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June Mellow – focuses on clients’ psychosocial needs and strengths - argued that the nurse as the therapist is particularly suited to working with those with severe mental illness in the context of daily activities, focusing on the here and now to meet each person’s psychosocial needs Psychiatric Nursing in the Philippines • The National Center for Mental Health (NCMH) was established thru Public Works Act 3258. • It was first known as INSULAR PSYCHOPATHIC HOSPITAL, situated on a hilly piece of land in Barrio Mauway, Mandaluyong, Rizal and was formally opened on December 17, 1928. • This hospital was later known as the NATIONAL MENTAL HOSPITAL, given on November 12, 1986, it was given its present name thru Memorandum Circular No. 48 of the Office of the President. • On January 30, 1987, NCMH was categorized as a Special Research Training Center and hospital under Department of Health. • Today, NCMH has an authorized bed capacity of 4,200 and a daily average of 3,400 in-patients. It sprawls on a 46.7 hectare compound with a total of 35 Pavilions/Cottages and 52 Wards. • The NCMH is a special training and research hospital mandated to render a comprehensive (preventive, promotive, curative and rehabilitative) range of quality mental health services nationwide. Standards of Mental Health Clinical Nursing Practice Standards of Care Standard I. Assessment The psychiatric-mental health nurse collects health data Standard II. Diagnosis The psychiatric-mental health nurse analyzes the data in determining diagnoses Standard III. Outcome Identification The psychiatric-mental health nurse identifies expected outcomes individualized to the client Standard IV. Planning The psychiatric-mental health nurse develops a plan of care that prescribes interventions to attain expected outcomes Standard V. Implementation The psychiatric-mental health nurse implements the interventions identified in the plan of care Standard Va. Counseling The psychiatric-mental health nurse uses counseling interventions to assist clients in improving or regaining their previous coping abilities, fostering mental health, and preventing mental illness and disability Standard Vb. Milieu Therapy
The psychiatric-mental health nurse provides, structures, and maintains a therapeutic environment in collaboration with the client and other health care providers
Standard Vc. Self-Care Activities The psychiatric-mental health nurse structures interventions around the client’s activities of daily living to foster self-care and mental and physical well-being Standard Vd. Psychobiologic Interventions The psychiatric-mental health nurse uses knowledge of psychobiologic interventions and applies clinical skills to restore the client‘s health and prevent further disability Standard Ve. Health Teaching The psychiatric-mental health nurse, through health teachings assists clients in achieving satisfying, productive, and healthy patterns of living Standard Vf. Case Management The psychiatric-mental health nurse provides case management to coordinate comprehensive health services and ensure continuity of care Standard Vg. Health Promotion and Maintenance The psychiatric-mental health nurse employs strategies and interventions to promote and maintain mental health and prevent mental illness Standard VI. Evaluation The psychiatric-mental health nurse evaluates the client’s progress in attaining expected outcomes MENTAL HEALTH • State in the relationship of the individual and his environment in which the personality structure is relatively stable, and environmental stresses are within its absorptive capacity.(WHO) • A positive state in which one is responsible, displays self-awareness, is self-directive, is worry-free and can cope with usual daily tension • A state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease • Relative and dynamic concept. Not the same to all people • Changes at different point in time. It is not static FACTORS THAT AFFECT MENTAL HEALTH • Inherited characteristics – genetic make-up • Nurturing during childhood • Life circumstances FACTORS INFLUENCING A PERSON’S MENTAL HEALTH • Individual factors – vitality, finding meaning to life, biological makeup, emotional resilience, spirituality, sense of harmony in one’s life • Interpersonal factors – Intimacy, helping others, effective communication, maintaining a balance of separateness and connection
Benchmark V: Decade of the Brain The 1990s – declared the Decade of the Brain During this decade, a steep increase in brain research occurred that coincided with an increased interest in biologic explanations for mental disorders The Decade crystallized the fact that some behaviors are caused by biologic irregularities and not willful contraries, or worse The Decade brought back nursing into the mainstream of psychiatric care Psychiatric Nursing Practice Linda Richards Graduated in 1873 from New England Hospital for Women and Children in Boston Improved nursing care in psychiatric hospitals and organized educational programs in state mental hospitals in Illinois First psychiatric nurse Believed the mentally sick should be at least as well cared for as the physically sick Harriet Bailey - published the first psychiatric nursing textbook, Nursing Mental Diseases in 1920 Hildegard Peplau – described the therapeutic nurse-client relationship with its phases and tasks and wrote extensively about anxiety The interpersonal dimension forms the foundation of nursing practice today
Social, Cultural factors – access to adequate resources, sense of community, intolerance of violence
• • • • • •
COMPONENTS OF MENTAL HEALTH • Autonomy and Independence Individual follows guiding values and rules to live by Engage in independent action and thinking Consider the opinions and wishes of others Can work interdependently or cooperatively with others without losing his autonomy • Maximizing one’s potential Keep aiming Keep going Use talents Continually strive to grow Self-actualization Self – esteem Accept strength and limitations Awareness of abilities and limitations Tolerating life’s uncertainties Positive outlook in life Face challenges life has to offer Optimism Have the courage to rise after falling Mastering the environment Learn to adopt or cope and relate Can deal with the environment Can influence the environment Being competent and creative Reality Orientation Distinguished real world from a dream Distinguished facts from fantasy Behave appropriately Act accordingly Stress management Tolerate life stresses Experience failure without devastation Cope and tolerate anxiety Resolve conflicts, stress and anxiety
Form close relationship with others Make decision pertaining to reality rather than fantasy Be optimistic & appreciate & enjoy life be independent or autonomous in thought and action Be creative, using varying approaches as they perform task or solve problem Consistent as they appreciate and respect the rights of others Displays willingness to listen and learn from others
Conscious – aware at any time Pre-conscious – can be retrieved rather easily through conscious part Unconscious – repressed memories, passion, unacceptable urges PERSONLITY STUCTURE ID – source of all drives, instincts, reflexes, needs, genetic inheritance and capability to respond to wishes that motive us • Present at birth • Unlearned selfish source of libidal energy • Operates on pleasure principle through the use of fantasy and images • Compulsive with no sense of right or wrong • Demands immediate satisfaction • SIGNIFICANCE – if id is not controlled effectively the individual function in antisocial; lawless manner or ways because his primitive drives or impulses are freely express EGO – begins during the first 8 months of life and is fairly develop when the child reaches 2 years • The self or the I • Problem solver and reality tester • Able to differentiate subjective experience, memory images and object reality • Attempts to negotiate a solution with the outside world • Controls and guides the action of individual • Part of the personality that experiences anxiety and uses defense mechanism for protection • Influenced by heredity, environmental factors and maturation • SIGNIFICANCE – if the individual does not develop a strong ego to arbitrate effectively between id and superego the individual will surely develop intrapersonal and interpersonal conflict SUPEREGO – moral component of personality • Consists of “conscience” (“should-nots”) and ego ideal (“should”) • Operates both in the conscious and unconscious but operates mostly on the unconscious level • Develops around 3-4 years and fairly develop at age 10 • Formed and influence from the internalization of what parents teach their children regarding right or wrong through rewards and punishments • SIGNIFICANCE – if superego is so strong the life of the individual is dominated by its restriction on behavior, he or she is likely to be unhappy, inhibited and anxiety-guilt ridden. Individuals become inferior if he/she cannot live up to parental standards FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT
SELF - AWARENESS • Process by which the individual gains recognition of his or her own feelings, beliefs and attitudes • The ability to recognize the nature of one’s own behavior, attitude and emotion • Key to self-understanding • Help understand and accept the difference of others SELF – CONCEPT – part of self that lies within conscious awareness depends on how a person thinks he or she is viewed by others Good self-concept leads to self-acceptance SELF-ACCEPTANCE – regards of oneself with realistic concept of strength and weakness, accept others easily Behaviors of a self-accepting person: • Perserving • Trusting and accepting others • Seeing reality • Minimizing weakness • Increase strengths • Learning from mistakes • Reaching out to others • Continuing growth towards self-actualization PSYCHODYNAMICS OF PERSONLITY PERSONALITY – is the sum total of or whole being – Aggregate of the physical and mental qualities of individual as it interacts in characteristic fashion – Sum total of the person’s distinctive character, behavior, attitude – The way one carries himself – Express through behavior – Complex, dynamic and unique CONCEPT of PERSONALITY – all behavior have meaning and is not determined by chance SIGMUND FREUD (1856 – 1939) • Believed that vast majority of mental disorder were due to unresolved issues that originate in childhood LEVELS OF AWARENESS
Believes that crises is temporary
CHARACTERISTICS OF A PERSON WITH GOOD MENTAL HEALTH • Have positive self-concept & relate well to people & their environment
PREOPERATION STAGE (2 – 7 yr) – Preconceptual phase (2-4 yr) • Learns by thinking images • Develop expressive language and symbolic play – Intuitive phase (4-7) • Egocentrism (seeing things from own point of view) CONCRETE OPERATIONAL STAGE (8 – 12 yr) – Able to think more logically as concept of moral judgment.PERSONALITY – behavior that can be observed within interpersonal relationship Personality development Infancy – crying is used to establish contact with others Childhood – language is used to assist with learning to delay the gratification of needs Juvenile period – competition. spatial relationship FORMAL OPERATION STAGE (12 – adulthood) – Develops adult logic – Able to reason. form conclusion. described or recorded – behavior is subject to reward or punishment – changing one’s environment can modify behavior 4 STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 1. SENSORIMOTOR STAGE (0 – 2 yr) – Learns by exploring objects and events and by imitating – Infants develop SCHEMATA (assimilation and accommodations incoming information) 2. compromise and cooperation are tools for developing relationship with others Preadolescence – collaboration and the capacity for love assist in the development of relationship with same gender Early adolescence – with sexual desire. think abstractly and builds ideas 3. facilitate learning to establish relationship with members of the opposite sex Later adolescence – interdependence develop. 4. HARRY STACK SULLIVAN’S INTERPERSONAL THEORY . learns to form lasting sexual relationship ANXIETY – any painful feeling or emotion arising from social insecurity or blocks to getting biological needs satisfied SECURITY OPERATIONS – a person uses to defend oneself against anxiety and ensure self-esteem ERIK ERICKSON’S DEVELOPMENTAL THEORY • Each stage of development is an emotional crisis involving positive and negative experiences • Growth/mastery of critical task results from having more positive experience than negative experience • Allows for corrective emotional experience beyond 5 yrs of life JEAN PIAGET’S COGNITIVE THEORY • Views intellectual development as result of constant interaction between environmental influences and genetically determined attributes Somnolent detachment – use of sleep to avoid anxiety Apathy – emotional detachment or numbing Selective inattention – tuning out details associated with anxiety-producing situation Dissociation – prevents situation from integrating into conscious awareness Converting anxiety to anger – powerlessness is exchanged for a temporary feeling of power associated with anger directed outward 3 TYPES OF TENSION Tension of needs – stemming from physiochemical requirement of life Tension of anxiety – from interpersonal situation Tension of need for help SELF-SYSTEM – develops relatively enduring patterns for avoiding or minimizing anxiety during interpersonal encounters and the meeting of biologic needs – “good me” – needs are satisfied – “bad me” – needs are unmet and anxiety persists – “not me” – anxiety is severe and information is not completely integrated into the personality on a conscious level Behavioral Theories Key Concepts • A behavioral framework is used to described a persons functioning in terms of identified behaviors – people learn to be who they are because of environmental shaping – behavior can be observed. numbers. plan for the future.
