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Permission is granted to print and copy this document for noncommercial distribution and exclusive use by instructors in the CCNA 3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing course as part of an official Cisco Networking Academy Program.

I. Welcome
Welcome to the CCNA 3 Version 3.1 Instructor Guide. Cisco Worldwide Education (WWE) appreciates all of the hard work of all the instructors. The hope of this guide is to make teaching the CCNA 3 course a little easier. As an introduction to this guide, the following four themes will be emphasized: Student-Centered, Instructor-Facilitated The CCNA curriculum was not designed as a stand-alone e-learning or a distance-learning course. Throughout the history of the Cisco Networking Academy Program, the teaching and learning model has been, and continues to be, based on instructor facilitation. The diagram "Learner Model: Academy Student" summarizes the emphasis WWE puts on the learner. Starting with the prior knowledge of the student, the instructor coordinates learning events. These events are built from a variety of resources, to help the students gain networking knowledge and skills.

One Curriculum Is Not Appropriate For All Students The Cisco Networking Academy Program serves hundreds of thousands of students in almost 150 countries. Students range from early teens to mature adults, from advanced middle school students to undergraduate engineering students. How can one curriculum be right for everyone?

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There is no way one curriculum will fit the needs of all students. The local instructor plays the central role. Given the learning goals of the program, and the resources described, WWE is completely reliant on local instructors to make the program work for their specific students. Instructors are given reference points to base their instruction from the following: • • • Mission of WWE to educate and train Requirements of the CCNA certification exam Hands-on skills that help make students ready for industry and further education

Given these reference points, instructors still have a lot of freedom in course design. WWE supports an "add anything, but subtract nothing" policy regarding the curriculum. Inclass differentiation is encouraged. Here, struggling students are given remediation and highachieving students are given additional and more challenging assignments. The instructor can make decisions on how much time is to be used on various topics. Depending on the students, some topics can be emphasized and other topics have less emphasis. Only the local instructor can decide how to balance the need to do hands-on labs with the realities of the local studentto-equipment ratio and time schedule. Using this guide may facilitate preparation of lesson plans and presentations. However, consider it a work in progress to which the experiences of thousands of instructors will be added over the coming year. Instructors are strongly encouraged to research, use external sources, and develop in-house labs and exercises. Certain TIs have been highlighted for particular importance to assist the instructor in course and lesson planning. The danger here is that the impression may be conveyed that only these TIs need to be taught. This is not the case. Often a highlighted TI will only make sense if preceding TIs were mastered. However, it may be useful, especially when pressed for time, to have a map of the TIs that best develop the knowledge and skills needed for success in the CCNA program. Assessment is multifaceted and flexible. A wide variety of assessment options exist to provide feedback to the students and document their progress. The Academy Assessment model is a blend of formative and summative assessments that include online and hands-on skills-based exams. Hands-On, Skills-Based The core of the CCNA 3 experience is the sequence of hands-on labs. Each lab has been designated as either essential or optional. Essential labs must be completed. They are fundamental to the CCNA Academy student certification test requirements, job success, and cognitive and effective development. In CCNA 3, students will be required to apply information from CCNA 1 and CCNA 2 to a network and should be able to explain how and why a particular strategy is used. The Cisco Community Cisco instructors are members of a global community of educators. More than 10,000 individuals are actively teaching the CCNA and CCNP courses. WWE is grateful for the diversity, skill, and passion of this community. Instructors are encouraged to take advantage of this community through their Regional Academies (RAs), Cisco Academy Training Center (CATC), the Cisco Academy Connection, and through other forums. It is the commitment of WWE to improve the curriculum, assessment, and instructional resources, such as this guide. Feedback can be submitted through the Cisco Academy Connection. Please continue to check the Cisco Academy Connection for regular releases of more instructional materials. Guide Overview

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and “Instructional Best Practices. Inc. including lab solutions. provides a scope and sequence type overview of the course. includes “Cisco Online Tools and Utilities”. “Evidence Centered Design of Assessment Tasks in the Networking Academy”. 3 . “Teaching Guide TI by TI”. Section V. Skills-Based Assessment—This document provides examples of what is expected as a final performance-based assessment for CCNA 3. Cisco Systems.Section II. This section also offers teaching suggestions and background information. “Course Overview”.159 CCNA 3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. and labs. . Section IV provides a case study to illustrate the process and documentation required for a network design. target indicators. Section III. Student Lab Manual—This document contains student versions of labs. The following three additional materials come with this guide to provide help with teaching the CCNA 3 course.1 IG – Welcome Copyright © 2004. “Appendices”. summarizes the most important learning objectives. “CCNA Assessment Guidelines”. • • • Instructor Lab Manual—This document contains instructor versions of labs.

network administrators. Improve network performance and security. Prerequisites The successful completion of this course requires the following: • • • • Reading age level of 13 or higher Successful completion of CCNA 1 and CCNA 2 The following skills are beneficial. This includes high school students. network engineers. The course focuses on the following: • • • • • • • • • Introduction to classless routing Single area OSPF EIGRP Switching concepts Switches Switch configuration Spanning-Tree Protocol Virtual LANs VLAN Trunking Protocol Course Objectives The CCNA certification indicates knowledge of networking for the small office. Inc. but not required: Prior experience with computer hardware and basic router configuration Background in cabling and computer programming Course Description CCNA 3: Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing is the third of four courses leading to the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) designation. and the ability to work in small businesses or organizations using networks that have fewer than 100 nodes. technical introduction to the field of networking. 4 . community college students. home office (SOHO) market. Cisco Systems.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Provide Level 1 troubleshooting service.1 IG – Teaching Guide: TI by TI Copyright © 2004.II. A qualified CCNA should be able to perform the following tasks: • • • Install and configure Cisco switches and routers in multiprotocol internetworks using LAN and WAN interfaces. and network help-desk staff. CCNA 3 introduces Cisco Networking Academy Program students to the basics of switching and intermediate routing skills. . Course Overview Target Audience The target audience is anyone who desires a practical. and lifelonglearning students who are interested in careers as network technicians.

A case study on Access Control Lists is required. Lab Requirements Please refer to the latest CCNA equipment bundle spreadsheets on the Cisco Academy Connection site. . Certification Alignment The curriculum is aligned with the following Cisco Internet Learning Solution Group (ILSG) courses: CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate) INTRO (Introduction to Cisco Networking Technologies) ICND (Interconnecting Cisco Network Devices) CCNA 3 Course-Level Claims A competent student will be able to perform the following tasks: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Understand and configure VLSM Understand and configure RIP v2 Understand link-state routing protocols Understand OSPF Configure OSPF Identify EIGRP concepts Configure EIGRP Understand 802. 5 . The CCNA 3 course is an important step toward achieving CCNA certification.3 Understand switch concepts Understand and identify products used in LAN design Configure switches Understand spanning-tree concepts Understand VLAN concepts Configure VLANs Understand VTP Understand inter-VLAN routing Course Overview The course has been designed for 70 contact hours. design. but the format and timing can be determined by the Local Academy.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. installation. Cisco Systems.• Perform entry-level tasks in the planning. operation. Inc. and troubleshooting of Ethernet and TCP/IP networks. Approximately 35 hours are planned for lab activities and 35 hours for curriculum content.1 IG – Teaching Guide: TI by TI Copyright © 2004.

The following changes have taken place since CCNA Version 2.x: • • • • • • • • • • • • Removal of the IPX. and Threaded Case Study (TCS) modules A case study is now required with format and timing determined by the Local Academy IGRP and access lists moved to CCNA 2 Addition of VLSM.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. . Network Management. and single-area OSPF routing protocols Addition of CLI configuration of switches Additional material on VLANs and VTP More interactive flash activities Sequence of over 40 e-Labs Lab focus on intermediate routing and command-line interface configuration of switches More interactive flash activities More focus on hands-on labs 6 . an IP address technique for subnetting subnets Addition of RIP v2. EIGRP. Cisco Systems. Inc.1 IG – Teaching Guide: TI by TI Copyright © 2004.

LO 2. 7 . Claims are supported with data and used in the assessment process as a measure of performance. A core TI should not be omitted when teaching the course. Cisco Systems. However. 3. Inc. Claims are supported with data and used in the assessment process as a measure of performance.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Guide to Teaching TI by TI Nomenclature The CCNA curriculum uses the following hierarchy: Target Target Indicator Target (TI) Indicator Indicator (TI) (TI) For example. • Course A course is a subset of a curriculum. A curriculum has an end goal such as certification or achieving required job skills and knowledge. These statements ultimately govern certification exams. and assessment: • Certification-level claims Certification-level claims are high-level statements in regards to the knowledge a CCNA-certified person should have.III. instructional materials. The following terms are commonly used to describe curriculum.2. throughout WWE and Cisco documentation a variety of terminology is used.1 IG – Teaching Guide: TI by TI Copyright © 2004. and TI 5. A scheduled course is taught as a collection of chapters. . • Course-level claims Course-level claims are medium-level statements in regards to the knowledge a person completing CCNA 3 course should have. • Curriculum Curriculum is a predefined or dynamic path of learning events. • Core TI A core TI applies directly to the claims and LOs.5 would be read as Module 3.

or audio. The term lesson emphasizes the role of the instructor. • Learning objective (LO) An LO is a statement that establishes a measurable behavioral outcome. figures. Cisco Systems. 8 . A RIO is similar to a TI. video. . animation. • Target indicator (TI) A TI is typically one text frame with figures and several media content items in the form of text. • • • Optional lab An optional lab is an activity for practice. lesson planning. These skills are explicitly listed to emphasize hands-on lab-based learning.1 IG – Teaching Guide: TI by TI Copyright © 2004. practice. Reusable learning object (RLO) An RLO is a Cisco instructional design term. The outcome is used as an advanced organizer to show how the increase of skills and knowledge is being measured. and assessment items assembled around a single learning objective. enrichment. • Lesson A lesson is a presentation of a coherent set of TIs to meet an LO. Inc. • Module A module is a logical grouping that comprises a course. Essential lab An essential lab is a lab activity that is fundamental to the course. and pacing.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.• Hands-on skills The hands-on skills and the certification and course-level claims cover some of the same subjects. Modules are comprised of multiple learning objectives (LOs) similar to chapters. • Reusable information object (RIO) A RIO is a Cisco instructional design term. These suggestions are especially important for syllabus development. or differentiation. • Module caution A module caution is a suggestion on where difficulties may be encountered. It is a collection of reusable information objects (RIOs) that supports a specific LO. It is a collection of content. The term LO emphasizes the role of the student. An LO is similar to a reusable learning object (RLO).

It might be useful to give students the opportunity to demonstrate their skills at subnetting by giving them a series of small network addressing problems. Divide a network into subnets of different sizes using VLSM. Verify and troubleshoot RIP v2 operation.1 VLSM Essential Labs: Optional Labs: Core TIs: Optional TIs: 1.4 None All None Certification-level claim: Compute and use Variable Length Subnet Masking (VLSM) techniques to design and implement effective and efficient IP addressing. subnet masks and gateway addresses on routers and hosts. This is also a good time to double-check all student login and password access to the curriculum student site. Hands-on skills: None In this lesson students will be introduced to the new topic of Variable Length Subnet Masks (VLSM). Cisco Systems. Identify the important differences between RIP v1 and RIP v2. course business will need attention. These could be such as ones they have done in CCNA 1 and 2. Configure RIP v2. this is how to configure IP addresses. Instructors should then emphasize that VLSM is an important topic and students will now be able to use subnet zero. It is important for instructors to introduce this topic after they have made sure that students are thoroughly familiar with subnetting. Students completing this module should be able to perform the following tasks: • • • • • • • • • Define VLSM and briefly describe the reasons for its use. Define route aggregation and summarization as they relate to VLSM.1. 1. Configure a router using VLSM. 9 . Configure default routes using the ip route and ip default-network commands.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Course-level claim: This module provides essential background information for the CCNA exam.Module 1: Introduction to Classless Routing When teaching Module 1. Identify the key features of RIP v1 and RIP v2. and how to design an IP addressing scheme to meet design requirements. . Namely.1 IG – Module 1 Copyright © 2004. Inc. The time required to cover this module may vary considerably with different student populations. Module 1 Caution: Mathematics may cause some difficulties here so it is important that all students are thoroughly familiar with subnetting before starting this module.

VLSM makes it possible to subnet a subnet so VLSM can be used on WAN links with a Classless InterDomain Routing (CIDR) notation of /30. practical addressing quizzes using VLSM.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. .0 and higher. B. The following are questions for the students to research: 1. Cisco Systems. lab work.1.2 A waste of space Students will start to appreciate why VLSM is so important. or C address is subnetted by using masks of different lengths. This allows the use of all zeros and all ones subnets. plus a network address and a broadcast address.0. IS-IS. Inc.During this module.0. a 172. Give the students examples of a 10. VLSM provides a more efficient way of assigning IP addresses. Review the figures carefully and give other examples so that the students can practice on other addresses. It would be useful to have the students write down the addresses in binary so they can see where the breaks occur. Why was VLSM not used in CCNA 1 and 2? 1. RIP v2. and a 192. Figures 6 and 7 illustrate VLSM and how it is computed. Why use /30 on serial links? 2. Pay particular attention to the following figures: • • • Figure 4 outlines that VLSM works with OSPF. Why is VLSM described as subnetting a subnet? 2. where the same Class A. 1. try to give the students plenty of opportunities to compute and use VLSM techniques to design and implement effective and efficient IP addressing.1 What is VLSM and why is it used? VLSM is simply an extension of basic subnetting. the question may have come up as to why host addresses are used on a WAN link. IP subnet zero is enabled by default on Cisco IOS 12. and static routing.0. EIGRP. The following are questions for the students to research: 1. especially when it comes to addressing serial links. Best practices for teaching this TI include online study with study guides. It provides more flexibility in assigning an adequate number of hosts and subnets given a limited number of IP addresses.1. In CCNA 1 and 2.0. The following are questions for the students to research: 1.0. group work. Pay particular attention to Figure 2.0 address to work on. and mini-lecture. Figure 5 emphasizes the use of the /30 on the serial links.16. which only requires one address on either end of the link.3 When to use VLSM? Students are given further examples of how VLSM is implemented in an addressing scheme for a large network. Why was /27 chosen? 10 . Emphasize that large subnets are created for addressing the LANs and small subnets are created for the serial or point-to-point links.1. Is it compulsory to use /30 on serial links? 1.1 IG – Module 1 Copyright © 2004.1. Why select subnet 6 in the figure for further subnetting? Is there any rule on which subnet to pick to further subdivide? 2.168.

192.168.168. The practical lab in this TI will enable students to calculate VLSM subnets.27.249 and 192.168. Let the students work through the steps and then give a series of examples where the number of hosts differs. . 192.248/30 with host addresses 192.168. Create an addressing scheme that will meet the diagram requirements. then it yields four class Cs. It is the supernet.252/30 with host address 192. Scenario The CIDR address 192.4 Calculating subnets with VLSM This is an extremely important TI. Inc. 1.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.168.168.27. 2.27. Sample 1 extra VLSM addressing problem Objectives Create an addressing scheme using VLSM. Serial links can be assigned the following: a. Cisco Systems.253 and 192.244/30 with host addresses 192.168.27.168.0/22 does not yield four supernets. IP unnumbered or NAT are not permitted on this network. 192.0 /22 is assigned to use and it must support the network shown in the diagram.168.27.250 c.27. Reemphasize that VLSM does not work with RIP Version 1 (RIP v1) or IGRP and make sure that the students study every figure in this TI. Allow the students to write down the steps necessary to calculate VLSM in their engineering journals.27. This is a practical lab for the students.It might be useful for the students to draw a VLSM addressing chart with some of the more often used private addresses.1.254 11 .24.1 IG – Module 1 Copyright © 2004. If you look at it from a class C perspective.246 b.27. This could be done as homework and kept in their engineering journals. 192.168.168. Allow the students to present their answers to the class and explain how they arrived at their answer. Sample Solution: (using subnet zero) 1.24.245 and 192.27. Make sure the students appreciate where the dividing line goes. It is important that the students use binary here so that the divisions made become familiar.

