the noise (distortion/interference) as well. Even if the resolution of an analog signal is higher than a comparable digital signal, the difference can be overshadowed by the noise in the signal.

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