the therapist promotes the client’s self awareness and increased self responsibility for meeting needs. the nurse uses various behavioral modification techniques to help the client. and existence involves search for meaning and authenticity – Abraham Maslow’s theory of human motivation theory describes human needs that are organized according to levels in which individuals move on to higher needs as lower. – Psychotherapy fosters the process of learning to be fully one’s own self – The therapist is genuine and without façade when relating to the client . In Beck’s Cognitive therapy. – human nature is viewed as positive and growth oriented. the therapist teaches the client to identify and correct dysfunctional thoughts about the self. it continues) – Extinction is the loss of learned response Operant conditioning (Skinner’s theory) • developed by B. that result in automatic thoughts of self deprecation. substance abuse problems or other specific behavioral problems • modeling refers to new behaviors that are learned by imitating the behavior of another person • operant conditioning involves the use of tokens for desirable behavior • • patterns of thinking leads to and perpetuates maladaptive behaviors the amount of perceived control over a situation affects how an individual responds to stressors and problems • • • systemic desensitization involves gradually confronting a stimulus that evokes intense anxiety. they may continue because they are rewarding to the individual maladaptive behaviors can be change without developing insight into the underlying concepts by altering the environment behavioral models posit that personality consist of learned behaviors and personality becomes synonymous with behavior – if behavior changes. the nurse assesses both adaptive and maladaptive behaviors. • As a member of the treatment team. operant conditioning involves the use of reinforce consequences to change the behavior • positive reinforcement is a reward given to help continue the behavior • negative reinforcement removes undesirable consequences to help continue the behavior • positive punishment involves the use of aversive consequences to decrease a particular behavior • negative punishment involves withdrawing the reward to decrease a particular behavior Application to nursing • In the behavioral framework. • The nurse and the client collaborate to identify behaviors that require change. developed by Aaron Beck. F. or exaggerated prolonged guilt. realistic thoughts. issues and problems – as well as spiritual values and meanings. it is commonly used with clients who have anxiety disorders. This is useful in mild to moderate anxiety states In Gestalt therapy. based on the collective efforts of Fritz Perls and Paul Goodman. developed by Carl Rogers is based on the belief that mental illness results from an individuals failure to develop fully as human being. Cognitive Framework Key concepts • the cognitive framework focuses on distorted or negative thought patterns that lead to maladaptive or symptomatic feelings and behaviors – distorted thinking leads to and perpetuates maladaptive behaviors – certain thought patterns can be identified as misperceptions challenge the faulty beliefs by directly confronting the feared situation. a form of therapy developed by Aaron Beck. world and the future Cognitive techniques may be used: – Cognitive restructuring – change of maladaptive beliefs through positive self statements and refusing irrational beliefs – Thought stopping – constantly say “STOP” to maladaptive thoughts Behavioral treatments • behavioral modification involves the use of various learned techniques to change maladaptive behavior. it is useful in treating phobias – the therapist initially teaches the client how to relax and begins a stimulus that causes mild anxiety – the client learns to invoke the relaxation response when confronted with a stimulus – the process continues until an intensely anxiety provoking stimulus no longer causes the client to feel anxious aversive therapy operates on the principle that unpleasant consequences result from undesirable behavior.• • • maladaptive behaviors are learned through classical and operant conditioning. more basic needs are met – failure to develop one’s potential leads to poor coping – lack of self awareness and unmet needs interfere with feelings of security as well as with relationships – fundamental human anxiety is fear of death which leads to existential anxiety Treatments • Client centered therapy. – This is often used in depression that stems from the individual’s negative self concept. so does the personality • • relaxation techniques are training techniques used to counteract anxiety symptoms assertiveness training incorporates techniques to overcome passivity or aggression in interpersonal situation • • Classical conditioning (Pavlov’s theory) • classical conditioning was developed by Ivan Pavlov • he established that learning or conditioning can occur when a stimulus is paired with an unconditioned response – a conditioned response is pairing of a stimulus with a response – acquisition refers to the gaining of a learned response (once a response is learned. helps the client examine own irrational thoughts and behavior through verbal discussion followed by activities that allows the individuals to Humanistic Framework • Key Concepts – Humanistic framework focuses on the “here and now” – current behaviors. • In Rational-Emotive therapy developed by Albert Ellis. Skinner. – The goal of the therapy is to diminish depressive symptoms by helping the client challenge and invalidate distorted thoughts through series of mental exercises and replace them with appropriate. encompasses various treatment methods in which the therapist and client work closely to identify maladaptive thought patterns and develop alternate ways of thinking and behaving. it may be used in treatment of paraphilias biofeedback involves training techniques used to control physiologic responses such as stress response and its physiologic manifestations Treatments • Cognitive therapy.
values and patterns of behavior he uses to resists changes in self review – Sense of isolation (alienation) – Sense of insecurity (threat to identity) – Sense of helplessness BEHAVIOR RESPONSE TO ANXIETY • Anger • Crying • Withdrawal • Forgetfulness • Quarrelling • Complaining • Defensive behavior LEVELS OF ANXIETY MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS • Human motivation as a hierarchy of dynamic process or needs that are critical for the development of all humans • Focused on human needs fulfilment. not an isolated phenomenon CATEGORIES OF STRESS • Normal anxiety – healthy life force – Motivates people to make & survive change – Proportionate to actual events • Acute anxiety – Precipitated by an imminent loss or change that threatens an individual’s sense of security • Chronic anxiety – the person has lived with the stress for a long time PRECIPITATING FACTORS OF ANXIETY • Threats to biological integrity – refers to the distortion in homeostasis ----temperature control • Threat to self-esteem – threat towards maintaining established views of self. Hunger. low levels of NE. reading and thinking CONFLICT • The result o f the presence of two opposing or incompatible drives wherein the person is required to make a choice between the possible responses DYNAMICS OF CONFLICT Conflict → ↑ anxiety → feeling of hopelessness. Psychological theories – increased incidence among the lower socioeconomic groups 5. feeling. error in metabolism results in transposition of Sodium and Potassium within a neuron. anxiety) ANXIETY – a response to internal conflict . which is categorized into 6 incremental stages. made up of parts from various sources • choosing what is best or preferred from a variety of sources or styles Schizophrenia Possible causes: 1. uneasiness. • Mental illness can be classified as in the multi axial DSM IV-TR Treatments • Diagnostic work ups include detailed history and lab test as well as careful observation of current behavior • Pharmacotherapy is a common treatment including g nurse patient interaction and milieu management. respect and genuine empathy for the client Existential therapy – a form of talk therapy that focuses on life issues of freedom.• The client’s behavior changes toward positive functioning when the therapist conveys acceptance. apprehension or tension that a person experiences in response to an unknown object or situation Anxiety is describe as: • Subjective experience • Emotional pain • Apprehension. Unknown Sources of Need • Those which arise as a direct result of metabolic process (hunger and thirst) • Those that results from a change in the person’s relationship with his external environment (drop in room temperature) • Symbolic behavior – talking. Reflex action – automatic response to a stimulus (blinking reflex. aloneness. Biochemical – electrolyte imbalances. Eclectic Theory Eclectic • varied. loss.feeling of uncertainty. through psychotherapy. helplessness and isolation → ↑ perceived conflict increases → ↑ anxiety STRESS and ANXIETY STRESS – a stimulus or situation that produces distress and create physical and psychological demands on a person that requires coping and adapting CHARACTERISTICS OF STRESS • It is recurring • It is normal • It cannot be avoided • It is brought about by stressors STRESSOR – any condition. anxiety and death. Biomedical Framework Key Concepts • Physiologic. isolation. Goal oriented behavior – presence of two factors: • Presence of need within the individual • Presence of goal outside the individual which is capable of producing a change in his internal condition and thus satisfying the need (e. Genetic 2.. – Mood Disorders Predisposing factors: 1. Medical – Biological Theories a. thought or behavior which demands an increase in any activity within the ANS & CNS .g. dopamine and serotonin Dynamics of Behaviour 1. Biomedical theories 4. It is a requirement for survival. fearfulness or a sense of powerlessness • Warning signs of perceived danger or threat • Emotional response that triggers behavior • Alerting and individual to prepare for self-defense • Occurring in degrees • Contagious • Part of a process. Behavior refers to the way in which an organism responds to a stimulus – All behaviors are meaningful and purposeful Varieties of behavior A. helplessness. agent. Genetic – higher incidence among individuals with relatives with the disorder b. Organic 3. situation. the client discovers his own meaning of existence. gag reflex) B. – Need – an organismic condition which exist within an individual and which demands certain activity. social and environmental factors can predispose to mental illness.