168.2 = 510 hosts from 192.168. Create an addressing scheme that will meet the diagram requirements. LAN 1—400 hosts: 192.24. 12 .27. LAN 2 —200 hosts: 192. Addresses for the LANs begin from the start of the addresses range to leave room for expansion of serial links and LANs in between.0/23 (29 = 512 .27.1 IG – Module 1 Copyright © 2004.97 to 192.62) d.31.168.2 = 62 hosts from 192.27.0 /23 is assigned to use and it must support the network shown in the diagram.64/26 (26 = 64 .168. Remember the upper range of addresses was taken for the serial interfaces in Step 2.168. LAN 4—50 hosts: 192.96/27 (25 = 32 .2 = 254 hosts from 192.27.168.168. 3.26.2 = 62 hosts from 192.168.27.168.128 through 192.1 to 192. Inc. Scenario The CIDR address 192.168.168.168. LAN 5—30 hosts: 192.0/24 (28 = 256 .27.168.27.168.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.1 to 192.30.Note: Addresses assigned to the serial interfaces were selected from the upper end of the range of addresses available.168.31. Cisco Systems. LAN 3—50 hosts: 192.1 to 192.26.243.254) c.27.126) This leaves the address range of 192.31.168. LANs could be assigned the following subnets with respective masks to accommodate the number of hosts required on each subnet: a.2 = 30 hosts from 192. IP unnumbered or NAT are not permitted on this network.65 to 192. Sample 2 extra VLSM addressing problem Objectives Create an addressing scheme using VLSM.168.126) e.254) b.25.26.168.24.0/26 (26 = 64 . .

168.168.31.31. Cisco Systems. If you look at it from a class C perspective.0.1.31.31.97 to 192.16. Make sure the students use the glossary to find out the precise meanings of the following concepts and keep them in their journal: • • • • Summarization Supernetting Prefix Aggregate routes 13 .14.168.168.128/27 (25 = 32 . LAN 3—60 hosts: 192.31.31.168.190) 1.30.0/25 (27 = 128 .1 to 192.255. such as OSPF or EIGRP.0 near one another so that the routers need only carry a route for 172.31.168. 172.1 IG – Module 1 Copyright © 2004.62) d.31.31. then it yields two class C networks.2 = 30 hosts from 192.158) g.126) f.168.193 and 192.168.31.31.31. 192.31.168.129 to 192.31.31.30. Serial links can be assigned the following: a.168. classless routing protocols carry subnet mask information in their routing updates.168. This means keeping networks like 172.168.202 Note: Addresses assigned to the serial interfaces were selected from the end of the addresses assigned to the LANs in Step 3. LAN 1 —120 hosts: 192. Route summarization.2 = 30 hosts from 192.64/27 (25 = 32 . they should try to keep the subnetwork numbers grouped together in the network to allow for aggregation.160/27 (25 = 32 .31.65 to 192.204 through 192.2 = 30 hosts from 192. It is the supernet.31. This leaves the address range 192.31.0 /16.168.16.192/30 with host addresses 192.168.94) e. Unlike Classful routing protocols.197 and 192.168.0/26 (26 = 64 .196/30 with host addresses 192. LANs could be assigned the following subnets with respective masks to accommodate the number of hosts required on each subnet: a.1 to 192.168.198 c.168.30.201 and 192.31.2 = 62 hosts from 192.0/23.31.31.30.168.31.168.168. A complex hierarchy of variable-sized networks and subnetworks is summarized at various points using a prefix address until the entire network is advertised as a single aggregate route.168.5 Route aggregation with VLSM Ensure that the students understand that when using VLSM. . LAN 6—20 hosts: 192. LAN 7—24 hosts: 192.15.30. 3. or supernetting.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.168.168.96/27 (25 = 32 .0/23 does not yield two supernets.254) c.168.16.168.30.31. Inc.168. is only possible if the routers of a network run a classless routing protocol.2 = 30 hosts from 192. 192.31.129 to 192.168. LAN 5—30 hosts: 192.31.2 = 126 hosts from 192.168. 2. LAN 2—90 hosts: 192.2 = 126 hosts from 192.168.30. 192. LAN 4—24 hosts: 192.0 and 172.Sample Solution: (using subnet zero) 1.168.14.128/25 (27 = 128 .200/30 with host address 192.168.161 to 192.16.194 b.126) b.168.31. 192.168.

and troubleshoot the RIP v2 distance vector routing protocol. Supernetting is a representation that allows masks that are shorter than the natural masks. 1. Cisco Systems.5.2. Inc.3 All None Certification-level claim: Describe. namely. configure. Whiteboard the figures in this section and walk through the configurations.2 RIP Version 2 Essential Labs: Optional Labs: Core TIs: Optional TIs: 1. various error messages will be seen that shows that VLSM cannot be used with RIP v1. therefore creating supernets.6 1. It should be emphasized that RIP v1 was designed to work.1.1 RIP history The students will be familiar with the distance vector protocol RIP v1 from their previous studies.2.2. Now have the students add the following line after inputting router rip: Router(config-router)#version 2 The students should now be able to implement the networking scheme on the Lab 1. verify. Hands-on skills: None 1.4. . VLSM allows for the summarization of routes flexibility by basing the summarization entirely on the higher-order bits shared on the left.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. 1. 1. how to configure routing protocols given user requirements. as an Interior Gateway Protocol (IGP) within a moderate-sized Autonomous System (AS). Give the students practice at working out route summarization in their engineering journals. analyze.2. The most common activity of a CCNA-certified individual in industry surveys is troubleshooting. Emphasize that for summarization to work properly. Course-level claim: This module provides essential background information for the CCNA exam.1 IG – Module 1 Copyright © 2004.4.1.2. and 1. Emphasize the following rules: • • • • • A router must know in detail the subnet numbers attached to it.6 Configuring VLSM If the students use RIP v1.What is the difference between CIDR and supernetting? Classless Interdomain Routing (CIDR) is the mechanism that allows advertising of both supernets and subnets outside of the normal bounds of a classful network number. 14 . carefully assign addresses in a hierarchical fashion so that summarized addresses will share the same high-order bits. A router does not need to tell other routers about each individual subnet if the router can send one aggregate route for a set of routes. A router using aggregate routes therefore enables the routers to have few entries in their routing tables.

default is 180 seconds It uses split horizon to prevent routing loops It uses 16 hops as a metric for infinite distance Contrast the way in which RIP v2 multicasts routing updates using the Class D address 224. it might be useful to allow the faster students to use a VLSM addressing scheme for this lab and have them add Version 2 after the router rip command. They could search for the meanings in the glossary and update their own engineering journals with the definitions.2. there are many changes taking place as result of adding this one line of code. 1.2.255 It does not support authentication It is not able to support VLSM or CIDR 1. which should be done as well as the interactive activity for reinforcement. As an additional variation on the practical lab.2 RIP v2 features Emphasize that RIP v2 is an improved version of RIP v1. The practical lab will enable students to create an IP addressing scheme using Class B networks and configure RIP on routers. which allows it to send out subnet mask information with the route update. Have the students list the difference in their engineering journals. 1.0. or VLSM.2. The e-Lab will enable students to review the basic configuration of routers. Stress that RIP v2 provides prefix routing.255. 15 .255.3 Comparing RIP v1 and v2 Ensure that the students pay particular attention to every figure in this TI as they summarize their learning about RIP v1 and RIP v2. Use this as an opportunity to go over the concepts of multicasting and broadcasting. though instructors are encouraged to adjust it to the lab environment and the students. There is a practical lab here. The lab is required. RIP v2 supports the use of classless routing in which different subnets within the same network can use different subnet masks. The figures are all important for the learning process in this section.4 Configuring RIP v2 Emphasize to the students that very little change is required for initiating Version 2. Inc. .9. Make sure that the students understand the concepts of authentication and encryption.1 IG – Module 1 Copyright © 2004. which provides for better efficiency.0.It is important to link this topic to what the students have learned in VLSM so that they can understand some of the limitations of RIP v1 as follows: • • • • RIP v1 does not send subnet masks information in its updates It sends updates as broadcasts on 255. Role-plays on authentication could be useful here. Therefore. this variation could give students more practice. whereas RIP v1 broadcasts updates on 255.255. But despite this fact.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. As the most common activity of a CCNA-certified individual in industry surveys is troubleshooting.255. but that it shares the following features with RIP v1: • • • • • RIP v2 uses hop count It is a distance vector protocol that uses a hop count metric It uses hold-down timers to prevent routing loops. Cisco Systems.255.

This is the time to go through all the figures in Module 1 with the students. default. These skills are vital for troubleshooting. It is worthwhile for the students to write in their engineering journal a summary of all the commands they have learned so far.6 Troubleshooting RIP v2 Using debug can be challenging for some students as they become overwhelmed by the wealth of information that floods their screen and they are unable to decipher the meaning. 1. The instructor should spend some time going though the output in Figures 1 and 2 to ensure that the students can read and comprehend the outputs.1 IG – Module 1 Copyright © 2004. Although the lab is required. Inc. enlarge it and display it up on a white background for discussion and interpretation.5 Verifying RIP v2 There is an important lab in this TI that allows the students to verify operations of RIP v1 and RIP v2. Cisco Systems.2. 1. 16 . instructors are encouraged to adjust it to the lab environment and the students. The practical lab enables students to verify RIP v2 configuration. and dynamic routes and when to use them.The practical lab and e-Lab enables students to configure RIP v1 and then convert it to RIP v2. Encourage the students to try and build the network as displayed in Figure 3. This would enable the students to practice all the skills they have learned so far in Module 1. with commands pointing to routers and any special items they have learned from troubleshooting when wiring up and configuring the network. Make sure the students become familiar with Figures 1 through 3. The practical lab and e-Lab enables students to troubleshoot using debug.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Instructors should take time here to ensure that students start to interpret some of the debug output so that they are able to efficiently troubleshoot errors. 1.7 Default routes This is an important session for the students because they are often confused by the differences between static. . Capture some debug output to a disk.2. In their engineering journals it is often useful to have drawings of the networks as they set them up.2.

They should be able to perform simple troubleshooting tasks involving their workstations and routers. Cisco Systems. Students should understand the differences between RIP v1 and RIP v2 and be comfortable in setting up networks with either routing protocol. . Online assessment options include the end-of-module online quiz in the curriculum and the online Module 1 exam. They should know how to configure static and default routes and should be familiar with the ip route and ip default-network commands.1 IG – Module 1 Copyright © 2004.Module 1 Summary Before moving on to Module 2. and implement it in a physical network environment. the students must be proficient in devising VLSM networking schemes.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Students should be able to compare RIP v1 and RIP v2 from memory. An understanding of the following key points should have been achieved: • • • • • • • • • VLSM and the reasons for its use Subnetting networks of different sizes using VLSM Route aggregation and summarization as they relate to VLSM Router configuration using VLSM Key features of RIP v1 and RIP v2 Important differences between RIP v1 and RIP v2 Configuration of RIP v2 Verifying and troubleshooting RIP v2 operation Configuring default routes using the ip route and ip default-network commands 17 . be able to give examples of how to use it in a network design. Inc.

Comprehension of the operation of link-state routing protocols is critical in order to enable. Identify common OSPF configuration issues. maintain a complex database of topology information. Cisco Systems. Compare and contrast link-state routing with distance-vector routing. keep in mind that if the student masters the concepts of link-state routing and its difference from distance vector routing. Try to reinforce the concepts with the hands-on labs. Modify OSPF cost metric. also known as shortest path first (SPF) algorithms. Use show commands to verify OSPF operation. Module 2 Caution: Students may be overwhelmed by vocabulary in some sections of this module. and points out the advantages and disadvantages of link-state routing. A link-state routing algorithm maintains full knowledge of remote networks and how they interconnect. Configure a loopback address to set router priority. Change OSPF timers. CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Configure OSPF authentication.1 IG – Module 2 . Enable OSPF on a router. Describe the steps to create and propagate a default route. Students completing this module should be able to perform the following tasks: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 18 . Copyright © 2004.159 Identify the key features of link-state routing. describes the algorithm they use. verify. Explain how link-state routing information is maintained. This module explains how link-state routing protocols work. outlines their features.Module 2: Single Area OSPF When teaching Module 2. Examine the advantages and disadvantages of link-state routing. Verify the OSPF configuration. the foundation for future learning will have been established. Inc. Propagate a default route. Change OSPF route preference by modifying the cost metric. distance vector algorithms do not intrinsically provide specific information about distant networks. Define key OSPF terms. Configure the OSPF routing process. role-play. and interactive tasks. The purpose of this module is to describe how link-state routing algorithms. Discuss the link-state routing algorithms. Configure OSPF authentication. In contrast. practical labs. Configure OSPF timers. Configure OSPF loopback address and router priority. and troubleshoot their operation.

Research: Why is distance vector routing sometimes called “routing by rumor?” Because the picture the router has of the network is based on information received from its neighbor. the device that detected the change creates a linkstate advertisement (LSA) concerning that link.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.3 How routing information is maintained The figure in this TI is important and instructors will need to spend time explaining the components of the figure. Describe the OSPF network types.1 Link-State Routing Protocol Essential Labs: Optional Labs: Core TIs: Optional TIs: None None All None Certification-level claim: Evaluate the key characteristics that distinguish the classes of routing protocols. 19 . it is vital to assist the students with understanding with the new vocabulary.1. 2.• • • • • Describe the key differences between distance vector and link-state routing protocols. Inc. 2.1 Overview of link-state routing Make sure the students attempt the interactive task in this TI as it reinforces the important differences between link-state and distance vector protocols.1. Since this section has a lot of information.1. or route. Course-level claim: Describe the concepts and techniques of link state routing. Cisco Systems. the only information the router has about a route is how far away the network is – the distance – and which interface to send the packet out of – the vector.2 Link-state routing protocol features Take the opportunity here to allow the students to role-play the way in which hello packets are sent from router to router. .1 IG – Module 2 Copyright © 2004. engage the students in the discussion. Explain the operation of the shortest path first (SPF) algorithm. 2.1.1 and then act out the passing of the hello packets. Identify the basics steps in the operation of OSPF. Question and answer sessions are effective at this TI. Describe the OSPF Hello protocol. If PowerPoint slides are used. and that LSA is propagated to all routers. In distance vector. Ask groups of students to devise scenarios of their own based on the figures in 2. Review link-state and remind the students that the link is an interface on a router and link-state is the status of a link between routers – up or down. and compare and contrast with distance vector routing. Hands-on skills: none 2. Emphasize that when a link changes state.

Course-level claim: Describe.1. What characteristic of distance vector protocols is responsible for their slow convergence? 3. Cisco Systems. Notice there is a reference to careful hierarchical network design. to using one metric. static routing. 20 .4 Link-state routing algorithms In this TI emphasize that link-state routing algorithms have the following characteristics: • • • • • • They are known collectively as shortest path first (SPF) protocols They maintain a complex database of the network topology They are based on the Dijkstra algorithm Questions at this TI include the following: What are the factors used to compute the best route? Is this a completely dynamic process? Can a network administrator influence this calculation? Lead into a discussion of metrics by comparing using no metric at all. 2. Ensure that the figures at this TI are discussed.1. Remember to stress that OSPF uses areas to implement hierarchical routing as illustrated in Figure 4. Inc. analyze. and troubleshoot the OSPF linkstate routing protocol in a single area mode of operation. which are animated when students press the white arrow. especially Figures 1 and 2.1 OSPF overview This is an important overview of OSPF and links back to what the students already know about RIP. such as hops. . 2.6 Compare and contrast distance vector and link-state routing Try to build discussion around the following questions: 1.2 Single Area OSPF Concepts Essential Labs: Optional Labs: Core TIs: Optional TIs: None None All None Certification-level claim: Configure routing protocols given user requirements.2.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. What distinguishes classful routing protocols from classless routing protocols? 2.2. verify. Which field in a routing table entry measures the reachability of the destination network? 2. This provides instructors with an opportunity to review network design. configure. Hands-on skills: none 2.5 Advantages and disadvantages of link-state routing Use the figure to emphasize the advantages and disadvantages of link-state routing.1 IG – Module 2 Copyright © 2004.1.

159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. A DR is one router on an OSPF multi-access network that represents all the routers in that network. A router within an area is called an internal router. An LSD is a list of information about all other routers in the network. in terms of hops rather than bandwidth. is generated when an algorithm is run on the link-state database. All routers within an area have identical link-state databases. or topological database Routing table 21 . Use the interactive media activity to reinforce the terms and their abbreviations. Each OSPF network has a DR and BDR. which is based on the speed of the network connection. OSPF supports VLSM. These routers have special responsibilities that are discussed later in this module. also known as the forwarding database. Inc. while changes to a RIP topology affect every router. . An AD is a listing of all the neighbors to which a router has established bi-directional communication. OSPF isolates changes to areas. Cisco Systems. OSPF overcomes the hop count limit of RIP. Designated Router (DR) Backup Designated Router (BDR) Adjacencies database (AD) Link-state database (LSD). This status includes information about a router interface and its relationship to neighboring routers. Each routing table is unique and contains information of how and where to send packets to other routers. Instructors might like to hold an acronym competition to see who can explain the words and concepts in the following table: Link Link-state (LS) Cost Area A link is a physical and electrical connection between two network devices. Cost is the value assigned to a link.2. A BDR is a standby router that becomes the DR. OSPF is event driven. Link-state is the status of a link between two routers. Link-state protocols assign a cost to a link.1 IG – Module 2 Copyright © 2004. 2. An area is a collection of networks and routers that has the same area identification. The routing table. Each router within an area has the same link-state information. whereas RIP broadcasts every 30 seconds. if the original DR fails. RIP sometimes picks suboptimal paths.The following are points to emphasize when contrasting OSPF with RIP: • • • • • • OSPF only floods changes to other routers instead of the entire routing table.2 OSPF terminology There are many words and concepts for students in this TI and the figures should help to explain them. It shows the network topology.

CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.3 Comparing OSPF with distance vector routing protocols There is an interactive multimedia activity in this TI that reinforces the differences between OSPF.6 OSPF Hello protocol There is an interactive media activity for this TI. 2. of the interface and 108 is used as the reference bandwidth. Go over the following states: • • 22 . NB: RFC 2328 does not specify any values for cost. 2. 2. Instructors might like to give some cost problems for the students to solve using the Cisco default cost.2.5 OSPF network types There is an interactive media activity for the students to solve in this TI. and distance vector routing protocols. As an example a serial link with a configured bandwidth of 128K would have a cost of 100 000 000/128 000 = 781. Inc. or bandwidth command. 2. Routers must be running the same version or adjacency cannot be established. Instructors should go through Figures 2 through 5 inclusive with the students. In point-to-point or point-to-multipoint topologies no DR/BDR election occurs.2. an instructor at Cabrillo College might prove useful: “Cisco uses a default cost of 108/Bandwidth where Bandwidth is the configured command. Cisco Systems. Study each of the figures carefully and point out the multi-access topologies such as Ethernet and Frame Relay that a DR/BDR is elected to handle routing information.2.7 Steps in the operation of OSPF This is an extremely important TI and contains many figures. This cost is configurable by a system administrator. If the question of cost emerges the following notes from Rick Graziani.” The RFC for OSPF v2 states that cost is associated with the output side of each router interface. point out that the version field specifies the OSPF version. a link-state routing protocol. When studying Figure 1.SPF algorithm Link-state advertisement (LSA) An SPF algorithm is a routing algorithm that iterates on length of path to determine a shortest-path spanning tree. 2. which should be explained in detail by the instructor.1 IG – Module 2 . An LSA is a broadcast packet used by link-state protocols that contain information about neighbors and path costs. The Type field specifies the packet type and if authentication is configured it is specified in the OSPF packet header.2. The lower the cost the more likely the interface is to be used to forward traffic data.2. LSAs are used by the receiving routers to maintain their routing tables.4 Shortest path algorithm Use the figures at this TI to emphasize routing with the shortest path algorithm.159 Init 2Way Copyright © 2004.

1 IG – Module 2 Copyright © 2004. The students are familiar with wildcard masks from previous ACL lessons. • Use the two figures to reinforce the concepts. and troubleshoot the Open Shortest Path First link-state routing protocol in a single area mode of operation. It is a number that is used to identify an OSPF routing process on the router. and 2.3.5. 2.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.1 Configuring the OSPF routing process The important concepts to emphasize in configuring OSPF include the following: • • The process ID is used with the router ospf command.3. Network addresses are configured with a wildcard mask and not a subnet mask.3.3.2. 23 . The wildcard mask represents the links or host addresses that can be present in this segment. . Course-level claim: Describe. It is advisable for the students to do all of the labs as they build on one another to reinforce vital concepts.2 Configuring OSPF with Loopback Addresses" demonstrates the configuration of loopback addresses for OSPF stability. The specification of an area is written as a whole number or dotted decimal notation. Reviewing the OSPF flowchart again will indicate the complexity of OSPF to the students. configure.3. 2. The lab "2. for example. The practical lab and e-Lab for this TI will enable students to configure OSPF routing.3.2.3. Hands-on skills: none In this section students get ample opportunity to practice what they have studied in 2.6 None All None Certification-level claim: Configure routing protocols given user requirements.3. router ospf 50. Each network is identified with the area to which it belongs.4. analyze.3.2 Configuring OSPF loopback address and router priority Stress the importance of using loopbacks in an OSPF network. The practical manner of electing DR and BDR should be emphasized.1. 2.1 and 2. Cisco Systems.3. 2. Inc.3 Single Area OSPF Configuration Essential Labs: Optional Labs: Core TIs: Optional TIs: 2. The practical lab and e-Lab at this TI will enable students to configure loopback addresses. 2.• • • • Exstart Exchange Loading Full Instructors could have their students act out these states in a role-play situation. verify. 2. 2. The interactive media activity at this TI is a drag and drop of the OSPF state flowchart.

would also be valuable. The network gateway is determined by ANDing the packet destination with the subnet mask. and any network address is matched using the following rule. This could prove to be a valuable troubleshooting lesson. Caution: The command for authentication is long and if students inadvertently press an Enter or Space Bar key. refers to the Cisco proprietary encryption type followed by the password asecret. Have them use the ip ospf cost ? command to check their own connections. Have the students pay particular attention to the figures in this TI.3.0.1. 24 . The practical lab and e-Lab in this TI will enable students to modify the OSPF cost metric.0. A configured default route is used by a router to generate a Gateway of Last Resort. Pictures of the network setups. that will be part of the key. and network types must be identical among routers or the Hello packets are dropped. which is reinforced in this TI. with annotations regarding troubleshooting and commands.0. The practical lab in this TI will enable students to configure OSPF authentication.0. This is referred to as the quad-zero route. Ensure that the students record in the engineering journal all of the OSPF commands used in the course. if routers are to form adjacencies.0.5 Configuring OSPF timers Stress that. Therefore.0. although timers can be changed.3. The use of the practical labs is highly recommended though instructors may vary them according to their preferences and equipment.0.0.3 Modifying OSPF cost metric The students have already seen the concept of cost in OSPF networks. The practical lab and e-Lab in this TI will enable students to configure OSPF timers. The 7.6 OSPF.3.0. Analyze the following command: Router(config-if)#ip ospf message-digest-key 1 md5 7 asecret The command message-digest is needed so that the password is not sent in clear text. Inc. 2.1 IG – Module 2 Copyright © 2004. a justification that OSPF network performance will be improved is needed prior to changing the timers. 2.0 192. for example.0.0 S1 Router(config)#ip route 0.3 Point out that an interface can be used as well as a next hop address.0. Also remember that although a network administrator has the freedom to choose these timer values. More adventurous instructors could demonstrate the use of packet sniffers on plain text password. 2.4 Configuring OSPF authentication Students enjoy hearing about packet sniffers.3.0 0. the Hello.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.168.0. The following configuration statement will propagate this route to all the routers in a normal OSPF area: Router(config-router)#default-information originate All routers in the OSPF area will learn a default route provided that the interface of the border router to the default gateway is up.2. The static default route configuration syntax uses the network 0. .0 address and a subnet mask 0.0 0. used in the command. propagating a default route Two important configurations are established in this TI. use this as an introduction to the configuration of OSPF authentication. Router(config)#ip route 0.0. The command message-digest-key id identifies which md5 process is running since a router is capable of running multiple instances of authentication. Dead Interval. Cisco Systems.

Cisco Systems. 2.3. 25 . 2. . Encourage the students to use them on the labs they have completed in Module 2.The practical lab and e-Lab in this TI will enable students to propagate default route information in an OSPF domain.1 IG – Module 2 Copyright © 2004. Inc. Instructors might find it useful to introduce errors into the previous labs so that students can practice their troubleshooting skills.8 Verifying the OSPF configuration In this TI instructors should ensure that the students become familiar with these verification and debug commands.3.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Stress the importance of being proactive in troubleshooting. Have the students get into the habit of running through the checklist provided in Figure 1. The next TI provides them with a series of useful verification and debug commands.7 Common OSPF configuration issues This TI emphasizes the potential problems that students can encounter when implementing a complex routing protocol such as OSPF.

. An understanding of the following key points should have been achieved: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The features of link-state routing How link-state routing information is maintained The link-state routing algorithm The advantages and disadvantages of link-state routing Link-state routing compared with distance vector routing OSPF terminology The differences between distance vector and link-state routing protocols OSPF network types The operation of the shortest path first (SPF) algorithm The OSPF Hello protocol The basics steps in the operation of OSPF Enabling OSPF on a router Configuring a loopback address to set router priority Changing OSPF route preference by modifying the cost metric Configuring OSPF authentication Changing OSPF timers Creating and propagating a default route Using show commands to verify OSPF operation 26 .Module 2 Summary Before moving on to Module 3.1 IG – Module 2 Copyright © 2004. the students must be proficient in explaining the concepts of single area OSPF. Online assessment options include the end-of-module online quiz in the curriculum and the online Module 2 exam. Inc.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Cisco Systems. From memory students should be able to complete various Drag and Drop and Checkbox activities for single area OSPF.

This module explains how the EIGRP routing protocol works. The purpose of this module is to understand the operation of the EIGRP routing protocol. verify. practical labs. so encourage the students to complete as much practical laboratory work as possible to reinforce the concepts.1 IG – Module 3 Copyright © 2004. and interactive tasks. Mathematics in this module may cause difficulties for students. Cisco Systems. configuring EIGRP can be relatively simple. Inc. and data structures of EIGRP Understand EIGRP convergence and the basic operation of the Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) Perform a basic EIGRP configuration Configure EIGRP route summarization Describe the processes used by EIGRP to build and maintain routing tables Verify EIGRP operations Recognized mistyped commands Troubleshoot incorrectly constructed or incorrectly placed access lists Troubleshoot misconfigured routers. describes the algorithm it uses. 2. Encourage the students to become familiar with the router output so they can interpret the mathematical output.Module 3: EIGRP In Module 3. . Students completing this module should be able to perform the following tasks: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Describe the differences between EIGRP and IGRP Describe the key concepts. The diversity of the prior experiences the students have may be wide.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Instructors should emphasize that despite the complexity of DUAL. outlines its features. Allow the more mathematically advanced students to mentor the mathematically challenged. complex concepts and operations such as the Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) are being explained. and points out the advantages and disadvantages of EIGRP routing. Try to reinforce the concepts with the hands-on labs. technologies. Module 3 Caution: 1. Students may be overwhelmed by vocabulary in some sections of this module. This is critical to being able to enable. role-play. or other network devices Troubleshoot bad physical connections Describe the eight-step process for general troubleshooting Apply a logical process to routing troubleshooting Troubleshoot a RIP routing process using show and debug commands Troubleshoot an IGRP routing process using show and debug commands Troubleshoot an EIGRP routing process using show and debug commands Troubleshoot an OSPF routing process using show and debug commands 27 . switches. and troubleshoot its operation.

3.1 Comparing EIGRP with IGRP Since students have already covered IGRP. Inc. EIGRP is proprietary but increases operational efficiency. Load. configure. and router to assist in routing. analyze. and MTU are off by default EIGRP hop count limit = 224 IGRP hop count limit = 255 The interactive media activity should be completed to consolidate the students understanding of the similarities and differences between EIGRP and IGRP 3.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. taking note that Figure 7 is animated to show the work of DUAL. Cisco Systems. 28 . topology. Course-level claim: Describe. Go over the three figures with the students emphasizing the following metrics: Big = Bandwidth Dogs = Delay Really = Reliability Like Me = Load = MTU Bandwidth and Delay are equally weighted Reliability.1 IG – Module 3 Copyright © 2004. Spend time explaining the output of show ip eigrp route. It has protocol-dependent modules that enable it to support many routed protocols. Hands-on skills: none 3.1. Retransmission Timeout (RTO) specifies how long to wait without receiving an acknowledgement to a reliably sent packet. It is scalable because it supports VLSM and route summarization. and troubleshoot the Extended IGRP routing protocol. verify.1 EIGRP Concepts Essential Labs: Optional Labs: Core TIs: Optional TIs: None None All None Certification-level claim: Configure routing protocols given user requirements. concentrate on comparing IGRP with EIGRP to start with so they are eased into the topic. which represents the average time it takes to send a message and receive a reply from that neighbor.1. . In Figure 1 the output from show ip eigrp neighbors includes Smooth Round Trip Timer (SRTT).2 EIGRP concepts and terminology This TI contains many new terms and concepts and it is advisable to use the seven figures. Compare this use of tables to OSPF. neighbor. EIGRP uses three tables.

consider allowing more advanced students to cable the network depicted in the figure. such as IPv6. Reliable Transport Protocol . which mirror the five EIGRP packet types: • • • • • Hello Acknowledgement Update Query Reply Use the three figures to help with explanations.4 EIGRP technologies It is advisable. when working on this TI. or feasible successor. Modular. in the topology table. Inc. In theory.3 EIGRP design features This is a theory based TI. .1 IG – Module 3 Copyright © 2004. Query and Reply.Discuss the packets Hello. and Acknowledgement with the students and explain how they work. Cisco Systems. and configure the network so that students can actually see DUAL working. DUAL selects alternate routes quickly by using the information in these tables. • 3.5 EIGRP data structures This TI also contains a wealth of information for the students.1. These tables supply DUAL with comprehensive route information in case of network disruption. At the end of this module. It is suggested that instructors divide the TI into the following five sections for discussion. it provides for efficient use of bandwidth.1. DUAL finite-state machine algorithm . For this reason it is sometimes called a hybrid routing protocol.Highlight that one of the best features of EIGRP is its modular design. to break it into the four components that it discusses as follows: • • • Neighbor discovery and recovery . Protocol-specific modules .3. Remember that EIGRP is an advanced distance vector routing protocol that relies on features commonly associated with link-state protocols. Therefore it would be useful to display the figures while working through the text. If a link goes down. Each PDM is responsible for all functions related to its specific routed protocol. DUAL looks for an alternative route path.6 EIGRP algorithm This TI describes complex concepts. Update. 3. layered designs prove to be the most scalable and adaptable. 3.Stress that EIGRP keeps important route and topology information readily available in a neighbor table and a topology table.2 EIGRP configuration. The DUAL demonstration could be used as an advanced topic when students are studying Module 3. and it provides multiple network layer support.1.Emphasize that Reliable Transport Protocol could be compared with the positive acknowledgement with retransmission of TCP. 29 .1. EIGRP supports VLSM and CIDR. EIGRP can easily adapt to new or revised routed protocols. it enables rapid convergence.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. by adding protocol-dependent modules.

2 Configuring EIGRP summarization Instructors are advised to illustrate to the students the three figures on summarization. For another practical lab.2.2 EIGRP Configuration Essential Labs: Optional Labs: Core TIs: Optional TIs: 3.3 None All None Certification-level claim: Configure routing protocols given user requirements. 3. Figure 4 demonstrates the selection rules for describing the feasible successor route. The practical lab and e-Lab here will enable students configure EIGRP.2. Course-level claim: Describe.2. and troubleshoot the EIGRP routing protocol.3 Verifying basic EIGRP This TI supplies students with important commands for verifying and debugging EIGRP. 3. Figure 2 is interactive to demonstrate the way in which neighbors exchange information. Important information on interpreting the fields in the neighbor table is presented here. . 30 .5 Discover routes There is an important interactive figure in this TI that describes DUAL. Cisco Systems. verify.2.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.2.3. configure. 3.1 Configuring EIGRP for IP.2. instructors might allow their students to modify their RIP v2 labs to run EIGRP. The figures supply important information regarding the commands. 3. Instructors could have their students go back to their labs to see their own neighbor table outputs. The practical lab and e-Lab here will enable students verify EIGRP.4 for further information on DUAL. 3.1 IG – Module 3 Copyright © 2004. Hands-on skills: none 3. Inc. there are four important figures to help illustrate the selection of routes.1. Instructors may link back to 3.2. they are ready for their first hands-on lab. 3.2.1 and 3.6 Select routes In this TI. that could be used as an additional lab by simplifying it.1 Configuring EIGRP Now that students have studied the concepts and terminology associated with EIGRP. analyze. Instructors may vary the lab to suit their particular environment. This TI contains one figure.2.4 Building neighbor tables This TI provides more information about neighbor tables. They should find this easy to set up despite the complexity of the theory they have just studied.