• Provide opportunities for exercises • Physical needs must be met to prevent exhaustion • Assess need for medication or seclusion DEFENSE MECHANISM • Protects people from painful awareness of feelings and memories that can provoke anxiety 5 IMPORTANT PROPERTIES OF DEFENSE MECHANISM 1. or feelings by developing acceptable explanation that satisfy the teller as well as the listener Intellectualization – consciously or unconsciously using only logical explanation without one’s feelings or an affective component Compensation – consciously covering up for a weakness by overemphasizing or making up a desirable trait IMMATURE DEFENSES Passive aggression – deals with emotional conflict or stressors by indirectly and unassertively expressing aggression towards another Acting-out behavior – deals with emotional conflict or stressors by actions rather than reflections or feelings Dissociation – unconscious separation of painful feelings and emotion from an unacceptable idea. authoritative voice. Suppression – conscious denial of a disturbing situation or feeling INTERMEDIATE DEFENSES Repression – exclusion of unpleasant or unwanted experiences. object. Defenses are discrete from one another 4. Speak in a firm. Defenses are major means of managing conflict and affect 2. Although defenses are often the hallmark of major psychiatric syndrome.• • • • • • Recognize the anxious person’s distress Be willing to listen Evaluate effective past useful coping mechanism Assist in developing alternative solution to a problem Provide outlets from working off excess energy Use non-verbal language to demonstrate interests Undoing – consciously doing something to counteract or make up for a transgression or wrongdoing Rationalization – justifying illogical or unreasonable ideas. Defenses are adaptive as well as pathological MOST HEALTH DEFENSES Altruism – emotional conflicts and stressors are dealt with by meeting the needs of others Sublimation – unconscious process of substituting constructive and socially acceptable activity for strong impulses that are not acceptable in the original form. speak slowly • Reinforce reality • Listen for themes in communication • Attend physical and safety needs when necessary • Set physical limit. actions. or situation that is non-threatening INTERVENTIONS FOR MILD TO MODERATE LEVELS OF ANXIETY • Help client to focus and sole problems with the use of communication techniques • Help client identify anxiety • Provide a calm presence Reaction formation – unacceptable feelings or behaviors are kept out of awareness by developing the opposite behavior or emotion Somatization – transforming anxiety on an unconscious level into a physical symptoms that has no organic cause Regression – unconscious return to an earlier and more comfortable developmental level ORGANIZATION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM BRAINSTEM – regulates the internal organs and responsible for vital functions such as regulation of blood gases and the maintenance of BP Hypothalamus – hunger. they are reversible 5. objects or situation. thirst and sex. . Projection – person unconsciously rejects emotionally unacceptable personal features and attributes to other people. or situation to another person. or ideas from conscious awareness Displacement – transfer of emotion associated with a particular person. Defenses are relatively unconsciousness 3. Denial – escaping unpleasant realities by ignoring their existence INTERVENTIONS FOR SEVERE TO PANIC LEVELS OF ANXIETY • Maintain a calm manner • Always remain with the client • Minimize environmental stimuli • Use clear and simple statements and repetition • Use a low pitched voice.thought & emotions . object. emotions. situation or object Identification – conscious or unconscious attempt to model oneself after a respected person Introjection – unconsciously incorporating values & attitudes of others as if they were your own Devaluation – emotional conflict or stressors are dealt with by attributing negative qualities to self or others Idealization – attributing exaggerated positive qualities others Splitting – the inability to integrate the positive and negative qualities of oneself or others into a cohesive image. Humor – deals with emotional conflict or stress by emphasizing the amusing or ironic aspects of the conflict or stressor.
the cell from which it was released. Once inside the presynaptic cell. learning. Acetylcholinesterase is present at the postsynaptic membrane and destroys acetylcholine shortly after it attaches to nicotinic or muscarinic receptors on the postsynaptic cell. This process. When the current reaches the end of the cell. Once released. avoid a desk barrier ◦ Introduction – name. and serotonin are all inactivated in this manner by the enzyme monoamine oxidase. The transmitter crosses the synapse and attaches to a receptor on the postsynaptic cell.Seat of Personality Basal ganglia – regulation of movements Limbic system Amygdala and hippocampus – emotions. safe ◦ Seating – assume the same height. dopamine CEREBELLUM Coordinated muscle energy & activity Maintenance of equilibrium After interacting with the postsynaptic receptor. A second method of neurotransmitter inactivation is a little more complex. dopamine. To avoid continuous and prolonged action on the post. A full explanation of the various ways in which psychotropic drugs alter neuronal activity requires a brief review of the manner in which neurotransmitters are destroyed after attaching to the receptors. Clinical Interview . time limit ◦ How to start – use open-ended question ◦ Guidelines: Speak briefly When you do not know what to say. The monoamine transmitters norepinephrine. referred to as the reuptake of neurotransmitter. the neurotransmitter is released shortly after attaching to the postsynaptic receptor. Coordinates contraction CEREBRUM – responsible for mental activities and a conscious sense of being. One way is the immediate inactivation of the transmitter at the postsynaptic membrane. Also responsible for language and the ability to communicate Cerebral cortex – responsible for conscious sensation and the initiation of movement NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND RECEPTORS ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Parietal cortex – touch Temporal – sound Occipital – vision Frontal – initiation of skeletal muscle contraction Therapeutic Communication ◦ ◦ Prefrontal cortex . avoid sitting without ready access to a door.synaptic cell. focus on feelings Avoid advice Avoid relying on questions Pay attention to non-verbal cues Keep focus on the client Dynamics of therapeutic communication ◦ Interpretation of communication ◦ Themes in patients communication Content themes Mood themes Interaction themes ◦ Environmental consideration ◦ Physical consideration ◦ Kinesis consideration Effective tools in communicating ◦ ◦ The use of silence . goal-oriented oriented behavior & inhibition . serotonin.“The client leads” How to begin ◦ Setting – private. memory and basic drives NEUROTRANSMITTERS AND RECEPTORS Conduction along a neuron involves the inward movement of sodium ions (Na) followed by the outward movement of potassium ions (K).a specific channel for transmitting and receiving messages Active listening Observing the client’s non-verbal behaviors Listening to and understanding the person in the context of the social setting of his/her life Listening for ‘false notes” . a neurotransmitter is released. avoid face to face. The attachment of transmitter to receptor either stimulates or inhibits the postsynaptic cell the destruction of the action of the enzyme acetylcholinesterase on the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.RAS – allows human to sleep and carry out conscious mental activity Limbic system – crucial role in emotional status and psychological function (norepinephrine.responsible for thoughts. the transmitter is released and taken back into the presynaptic cell. school. the transmitter is either recycled or inactivated by an enzyme within the cell. the transmitter is destroyed in one of two ways. purpose. “SAY NOTHING” When in doubt. is a common target for drug action.
and by reiterating a desire to help 2. giving them the opportunity to correct misconception before these cause any serious misunderstanding. by conveying empathy. Anger 6.◦ Providing the client with feedback information about himself/herself of which the client might not be aware Clarifying techniques Paraphrasing Restating Reflecting 1. Empathy – one understands the ideas expressed 5 concepts of empathy ◦ Human trait ◦ Professional state ◦ communication process ◦ caring process ◦ special relationship Interference with therapeutic communication 1. Overinvolvement 4. Degree of openness Transference – the process whereby a person unconsciously & inappropriately displaces onto individuals in his/her current life those patterns of behavior & emotional reaction that originated in relationship to significant figures in childhood Countertransference . rather.an intensity of presence or being with the client Non-verbal behaviors the reflect degree of attending 1. Nurse’s posture 2. rather. Nurse’s degree of eye contact 3.foundation of interviewing . ORIENTATION PHASE . and keeps promises ◦ Assess the degree of patient’s awareness of problems & the ability & motivation to change ◦ Talk about feelings directly then focus on coping more effectively with them ◦ Provide structure by limit setting WORKING PHASE ◦ ◦ ◦ Goal: identify & address client’s problem Reality testing helps patient see reality more clearly & objectively compared with the past Limit setting – intervention designed to prevent clients from harming themselves or others Nurse’s awareness of personal feelings & reaction to the client is vital for effective interaction with the client ◦ ◦ 4. Boredom (indifference) 2. Goal: develop mutual trust. Helps strengthens the client’s ability to solve personal problems 3. TERMINATION PHASE ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ 3. Helps both participants identify major differences in their frame of references. Nurse’s lack of knowledge and insecurity Patients are usually more accepting when the nurse is honest about not knowing an answer and expresses a willingness to find answers 3. The nurse communicates that the client is not alone.the nurse takes the client & the relationship seriously Actions – Establishing boundaries Attending . Rescue 3. establish role of the nurse as significant other to the client ◦ Client recognizes needs & seek help ◦ Trustworthiness is built when the nurse is honest regarding intention. Helplessness or hopelessness Goal: assist client to review what was learned and to transfer learning interaction with others Attempt to make termination official and state feelings about the relationship Reasons for terminating the nurse-client relationship Symptom relief Improved social functioning Greater sense of identity Development of more adaptive behavior Accomplishment of the client’s goals Impasses in therapy that the nurse is unable to resolve ◦ Interaction with client behaviors Violent behavior ◦ Stay out of striking distance ◦ Avoid touching clients without approval ◦ Change topic temporarily ◦ Suggest time out with patient ◦ Avoid being alone with patient ◦ Leave temporarily if patient is agitated ◦ Call for staff assistance Hallucinations ◦ Comment on behavior ◦ Provide reality but acknowledge behavior ◦ Assess the hallucination based on content of the messages ◦ Do not focus on hallucination once content is known ◦ Ignore the hallucination Delusions ◦ Clarify the meaning of the delusions then ignore Conflicting values STAGES OF NURSE – PATIENT RELATIONSHIP 1. listen to patient or they might be listening to THERAPEUTIC RELATIONSHIP • Suspending value judgment • Recognize their presence • Identify how or where you learned these response to client’s behavior • Construct alternative ways to view the client’s thinking and behavior 3. Genuineness – self-awareness of one’s feelings 2. the nurse is working along with the client Clarifying techniques 1.the tendency of the nurse to displace onto the client feelings related to people in the nurse’s past Common countertransference reaction 1. as well as monitoring their own nonverbal response 2. Open-ended questions Close-ended question Indirect or implied question Exploring THERAPEUTIC RELATIONSHIP Therapeutic relationship is consistently focused on the client’s problem & needs Factors that enhances growth in others 1. PREORIENTATION PHASE ◦ Goal: to establish a client database & assess own feelings regarding the client 2. Positive regard – ability to view another person as being worthy of caring about & as someone who has strength & achievement potential • ◦ ◦ Helping client develop resources – consistently encourage client to use their resources helps minimize the client’s feeling of helplessness & dependency & also validates their potential for change Attitudes . Ineffective responses Nurses must avoid premature conclusions Do not be preoccupied with what to say next. Nurse’s fear and feelings Avoid personalizing what the patients say or do Ask question in a kind and matter-of-fact manner. Overidentification misuse of honesty 5. 2. is consistent. Nurse’s body language Therapeutic techniques Therapeutic communication skills Use of silence Active listening 1. nurse carefully note what the client is saying verbally & nonverbally. 3.