2. and OSPF.1 IG – Module 3 Copyright © 2004. check the following: • • • • • • • Layer 1 or Layer 2 connectivity issues Mismatched autonomous system numbers on IGRP routers Network statements are missing or incorrectly assigned The outgoing interface is down The advertised network interface is down To view IGRP debugging information. Remind students of the important troubleshooting commands at this TI. Instructors may want to obtain a copy of McAfee Visual Trace (formerly Neotrace) to show a visual demonstration of ping and telnet.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.3.3 Troubleshooting IGRP configuration Students studied IGRP in CCNA 2 and will revisit it in the TIs dealing with the similarities and differences between EIGRP and IGRP.3 Troubleshooting Routing Protocols Essential Labs: Optional Labs: Core TIs: Optional TIs: None None All None Certification-level claim: Configure routing protocols given user requirements. The important commands are included in the two figures here. 3. analyze. and troubleshoot RIP. the steps taken during troubleshooting are outlined in a series of ten figures. traceroute. use the following commands: debug ip igrp transactions [host ip address] to view IGRP transaction information debug ip igrp events [host ip address] to view routing update information 31 . It might be useful to refer back to Module 1 and try out these troubleshooting tips on the labs there. Hands-on skills: none 3. verify. extended ping. IGRP.2 Troubleshooting RIP configuration Students are reminded about troubleshooting RIP in this TI. 3. 3.3. configure. The three figures serve to illustrate how the task of maintaining routing tables is carried out. Course-level claim: Describe. and telnet while doing the practical labs. Cisco Systems. If IGRP does not appear to be working correctly. Inc.1 Routing protocol troubleshooting process In this TI.3.3. Students need to continue to use troubleshooting commands such as ping.7 Maintaining routing tables The operation of DUAL is described in this TI. EIGRP. .

1 IG – Module 3 Copyright © 2004. The following are some possible reasons why EIGRP may not be working correctly: • • • • • • Layer 1 or Layer 2 connectivity issues Mismatched autonomous system numbers on EIGRP routers The link may be congested or down The outgoing interface is down The advertised network interface is down Auto-summarization is enabled on routers with discontiguous subnets Use no auto-summary to disable automatic network summarization.3. If there is time. It might be useful to introduce faults into the correctly working labs to test the troubleshooting skills of the students.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. 32 .5 Troubleshooting OSPF configuration The figures in this TI sum up the important verification and debugging commands that students need for troubleshooting OSPF. encourage the students to go to the EIGRP labs and test out these commands. 3. Cisco Systems. Inc. If there is time.3.To turn off debugging. .4 Troubleshooting EIGRP configuration The figures in this TI sum up the important verification and debugging commands that students need for troubleshooting EIGRP. use one of the following commands • • • no debug ip igrp no debug all undebug all 3. It might be useful to introduce faults into the correctly working labs to test the troubleshooting skills of the students. encourage the students to go to the OSPF labs and test out these commands.

Online assessment options include the end-of-module online quiz in the curriculum and the online Module 3 exam. and data structures of EIGRP EIGRP convergence and the basic operation of the Diffusing Update Algorithm (DUAL) Basic EIGRP configuration Configuring EIGRP route summarization The processes used by EIGRP to build and maintain routing tables Verifying EIGRP operations The eight-step process for general troubleshooting Applying a logical process to routing troubleshooting Troubleshooting a RIP routing process using show and debug commands Troubleshooting an IGRP routing process using show and debug commands Troubleshooting an EIGRP routing process using show and debug commands Troubleshooting an OSPF routing process using show and debug commands 33 . Cisco Systems. the students must be proficient in explaining the concepts and configuration of EIGRP. technologies.Module 3 Summary Before moving on to Module 4. Inc. students should be able to complete a crossword puzzle about EIGRP concepts and terminology.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Students should be able to complete a checkbox activity for comparing IGRP and EIGRP. .1 IG – Module 3 Copyright © 2004. In addition. The students should have achieved an understanding of the following key points: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Differences between EIGRP and IGRP Key concepts.

half-duplex Ethernet Define collision as it relates to Ethernet networks Define microsegmentation Define CSMA/CD Describe some of the key elements affecting network performance Describe the function of repeaters Define network latency Define transmission time Describe the basic function of Fast Ethernet Define network segmentation using routers. Students completing this module should be able to perform the following tasks: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • 34 . Some ideas have been included in this Instructors guide. This module explains key concepts such as microsegmentation.159 Describe the history and function of shared. keep in mind that students have studied LANs in CCNA 1 and 2 so some of this material should be familiar. CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Instructors may find it beneficial to devise role-plays and possibly demonstrate some of the concepts. switches. and collision domains. and bridges Describe the basic operations of a switch Define Ethernet switch latency Explain the differences between Layer 2 and Layer 3 switching Define symmetric and asymmetric switching Define memory buffering Compare and contrast store-and-forward and cut-through switching Understand the differences between hubs. broadcast. Cisco Systems.1 IG – Module 4 . Module 4 Caution: There are no practical labs in this module. CSMA/CD. The purpose of this module is to prepare the students to tackle the command line switch interface in the next module. and switches Describe the main functions of switches List the major switch frame transmission modes Describe the process by which switches learn addresses Identify and define forwarding modes Define LAN segmentation Define microsegmentation using switching Describe the frame-filtering process Compare and contrast collision and broadcast domains Identify the cables needed to connect switches to workstations Copyright © 2004. Inc.Module 4: Switching Concepts When teaching Module 4. bridges.

Ask them about the types of Internet connections they have at home or at work and have them describe any issues they have had with downloading.1. The figure at this TI is rather complex so instructors are encouraged to spend some time going over the various sections of it. and 3 devices. Role–playing based on the figures could be useful in teaching this topic.3 networks This TI discusses how the essential elements of Ethernet LANs can each contribute to network performance degradation. Ensure the students study the figures in this TI.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.1 Ethernet/802. half duplex. multimedia applications. Role-playing on the topic of CSMA/CD is an option for presenting this material.2 Factors that impact network performance This TI emphasizes three of the many factors contributing to network congestion. the use of CSMA/CD. or small FM radios. faster operating systems. and more Web-based applications. 4. Course-level claim: Describe the operation and technology of the IEEE 802.1 Introduction to Ethernet/802. Inc. In certain circumstances. This TI should encourage a lot of discussion about the growth of media intensive applications since the Web came to public attention in the 1990s. the normal latency of Ethernet media.1. things that are part of a normal Ethernet LAN create problems to the LAN. They include the broadcast nature of Ethernet. review the meaning of the terms simplex. Hands-on skills: none 4. full duplex in the form of two-way radios.• Identify the cables needed to connect switches to switches 4. Many best practices could be used for this TI.3 LAN development.3 LANs Essential Labs: Optional Labs: Core TIs: Optional TIs: None None None This LO is a review of CCNA 1 topics Certification-level claim: Evaluate key characteristics of LAN environments. and full duplex. Cisco Systems. 4.4 Half-duplex networks To help reinforce the students understanding of half-duplex Ethernet. 4.1. .1 IG – Module 4 Copyright © 2004.3 Ethernet variants. half duplex. Encourage the students to complete the interactive media activity and explore the six figures.3 LAN development This TI describes the development of Ethernet 802.1. 2. Another interesting fact about this diagram is that collision detection is typically achieved by the NIC sensing that both the TX and RX circuits are active at the same time. 35 . and related Layer 1. Encourage the students to discuss with the group the types of files they now download. Try including kinesthetic activities such as having students converse using simplex. Another example would be to have students hold some exposed Category 5 UTP cable and determine which wire pairs are used in half and full duplex operation. They are multitasking.3 Elements of Ethernet/802.

1 IG – Module 4 Copyright © 2004. A simple classroom demonstration is to use a note passed from one student to another.1. most notably expanding collision and broadcast domains. The figure and text for this TI need careful explanation. However. the network becomes very inefficient and routers must be used. 4. but for some high bandwidth purposes Fast Ethernet (100 Mbps) is necessary. non-zero. 4.5 Network congestion Figures 2 and 3 summarize this TI well. the greater the latency or delay. or as microwaves through air.7 Ethernet 10BASE-T transmission time In this TI. 4. recall from CCNA 1. Note that repeaters and hubs have disadvantages. connected through four repeaters. A direct transfer is almost immediate. Therefore.5. they decrease the total bandwidth of the LAN segment. In Figure 2. but does take a finite.1 8. Also. the Ethernet 5-4-3 rule. Reinforce this with OSI Layer diagrams showing the de-encapsulation and re-encapsulation of packets traveling through a variety of devices.1.9 Full-duplex transmitting Full-duplex Ethernet is introduced in this TI. Understanding that all networking devices introduce latency is critical. is essentially a point-to-point connection without the media contention or timing issues of using repeaters and hubs. Emphasize that these transmission times are for 10 Mbps Ethernet.1. as network devices process signals.1. and only three of the five segments may contain user connections.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. 4. with maximum length of 100 m.1. As described in Modules 3 and 4. being encapsulated and de-encapsulated. the time taken to perform this task is latency. In addition. such as 100 Mbps and 1000 Mbps.4. hubbed networks do not scale well. Inc. amount of time. Students should complete the interactive media activity for reinforcement. Daisy-chaining switches can extend the LAN indefinitely. there is a limit to this process. The more hands the note passes through. Encourage the students to complete the interactive media activity.8 The benefits of using repeaters Benefits of repeaters include extension of the length of the network and an increase in the number of stations that can be connected. Cisco Systems. Review the limitations of specific architectures. transmission time is explained. This is because the bandwidth each device receives is divided among the devices on the LAN.6 Network latency Students might remember latency from CCNA 1 v3. there is propagation delay for the signals traveling along the copper cable.1. Each switch-to-switch connection. particularly the use of devices that extend the scope of a LAN. However. . or concentrators. TI 7. There is an interactive media activity for students to complete. or hub. maximum of five segments. the repeater concept can be expanded to the multiport repeater. optical fiber. Web research is recommended because of the many detailed sites available on full duplex and fast Ethernet. the bandwidth requirements of various multimedia applications are described. in CCNA 1.1. have different transmission times. past a certain number of interconnected switches. Different Ethernet speeds. Note: It may be implemented in several varieties of Ethernet as long as appropriate NICs are used. which provides the benefits of repeaters plus connectivity between multiple devices.4. 36 . additional delay or latency is introduced. While hubs allow increased connectivity. Note that 10 Mbps LANs can handle a wide variety of applications well. If an intermediary is introduced and the note has to be checked for a destination address and then readdressed.

Second. 4.2. also segment networks through the process of microsegmentation. segmentation is caused.1 LAN segmentation Emphasize that bridges.2. should be taught first.4. However this must be done.4 LAN segmentation with switches Switches. especially as network speeds increase towards 1000 Mbps or 1 Gbps. While bridges are no longer as important as switches. This is no longer the case. their main purpose remains best path selection and switching.2. Routers also build and maintain tables by mapping Layer 3 addresses to the interface for forwarding Layer 3 packets. and routers to the students so they can compare and contrast them. the concept of bridging is fundamental to the concept of switching and cognitively. If possible. which is to classify Layer 2 MAC addresses as local to an interface or non-local to an interface. Instructors can design network topologies from completed labs to demonstrate collision and broadcast domains. and routers all create smaller collision domains.2 LAN segmentation with bridges Bridging is described in more detail at this TI. and switch Layer 2 frames. switches. Hands-on skills: none 4.2. show hubs.6 Ethernet switch latency This TI goes into more detail of how a switch adds latency. 4. students should be very familiar with routers.3 LAN segmentation with routers Routers connect different networks.5 Basic operations of a switch The two basic operations of a switch are to build and maintain a switching table. This process of creating smaller collision and broadcast domains is referred to as segmentation. bridges were invented and available before switching technology. 37 . 4. Cisco Systems. Actual latency analyses of real networks can get extremely complicated. which are sophisticated multiport bridges.2 Introduction to LAN Switching Essential Labs: Optional Labs: Core TIs: Optional TIs: None None All None Certification-level claim: Evaluate key characteristics of LAN environments. there was a large price differential between hubs and switches and sometimes the inexpensive connectivity of a hub was all that was required. While this is one benefit of using routers. Having passed CCNA 2. Students may ask the questions “Why does anyone ever use a bridge?” and “Why does anyone ever use a hub?”.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. switches.2. Therefore. bridges.1 IG – Module 4 Copyright © 2004. . First.2. The switch represents the advancement of the idea of a bridge. but that only routers and VLANs create smaller broadcast domains. 4. Inc. Course-level claim: Describe and compare the concepts and techniques used within Ethernet switched LANs. 4. when routers are inserted in a LAN.

7 Layer 2 and Layer 3 switching This is an advanced topic included for vocabulary purposes. Course-level claim: Describe and compare the concepts and techniques used by Ethernet LAN switches. 4. It would be useful to refer back to the section on CSMA/CD here and show the flowchart. Ethernet and Fast Ethernet switches segment LANs by creating smaller collision domains. Students will probably hear or read about Layer 3 switching and Layer 3 switches in their studies and work experience.3. Such segmentation allows multiple users to send information at the same time on the different segments without slowing down the network. Hands-on skills: none 4. Inc. Types of memory buffering are explained in this TI.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. and the two types of cut-through switching.2. like a highway lane functioning at up to 100 Mbps.9 Memory buffering Asymmetric switching relies on memory buffering so that fast ports do not overwhelm slower ports. which are Fast Forward and Fragment Free. The buffer prevents traffic from the 100-Mbps port from overwhelming the 10-Mbps port.2. The second function of an Ethernet switch is to ensure each user has more bandwidth by creating smaller collision domains.2. 4. The interactive media activity should be used for reinforcing the concepts.10 Two switching methods Figure 2 is crucial to understanding the difference between store-and-forward switching.4. Popular servers can then be placed on individual 100-Mbps links. Cisco Systems. 38 . Segments are the smaller units into which the networks are divided by use of Ethernet switches. . Each segment uses carrier sense multiple access/collision detect (CSMA/CD) access method to maintain data traffic flow among the users on that segment. Emphasize that memory buffering is required on an asymmetric switch. Each segment becomes a dedicated network link. 4.3 Switch Operation Essential Labs: Optional Labs: Core TIs: Optional TIs: None None All None Certification-level claim: Evaluate key characteristics of LAN environments.1 IG – Module 4 Copyright © 2004.2. 4.1 Functions of Ethernet switches Instructors should concentrate on the following two main functions of Ethernet switches: • • Isolate traffic among segments Achieve greater amount of bandwidth per user by creating smaller collision domains The first function is to isolate traffic among segments.8 Symmetric and asymmetric switching Symmetric and asymmetric switching is reviewed in this TI.

3. By this stage students have heard of this term several times but instructors are encouraged to make sure that students understand the difference between collision and broadcast domains. TI 8.3. The first is to isolate traffic between segments. Cisco Systems. with Ethernet hubs.4 How switches and bridges filter frames If the frame is addressed for another LAN.2 Frame transmission modes Students have seen this information before in CCNA 1. 4. or Fast Ethernet hubs providing the desktop connections in workgroups. Encourage them to check the glossary for an explanation of this term.3. Ethernet switches. 4. Instructors should encourage the students to study the figures at this TI for reinforcement. 4. It does this by creating dedicated network segments. This will be a review except for the adaptive cut-through method. which is introduced for the first time.3. Students may need a further explanation of the term CRC. Students could use role-plays to demonstrate the different ways in which frames are transmitted.5 Why segment LANs? Highlight that there are two primary reasons for segmenting a LAN.Often in networks of today. The three figures are particularly useful.3. If the destination port is busy. 4. the bridge copies the frame onto the second LAN. Copying the frame is called forwarding. 39 . . and connecting these segments in a virtual network within the switch. point-to-point connections. Inc.3 networks is that they are likely to have collisions. Collisions occur when two hosts transmit frames simultaneously. Emphasize that a bridge is considered a store-and-forward device because it must examine the destination address field and calculate the cyclic redundancy check (CRC) in the frame check sequence field. The time it takes to perform these tasks slows the network transmissions causing increased latency.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. the bridge can temporarily store the frame until the port is available.5. and is established within the switch. Students could be encouraged to do some research on adaptive cut-through.1 IG – Module 4 Copyright © 2004. This is called a virtual circuit because it exists only when needed. Students will find the explanation that a virtual network circuit exists only when two nodes need to communicate makes the concept clear. Ignoring a frame is called filtering. 4. a Fast Ethernet switch will act as the backbone of the LAN.1.6 Microsegmentation implementation The four figures in this TI serve to illustrate that Ethernet switching increases the bandwidth available on a network. When a collision occurs. the transmitted frames are corrupted or destroyed in the collision. Role-plays could be introduced here to illustrate the working of virtual circuits 4. The second reason is to achieve more bandwidth per user by creating smaller collision domains.7 Switches and collision domains A major disadvantage of Ethernet 802. before forwarding the frame to all ports.3.3 How switches and bridges learn addresses Switches and bridges learn in the following ways: • • Reading the MAC source address of each received frame or datagram Recording the port on which the MAC address was received Remind the students of the work they have done in previous semesters on these devices.

switch. Multicast transmission occurs when one transmitter tries to reach only a subset. .9 Communication between switches and workstations There are four important figures at this TI to illustrate communication between switches and workstations. it is unconcerned about the other devices that are connected to the LAN media. Switches are Layer 2 devices that use intelligence to learn the Media Access Control (MAC) addresses of the devices that are attached to the ports of the switch. or a group.The sending hosts stop sending further transmissions for a random period of time due to the Ethernet 802.8 Switches and broadcast domains Communication in a network occurs in three ways. 4. This data is entered into a switching table. Collisions cause network to be unproductive. The workstation simply transmits data frames using a Network Interface Card (NIC) to the network medium. The transmitter might reach two stations.3 rules of Carrier Sense Multiple Access with Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). which are illustrated in the three figures. The most common way of communication is by unicast transmissions. Inc. Broadcasting is when one transmitter tries to reach all the receivers in the network. one of the stations chooses not to participate.3. Role-playing could be utilized to demonstrate the three methods. 40 .1 IG – Module 4 Copyright © 2004. using a straight-through cable. People will give up on the network and react in ways illustrated in Figure 1. Another way to communicate is known as a multicast transmission. When a workstation connects to a LAN. The server station sends out one message and everyone on that segment receives the message. Encourage the students to discuss what happens when networks slow down. one transmitter tries to reach one receiver. or router. In a unicast transmission. using a crossover cable or attached to a network device. The figures illustrate various scenarios of frame transmission utilizing a multi-switch network.3. so it is excluded from the multicast group. The workstation could be attached directly to another workstation. However. the switch can read the destination MAC address of an incoming data frame on a port and immediately forward it.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. 4. The final way to communicate is by broadcasting. such as a hub. Cisco Systems. Switches provide significant scalability on a network and may be directly connected. of the entire segment. Once the table is complete.

the students must be proficient in explaining the concepts of switches.1 IG – Module 4 Copyright © 2004. bridges.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. switches. half-duplex Ethernet Collisions in an Ethernet network Microsegmentation CSMA/CD Elements affecting network performance The function of repeaters Network latency Transmission time The basic function of Fast Ethernet Network segmentation using routers. From memory students should be able to complete various Drag and Drop activities relating to switching. . Online assessment options include the end-of-module online quiz in the curriculum and the online Module 4 exam. Cisco Systems.Module 4 Summary Before moving on to Module 5. and switches The main functions of switches Major switch frame transmission modes The process by which switches learn addresses The frame-filtering process LAN segmentation Microsegmentation using switching The process a switch uses to learn addresses Forwarding modes Collision and broadcast domains The cables needed to connect switches to workstations The cables needed to connect switches to switches 41 . An understanding of the following key points should have been achieved: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The history and function of shared. Inc. and bridges The basic operations of a switch Ethernet switch latency The differences between Layer 2 and Layer 3 switching Symmetric and asymmetric switching Memory buffering Store-and-forward and cut-through switching modes The differences between hubs.