music. SSNRI ◦ Benzodiazepine – short-acting Milieu mgt: • Recreational activities • Relaxation exercises. intense fear or discomfort and peaks at 10 minutes . physical symptoms (dry mouth. Socialization counters the regressive aspect of illness 2. 8. 10. sleep disturbance. Safety ◦ Physical protection – safety from physical harm ◦ Psychological safety – nurse’s active intervention to prohibit verbal abuse. occupational therapy. apathy. ◦ Clarify misinterpretation ◦ Provide simple rationale or explanations for rules. Nonverbal means of expression as an additional behavioral outlet add a new dimension to treatment 4. & psychomotor retardation ◦ Patience. critical parents. Structure – the physical environment rules & daily schedules of treatment activities ◦ Patient education lead by the nurse ◦ Opportunities for recreation Norms – specific expectations of behavior that permeates the treatment environment ◦ Promotes safety & trust ◦ To create an environment that is more predictable & applicable to all who share the environment Limit settings – should be set on acting-out behavior 3. and empathy ◦ Encourage hygiene. comforting atmosphere throughout the unit An optimistic attitude about prognosis of illness Attention to comfort. disruption of the amygdala 2. supportive. Neurobiological – hereditary. simply. developmental factors. 9. offer support. Sublimation of sexual drives is possible through activities 5. brain chemistry. coping responses Promote trust Convey empathy Psychopharmacology ◦ Antidepressants: SSRI. shy or timid in childhood. Increase self-esteem Sexual innuendos or inappropriate touch ◦ Remind client these actions are inappropriate Denial & lack of cooperation ◦ Reality testing & supportive confrontation with denial Depressed affect. PANIC DISORDERS – recurrent panic attack & are worried about having more attacks Characteristics of milieu therapy • Panic attacks – sudden.low self-esteem. with minimal auditory & visual stimulation ◦ Remain calm. 7. ANXIETY DISORDERS Group of conditions in which the affected person experiences persistent anxiety that the person cannot dismiss and that interferes with daily activities Etiology: 1. help client find new hobbies Offer graded series of experience. art. activities. poverty A. warm. secure. proper nutrition and gradual increase in activities ◦ Postponed major decisions until emotions have subsided Suspiciousness ◦ Communicate clearly. ◦ Reinforces the norms of making rules & expectations clear & encourage the milieu therapy concept---responsibility to self 5. Fatigue. ridicule or harassment of patient 2. help with resolving difficulties related to tasks of daily living Opportunity for client to take responsibility for themselves and for the welfare of the unit in gradual steps Maximum individualization in dealing with clients Opportunity to live through & test out situations in a realistic way Opportunity to discuss interpersonal relationship in the unit among clients and between clients and staff Program carefully selected resocialization activities to prevent regression Goals 6. violence. Indication for activity therapy: clients with low self-esteem who are socially unresponsive Milieu Management Consists of treatment by means of control modification of the client’s environment to promote positive experiences • Therapeutic touch & acupressure Purpose: helps patient recover from psychiatric & mental health problem B. and daily living needs. muscle tension. Balance – the process of gradually allowing independent behavior in a dependent situation ◦ Limit setting Activity therapy Consists of a variety of recreational and vocational activities (recreational therapy. Psychological . discomfort with aggression. noises and requests Hyperactivity ◦ Patient should be in a quiet area. and build trust Manipulation ◦ Provide limit setting ◦ Help client express their needs directly to others Crying ◦ ◦ ◦ Unless a form of manipulation. food. NPR – reduce level of anxiety Goal: assist patient with developing adaptive. abuse. frequent contact. meditation & biofeedback • CBT 4. GENERAL ANXIETY DISORDER • Characterized by excessive chronic anxiety or worry & might concern everyday events • Individuals have no control over anxiety & worrying becomes habitual Characteristics: restlessness. poor concentration. upset stomach) Psychotropic mgt: 1. allow client to cry Provide privacy Be quiet and unobtrusive Friendly. simple but firm manner Transference & countertransference ◦ Nurses must be open and clear ◦ State action that they cannot meet patient’s need Elements of milieu therapy 1. speak slowly and softly & respect patient’s personal space ◦ Give direction in a kind. trusting. Encourage socialization in community & social activities Provide pleasurable activities Help client release tension and express feelings Teach new skills. and dance therapy) designed to test 7 examine social skills & serve as adjunct therapies Concept and principles 1. Activities needs to be selected for specific psychosocial reason to achieve specific effects 3. from passive spectator role & vicarious experiences to more direct and active experience 11.◦ Help client examine the effects or outcomes of their beliefs on their lives. Free and/or strengthen physical creative abilities 12. occurrences. and happiness • • • • • • • • Severe anxiety & incoherent speech ◦ Spend frequent. and congruently. brief time with patients. relationship. irritability.
exposure. others. repression & suspension Feel detached or estrange from family & friends → withdrawal → depression • Lost interest in activities. Arousal symptoms • ↑ arousal. Outside. chest pain. depression.Develop after exposure to a clearly identifiable traumatic event that threatens the self. derealization & awareness of surrounding. fluoxetine) – decrease repetitive behaviors. dyspnea. NPR: • Accept rituals permissively • Avoid criticism or punishment. poetry) – facilitate externalizing painful emotions that are difficult to verbalize • Crisis counselling – Psychopharmacology • • • • • Benzodiazepine (clonazepam. scrutinized. disturbing images & somatic states TCA – depression. NPR: • Accept patient & their fears with a non-critical attitude • Provide & involve patient in activities that do not increase anxiety but increase involvement. setraline (Zoloft). anxiety-relate disorders & substance abuse Psychotherapeutic mgt: prevent or minimize the symptoms 1. music. Reexperiencing the trauma & intrusive memories – hallucinations (PTSD) 3. Help with sleep disturbance Clonidine & propanolol – diminish the peripheral autonomic response associated with fear. flood. fluovoxamine (Luvox) & paroxetine (Plaxil) Milieu mgt. numbing. Panic disorder without agoraphobia Psychopharmacology: • Antidepressant: o Clomipromine (anafranil) • SSRI – fluoxetine (Prozac). OBSESSIVE – COMPULSIVE DISORDER Obsession – persistent thoughts. resources. chills & hot flashes 2. Agoraphobia with history of panic disorders – fear of being in public or open spaces places or situations in which escape might be difficult or help might not be available 2.. PHOBIC DISORDERS . and supportive • Teach dynamics of ASD & PTSD • Exposure therapy & systematic desensitization • Expressive therapy (art. detachment or lack of emotional response • Numbing of responses or reduced involvement with the external world • Persistent avoidance of situation. thoughts and feelings • Denial. bombing. Rape. anxiety. irritability. lorazepam) – to reduce level of anxiety and fear. life stress or trauma. amnesia) POST STRESS DISORDER – severe traumatic event that is not an ordinary occurrence e. flooding. irrational. Specific phobia – fear of a specific object or situation that is not either of the above Etiology: environment.. disturbance in sleep. firm voice.• Feelings of impending doom • Protect from rejection by others & self-inflected harm Types of panic disorder 1. memory impairment or concentration • PTSD – outburst of anger. bus or plane. and self-exposure E. fire. Other symptoms • Anxiety or panic attack • • Agoraphobia .g. Dissociative symptoms & numbing • Amnesia. trauma. impulses. rather that promote avoidance • Help client with physical safety and comfort • Help patient recognize that their behavior is a method of avoiding anxiety Psychopharmacology: SSRI – to reduce anxiety & depression & block panic attacks. ACUTE STRESS DISORDER & POST TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDERS . serotonin dysregulation Psychotherapeutic mgt.: gross motor activities – diffuse energy C. NPR: develop trust • Nurse needs to be non-judgmental honest. showing impatient – positive feedback • Allow extra time for slowness & client’s action • Help client verbalize feelings. survivor guilt 4. hopelessness • Change in sleep pattern • Impulsive behavior. use simple sentences. being on a bridge.: • Relaxation exercises & stress mgt. alone @ home. torture. genetic predisposition Psychotherapeutic mgt. excessive anxiety or fear about being in places or situations from which escape might be difficult or embarrassing or in which help might not be available if panic attack occurs Feared places are avoided e. increase brain activity in the frontal lobe & basal ganglia.Intense. activities and people. or embarrassed in public 3. dazed appearance. anxiety & nightmare Lithium carbonate – prescribed to patients experiencing explosive outburst SSRI (paroxetine. occupational & social functioning Interferes with patient’s interpersonal relationship Etiology: genetic. suicidal ideation or attempts. Panic disorder with agoraphobia • Feelings of terror that function is suspended. emotional detachment. disruption in the amygdala Psychotherapeutic mgt: 1. impulsive selfdestructive behavior. rage. nausea. kidnapping Diagnostic criteria 1. earthquake. includes dissociative symptoms (depersonalization. sudden life change 2. and/or sense of control or hope • Etiology: hereditary. lorazepam) – immediate effect Milieu mgt.: 1. making demands. problem-solving & communication or assertive training groups D. feelings of choking. tornado. images or desires that maybe trivial or morbid Recognize thoughts are irrational & senseless Compulsion – repetitive stereotyped behavior that are performed in a particular manner in response to an obsession Performed to prevent discomfort & to bind or neutralized anxiety It interferes with normal routines..: 1. setraline. plane crash. depersonalization. war. perceptual field is severely limited & misinterpretation of reality • Personality disorganization • Sign/symptoms: palpitations. emphatic. travelling in car. riding in a elevator • CBT.intense. solve problem & make decisions • PTSD – grief. • Recreational or social skills ACUTE STRESS SYNDROME – symptoms occur within 1 month of extreme stressor. if present Milieu mgt: • Assertive training & goal-setting groups • Social skills group to help redevelop social skills and decrease avoidance • Behavior therapy – systemic desensitization. remove to smaller quiet room to minimize stimuli • Patient education • Cognitive restructuring Psychopharmacology: • SSRI • Benzodiazepine (clonazepam. persistent fear responses to an external object activity or situation Phobia – response to experience anxiety & is characterized by a persistent fear of specific places or things 3 types of phobias 1. Social phobia – fear of being humiliated. NPR: • Reduce immediate anxiety – stay physically close to patient. adehonia & sleep disturbances .g. restlessness.