It is also useful to encourage the students to examine the LAN design at their own campus. for example. Students completing this module should be able to perform the following tasks: • • • • • • • • Describe the four major goals of LAN design and list the key considerations in LAN design Understand the steps in systematic LAN design Understand the design issues associated with Layers 1. Instructors are encouraged to relate the theory found herein to the case study. Ensure that the students understand the meanings of the four goals. Hands-on skills: none 5. which are functionality. Inc. and 3 Describe the three-layer design model Identify the functions of each of layer of the three-layer model List Cisco access layer switches and their features List Cisco distribution layer switches and their features List Cisco core layer switches and their features 5. 42 . getting the students to prepare a cut sheet layout for their case study. adaptability.1 LAN Design Essential Labs: Optional Labs: Core TIs: Optional TIs: None None All None Certification-level claim: Design and implement a simple internetworking LAN using Cisco technology. scalability.1 IG – Module 5 Copyright © 2004. This module is primarily theoretical but instructors are encouraged to develop practical ways to demonstrate the various sections. Best practices for teaching this TI include mini-lecture and Web research. Instructors may find it beneficial to devise role-plays and where possible assist the students by demonstrating some of the concepts. Some ideas have been included in this Instructors guide.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Course-level claim: Design a simple LAN using layered techniques. Cisco Systems. Module 5 Caution: There is one interactive media activity but no practical labs in this module. and manageability. The instructor should look at the way in which their campus LAN is set up. . 2.Module 5: Switches When teaching Module 5. the importance of network design is emphasized.1 LAN design goals This TI is vocabulary intensive. In fact many of the aspects in this module could be linked to the case study to allow the students to apply the theory in a practical manner.1.

For purposes of the case study. 1000BASE-SX.Also. have the students consider 10BASE-T.1. 1000BASE-T.3 LAN design methodology The best practices for teaching this TI include design activities and Web research. Workgroup servers support a specific category of users for example engineers. 5. For example print out the four figures and have students make their own notations of collision domains. e-mail and DNS. 43 . using Web research to check facts. specifically a discussion of the case study requirements for switches to create smaller collision domains.1. Web research sites on LAN design methodology offer a wide range. These are the most common Ethernet varieties of interest today.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. a bandwidth domain is the same as a collision domain. Inc. Have the students apply what they have just read in this TI to the case study user requirements. 6.4 Layer 1 design The nine figures in this TI should prove useful to going over the Layer 1 design. . and 7 UTP. The two major categories of servers to be considered in a network design are enterprise and workgroup servers. Although they have not studied VLANs. Students could work on the cut sheet and addressing maps for the case study. Each variety of Ethernet specifies the following: • • • • The data rate — the number in front of BASE. Enterprise servers support all the users on the network through.5 Layer 2 design The keys to this TI are the figures. Servers and segmentation were covered in Module 4. and document their work in their engineering journals. 10BASE-FL. 100BASE-FX. It cannot be emphasized enough that the term Ethernet refers to a whole host of technologies. Three key components of LAN design are placement of servers. and bandwidth versus broadcast domain. and network segments. When used in the context of an Ethernet switch. for example. from simple to the sophisticated techniques that can help with the design process.1 IG – Module 5 Copyright © 2004.2 LAN design considerations The four figures in this TI will prove useful discussion points for the class. and other issues.1. and 1000BASE-LX. broadcast domains. encourage the students to examine the design of the case study. Cisco Systems. 5. While bridges are Layer 2 devices that can segment networks. segmentation.1. switches are the dominant devices. The best practices for teaching this TI are graphical organizers. 100BASETX. Have the students study the layout of the network in the case study and discuss the placement of servers in this scenario and in the LAN setup at their own campus. multi-mode and single-mode optical fiber The maximum lengths — which vary widely from 100 m to several km The best practices for teaching this TI include having the students doing group work on their design activity. in Mbps The signaling method — all use BASEband as opposed to Broadband signaling The medium type — Category 5. A mini-lecture based on the ten figures should provoke plenty of discussion. go through the design with the students highlighting design issues. Bandwidth domain is everything associated with one port on a bridge or switch. 5. Compare this to their work in Module 4 on collision and broadcast domains. prices. bandwidth domains. 5e. in most modern networks. The term bandwidth domain emphasizes the area of a network in which bandwidth is shared. 5. Best practices for teaching this TI include a design activity in small groups.

The ten figures will prove very useful for the students in preparing documentation for the case study. in particular the access layer and the use of shared and switched bandwidth. Inc. physical network maps. MAC layer filtering. There is one figure showing Layer 3 switching. access layer overview The three figures show the set up of the hierarchical layers. The figures show them how logical addresses may be mapped to physical network devices. and network layer design. Link all these figures to the case study.2. These functions would be the shared bandwidth. access. Emphasize the following: • • • • • Aggregation of the wiring closet connections Broadcast/multicast domain definition VLAN routing Media transitions that need to occur Security 44 .2. Next. and microsegmentation. how routers are used for segmentation.1. construction of addressing maps. Hands-on skills: none In this section use the knowledge the students have of hierarchical LAN design including physical. Now Layer 3 decisions must be made. 5. Course-level claim: Describe the three-layer process as used by Cisco for internetwork design purposes. list examples of Cisco access. 5.6 Layer 3 design Emphasize to the students that the design process is working its way up the OSI model.2. it would be useful if the students could also see examples of the various switches mentioned. data link. distribution and core. 5. acknowledge the use of the hierarchical design model for medium to large sized enterprises using the three layers.1 IG – Module 5 Copyright © 2004. Cisco Systems. and most importantly VLAN communication and implementation. Stress the access layer functions in a campus environment. . switched bandwidth.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. distribution.2 Access layer switches In this TI. and core layer switches.1 Switched LANs.5.2 LAN Switches Essential Labs: Optional Labs: Core TIs: Optional TIs: None None All None Certification-level claim: Design a simple internetwork using Cisco technology.3 Distribution layer overview This TI explains the functions that are carried out at the distribution layer in a switched network. 5.

Inc. Cisco Systems. If instructors have these devices in the campus LANs it might be useful to organize a class visit to view the devices that are used in their own campus networks.1 IG – Module 5 Copyright © 2004.2.6 Core layer switches The three figures here provide students with picture of switches which most of them will not have seen in an Academy environment. Some instructors organize visits to commercial sites to enhance awareness of large networks.5.2.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.2. If instructors have these devices in their campus LANs it might be useful to organize a class visit to view the devices that are used in their own campus networks. 45 . 5. namely that the core layer is a high-speed switching backbone. Some instructors organize visits to commercial sites to enhance awareness of large networks. 5. The core layer should be designed to switch packets as fast as possible.5 Core layer overview Instructors should encourage students to complete the interactive media activity here to reinforce their understanding of the functions that are carried out at the core layer. .4 Distribution layer switches The three figures in this TI allow students to view the types of distribution layer switches that are available.

An understanding of the following key points should have been achieved: • • • • • • • • • The four major goals of LAN design Key considerations in LAN design The steps in systematic LAN design Design issues associated with Layers 1. and 3 The three-layer design model The functions of each of layer of the three-layer model Cisco access layer switches and their features Cisco distribution layer switches and their features Cisco core layer switches and their features 46 .159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. the students must be proficient in explaining the concepts of LAN switches and LAN design.1 IG – Module 5 Copyright © 2004.Module 5 Summary Before moving on to Module 6. Online assessment options include the end-of-module online quiz in the curriculum and the online Module 5 exam. Inc. From memory students should be able to complete the Matching LAN Design and Goals interactivity and the Point and Click Core Layer activity. 2. Cisco Systems. .

Verify the default settings of a Catalyst switch.1 IG – Module 6 Copyright © 2004. as the students will begin programming the switches.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. This could be achieved by the use of mini-lectures and demonstrations. Configure port security. Students completing this module should be able to perform the following tasks: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Identify the major components of a Catalyst switch.Module 6: Switch Configuration When teaching Module 6. Some academies may be using the menu driven switches. the initial software settings may be configured. When the startup is complete. Instructors could draw comparisons between the ways students have been programming routers to the way they will program switches. Cisco Systems. . It is suggested that the case study be examined along with the work in this module. Module 6 Caution: This module contains many hands-on labs and instructors are encouraged to assist their students to do as many of these labs as possible.1 Starting the Switch Essential Labs: Optional Labs: Core TIs: Optional TIs: None None All None 47 . Examine the switch bootup output using HyperTerminal. Set interfaces for speed and duplex operation. Perform password recovery on a switch. so instructors need to ensure that these students understand how to program the CLI switches. Monitor switch activity and status using LED indicators. In this module students will have the opportunity to complete a series of hands-on labs that should ensure they feel comfortable with the command-line interface (CLI) configuration of switches. Examine and manage the switch MAC address table. List the major switch command modes. 6. Upgrade the IOS of a switch. Relate what they are learning to the case study. explain how a Catalyst switch goes through its startup on powering up. Inc. View the switch settings with a Web browser. Prepare the students to see different outputs according to the type of switch they are using. Use the help features of the command line interface. Manage configuration files and IOS images. Set an IP address and default gateway for the switch to allow connection and management over a network.

1. Observe the boot sequence: o o LEDs on the switch chassis Cisco IOS software output text The following are points to observe during the initial startup of a Catalyst switch: • • System startup routines initiate the switch software Initial startup uses default configuration parameters Step Action 1 Before starting the switch. Attach the power cable plug to the switch power supply socket. Course-level claim: Describe.1.1 Physical startup of the Catalyst switch Emphasize the fact that switches are dedicated. The switch should power up. Observe the following boot sequence: • LEDs on the switch chassis • Cisco IOS software output text 2 3 6. The following could help in answering some of the questions students might ask about POST LEDs during switch POST: • • • 48 . Compare and contrast switches with routers.Certification-level claim: Describe the components of network devices. its LED turns amber Copyright © 2004.1 IG – Module 6 . is selected.3 Verifying port LEDs during switch POST There are many ideas to present here.2 Switch LED indicators Explain the following LEDs on the front of the switch: • • • • System LED Remote Power Supply (RPS) LED Port Mode LED Port Status LEDs 6. The following are points to observe before starting the switch: • • • Verify the cable and console connection. Hands-on skills: none 6. CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. • A console terminal application. specialized computers. and administer a Cisco Catalyst LAN switch. Attach the power cable plug to the switch power supply socket. Note that most switches do not have on/off switches. configure. • The terminal is connected to the console point. Emphasize the important points. Cisco Systems. verify the following: • All network cable connections are secure.1.159 At the start all port LEDs are green Each LED turns off after its test completes If a test fails. Inc. such as HyperTerminal.

If all LEDs on Catalyst 2950G-24-EI and 2950G-24-EI-DC switches are green. If LEDs for both GBIC module slots are off. If the LED for GBIC module slot 2 is off. Error frames can affect connectivity. 49 . the switch is using more than 25 but less than 50 percent of the total bandwidth. the switch is using 50 percent or more of the total bandwidth. the switch is using 50 percent or more of the total bandwidth. the switch is using more than 25 but less than 50 percent of the total bandwidth.1. If the LED for the upper GBIC module slot is off. no activity Flashing green: Link present with traffic activity Alternating green and amber: Link fault. and so on. which sum up the initial bootup output from the switch. . the switch is using less than 25 percent of the total bandwidth.0488 percent of the total bandwidth. LEDs blink Description Off: No link present Green: Link present. and 2950T-24 switches are green. Full duplex (FDUP LED on) Green: Ports configured in full-duplex mode Off: Ports using half-duplex mode 6. It is also possible to use the automatic configuration but in most instances the students will do their own configuration. the switch is using less than 25 percent of the total bandwidth. alignment. Amber: Port not forwarding because management disabled the port. Inc. 2950-24. the switch is using more than 25 but less than 50 percent of the total bandwidth. If the LED for GBIC module slot 2 is off. If LEDs for both GBIC module slots are off. and so on. the switch is using less than 25 percent of the total bandwidth. the switch is using 50 percent or more of the total bandwidth. If LEDs for both GBIC module slots are off. and so on. the switch is using 50 percent or more of the total bandwidth. and so on. Excessive collisions and cyclic redundancy check (CRC). the switch is using less than 0. POST completes On POST completion. 2950C-24.• • • System LED turns amber if any test fails If no test fails. If all LEDs on Catalyst 2950G-48-EI switches are green. If all LEDs on Catalyst 2950G-12-EI switches are green.1 IG – Module 6 Copyright © 2004. Cisco Systems. suspended because of an address violation. If only the far-left LED is green. the switch is using more than 25 but less than 50 percent of the total bandwidth.4 Viewing initial bootup output from the switch There are seven figures in this TI. If the far-right LED is off. or suspended by SpanningTree Protocol (STP) because of network loops. and jabber errors are monitored for a link-fault indication.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Port LED Display Mode Port status (STAT LED on) Bandwidth utilization (UTL LED on) Green: Current bandwidth utilization displayed over the amber LED background on a logarithmic scale Amber: Maximum backplane utilization since the switch was powered on Green and amber: Depends on model as follows: If all LEDs on Catalyst 2950-12.

Emphasize the similarities between the CLI on the router.9 All None Certification-level claim: Customize a switch configuration to meet specified network requirements. . and administer a Cisco Catalyst LAN switch. 6.2.2.2 Configuring the Switch Essential Labs: Optional Labs: Core TIs: Optional TIs: 6. This will be covered in 6.2. review.5.7a. Cisco Systems. and default gateway 50 . Course-level claim: Describe.5 Examining help in the switch CLI There is an interactive media activity for the students to complete as well as three figures. 6.4.3.1. subnet mask.2. The following table illustrates some useful show commands: Switch name Command Explanation Displays the configuration of the system hardware. 6. The students will see there is an initial configuration dialogue when doing the lab but do not use it.2. 6.1. Console Error Messages Identifies problems with any switch commands that are incorrectly entered so that the operator can alter or correct them.2.2. and 6. Command History Buffer Allows recall of long or complex commands or entries for reentry. 6. and sources of configuration files and boot images SydneySwitch# show version SydneySwitch# show running.2.2. 6.Displays the current active configuration file of the switch configuration SydneySwitch# show interfaces SydneySwitch# show ip Displays the statistics for all interfaces configured on the switch Displays the IP address.7b. The following table explains the types of help: Context Sensitive Help Provides a list of commands and the arguments associated with a specific command. software version.6. configure. Inc. The figure illustrating the use of the show commands should prove a valuable starting point for discussion.1.1 IG – Module 6 Copyright © 2004.8 6. or correction.2.6 Switch command modes Instructors could again stress the similarities between the CLI of a switch and a router by comparing the user EXEC mode and the privileged EXEC mode.2.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.2.6. 6. Hands-on skills: none 6. Instructors could demonstrate the outputs for the commands to further stimulate learning and to illustrate the similarities between the CLI on a switch and a router. 6.1 Verifying the Catalyst switch default configuration In the hands-on lab will assist in reinforcing the concepts set out in this TI. 6.2.2. names.

2 Configuring the Catalyst switch In this lab. If POST completes successfully on a Catalyst 2950 switch.2.5 Configuring port security Instructors could spend time discussing the importance of securing an Internetwork. Complete the initial configuration by answering each question as it appears. students are taken through the configuration of a switch using a name and an IP address. 6. and changes The importance of following a set procedure when adding a new switch is emphasized in the first figure. CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. access the switch from the PC terminal that is connected to the console port. Inc.2. they can use CLI to customize their configuration.159 Configure the switch name Determine and configure the IP address for management purposes Configure a default gateway Configure administrative access for the console. If instructors wish to take students through the automatic configuration the following notes show how. students will be prompted to enter the initial configuration for the switch. At this time review the device-naming conventions that were discussed in CCNA 2 v3.3 Managing the MAC address table This TI emphasizes the work that switches carry out while dynamically recording and maintaining thousands of MAC addresses. and virtual terminal (vty) interfaces Configure security for the device Configure the access switch ports as necessary Copyright © 2004. 6. auxiliary.4 Configuring static MAC addresses In this TI the following emphasizes why administrators configure static MAC addresses: • • • Security So the MAC address will not be aged out A server may need to be attached to the port and the Mac address is known The practical lab and e-Lab in this TI will enable students to configure static MAC addresses. Especially where access layer switchports are accessible through the structured cabling at wall outlets in rooms and offices. The practical lab and e-Lab in this TI will enable students to see how to manage the MAC address table.1.2. They can use an automatic setup program to assign switch IP information. It also shows an administrator may bypass the aging out of the dynamic entries by using the command Switch#clear-mac-addresstable. The set procedure is as follows: • • • • • • 51 . The practical lab and e-Lab in this TI will enable students to configure a switch.1 IG – Module 6 . The practical lab and e-Lab in this TI will enable students to configure port security. moves. 6.2. host and cluster names. and passwords and to create a default configuration for continued operation.6. To run the setup program. 6.6 Executing adds.2. Cisco Systems. Later.

The practical lab and e-Lab in this TI will enable students to manage switch operating system files.1 IG – Module 6 Copyright © 2004. In these circumstances the IOS should be upgraded. The labs also show how to backup the switch IOS to a TFTP server and then restore it as well as managing switch startup configuration files.2. and change MAC addresses. .2.9 1900/2900 firmware upgrade IOS and firmware images are periodically released with bugs fixed. move. 6. introduction of new features.7 Managing switch operating system file The two hands-on labs help to ensure that students know how to create and verify a basic switch configuration. review the way students may save their configuration files to disk and later paste them into the switch.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Remind the students that they have learned the difference between IOS file and the startup configuration files for routers in CCNA 2. 6. or can operate more efficiently with a new version of the IOS.The practical lab and e-Lab in this TI will enable students to add. Cisco Systems. 52 . but access to the user or privileged EXEC mode cannot be gained because the passwords are not known or have been forgotten. These practices help ensure that only authorized users have access to the user and privileged EXEC modes of the switch. The practical lab and e-Lab in this TI will enable students to recover passwords on a Catalyst 2900 series switch. There will be circumstances where physical access to the switch can be achieved. It is also useful for students to make copies of their configuration files so that they may use them when doing the case study.8 1900/2950 password recovery Any switch management procedure will ensure that passwords are set on the console and vty lines. An enable password or an enable secret password will also be set. and performance improvements. Inc. The network can be made more secure. The practical lab and e-Lab in this TI will enable students to complete a firmware upgrade of a Catalyst 2900 series switch. 6.2. This method of saving the configuration file allows the students to begin initial configuration of both the routers and switches in the case study. At this time.

students should be able to complete the Fill in the Blank Switches and Collision Domain activity.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.Module 6 Summary Before moving on to Module 7. the students must be proficient in explaining the concepts of. . and understand how to configure.1 IG – Module 6 Copyright © 2004. From memory. Inc. Catalyst LAN switches. Cisco Systems. Online assessment options include the end-of-module online quiz in the curriculum and the online Module 6 exam. An understanding of the following key points should have been achieved: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The major components of a Catalyst switch Monitor switch activity and status using LED indicators Examine the switch bootup output using HyperTerminal Use the help features of the command line interface The major switch command modes The default settings of a Catalyst switch Set an IP address and default gateway for the switch to allow connection and management over a network View the switch settings with a Web browser Set interfaces for speed and duplex operation Examine and manage the switch MAC address table Configure port security Manage configuration files and IOS images Perform password recovery on a switch Upgrade the IOS of a switch 53 .

Module 7: Spanning-Tree Protocol This important lesson covers redundancy in a network as well as Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP). There are some interactive media activities. Inc.1 Redundant Topologies Essential Labs: Optional Labs: Core TIs: Optional TIs: None None All None Certification-level claim: None Course-level claim: Compare and contrast various forms of redundancy built into networks. Role-playing could also be used to reinforce some the STP concepts. Module 7 Caution: There is plenty of new vocabulary here for the students. The use of analogies should help in the explanation of redundancy. Students will also find the vocabulary and the operation of STP challenging. Cisco Systems. . In the section on STP the topic of loop avoidance is covered. and Media Access Control (MAC) address table instability. The module describes the five Spanning-Tree protocol states. multiple frame transmissions.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. . Instructors should stress the importance of this powerful tool. The features of redundant switch and bridge topologies are described in this TI as well as the problems associated with broadcast storms. Students will need to know what problems can arise from a redundant topology so that they can recognize them when they occur. and explain the advantages and disadvantages of its incorporation. which should help. which gives network administrators the security of a redundant topology without the risks of problems caused by switching loops. e-Labs and hands-on labs.1 IG – Module 7 Copyright © 2004. The lesson explains how STP and Rapid STP can solve redundant switch topology issues. Students completing this module should be able to perform the following tasks: • • • • • • • • • • • Define redundancy and its importance in networking Describe the key elements of a redundant networking topology Define broadcast storms and describe their impact on switched networks Define multiple frame transmissions and describe their impact on switched networks Identify causes and results of MAC address database instability Identify the benefits and risks of a redundant topology Describe the role of spanning tree in a redundant-path switched network Identify the key elements of spanning-tree operation Describe the process for root bridge election List the spanning-tree states in order Compare Spanning-Tree Protocol and Rapid Spanning-Tree Protocol 7. Hands-on skills: none 54 .

Instability in the MAC address table content results from copies of the same frame being received on different ports of the switch.1. While a redundant topology eliminates some problems. It is important to emphasize that in a star or star-bus network. 3. they introduce several others that must be taken into account.1 Redundancy There is an excellent overview of redundancy at the website. However.1. Without some loop avoidance process in operation.com/lan-switch5. Multiple copies of unicast frames may be delivered to destination stations. Multiple copies of the same frame may cause unrecoverable errors. Therefore. The animated figure serves to illustrate the concept of broadcast storms.htm. each switch will flood broadcasts endlessly. Instructors could encourage the students to role-play the parts of the switches as depicted in the illustrations at the web site. A protocol analyzer could then be used to locate the device that is causing the broadcast storm. 7. Some instructors might decide to demonstrate a broadcast storm. This situation is commonly called a broadcast storm.1. 7.2 Redundant topologies The use of analogies is useful in this TI to allow the students to visualize why they might place extra equipment in their network setup. Cisco Systems.4 Broadcast storms Broadcast storms can disrupt normal traffic flow. Data forwarding may be impaired when the switch consumes resources coping with instability in the MAC address table. they can also cause the following problems in the network: • • • Broadcast storms Multiple frame copies MAC address table instability problems Each of these three points is expanded in the next three TIs. This is because the CPU in all devices on the segment must process broadcasts.Most complex networks include redundant devices to avoid single points of failure. It can also disrupt all the devices on the switched or bridged network.howstuffworks.3 Redundant switched topologies While redundant designs may eliminate the single point of failure problem. such as the following: 1. Many protocols expect to receive only a single copy of each transmission. For example. A broadcast storm occurs on an Ethernet collision domain when there are 126 or more broadcast packets per second. Inc. 7. . it can lock up the user PCs and servers trying to process all the broadcast frames. The danger of a broadcast storm slowing down or completely stopping network communications should be emphasized. the point with the most potential for shutting down all or part of the network is the switch or hub.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. They increase network uptime and eliminate a single point of failure. Instructors might find it useful to show students the network setup in their campus if it has appropriate redundancy built in. 7.1. in this TI it is important for students to understand why redundant topologies are useful. it can introduce others.1 IG – Module 7 Copyright © 2004. http://computer. 55 . 2.

1. A switch can learn that a MAC address is on a port when it is not. Hands-on skills: none Spanning-Tree Protocol (STP) is a Layer 2 link management protocol that provides path redundancy while preventing undesirable loops in switched or bridged networks. Cisco Systems.1 Redundant topology and spanning tree The Spanning-Tree Protocol is a Layer 2 link management protocol used to maintain a loopfree network. Other protocols attempt to hand the duplicate transmission to the appropriate upper-layer protocol. In a redundant switched network it is possible for switches to learn the wrong information. The following is the key point to emphasize: STP interrupts logical loops created by physical loops in a switched environment. . the switches and bridges running STP automatically reconfigure their ports to avoid loss of connectivity or creation of loops. or bridge. The STP operation is transparent to end stations.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. 7. and routers configured to operate as bridges. 7. When the network topology changes. switch.7.1. Inc. How is this achieved? STP ensures that certain points on some of the switches do not forward packets. multiple copies of the same frame can arrive at the intended host. protocols that make use of a sequence numbering mechanism will assume that many transmissions have failed and that the sequence number has recycled. the packet could be forwarded endlessly around the network from switch to switch. which is the subject of the next session.2 Spanning-Tree Protocol Essential Labs: Optional Labs: Core TIs: Optional TIs: 7. Also mention that it occurs in bridged environments. The Spanning-Tree Protocol continually probes the network so that a failure or addition of a link. STP is enabled by default in Catalyst switches. 7. Instructors could point out that in order to prevent looping on a network switches and bridges use the Spanning-Tree Protocol. Most protocols are designed not to recognize or cope with duplicate transmissions.6 Media access control database instability MAC database instability results when multiple copies of a frame arrive on different ports of a switch. 56 .1 IG – Module 7 Copyright © 2004.5 Multiple frame transmissions In a redundant topology. potentially causing problems with the receiving protocol. The STP runs on Layer 2 switches.2.4 and 7. bridges. In general.6 None All None Certification-level claim: Configure a switch with spanning tree to avoid switching loops.2. with unpredictable results. is responded to. Course-level claim: Describe the operation of the spanning-tree algorithm. and describe the methods by which it is implemented and used in a switched network.2. The figure can be used to explain how this can occur so that students are aware that unnecessary processing is occurring in all devices. In the figure.

2.2. What are BPDUs? Bridge Protocol Data Units (BPDUs) are messages the devices send to one another. The following are questions for this TI: How is the root bridge selected? STP devices settle on the root bridge by using an administratively set priority number. The BPDU messages are sent between the root bridge and the best ports on the other devices. For every switched network the following elements exist: • 57 . the physical loop is still there but a logical loop no longer exists. The three figures in this TI should be used to emphasize the key points.Does this mean there is no longer a physical loop? No.1 IG – Module 7 . The switches and bridges on a network use an election process over STP to configure a single logical path. The BPDUs transfer status messages about the network. Inc. CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Bridges use STP to transfer the information about the MAC address and priority number on each bridge. What happens if two devices have the same priority number? If this happens. and a new root bridge will be selected. The two key concepts are bridge ID (BID) and path cost. and to utilize the figures and the two interactive media activities to reinforce concepts. There are many complex ideas in this TI. which are called root ports. Instructors are advised to spend time on it. A loop-free topology is accomplished when the switch or bridge recognizes a loop in the topology and logically blocks one or more redundant ports automatically. The logical loop is removed by one of the switches or bridges by blocking the port that creates the logical loop. the STP devices pick the one with the lowest MAC address. Blocking is done by calculating costs for each port in relation to the root bridge. What is an advantage of this? If a device fails then STP is able to create a new logical path over the physical network.159 One root bridge per network Copyright © 2004. 7. 7. The root bridge is the one with the lowest priority number. Each bridge or switch now determines which of its own ports offers the best path to the root bridge.2 Spanning-Tree Protocol The purpose of STP is to maintain a loop-free network topology. What happens if BPDUs are not received for a set amount of time? The non-root bridge devices will assume that the root bridge has failed. Then the port with the highest cost is disabled. Step 1 2 3 4 Action Selection of root bridge Configurations made by the other switches and bridges using the root bridge as a reference point. Cisco Systems.3 Spanning-tree operation The Spanning-Tree Protocol uses two key concepts when creating a loop-free logical topology.

learning. Backup ports can exist only where two ports are connected together in a loopback by a point-to-point link or bridge with two or more connections to a shared LAN segment.2. Inc. Disabled — A port that has no role within the operation of spanning tree. they are blocking. .159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. ports transition through four states. In order. Forwarding ports send and receive data traffic and BPDUs. RSTP uses the following definitions for port roles: • • • • Root — A forwarding port elected for the spanning-tree topology. a port temporarily implements the listening and learning states.6 Spanning-tree recalculation A switched internetwork has converged when all the switch and bridge ports are in either the forwarding or blocked state. Two transitional states occur when a bridge recognizes a change in the network topology. and defines port states as discarding. learning. 7. 7. Forwarding ports provide the lowest-cost path to the root bridge. The practical lab and e-Lab in this TI will enable students to select the root bridge. RSTP defines the additional port roles of alternate and backup.5 Stages of spanning-tree port states With the STP. 7.2. Alternate — An alternate path to the root bridge provided by the current root port. and forwarding. Cisco Systems.• • • One root port per non-root bridge One designated port per segment Nondesignated ports are unused 7. During a topology change.4 Selecting the root bridge With the Spanning-Tree Protocol. Blocked ports will only receive BPDUs. If properly configured.7 Rapid Spanning-Tree Protocol Rapid Spanning-Tree Protocol (RSTP) is designed to significantly speed the recalculation of the spanning tree when the network topology changes. The practical lab and e-Lab in this TI will enable students to create a basic switch configuration and verify spanning-tree recalculation. listening. the ports then stabilize to the forwarding or blocking state. Instructors should encourage the students to complete the interactive media activity to reinforce learning.2.1 IG – Module 7 Copyright © 2004. It would also be possible to devise role-play for transitioning through the states. • • 58 . Backup — A backup for the path provided by a designated port toward the leaves of the spanning tree. A root port or designated port role includes the port in the active topology. Designated — A forwarding port elected for every switched LAN segment. The BID includes the priority and MAC address of the bridge. the root bridge is the bridge with the lowest bridge ID (BID). An alternate port or backup port role excludes the port from the active topology.2. every bridge in the network goes through the blocking state and the transitory states of listening and learning at power up. or forwarding. When STP is enabled.

RSTP ensures that every root port and designated port transitions to forwarding while all alternate ports and backup ports are always in the discarding state. 59 .159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.1 IG – Module 7 Copyright © 2004. Cisco Systems. Inc. .Operational Status Enabled Enabled Enabled Enabled Disabled STP Port State Blocking Listening Learning Forwarding Disabled RSTP Port State Discarding Discarding Learning Forwarding Discarding Port Included in Active Topology No No Yes Yes No In a stable topology.

Module 7 Summary Before moving on to Module 8. . From memory students should be able to complete the Crossword Puzzle and Point and Click activities regarding spanning tree. An understanding of the following key points should have been achieved: • • • • • • • • • • • Redundancy and its importance in networking The key elements of a redundant networking topology Broadcast storms and their impact on switched networks Multiple frame transmissions and their impact on switched networks Causes and results of MAC address database instability The benefits and risks of a redundant topology The role of spanning tree in a redundant-path switched network The key elements of spanning-tree operation The process for root bridge election Spanning-tree states Spanning-Tree Protocol compared to Rapid Spanning-Tree Protocol 60 .1 IG – Module 7 Copyright © 2004. the students must be proficient in explaining the SpanningTree Protocol and Rapid Spanning–Tree Protocols. Cisco Systems.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Inc. Online assessment options include the end-of-module online quiz in the curriculum and the online Module 7 exam.