lack of job. Inability of the CNS to regulate & interpret sensory input or to decrease communication between right & left hemisphere Hx of physical & sexual abuse witnessing violent acts in childhood. provide caring and empathy • Assist in gathering data about feelings. 1. 4. but the other alters might be aware of each other to varying degrees F. so that the individual feel unreal or strange or believe that danger is not happening to then or to someone else ◦ Reality testing remains intact Dissociative identity disorder – existence of 2 or more identities or personalities that take control of the person’s behavior with its own patterns of relating. poor nurturing from family. Dissociative amnesia ◦ Sudden inability recall important information of one or more episodes not associated with organic disorders usually of a traumatic or stressful nature Localized amnesia Selective amnesia Childhood & Adolescent psychiatric disorders Risk factors: ◦ Genetic factor ◦ Social & environment – severe marital discord. traumatic life event. sexual/physical abuse ◦ Psychosocial factor – . medical condition or effects of a substance Body dysmorphic disorder ◦ Individual is preoccupied with an imagined defect in appearance which are usually facial flaws. perceiving. Pain disorder ◦ Associated with psychological factors like severe pain in one or more of anatomical sites that causes significant distress or impairment in functioning ◦ Pain is exaggerated or out of proportion ◦ Causes significant impairment in occupational or social functioning or causes marked distress ◦ Symptoms not intentionally produced or feigned Hypochrondiasis ◦ Worried & belief that they have serious disorders base on the misinterpretation of bodily signs & sensation for at least 6 months ◦ Preoccupation persists despite appropriate medical tests & reassurances ◦ Causes significant impairment in occupational or social functioning or causes marked distress Conversion disorder ◦ Alteration in voluntary or motor sensory functioning that suggest neurological or medical condition ◦ Not due to malingering or factitious disorder and not culturally sanctioned Cannot be explained by gen.Characterized by the presence of physiologic complaints or symptoms. consequently. 1. 3. 2. and social skills Need to be sick to relieve oneself of obligations & to gain attention Dissociation General amnesia 2. parental criminality maternal psychiatric disorder. frequent & multiple somatic complaints for several years without physiologic cause ◦ Client’s constantly seek medical attention. Depersonalization disorder – involves an altered sense of self. thoughts.• Antipsychotic (respirodone) – psychotic thinking Milieu mgt: • Social activities • Recreational & exercise program Causes: 1. patients do not remember what happened. simple routine • Confirm identity of client and orientation to time & place • Encourage client to do things for self and make decision about routine tasks Milieu mgt: • Individual therapy • Task-oriented group • OT and art therapy • Cognitive therapy • Self-help groups ◦ 5. memory. undergo numerous tests. 4. which are not under voluntary control & no demonstrable organic finding and physiologic bases Types of somatoform disorders 1. and perception 3. ◦ Defense mechanism: repression 2. SOMATOFORM DISORDERS . • Group therapy Dissocialise fugue – sudden. low socioeconomic status. NPR: • Use matter-of-fact caring approach • Encourage patient to verbalize & describe feeling • Use positive reinforcement & set limits • Be consistent • Use diversion by including patient patients in milieu activities and recreational games • Do not push awareness of or insight into conflicts or problems Psychopharmacology: SSRI – to treat anxiety and depression Milieu mgt: • Relaxation exercises meditation and CBT • Family therapy G. 4. DISSOCIATIVE DISORDER – disturbances in the normally well-integrated continuum of consciousness. identity. There is little or no participation of the conscious personality so the person is unable to recall Causes: • • • • Psychotherapeutic mgt. Somatization disorder ◦ Conversion of mental states or experiences into bodily symptoms associated with anxiety ◦ Recurrent. and thinking ◦ The person or host us unaware of the other personalities. or situations that patient experienced • Ensure client safety • Provide nondemanding. 3. ◦ Dermatologist & plastic surgeon is often consulted ◦ May also exhibit obsessive compulsive traits & depressive syndrome ◦ Controls relationship through physical complaints Dissociation – the removal from conscious awareness of painful feelings. unexpected travel away from home or some other location with the assumption of a new identity or a confusion about one’s identity ◦ Fugue states is characterized amnesia. NPR: • Establish trust & support. large family & overcrowding. or aspects of identity ◦ Unconscious defense mechanism that protects an individual from the emotional pain of experiences or conflicts that have been repressed Defense mechanism: repression Inability to recall important personal information usually of a traumatic or stressful nature The disorder is often associated with exposure to traumatic event common during disaster and wartime Sexual abuse during childhood Psychopathology: an escape mechanism from memory of painful experiences or devoid of emotional satisfaction. Types of dissociative disorders 1. at risk for unnecessary surgery or drug abuse Psychotherapeutic mgt. memories. conflicts.
defiant behavior towards authority figures with serious violation of basic rights of others Exhibit persistent testing of limits. parent or caregivers to make the distinction between accidental & purposeful incident Childhood & Adolescent psychiatric disorders Give instruction slowly using simply giving instruction Ask client to repeat exercise or instruction before beginning a task Administer stimulant in the morning to maximize effectiveness for daytime activity Help parents decrease their feelings of guilt & blame Maintain a safe environment at home & in school Oppositional defiant disorder – enduring pattern of disobedience. early institutional living. lead poisoning. frequent shifting of parental figures. behavior modification PERSONALITY DISORDERS . antisocial & drug-dependent family members. Markedly restricted. & association with a delinquent group Examples of behaviors: physically aggressive. disobedient. Cognitive therapy. Nursing interventions: Assess the quality of the relationship between child & parents or caregivers for evidence of anxiety. head injury. honest straightforward communication Assess the frequency & severity of accidents Provide supervision for potentially dangerous Assist the client. interest and activities ◦ Childhood & Adolescent psychiatric disorders Asperger’s disorders – a severe developmental disorder characterized by major difficulties in social interaction & restricts & unusual interest & behavior Use monotone speech and rigid language They cannot understand jokes and are taken advantage easily Inability to show empathy to others but want to meet people & make friends Have an obsession with facts about circumscribed and odd topics Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder – characterized by inattention. Characterized by impairment in social interaction. anxiolytics and antidepressants 6. 1. oppositional child behaviors. inconsistent parenting with harsh discipline. have poor peer relationships & shows little concern for others & lack of guilt or remorse c. and a refusal to accept blame for misdeeds Behavior do not violate the rights of others Conduct disorder – characterized by persistent pattern of behavior in which the rights of others & age-appropriate societal norms or rules are violated. and overactivity in school 9before 7 years old) ◦ Causes: Environmental exposure – perinatal insults. absence of father or alcoholic father. Biochemical factors – alterations of neurotransmitters (decrease in norephhinephrine & serotonin ◦ Temperament – a style of behavior a child habitually uses to cope with the demands & expectations of the environment Types of childhood mental disorders Pervasive development disorders a. influence the future Help child accept and work through traumatic events or losses 5. Usually first observed before 3 years of age d. is unable to sit still or stay seated in school or at other times Runs & climbs excessively in inappropriate situations Has difficulty playing quietly in leisure activities Acts as if “driven by a motor”. low frustration tolerance. stereotypical patterns of behavior. Characteristics: Excessive distress when separated from or anticipating separation from home or parental figure Excessive worries that one will be lost or kidnapped or that parental figures will be harmed Fear of being home alone or in situation without other significant adults Refusal to sleep unless near a parental figure & refusal to sleep away from home Refusal to attend school or other activities without a parental figure Physical symptoms as a response to anxiety 4. Most children will express worry about harm or permanent loss of the mother or major attachment figure 3. achieve. explosive angry outburst. and diet Genetic and hereditary factors Dysfunction in the frontal lobe ◦ Characteristics of ADHD Inattention Difficulty paying attention in tasks or play Does not seem to listen. communication and restricted repertoire of activity & interest c. an unwillingness to give in or negotiate. impulsiveness. large family size. Sign & symptoms Impairment in communication & imaginative activity Impairment in social interaction ◦ ◦ a. & is forgetful in daily activities Childhood & Adolescent psychiatric disorders Hyperactivity Fidgets. Autistic disorder b. psychosocial adversity. Separation anxiety disorders – excessively anxious when separated from or anticipating a separation from their home or parental figures 2. parental rejection. conflicts or difficulty of fit between child’s and parent’s temperament assess the child’s previous & current ability to separate from parents or caregivers Protect the child from panic levels of anxiety by acting as parental surrogate Accept regression but giving emotional support to help child progress again Increase child’s self-esteem & feelings of competence in the ability to perform . follow through or finish tasks Does not pay attention to details & makes careless mistakes Is easily distracted. hostile . argumentative. ◦ ◦ Childhood & Adolescent psychiatric disorders Anxiety disorders 1. ◦ b. intrudes in others’ conversation & games Nursing Dx Risk for injury Impaired social interaction Ineffective individual Risk for violence for self-directed or directed to others Nursing intervention Establish trust Talk to client about safe & unsafe behavior – use clear. constantly on the go Talks excessively Impulsivity Blurts out answer before question has been completed Has difficulty waiting for own turn Interrupts. Psychopharmacology: antihistamines. Predisposing factors: ADHD. and a tendency to blame others for quarrels or accidents Recurrent pattern of negativistic. lose things.
Speech may be difficult to follow – the individual develops a personalized style with vague association 7. Nursing guidelines c. 4. 2000) Etiology of PD ◦ Theorist – PD is related to unsuccessful mastery of task in early stages of development that can lead to anxiety ◦ Behaviorist – Developmentalist – believe that PD originates in early childhood experiences (negative experiences) ◦ Genetic cmponents ◦ Stressful environment PERSONALITY DISORDERS CRITERIA FOR A PERSONALITY DISORDER CLUSTER A DISORDERS (ODD. Prevent or reduce untoward effects of manipulation (flattery. – may carry or conceal weapons PERSONALITY DISORDERS b. Choose to be alone 3. Lack of guilt or remorse 5. Sensitive to behavior of other people especially rejection & anger 6. 6. family environment (unstable parent – child realationship PERSONALITY DISORDERS Nursing guidelines 1. Schizoid personality disorder Individuals with this disorder lacks personal & social relationship. instilling guilt) by setting limits 2. ECCENTRIC) a. sorrow & not loyal Charming. Avoid activities 5. communicating and perceiving 4. Recklessness Etiology: genetics. ethnic and community standards (Carson) ◦ Healthy personality: ◦ Sees his or her own strengths weaknesses ◦ Identifies his or her own boundaries ◦ Recognizes interaction & thoughts that lead to strong emotions such as joy or anger ◦ Interacts with others without expecting them to meet all needs ◦ Seeks a balance of work & play ◦ Accomplishes goals ◦ Defines & expresses spirituality Personality disorder – “enduring pattern of inner experience & behavior that deviates markedly from the expectation of the individual’s culture. 5. Be firm. Lacks desire for close relationship or friends 2. Antisocial personality disorder Has consistent disregard for others with exploitation & repeated unlawful actions. Encourage client to verbalize feeling 3. Schizotypal personality disorder Individuals with this disorder may have behavior similar to those of someone with schizophrenia. Socially inept Nursing guideline PERSONALITY DISORDERS CLUSTER B CRITERIA (DRAMATIC. Has eccentric appearance and shows evidence of magical thinking or perceptual distortion that are not clear delusions or hallucination 5. Irresponsible in work & with finances 6. and unwillingness to forgive Common in men than women Irritable and stubborn – prejudice With ideas of reference Blunted affect . attitudes. ERRATIC) a. With magical thinking/odd beliefs leading to interpersonal difficulties 3. Impulsiveness 7. harm. behavior. is stable over time. Lack sexual experience 4. Paranoid personality disorder These individuals interpret other people's motives as threatening resulting in an increase in anxiety & the need for vigilance Characterized by distrust & suspiciousness toward others. Engage in illegal activities 3. the way one carries himself . does not feel guilty. the way one communicate ◦ An enduring pattern of behavior that is considered to be both conscious and unconscious and reflects a means of adapting to a particular environment & it cultural. controlling behaviors. rarely have close friends Use autistic thinking. environment. Appears cold and detached Nursing guideline: 1. unable to follow rules Diagnose before age 15 as conduct disorder Criteria for Antisocial PD 1. intellectual and smooth talkers They repeatedly neglect responsibilities. Problems in thinking. has an onset in adolescence or early adulthood. 3. tell lies and perform destructive or illegal acts. humorless and serious Fear in confiding in others Hold grudges towards others Easily get angry if they are threatened Emotionally cold in appearance but are acceptable of close relationship to few b. is pervasive & inflexible. Defense mechanism: INTELLECTUALIZATION DSM IV criteria 1. Aggressive behavior 4. Avoid being too “nice” or “friendly” 2. or deceive the person & often act in defense of a fragile self-concept They demonstrate jealousy. Ideas of reference 2. without developing any insight into predictable consequences Hostile. Violate rights of others 2. Unable to postpone gratification. They are detached from others & withdraws from interaction – hypersensitive Introverted since childhood. Personality – sum total of the person’s distinctive character. seductiveness. Offer support like kindness Be calm. non-threatening in all or approaches Respect client’s need for social isolation – cannot tolerate group therapy Speak in a gentle manner to encourage to get involve in group activities Be aware of client’s suspiciousness & employ appropriate intervention Assist & teach the client about social skills & appropriate behavior to improve his interpersonal relationship 2. daydreaming are more gratifying They respond with short answers to questions & do not initiate spontaneous conversation They are reality-oriented but maintain fair contact with others They function in a solitary occupation but shows indifference to praise or criticism from others Can be a precursor to schizophrenia or delusion disorder 1. selfish and irresponsible Generally manipulative. however psychotic episode are infrequent & less severe Characteristics: 1. 1. & lead to distress or impairment “ (APA. steadfast and consistent in dealing with patient’s behavior and reinforcing rules & policies . EMOTIONAL. 2. based on the belief (unsupported by evidence) that others want to exploit. Do not try to increase socialization PERSONALITY DISORDERS b.
Defense mechanism: rationalization PERSONALITY DISORDERS CLUSTER C DISORDERS (ANXIOUS. Help client be aware of the consequences of their behavior 5. flamboyant and shallow – use speech to impress others Needs to be the center of attention Impulsive and melodramatic Demands “the best of everything” and can be very critical b. affect is constricted and would speak in monotone voice Defense mechanism: intellectualization. with self care and withdrawn Social inhibition and avoidance of all situation that require interpersonal contact Hyeprsensitive to criticism Uncertain and lacks confidence and afraid to ask question or speak in public Nursing guidelines Be friendly. overeating Problems with identity & self-image 4. history of substance abuse & multiple or dramatic suicidal gesture. individual or parent withdraws support & attention making the child confuse Nursing guidelines: Supportive confrontation Remain neutral. Dependent personality disorder (submissive) “pervasive & excessive need to be taken care of that leads to submissive and clinging behavior & fears of separation” (APA. 2000) Extreme dependency in a close relationship. with an urgent search to find a replacement when one relationship ends . rules. extrovert Believe to be special with need to be admired Feel intense shame & fear that if they are “bad”. physically & socially unacceptable Causes: ◦ Genetics ◦ Biochemistry ◦ Personality ◦ Environment . unstable moods Desperately seek relationship to avoid feeling abandoned Chronic sense of boredom Overspending. unpredictable. Explain & point out the effects of their behavior towards others 6.they are afraid to be alone They want others to make decision for them – they need direction and reassurance They feel the need to be rewarded if they do good deeds for others To avoid conflict they become passive. they will be abandoned Afraid of their own mistakes. reaction-formation Etiology: early parent-child relationship Nursing guidelines: Help client make decision encourage follow-through behaviors Encourage leisure activities Guard against engaging in power struggle with client Confront client’s procastination and intellectualization 3. Avoidant personality disorder (shy/ with inferiority complex) These clients are timid. FEARFUL) a. avoid engaging in power struggle or becoming defensive in response to the client’s disparaging remarks Convey unussuming self-confidence Point out reality Tell client no one is perfect Histrionic personality disorder Individual with this disorder are characterized by excessive emotional attention seeking behavior and are dramatic and ego-centric Seductive. Related factors: mother-child relationship Nursing guidelines: Understand seductive behavior as a response to distress Keep communication & interaction professional. use clear action word Be aware of manipulative behaviors Provide clear & consistent boundaries & limits Use clear 7 straightforward communication Avoid rejecting or rescuing Assess for suicidal & self-mutilating behavior c. Narcissistic personal disorder (boasful/superioritycomplex) Individuals with this disorder display grandiosity about his performance and achievement Arrogant. PERSONALITY DISORDERS Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder Perfectionist and inflexible Overly strict & often set standards for themselves that are too high Preoccupied with details. c. gentle.alteration in effect or mood that occurs when an individual experience exaggerated feeling for a prolong period of time that is psychologically. trivial and procedures Difficult to express emotions or warmth They try to control partner in a relationship Serious. conceal sexual feelings and anger Nursing guidelines: Increase responsibility for self in daily livings Be assertive Encourage client to verbalize feeling Be aware of countertranference MOOD DISORDERS Mood – a person’s state of mind exhibited through feeding & emotions (APA. socially uncomfortable. despite temptation to collude with the client in a flirtatious & misleading manner Encourage & model the use of concrete & descriptive rather that vague & impressionistic language Teach and role-model assertiveness c. 2001) PERSONALITY DISORDERS Mood disorders – extreme change in mood that presents problems in daily functioning .c. reassuring approach Help client to confront fears gradually Support & direct client in accomplishing short-term goals Relaxation techniques PERSONALITY DISORDERS Pharmacologic mgt: Neuroleptic drugs (3-12 wks) Lithium Valporic acid Carbamazepine Benzodiazepine Nursing guidelines Set realistic goals. Avoid moralizing Borderline personality disorders Characterized by impulsiveness. as well as the mistakes of others. promiscuity. risk of suicide and mutilation Manipulative and dependent Emotional lability Defense mechanism: projection Etiology: Inadequate regulation of serotonin & dopamine & other transmitters Parents may cling to the child and prevent autonomy. rationalization.
Provide non-threatening one-to-one relationship i. expansive or irritable mood Hypomanic episodes – less. Never reinforce hallucination. Do not embarrass patient f. severe level of impairment Depressive episodes – hypersomia. Guide patient to appropriate decisions by using problem solving MOOD DISORDERS DYSTHMIC DISORDER Patient is depressive mood for at least 2 years With poor appetite or over-eating Insomia or hypersomia Low energy or fatigue Low self-esteem Poor concentration or difficulty making decisions Feelings of hopelessness Difference between MDD & DD (duration & severity) Patient may engage in activities to generate excitement may turn to substance abuse or food Patients do not readily recognize their symptoms as abnormal MANIC DISORDERS STAGES OF MANIA Mild elation or hypomaniac (4 days) ◦ Affect – feeling of happiness. Increase or decrease motor activities f. gain. 1. concise direction & comments – remarks should be simple & brief Limit – setting Reinforcement of reality Respond to legitimate complaints 2. social. Delirium – state of extreme excitement ◦ Disorientation. in month) d. Tricyclics c. little energy BIPOLAR DISORDER ◦ Bipolar I disorder – experiences swings between manic episodes and major depression ◦ Bipolar II disorder – characterized by 1 or more depressive episodes accompanied by at least one hypomanic episodes ◦ Cyclothymic disorders – a swing between a hypomanic and depressive symptoms ◦ Behavior of bipolar disorder Objective behavior Disturbance of speech. ◦ Behavior – always on the go. MANIC DISORDERS Basic syndromes of bipolar disorders Manic episodes – elevated. increase sexual drive Acute manic episodes ◦ Intensified symptoms ◦ Mood disturbance & lability ◦ Enthusiastic & intrusive ◦ Hyperactivity ◦ Flight of ideas ◦ Distractibility MOOD DISORDERS ◦ Psychopharmacological mgt. activity & appearance Speech – rapid. mutism. Depressed mood most of the day b. Psychotic depression – delusions & hallucination Delusion of guilt. easily distracted Altered social. Atypical depression – occurs in younger population Increase appetite or wt. Insomia or hypersomia (2 hrs in 1 month) e. excessive motor activities. gain. Agitated ◦ Specifiers: a. interpersonal & occupational relationship. delusions or irrational beliefs g. Significant weight loss or gain (5% wt. hyperphagia. c. which are defined as at least 2 weeks by depressive mood or less of interest accompanied by at least 4 additional symptoms of depression ◦ Signs/behavior a. echolalia or echopraxia. MAOIs ◦ Nursing guidelines: a. 1. inflated self-esteem ◦ Distortion of self-esteem 3. Anhedonia c. injury even death a. & delusion of poverty Seasonal affective disorder (SAD) – occur in conjunction with a seasonal change 2. downcast. somatic delusions. leaden paralysis. interpersonal & occupational relationship Subjective behavior Alteration of affect – euphoric. d. Stooped posture & dejected facial expression c. Dishevelled. delusions of deserved punishment. Point out or reward small visible accomplishment e. Types of depression: MAJOR DEPRESSIVE DISORDER (MDD) ◦ Characterized by 1 or more major depressive episodes. Catatonic features – psychomotor attraction including immobility. nihilistic delusion. Melancholic depression – older adults Anhedonia & inability to be cheered up Depression worse in AM Early AM awakening Psychomotor retardation or agitation Significant anorexia or wt loss Excessive or inappropriate guilt c. Encourage verbal expressions of anger h. lacking eye contact & tearful d. Postpartum depression – mood disturbance that occurs during the first 30 days post partum f. pressured. Establish trust Nonjudgmental & friendly approach Use silence & stay with patient Avoid challenging or testing the client Do not argue Divert patient’s attention b. Decrease concentration or indecisiveness MOOD DISORDERS ◦ Characteristics a.e. wt. leaden paralysis & extreme sensitivity to interpersonal rejection b. Disregards grooming. Be amphatic d. Recurrent thoughts of death or suicidal ideation i. grandiosity. loud. anergia g. hypersomnia. Antidepressant d. a. Bolster self-esteem c. labile Alteration of perception – delusion & hallucination MANIC DISORDERS ◦ Nursing responsibilities Use matter of fact tone Clear. inappropriate posturing negativism d. dehydration. Feelings of worthlessness or inappropriate guilt (may be delusional) h. SSRIs b. confidence ◦ Thought – flight of ideas. incoherence ◦ Visual or olfactory hallucination ◦ Exhaustion. b. . cleanliness & personal appearance b.