Hands-on skills: none 8.1 IG – Module 8 Copyright © 2004. This capability is extremely powerful. VLANs allow almost complete independence of the physical and logical topologies. one collision domain.1 VLAN introduction This TI compares and contrasts traditional switched LANs.1. In this TI many benefits of VLANs are discussed. which extends the students knowledge by setting up a series of VLANs. Administrators can use VLANs to define groupings of workstations. and one broadcast domain. Inc. There are also several interactive media activities. 61 . where the physical topology is closely related to the logical topology. even if they are separated by switches and on different LAN segments.1Q Explain the concept of geographic VLANs Configure static VLANs on 2900 series Catalyst switches Verify and save VLAN configurations Delete VLANs from a switch 8. The various types of VLANs are introduced and several lab activities. as one VLAN.1 VLAN Concepts Essential Labs: Optional Labs: Core TIs: Optional TIs: None None All None Certification-level claim: None Course-level claim: Describe and compare the concepts. and disadvantages of virtual LANs. Module 8 Caution: None Students completing this module should be able to perform the following tasks: • • • • • • • • • • Define VLANs List the benefits of VLANs Explain how VLANs are used to create broadcast domains Explain how routers are used for communication between VLANs List the common VLAN types Define ISL and 802. Generally workstations must be grouped by their physical proximity to a switch. including e-Labs are included.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. . Cisco Systems.Module 8: Virtual LANs A particularly powerful feature of certain switches is that they can be configured to create virtual LANs (VLANs). This is also an important module for the case study. advantages.

159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. the figures tell the story. is only one way in which VLANs can be used to divide the broadcast domain. Cisco Systems.8. as is the case in frame filtering. Static ports that are trunking cannot become dynamic ports. The security must be turned off on the static secure port before it can become dynamic. 8. and IP address reconfiguration on the host. A VLAN is a Layer 2 implementation and does not affect Layer 3 logical addressing. of course. . the same analogy does not hold for dynamic routing and dynamic VLANs. but there are still three separate broadcast domains. it is difficult to move a user from one office to another.1. But there is no sharing of switching tables. The broadcast domains can now be further subdivided because of the VLAN configuration. Static VLANs have the same characteristics. Note that the router allows the packets to be routed among the broadcast domains. which are like separate Layer 3 groupings. as do routers. However. Static routers are secure. pre-programmed with MAC addresses and VLAN numbers. The Spanning-Tree PortFast mode can be disabled on a dynamic port. three separate broadcast domains are established using three separate switches.1. In dynamic VLANs. Trunking must be turned off on the trunk port before changing it from static to dynamic. However. Can dynamic VLANs be compared with dynamic routing? While the analogy between static routing and static VLANs was valid. can recognize when a host has switched ports and automatically reconfigure the port. Automatic enabling of Spanning-Tree PortFast prevents applications on the host from timing out and entering loops caused by incorrect configurations. the switch. This. 8. Although VLANs have the capability of separating broadcast domains. but they must be setup by an administrator. It might require for a router to be reconfigured. 62 . this does not mean they segment at Layer 3. VMPS must be configured before ports can be configured as dynamic.1. When a port is configured as dynamic. they are Layer 2 technologies instead of Layer 3. In this scenario there is one router and one switch. easy to configure.1 IG – Module 8 Copyright © 2004. How can the idea of static routes to static VLANs be linked? Utilize the prior knowledge the students have about static routes in routers. Static secure ports cannot become dynamic ports. VMPS checks the legality of the specific host on the dynamic port after a certain period. changes made to the patch cables in the wiring closet.3 VLAN operation The figure shows VLAN membership by port. This will make the job easier for the administrator and the network more efficient because of the following: • • • • Users are assigned by port VLANs are easily administered It provides increased security between VLANs Packets do not leak into other domains The figure is worth emphasizing.4 Benefits of VLANs Without VLANs. and straightforward to monitor. Spanning-Tree PortFast is enabled automatically for that port. Inc. since it shows how the OSI layers actually correspond to real physical hardware. the port connects immediately to that VLAN. In Figure 2 there are three separate broadcast domains established using VLANs.2 Broadcast domains with VLANs and routers In this TI. If a port is reconfigured from a static port to a dynamic port on the same VLAN. In Figure 1. one for each broadcast domain.

This includes such parameters as server usage. 63 . but are far more powerful. where different router interfaces correspond to different networks. Instructors could ask their students to perform role-plays to illustrate the differences. however.2. or IP address changes. In this “traditional” LAN architecture.2 Geographic VLANs Students might find it difficult to accept the new 20/80 rule as they have been used to learning about the 80/20 rule.2 VLAN Configuration Essential Labs: Optional Labs: Core TIs: Optional TIs: 8. However.2.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. End-to-end VLANs allow devices to be grouped based upon resource usage. It offers flexibility to support mobile users.5 VLAN types The following are three basic models for determining and controlling how a packet gets assigned to a VLAN: • Port-based VLANS Emphasize that port membership can maximize the security between VLANs and port based VLANs can be created to ensure that the packets do not leak into other domains. Hands-on skills: none 8. which uses VLANs and relate this information to the case study.1.6 None All None Certification-level claim: Configure a switch with VLANs and inter-switch configuration. and allow smaller collision and broadcast domains. and departments. Inc. configure. the logical groupings of hosts and the information flow between them to how and where devices are actually wired. patch cable changes. VLAN capable switches are more expensive than the hubs. • Protocol based VLANs There are six excellent figures in this TI. 8. and administer inter-switch VLANs on Cisco.2. simply stays in the same VLAN. The material is reproduced in this TI to emphasize the distance.A host connected to a VLAN-capable switch. The goal of end-to-end VLANs is to maintain 80 percent of the traffic on the local VLAN. which could form the basis for a mini-lecture. There are no router changes. 8.3. and 8. Encourage the students to check the case study. 8.2.1 VLAN basics A router segments a hubbed network. Cisco Systems. • MAC address based VLANs Although this method offers flexibility it adds to the switch-processing overhead.1 IG – Module 8 Copyright © 2004. They also liberate the logical topology from the physical topology. when many hosts are moved over the course of a year the savings in time and trouble is tremendous. That is. . project teams. 8. each hub and its hosts constitutes a large collision and broadcast domain and is limited by physical proximity of hosts to the hub.4. Course-level claim: Describe.2. This may not significant when one host is moved. broadcast domain or subnetwork.

To save the configuration file. and straightforward to monitor. In a geographic VLAN structure. The VLAN configuration file may be saved to floppy or a network drive and transferred to other devices.2.1 IG – Module 8 Copyright © 2004. VLANs are now more frequently being created around geographic boundaries rather than commonality boundaries. Hopefully the students will have saved the labs they have created in TI 8.2. Inc. it is typical to find the new 20/80 rule in effect. Although static VLANs require manual entry changes. This geographic location can be as large as an entire building or as small as a single switch inside a wiring closet.2.4 Verifying VLAN configuration A good practice is to verify VLAN configuration by using the show vlan. The following facts apply to VLANs: • • A created VLAN remains unused until it is mapped to switch ports. Static VLANs are ports on a switch that are manually assigned to a VLAN by using a VLAN management application or by working directly within the switch. Next. These ports maintain their assigned VLAN configuration until they are changed manually. By default.3 Configuring static VLANs Instructors should ensure that the students do the practical lab at this TI and should encourage the students to do the e-Lab before the practical. The practical lab and e-Lab at this TI will enable students to configure static VLANs. The practical lab and e-Lab at this TI will enable students to verify VLAN configurations. This will be vital for their case study work. Users are required to use many different resources. This type of VLAN works well in networks where the following is true: • • • Moves are controlled and managed There is robust VLAN management software to configure the ports It is not desirable to assume the additional overhead required when maintaining endstation MAC addresses and custom filtering tables. or show vlan id id_number commands. . This topology means that the user must cross a Layer 3 device to reach 80 percent of the resources. end-to-end VLANs became more difficult to maintain. many of which are no longer in their VLAN.3 Configuring static VLANs. show vlan brief. easy to configure. 8. all Ethernet ports are on VLAN 1. 8. Cisco Systems. 64 .As many corporate networks have moved to centralize their resources. consistent method of accessing resources. Because of this shift in placement and usage of resources. However. Eighty percent of the traffic is remote to the user and 20 percent of the traffic is local to the user.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. 8. use the command show running-config. they are secure. this design allows the network to provide for a deterministic. cut and paste the entire display into a notepad file.2.5 Saving VLAN configuration Instructors are encouraged to ensure that their students keep a copy of the VLAN configuration as a text file for backup or auditing purposes.

8.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. .3. Hands-on skills: none 8. 8.3. The show and debug commands can be extremely useful when troubleshooting VLANs. VLAN packets that the router is configured to route or switch are counted and indicated when using the show sw-vlan command.2. Inform the students that this will be covered in the next module. 65 . which have not been covered.3. Instructors are encouraged to use the labs the students have completed and introduce errors so that the students can attempt to trace them. 8. 8.1 Overview Students will find this section challenging.4 Troubleshooting VLANs Instructors are encouraged to spend time going over the six figures in this TI. Course-level claim: Troubleshoot VLANs.3 Troubleshooting VLANs Essential Labs: Optional Labs: Core TIs: Optional TIs: None None All None Certification-level claim: Perform simple LAN troubleshooting.2 VLAN troubleshooting process The figure here will allow students to approach their troubleshooting in a methodical manner. The practical lab and e-Lab at this TI will enable students to delete VLANs.3 Preventing broadcast storms The three figures in this TI will prove useful for troubleshooting purposes. In the first figure there are references to Trunking. Instructors could use this TI to assist the students when they run into trouble with their case study. Inc.6 Deleting VLANs Encourage the students to do the e-Lab prior to doing the practical lab. Cisco Systems.3. the progression of the troubleshooting process can be completed. The figure will allow for a lot of discussion. Using appropriate specific commands and gathering meaningful information from the outputs.1 IG – Module 8 Copyright © 2004. The debug swvlan packets command is used to display general information about VLAN packets that the router received but is not configured to support.8.3. Each of these scenarios contains an analysis of the problem and then solving the problem. 8.5 VLAN troubleshooting scenarios Three practical VLAN troubleshooting scenarios referring to the most common problems will be described in this TI.

Module 8 Summary Before moving on to Module 9. From memory students should be able to complete Drag and Drop activity regarding VLAN operation.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. the students must be proficient in explaining and configuring VLANs. Inc.1Q trunking Geographic VLANs Configuring static VLANs on 2900 series Catalyst switches Verifying and saving VLAN configurations Deleting VLANs from a switch Definition of VLANs The benefits of VLANs How VLANs are used to create broadcast domains How routers are used for communication between VLANs The common VLAN types A systematic approach to VLAN troubleshooting The steps for general troubleshooting in switched networks How spanning tree problems can lead to broadcast storms Using show and debug commands to troubleshoot VLANs 66 .1 IG – Module 8 Copyright © 2004. An understanding of the following key points should have been achieved: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • ISL and 802. Cisco Systems. Online assessment options include the end-of-module online quiz in the curriculum and the online Module 8 exam. .

Hands-on skills: none 67 .1 Trunking Essential Labs: 9.Module 9: VLAN Trunking Protocol This module covers Trunking. VLAN Trunking Protocol. advantages. . and disadvantages of virtual LANs. Inter-VLAN routing is a requirement to enable communication between devices in separate VLANs.1Q Define Cisco ISL Configure and verify a VLAN trunk Define VTP Explain why VTP was developed Describe the contents of VTP messages List and define the three VTP modes Configure and verify VTP on an IOS-based switch Explain why routing is necessary for inter-VLAN communication Explain the difference between physical and logical interfaces Define subinterfaces Configure inter-VLAN routing using subinterfaces on a router port 9. ISL protocol is used to facilitate multiple VLAN traffic over a single link.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. The distribution layer routing processor can be an internal or external router/switch topology.5b (Students may only be able to perform one of these labs. Module 9 Caution: Students might find some of these concepts difficult to understand. Course-level claim: Describe and compare the concepts. This will be an important module for the completion of the case study. Inc. depending on their switch platform). Most devices are configured with the IP address of a default router to which all non-local network packets are sent. and Inter-VLAN routing. Optional Labs: Core TIs: Optional TIs: None All None Certification-level claim: Configure a switch with VLANs and inter-switch configuration.1.1 IG – Module 9 Copyright © 2004. Students completing this module should be able to perform the following tasks: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Explain the origins and functions of VLAN trunking Describe how trunking enables the implementation of VLANs in a large network Define IEEE 802. To explain the concepts.5a and 9. Cisco Systems. Instructors are encouraged to go through this module and use the case study to illustrate the concepts. it compares network trunking with trunking in the telephone and radio industries.1.

1Q puts a tag in the Ethernet header.1q VNET ISL Where are VLANs created? RSM RSP Switch Router 68 . What protocol is used to carry multiple VLANs over a single trunk? 802.1. Completing the interactive media activity will consolidate the students understanding of trunking.1.1q 802.1 IG – Module 9 Copyright © 2004. What is the primary advantage of using a trunk link? • • • • Provides more bandwidth for each trunked VLAN Reduction of router and switch ports Allows for a single VLAN on each physical port Creates less overhead on the router 9.1. Cisco Systems.2 802.motorola. . Inc.3 Trunking operation This important TI has many concepts that should be emphasized. which explains trunking in more detail.1Q. 9. ISL and 802. Role-playing could be used to illustrate the concepts. 9. These concepts include the two tagging schemes. There is also a useful web site referenced at the end of this TI.4 VLANs and trunking VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) provides support for dynamic reporting of the addition.9.11b Which protocol is Cisco Proprietary and is designed to carry traffic from multiple VLANs? 802. An interesting site is http://au.2 Trunking concepts Use the three figures here to help explain the concepts.3 802.1 History of trunking Instructors should illustrate the history of trunking by using illustrations from the phone industry and the radio industry.11a 802. deletion. and renaming of VLANs across the switch fabric. ISL encapsulates Ethernet frames and IEEE 802.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Allow the students to refer to the case study here to see how this module relates to the case study.html.com/au/nsg/what_is.1.

2.2 VTP concepts The role of VTP is to maintain VLAN configuration consistency across a common network administration domain.159 Requests from clients that want information at bootup Response from servers Copyright © 2004. 9. Additionally. Cisco Systems. A switch can be in one VTP domain only. To maintain connectivity within VLANs.9.1.2.5 Trunking implementation It is important that students are aware of differences between ISL and dot1q. each new switch must be manually configured with VLAN information. Hands-on skills: none 9.1 History of VTP Instructors should emphasize the issues that result from trying to manage VLANs.1 IG – Module 9 . VLAN configuration consistency is maintained across a common administration domain. VTP allows for centralized changes that are communicated to all other switches in the network. Make changes on a central switch and have those changes automatically communicated to all other switches on the network.2. the VTP message is encapsulated in a trunking protocol frame such as ISL or IEEE 802. Inc. and renaming of VLANs on a single domain.3 VTP operation A VTP domain is made up of one or more interconnected devices that share the same VTP domain name.2. deletion. As the organization grows and additional switches are added to the network. When transmitting VTP messages to other switches in the network. 9.4 VTP implementation The following are two types of VTP advertisements: • • 69 . and administer VTP on Cisco switches. CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. The practical lab and e-Lab in this TI will enable students to see trunking ISL and dot1q in action.1Q. 9. configure.2 VTP Essential Labs: Optional Labs: Core TIs: Optional TIs: 9. VTP is a messaging protocol that uses OSI Layer 2 trunk frames to manage the addition.2. VTP reduces the complexity of managing and monitoring VLAN networks. With VTP. Further. VTP switches operate in one of the following three modes: • • • Server Client Transparent 9.5 None All None Certification-level claim: None Course-level claim: Describe. each VLAN must be manually configured on each switch.

Cisco Systems.5 VTP configuration Ensure that the students are working on the case study at the same time they are doing this module. Hands-on skills: none 9.6 All None Certification-level claim: None Course-level claim: Describe. PROBLEM Isolated collision domains Need for end user devices to send nonlocal packets Support multiple VLAN traffic across VLAN boundaries RESOLUTION Route processors Default routes Inter switch Link Completing the interactive media activity will consolidate the understanding the student has of what path packets take in a network with inter-VLAN routing. a router must somehow be involved. Inc.2 Introducing inter-VLAN routing Remember that when a host on one VLAN wants to communicate with a host on another.The following are three types of VTP messages: • • • Advertisement requests Summary advertisements Subset advertisements Use the figures in this TI to help explain these concepts. 9. and administer routing between VLANs on Cisco switches.3 Inter-VLAN Routing Overview Essential Labs: Optional Labs: Core TIs: Optional TIs: None 9.1 VLAN basics Configuring VLANs helps to control the size of broadcast domains and keeps local traffic local. configure.1 IG – Module 9 Copyright © 2004. Inter VLAN routing is an essential component in designing a scalable network. . Review the configuration commands using the figures.3.3. Some of this material has already been covered in Module 8.3. The practical lab and e-Lab in this TI will enable students to create a configuration that utilizes a VTP client and server. There are problems when trying to route between VLANs. Emphasize that the downside to this benefit is that devices in different VLANs are unable to communicate without the presence of some form of Layer 3 routing. 9.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.2. 9. 70 .