bradycardia. extreme concerns about body shape & wt. lessened sex drive & obsession symptoms Biologic factors – increase serotonin A culture of thinness. 8. B12. compulsive. obsessive dental problems Rigid excersie program uncontrollably eat large amounts of food Hyperactive substance abuse family conflict Amenorrhea Hypotension. 3.SSRI ◦ Self-induce vomiting EATING DISORDERS ◦ Clinical manifestation/behavior Secretive about behavior Binge eating F/E abnormalities Use of laxatives Use of ipecac syrup Menstrual irregularities Dental carries Russel’s sign Loss of control over eating Anxious & feeling weakness Angry & agitated or depressed Mod disorders Substance abuse Self – induce vomiting ◦ Etiology Low serotonin activity Inherited Cycles of low self-esteem.◦ ◦ Redirect patient into more healthy activities Provide for can be eaten easily Assess amount of sleep & rest Provide quiet place to sleep Structure activities during the day Do not drink caffeine at bedtime Psychopharmacology Lithium – Anticonvulsant & atypical antipsychotics Milieu mgt. strict dieting. B6. 6. Safety Consistency among staff Reduction of environmental stimuli Dealing with patient who are escalating Reinforcement of appropriate hygiene & dress Nutrition & sleep issues EATING DISORDERS ANOREXIA NERVOSA ◦ ◦ ◦ Restricters ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ ◦ Limit their intake or refuse to eat but do not lose their appetite Perfectionist & introvert with self-esteem & peer relationship problems Clinical manifestation/behaviors Vomiters-purgers Normal or slightly ↑ Induction of vomiting 7 excessive use of laxative or diuretics Avoids people denies concern Competitive. 9. 4. 1. 2000) Comorbidity Substance abuse Depressive symptoms Anxiety disorders Theory Dopamine hypothesis Alternative biochemical hypothesis – structural cerebral abnormalities. any prominent hallucinations. reduced gray matter. restoration – Help patient reestablish appropriate eating behavior 1.. poor nutrition or starvation. . 2. relational orientation of women Genetic component Family environment Odd eating habits & emphasis on appearance Rejection of food & wt. hyponatremia Dry skin with lanugo Delayed gastric emptying Slow peristalsis----constipation Dehaydration Refeeding syndrome Pitting edema Osteopenis or osteoporosis Cardiac arrythmias Bizaare behavior regarding fool & eating Feel abandoned or inadequate Depression. 7. 2. viral infxn. irritability.marital problem Feel unworthy of nurturing ◦ EATING DISORDERS ◦ Etiology EATING DISORDERS ◦ Psychotherapeutic mgt Medical stabilization Wt. SCHIZOPHRENIA Schizophrenia – mental disorder characterized by disturdance in thought & sensory perception & deterioration in psychosocial functioning Psychotic – delusions. social withdrawal. vit. exposure to toxin Stress – development/family Weak ego Vitamin deficiency – vitamins B1. loss as a positive reinforcement Childhood sexual abuse Regression to a prepubertal state Fear of being out of control Defense mechanism: REACTION FORMATION BULIMIA NERVOSA ◦ Intermittent binge period and periods of restrictive eating ◦ Loss of control over eating ◦ Anxious & feeling of weakness – before eating while binging ◦ Angry & agitated or depressed ◦ Mood disorders ◦ Substance sbuse ◦ ◦ Elevate self-esteem Medical treatment – IV lines & feeding tubes Nursing guidelines Convey warmth & sincerity Listen emphatically Be honest Set appropriate behavioral limit Assist patient in identifying their qualities Collaborate with patient Teach patient about disorders Determine patient’s weight with their back on the scale Initiate behavioral modification Express emotions assertively Help patient identify & express bodily sensation identify non-weight related interest Psychopharmacology Anxiolytics Atypical antipsychotics Antidepressants . increase ventricular brain ratio Genetics Autoimmune Double bind communication – 2 messages that contradict each other are sent causing the child to be confused on what action to engage in which immobilize the child & results to anxiety Birth & pregnancy complication. C SCHIZOPHRENIA Precipitating factors Emotional . binge eating & compensatory behavior Ambivalence 1. disorganized speech or disorganized catatonic behavior (APA. 3. 5.
blunted.withdrawal ◦ Peculiar movements ◦ Echolalia or echopraxia DISORGANIZED TYPE – most severe prognosis. Delusions Confusion. damage self-esteem. inappropriate bizarre affect Associative looseness – haphazard & confused thinking manifested in jumbled & illogical speech & reasoning Autism – thinking that is not bound to reality but reflects the private perceptual world of the individual – delusions. flattened. ambivalences 2.Somatic – pregnancy. & circulation SCHIZOPHRENIA SCHIZOPHRENIA Common delusions in schizophrenia 1. or wishes towards the same person situation or object Phases of schizophrenia 1. alogia. incoherent or disorganized speech & disorganized behavior 2 diagnostic categories Type I schizophrenia Onset of positive symptoms is generally acute Sx: delusions. avolition. provide for safety by evaluating the patient’s status of hydration. Echolalia 3. neologism Ambivalence – simultaneously holding 2 opposing emotions. elimination. ideas of reference. Neologism 2. Depersonalization – feeling of the individual that the self has been changed or altered 5. disintegration of personality & is withdrawn. Delusion of persecution – false belief that one is being singles out for harm by others – someone is platting against him/her 3. 3. Acute phase – period of florid positive symptoms as well as negative symptoms 2. ideas. Clang association ◦ ◦ Characteristics symptoms Prognosis is favorable ◦ 5. Affective flattening – absence of emotional response 6. attitudes. 4. clouding. SCHIZOPHRENIA Psychopharmacology ◦ Stabilize acute symptoms ◦ Maintain therapeutic plasma levels ◦ Typical antipsycotics Haloperidol (Haldol) Chlorpromazine (Thorazine) Thiothixene (Navane) ◦ Atypical antipsychotics Clozapine (Clozaril) Respirodone (Respiradol) Olanzopine (Zyprexa) Milieu mgt. RESIDUAL TYPE ◦ Continuing evidence of negative symptoms without characteristic symptoms of schizophrenia ◦ 1. anhedonia. difficulty in abstract thinking SCHIZOPHRENIA SCHIZOPHRENIA SUBTYPES PARANOID TYPE ◦ Experience persecutory or grandiose delusion & auditory hallucination CATATONIC TYPE – psychomotor disturbances ◦ Motoric immobility. Sx: dimunition or loss og normal function. Maintenance phase – period when acute symptoms decrease in severity 3. grandiosity. illusions. & a sense of going crazy Inappropriate. Hallucinations – sensory perception for which no external stimulus exist 3. blunted. Somatic delusion – appearance or functioning of one’s body is altered 4. hallucination. flat or inappropriate affect UNDIFFERENTIATED TYPE – characterized by atypical symptoms that do not meet the criteria for other subtypes 2. anergia. may have so-called proof Symptoms of loose association 1. nutrition. asocial behavior. Delusions – false fixed beliefs that cannot be corrected by reasoning 2. 2. blunted affect or affective flattening. disorganized behavior. poor eye contact. Nihilistic delusion – “I am dead” 6. feelings of persecution. Delusions of reference – everything that is occurring in the environment has significance to oneself 2. ◦ For disruptive patients: Set limits Frequently observe escalating patients to intervene Modify the environment to minimize objects that can be used as weapons Be careful in stating what the staff will do if a patient acts out When using restraints. excitement. attention deficits. hostility. disorganized speech. Delusions of influence – one is controlled by others or outside force Jealousy – false belief that one’s mate in unfaithful. Word salad 4. physical illness 3. May be none 4 A’s (Eugene Bleuler) Affect – outward manifestation of a person’s feelings & emotion – flat. Illusions – misinterpretation of environmental stimuli 4. waxy flexibility or stupor ◦ Excitement (excessive motor activity) ◦ Extreme negativism or mutism ---. Stabilization phase – patient is might still experience hallucination & delusions but not as severe nor as disabling as they were during the acute phase Common symptoms of schizophrenia 1. hallucination. incoherent speech. Grandiose delusion – false belief that one is a very powerful & important person 5. SCHIZOPHRENIA 3 broad clinical symptoms Positive symptoms ◦ Reflects the presence of overt psychotic or distorted behavior Negative symptoms – reflect a dimunition or loss of normal function SCHIZOPHRENIA Assessment ◦ Objective Sx Less concerned with their appearance Introspection & apathy Anergia Inadequate interpersonal communication Hostility Withdrawal Psychomotor agitation or inactive or catatonic ◦ Subjective Sx Hallucnation Illusion Paranoid thinking Thoiught disorder ◦ For withdrawn patients: Arrange non-threatening activities that involve these patient in doing something Arrange furniture in a semicircle or around a table Help client to participate in decision making Reinforce appropriate grooming & hygiene Provide psychosocial rehabilitation For suspicious patients: Be matter-of-fact Staff members should not laugh or whisper around patients unless patient can hear what is being said Do not touch suspicious patients without warning Be consistent in activities Maintain eye contact For patient with impaired communication: Be patient & do not pressure patient to make sense Do not place patient in group activities that would frustrate them. or over-tax their abilities . insomia Type II schizophrenia Slow onset of negative symptoms aused by viral infxn & abnormalities in cholecystokinin 3. Disorganized symptoms – presence of confused thinking. or labile affect 1.
2. 3. who have been involved in a crisis situation. 5. SCHIZOPHRENIA For patient with hallucinations: Attempt to provide distracting activities Discourage situation in which patient talk to others about their disordered perception Monitor television selection Monitor for command hallucination that might increase the potential for patient to become dangerous Have staff members available in the dayroom so that patient can talk to real people about real people or real events ◦ For disorganized patients: Remove disorganized patient to a less stimulating environment Provide a calm environment Provide safe & relatively simple activities for these patients Nursing guidelines ◦ Build a therapeutic alliance with patient ◦ Be calm ◦ Accept patient ◦ Keep promises ◦ Be honest ◦ Do not reinforce hallucinations or delusions ◦ Do not touch patient without warning ◦ Reinforce positive behaviors ◦ Avoid competitive activities ◦ Do not embarrass patient ◦ Allow & encourage verbalization of feelings ◦ SCHIZOPHRENIA – LIKE DISORDERS Schizoaffective disorders ◦ Uninterruptive period of illness during which at some point the patient experiences a MDD. depression. Pre-Crisis period – individual has emotional equilibrium Crisis period – individual has the subjective experience of being upset. hospitalization and death ◦ In community setting provide assistance to individuals and families in developmental and situational crisis ◦ Nurses working with a particular group of client should anticipate situations in which crisis may occurs. Family. inability to make decisions Behavioral symptoms – disorganization. impulsive. paranoia. suspicion. patient exhibits delusion or hallucination Schizophreniform disorder ◦ Patient exhibits features of schizopohrenia for more than 1 month but fewer that 6 months ◦ No impaired social or occupational function Brief psychotic disorder ◦ Onset of at least 1 or more positive symptoms of psychosis ◦ Occur at least 1 day to less that an month then full recovery Psychotic disorder due to a general medical condition ◦ Presence of prominent hallucination or delusion determined as resulting from the direct physiologic effect of a specific medical condition CRISIS ◦ Provide opportunities for purposeful psychomotor activity 1. Perception of precipitating event is realistic rather than destored b. sadness. Post-Crisis period – resolution of crisis Symptoms common in individual experiencing crisis 2. symptoms are expereinced 3. Coping mechanism that alleviate anxiety Mobile crisis team – interdisciplinary teams provide services to groups of communities affected by crisis Disaster response team – teams have an organized plan to provide help to large segments of the population affected by natural disaster Critical incident stress debriefing – assistance is directed at groups of professional such as hospital personnel. withdrawal from social interaction Emotional symptoms – anxiety. communities and even nation Sequence of Crisis Development 1. CRISIS Management of Crisis: Crisis Intervention 1. 2. racing thoughts. helplessness. Role of the Nurse Nurse provides direct services to people in crisis and serve as members of crisis intervention teams ◦ In acute and chronic hospital setting assist individuals and families responding to the crisis of serious illness. police and firemen. Each individual has unique response to the problem Balancing factors are important in predicting outcomes for the individual responding to a crisis a. These crisis can affect individuals. difficulty concentrating. Physical symptoms – somatic complaints Cognitive symptoms – confusion. 4. powerlessness 2. Successful crisis resolution occurs when functioning is restored or enhanced through new learning b. They also collaborate with other health team members to help an individual resolve crisis CRISIS Type of Crisis Developmental crisis .occurs from transition from one stage of maturation to another in the life cycle Situational crisis – occurs to a sudden. unexpected event in an individual life. failure of usual coping mechanism. 1. directive role if necessary Make suggestions and offer alternatives 3. angry outburst. friends) c. guilt. anger. Adventitious crisis – occurs in response to severe trauma or natural disaster. manic or mixed episodes along with the negative symptoms of schizophrenia ◦ In the absence of prominent mood symptoms. Unsuccessful crisis resolution is when functioning is not restored to pre-crisis level. It is an overwhelming reaction to a threatening situation in which an individual’s usual problem-solving skills and coping responses are inadequate for maintaining psychological equilibrium General Consideration Crisis occurs in all individuals at one time or another Crisis is not necessarily pathological. Situational supports (ex. CRISIS Principles of crisis intervention the goal of crisis intervention is to return the individual to pre-crisis level of functioning Emphasis is on strengthening and supporting healthy aspects of individual’s functioning A problem-solving approach is use in a systematic manner ◦ Assessing the individual’s perception to problem assessing strengths and weaknesses of the individual and family support system ◦ Planning specific outcomes or goals based on priorities ◦ Providing direct intervention ◦ Evaluation outcome and results of intervention Use the framework of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs to determine the priorities for intervention ◦ Physical resources – necessary for survival ◦ Social resources – necessary for regaining sense of belonging ◦ Psychological resources – necessary for regaining selfesteem Role of crisis intervention worker includes: Establishes rapport and communities hope and optimism Assumes an active. it can provide stimulus for growth & learning Crisis is time limited and is usually resolve one way or another in a brief period (4-6 weeks) a. These events is all about experiences of loss. and the individual experiences decreased level of functioning Individual’s perception of the problem determine the crisis. Assistance ◦ Assistance for an individual affected by a crisis ◦ Assistance for groups or communities affected by crisis Lecture: Terminologies Intoxication: ingestion of substance that results in abductive behavior . 4.
thirst.. mammillary bodies and tissues surrounding ventricles and aqueducts Clinical symptoms include: Double vision Involuntary and rapid eye movements Lack of muscular coordination Decreased mental function Alcohol Abuse • • Individual who is in the state of alcohol of alcohol abuse exhibits one or more of the following symptoms in a 12mos period. A. Of days of abstinence • Two differ. school or work Recurrent drinking in situations in which it is physically hazardous Continued use of despite having persistent or recurrent social or interpersonal problems caused by alcoholism • • Alcohol Dependence • Individual who is in the state of alcohol dependence experiences distress and exhibits 3 or more of the following symptoms during a 12mos period • A need of an increased amts. Recurrent drinking of alcohol resulting in a failure to fulfil major role obligations at home.induced persisting amnestic disorder Alcohol Intoxication • Slurred speech • Unsteady gait • Impaired memory and judgement • Flushing • Drowsiness • Tremors • Belligerence • Loss of inhibitions • Constricted pupils • if severe: coma. -There is a degenerative changes in the hypothalamus bec.. respi dep. D. the individual is in the state of alcohol withdrawal if the following clinical symptoms are experienced within several hours to few days after the cessation or reduction of heavy and prolonged alcohol used: o Autonomic hyperactivity o Grand mal seizures o Psychomotor agitations and anxiety o Increased hand tremors o Sleep disturbances (insomnia and nightmares) o Illusions and transient hallucinations (visual/tactile/auditory) o Eleve\ated temperature higher than 100°F Shadows are misinterpreted and any noises or quick movements are perceived exaggeratedly • • Serious medical complications may occur if the client is left untreted S/sx: o Lacrimation . Of alcohol to achieve desired effects • Continued use of alcohol to relieve or avoid withdrawal symptoms o Diarrhea o Rhinorrhea o Yowning o Fever o Insomnia o Anxiety o Restlessness o Craving Opiod(pain reliever) Legal drugs: morphine. K due to poor nutritional status. increased susceptibility to infection. weak pulse • The person is in the state of opiates withdrawal if the following symptoms are experienced within 12-16 hours after the las dose: o Yawning o Tremors o Diarrhea o Nausea and vomiting o Restlessness o Dilated pupils o Sneezing o Goose bumps o Rhinitis o Watery eyes o Diaphoresis • Intake of alcohol is in larger amt or over a longer period of time than was intended. Of substance to achieve the max effect Blackout: person cannot remember things during substance intoxication Confabulation: making up stories Dependence: person cannot work without substance ingestion Alcoholic. hepatitis. and codeine or methadone • Opiates are narcotic drugs that induces sleep.form of amnesia characterized by short-term memory loss disorientation. especially thiamine B6 and B12 o Wernick’s Psychosis. pain and sexual desire • Acute overdose may experience symptoms such as decreased or slow respirations. penctazone. mental retardation and abnormal shape heads and limbs caused by maternal drinking during pregnancies CNS Depression.Withdrawal:s/sx that manifest after the effect of the substance Detoxification: process to eliminate the substance being ingested Tolerance: increasing the amt. constricted pupils and a rapid. gait changes and peripheral neuropathy Others Deficiencies of vit. cirrhosis of the liver. anemia. bruises and bleeding tendencies due to decreased RBC and WBC and abnormal bone marrowing functioning Opiod related disorders • Substances that are included in this classification are morphine. Demerol. inability to learn new skills and exhibit confabulation.O2. oxycodone. Alcohol intoxication • An individual is in the state of alcohol intoxication if seen with the following behavioural changes after the recent ingestion of alcohol: o Nystagmus o Unsteady gait o Slurred speech o Impaired memory o Impaired judgment o Impaired attention span o Fighting o Irritability o Mood changes o Stupor or coma o Increased verbalization o Impaired social functioning Alcohol Withdrawal • Occurs when an individual abruptly stops drinking after alcohol has become a necessity of life to maintain functioning • Generally. death Alcohol Withdrawal • Sweating • Shaking • G. haemorrhoids.I Acute gastritis.I symptoms o Liver (cirrhosis) o Pancreas(monitor CBG) • DOC: Librium and Valium • Untreated: DELIRIUM TREMENS o Seizures (Seizure prec. suppress coughing and alleviate pain • Opiates are abused to help relieve withdrawal symptoms or to feel good • Opiates users usually experience reduced feelings of hunger. heroin.(padded tongue dep. CNS assoc. methadone Illegal drugs: heroin and normethadone Narcan (naloxone) Opiod antagonist Blocks the effect of opiod for 72° Alcohol Related Disorders System Common effects and complications G. With alcoholism o Korsakoff’s Psychosis. suction machine. weakened heart muscles and heart failure Repro Prostitis or fetal alcohol\ syndrome or abnormalities in the newbornheart defects. Valium or diazepam) o Hallucination (DOC: thorazine/antipsychotic) • Antabuse (DISULFIRAM) • Alcoholic anonymous (Major Goal:ABSTINENCE) o Evaluation: no. pancreatitis. hydromorphone.inflammatory hemorrhagic degenerative condition of the brain caused by a thiamine deficiency in which lesions occur in the hypothalamus. Of a deficiency in Vit B complex. esophageal varices. ascites Respi Respi dep and depresse cough reflex Cardio Hypertension.
• o Loss of appetite o Muscle cramps o Irritability The above symptoms may subside in 5-10days if no treatment occurs .
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