5 Dividing physical interfaces into subinterfaces A subinterface is a logical interface on a physical interface such as the Fast Ethernet interface on a router. 9. 9. Cisco Systems.4 Physical and logical interfaces There are three excellent figures in this TI to illustrate what is happening. 9. Inc. They could be used as a basis for a mini-lecture.1 IG – Module 9 Copyright © 2004. 71 .3. To define subinterfaces on a physical interface.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.3 Inter-VLAN issues and solutions It is essential to define the VLANs on the switches in the network before configuring routing between VLANs. Issues related to network design and VLAN definition should be addressed during the network design phase.6 Configuring inter-VLAN routing Subinterfaces provide a flexible solution for routing multiple data streams through a single physical interface. Role-play could be introduced here to illustrate the differences between physical and logical interfaces. .9.3. perform the following tasks: • • • Identify the interface Define the VLAN encapsulation Assign an IP address to the interface The practical lab and e-Lab in this TI will enable students to configure inter-VLAN routing. Multiple subinterfaces can exist on a single physical interface.3. Emphasize the following topics: • • • • • Load balancing Redundant links Logical addressing How to segment the network using VLANs Sharing resources between VLANs Complete the interactive media activity to consolidate the understanding the students have of some of the problems associated with using VLANs.3.

An understanding of the following key points should have been achieved: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • The origins and functions of VLAN trunking How trunking enables the implementation of VLANs in a large network IEEE 802.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.1Q Cisco ISL Configuring and verifying a VLAN trunk Definition of VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) Why VTP was developed The contents of VTP messages The three VTP modes Configuring and verifying VTP on an IOS-based switch Why routing is necessary for inter-VLAN communication The difference between physical and logical interfaces Subinterfaces Configuring inter-VLAN routing using subinterfaces on a router port 72 . From memory students should be able to complete Drag and Drop activities regarding inter-VLAN routing and the Fill in the Blank activity regarding trunking operation. Inc.Module 9 Summary Online assessment options include the end-of-module online quiz in the curriculum and the online Module 9 exam.1 IG – Module 9 Copyright © 2004. . Cisco Systems.

to verify that it will meet the company’s needs. The task is to design. The company is implementing a wired network that should support 100% growth over the next five to ten years. A logical diagram has been provided. In order to help you organize this project. 73 . Cisco Systems. and the larger Research and Development Group.1 IG – Appendices Copyright © 2004. A worksheet is to be completed for each part. This case study requires that you accomplish the following: • • • • • • • Use the resources provided. The main office occupies two buildings in Sydney. The Research Group and the Sales and Marketing Group will each have employees located on all three floors of the main building. to set up the physical network Set up an IP subnetting scheme using VLSM Configure the routers as required Set up and configure the switches and VLANs as required Verify and troubleshoot all connections Provide detailed documentation in the appropriate format Provide a written final report Scenario The XYZ Research Company is small company that is developing high-speed wireless products. before it is fully implemented. The other building is for the Sales and Marketing Group. This case study presents a scenario in which the XYZ Research Company has hired a Network Consultant Group to design their network.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Inc. .IV: Case Study Overview and Objectives The following case study is used to illustrate the process and documentation required for a network design. In addition to a formal report. implement and fully document the XYZ Research Company network. will need to be created after all tasks have been completed. similar to what would be given to the company. A formal report. The XYZ Research Company also has a Sales Branch Office located in Melbourne. the XYZ Research would like to see a prototype of the network built. the scenario has been broken into eight phases listing requirements for each phase. diagram and narrative. One building is for the Administration Group.

Phase 1: Requirements Partially completed logical diagram 74 .159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Inc. Cisco Systems.1 IG – Appendices Copyright © 2004. .

Requirements
The XYZ Research Company has provided a partially completed logical diagram of the required network. The company has also provided networking equipment for development and demonstration. In some instances the equipment provided does not have all the required LAN interfaces. If this is so the company allows configuration of loopback networks, as alternatives.

XYZ Research Company Requirements
• • • • • • • • • • 18 employees in the Research and Development group. 9 employees in the Sales and Marketing group. 7 employees in the Administration group. 5 employees in the remote sales office. Lifetime Max of 5 servers on separate subnet, regardless of company growth. Use subnet 200.200.100.0/30 for connection to the Internet router. Use public class C network 223.0.0.0 for internal addressing. Use VLSM for IP addressing. Expect 100% growth of current IP requirements when determining size of subnets. All networking devices must have IP addresses

Worksheet
1. Produce a logical diagram that includes: • • • • • • Router and switch names Router interface details Network addresses Number of hosts per network DCE Serial interfaces are to be clearly indicated Link Speeds

2. The company expects the use of VLSM Design to maximize the use of IP addresses. A table is to be produced showing all possible subnets that meet the Companies requirements using a VLSM design. Subnets that will not be used are to be clearly identified in the table.
(Note to Instructor: The following is only an example and answers and design by students can and will vary. Also this case study is fairly extensive and students will require a fair amount of time to complete.)

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A sample table layout for recording the VLSM design is below.
Number of host addresses required 6 2 19 10 4 8 Network Address Subnet Mask Max Number of Host Possible 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 2 2 2 In Use (Yes/No) Network Name

223.0.0.0 223.0.0.32 223.0.0.64 223.0.0.96 223.0.0.128 223.0.0.160 223.0.0.192 223.0.0.224

/27 /27 /27 /27 /27 /27 /27 /27 /30 /30 /30

Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes

Sales_BR_Lan VLAN2_http_srv VLAN3_R&D VLAN4_Sls_mrkt VLAN1_Sw_mgmt Admin_Lan

2 2 2

223.0.0.224 223.0.0.228 223.0.0.232

MEL_SYD1_link SYD1_SYD2_link SYD2_SYD3_link

3. For each location, including the Internet, a further set of tables is required. These will assist with design and development activities and used when configuring switches and routers. A separate table should be created for each router and switch at each location. (NOTE: Some fields in the switch table will be completed in Scenario (part 4).) Below is a sample layout for routers. Location: Melbourne Sales Branch Office Router Name: MEL
Interface/Sub Interface Type/Number Description and Purpose DCE/DTE (if applicable) Speed or Clock rate Network Name Network Number Interface IP Address Subnet Mask

Sales_lan Link to SYD1

---

---

Sales_lan Mel_SYD1 link

223.0.0.0 223.0.0.224

223.0.0.30 223.0.0.225

/27 /30

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Location: Sydney Main Building Router Name: SYD1
Interface/Sub Interface Type/Number Description and Purpose DCE/DTE (if applicable) Speed or Clock rate Network Name Network Number Interface IP Address Subnet Mask

S0/0 Fa0/0.1 Fa0/0.2 Fa0/0.3 Fa0/0.4 S0/1

Link to MEL VLAN2 VLAN3 VLAN4 VLAN1 Link to SYD2

DCE ------

56000 ------

MEL_SYD1 link VLAN2 http server VLAN3 R&D VLAN4 Sls mrkting VLAN1 switch mgt SYD1_SYD2 link

223.0.0.22 4 223.0.0.32 223.0.0.64 223.0.0.96 223.0.0.12 8 223.0.0.22 8

223.0.0.226 223.0.0.62 223.0.0.94 223.0.0.126 223.0.0.158 223.0.0.229

/30 /27 /27 /27 /27 /30

Location: Sydney Main Building Router Name: SYD2
Interface/Sub Interface Type/Number Description and Purpose DCE/DTE (if applicable) Speed or Clock rate Network Name Network Number Interface IP Address Subnet Mask

S0/0 Fa0/0.1 S0/1

Link to MEL VLAN2 SYD2_ISP link

DCE ---

56000 ---

MEL_SYD1 link VLAN2 http server SYD2_ISP link

223.0.0.22 4 223.0.0.32 200.200.10 0.0

223.0.0.226 223.0.0.62 200.200.10 0.1

/30 /27 /30

Location: Sydney Main Building Router Name: SYD3
Interface/Sub Interface Type/Number Description and Purpose DCE/DTE (if applicable) Speed or Clock rate Network Name Network Number Interface IP Address Subnet Mask

S0/0 Fa0/0.1

Link to MEL VLAN2

DCE --

56000 --

MEL_SYD1 link VLAN2 http server

223.0.0.22 4 223.0.0.32

223.0.0.226 223.0.0.62

/30 /27

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0.0.0.1 IG – Appendices Copyright © 2004.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0.0.0.129/27 Interface/Sub Interface Type/Port/Number Description and Purpose Speed Duplex Network Name Network Number Subnet Mask VLA N Switchport Type Encapsulat ion (if needed) 1–4 9 – 15 16 VLAN3 VLAN4 VLAN2 VLAN1 10 10 10 100 100 100 10 Auto Auto Auto Auto Auto Auto Auto VLAN3 R&D VLAN4 sls VLAN2 srv VLAN1 mgmt Sw1_S YD1 Sw1_S w2 Sw1_S w3 223. Cisco Systems. . Location: Sydney Administration Building Switch Name: Switch1 Switch IP address: 223. 128 /27 /27 /27 /27 3 4 2 1 1 1 1 10BASE-T 10BASE-T 10BASE-T ISL ISL ISL ISL A B 24 Sw1_SYD 1 Sw1_Sw2 Sw1_Sw3 Trunk Trunk Trunk (redundant) ISL ISL ISL 78 .0. 32 223.0. Inc. 96 223.Below is the sample layout for the switch tables. 64 223.0.0.

161 /27 /27 /27 /27 /27 223.0.0. A DHCP server will assign PC/workstation addresses.0.0.0.0.0.0.126 223.190 N/A http/DHCP N/A N/A N/A Copyright © 2004. (Use the simple HTTP server as a DHCP server.0.0. the company agrees that it is enough to statically assign all PC/workstation and server addresses.0.0. (Http server will be 223.62 223.64 223.33/27) For the demonstration.0.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.96 --- /27 /27 --- 3 4 1 1 10BASET 10BASET Trunk Trunk ISL ISL ISL ISL Location: Sydney Main Building Switch Name: Switch3 Switch IP address: 223.0.0.1 IG – Appendices . LAN name PC or server Name IP address Subnet Mask Gateway Services Provided Sales_Br_LAN VLAN2 VLAN3 VLAN4 Admin_LAN Host 1 of 5 http_server Host 1 of 19 Host 1 of 9 Host 1 of 7 223. To complete the IP design.0.30 223.0.130/27 Interface/ Sub Interface Type/Port/ Number Description and Purpose Speed Duplex Network Name Network Number Subnet Mask VLAN Switchport type Encapsulation (if needed) 1-8 A VLAN3 Sw3_Sw2 VLAN1 10 100 100 Auto Auto Auto VLAN3 Sw3_Sw2 VLAN1 223.0.0.128 /27 1 4.) Server addresses will be statically assigned.0.Location: Sydney Main Building Switch Name: Switch2 Switch IP address: 223.0.0.0.0.97 223.0. assign and tabulate PC/workstation and server addresses for each LAN in each location.0.0.94 223.0.0.0.0.0.0.33 223.64 /27 3 1 10BASE-T Trunk ISL ISL ISL 223. Cisco Systems.1 223. 79 .130/27 Interface/ Sub interface Type/Port/ Number Description and Purpose Speed Duplex Network Name Network Number Subnet Mask VLAN Switchport Type Encapsulation (if needed) 1-6 7–8 A B VLAN3 VLAN4 Sw2_Sw1 Sw2_Sw3 10 10 100 100 Auto Auto Auto Auto VLAN3 VLAN4 Sw2_Sw1 Sw2_Sw3 223. Inc.65 223.0.

The tables and supporting text will be part of the documentation delivered to the XYZ Research Company.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.1 IG – Appendices Copyright © 2004. Instructors Signature: ______________________Date:_______________ 80 . Before you commence with the next task the logical diagram and tables need to be approved by the company. . Inc. Cisco Systems.

. Alternatively a numerical value can be used. Inc. or a numeric value) Simplicity RIP + Scalability Convergence Robustness 1 Property 2 Property 3 Property 4 Total IGRP + + - - 2 EIGRP - + + - 2 OSPF - + + + 3 Group Recommendation for Routing Protocol: OSPF Instructors Signature:_________________________Date:_______________ 81 ..Phase 2: Routing protocols The company wants a recommendation for a routing protocol for the network.1 IG – Appendices Copyright © 2004. Cisco Systems. Each property is assigned a plus. Routing Protocol Property 1 (+. for example 0 to 4. . A recommendation is made and the decision matrix presented to the Company. neutral.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. or minus value for each of the routing protocols. Worksheet The possible routing protocol alternatives and properties are to be identified in a brain storming session. neutral.

The IP address tables produced previously needs to be updated to include the loopback addresses. records the major points of the discussion. . centrally located. A decision is to be made about which router and router interface will be the DR. and diagram are modified to include this information and are presented to the Company.1 IG – Appendices Copyright © 2004. The location tables. documents these and makes recommendations. router and IP address table. Cisco Systems. (It is a border router. XYZ Research Company Requirements • • • • • • OSPF process id 50 All routers in a single area. Inc.Phase 3: OSPF The Company has decided that it will use OSPF as the routing protocol. 2. although SYD1 should be BDR Update the diagram with OSPF information. Instructors Signature: _______________________Date:_______________ 82 . Will a DR need to be elected on the serial connections between buildings and the remote branch office? No Why? Only 1 DR needed. and close to admin) 3. area 0 Loopback address assigned on each router Loopback address used as the OSPF router ID There is one multi-access network in the Administration Building and a DR will need to be elected Determine whether to use Router ID or interface priority to determine the DR in the Administration Building (On SYD2 in Admin Building – Loopback interface) Worksheet 1. The group has a discussion about these issues. Explain your reasons for choosing router ID or interface priority to determine DR.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. – (Router ID. as Loopback provides stability…as it is always up) Explain your reasons for choosing router SYD2 in the Administration Building as DR.

Inc.0.1 IG – Appendices Copyright © 2004.0.Phase 4: VLANs The company now wants information about VLANs.130 223.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Switch Details Switch Name Model # of Ports location IP Address Gateway Management VLAN VTP Mode VTP Domain STP Root Sw1 1900 24 Floor1 223. Floor 1 also has the Server LAN.158 1 Server XYZ No 83 . The 100% predicted growth will occur uniformly per floor.158 1 Server XYZ Yes Sw2 1900 24 Floor2 223.0. 6 Research personnel and 4 Sales personnel are on Floor 2.0. Five server machines are planned but at this time only one is available. . Any unassigned ports are to remain in the default VLAN.0. These are required in the Main Building. Worksheet 1. 8 Research personnel and 2 Sales personnel are on Floor 3. There will be one switch per floor shared among the different subnets. Switches in the Main building are connected in a loop so that if one switch fails an alternative path is used.0.158 1 Server XYZ No Sw3 1900 24 Floor3 223.131 223. The table below is an example of the documentation that the company requires. The company has provided the following information: XYZ Research Company Requirements • • • • • • • • • • • • There are 18 Research and Development employees There are 9 Sales and Marketing employees.0.0. Spanning tree root is to be placed in an optimal position.0. Cisco Systems.0. 4 Research personnel and 3 Sales personnel are on Floor 1.0.129 223. There is sufficient space in each room to accommodate growth. There are separate rooms on each floor for the workgroups.0. Tables documenting Switch VLAN port assignments are to be produced for the available demonstration equipment.

workstation. interconnect between switches.VLAN Port Assignments Update the switch tables.1 IG – Appendices Copyright © 2004. and the interconnect to the router in the Main building.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Before submitting the documentation. justification is required for the decision made about the STP root bridge. with the VLAN and port information for each server. (Root bridge is in the MDF and closest to Administrator) Instructors Signature: ______________________Date:_______________ 84 . . 2. Cisco Systems. located in the worksheets of Scenario (part 2). Write one paragraph justifying the choice to the company. Inc.

The document should include the number of cable runs. 2 100Mb Description/Function SYD1 Core\Distribution Layer Switch1 – Access Layer Cost See web See web Main Building Floor 2 IDF Equipment Type Switch Model No 1900 Qty 1 No. 2 100Mb Description/Function Switch3 – Access Layer Cost See web Branch Office Equipment Type Router Hub Model No 2620 Qty 1 No.Phase 5: Physical layer design The Company needs a proposal which will include the growth projections for the physical layer design. a table similar to the one below should be included in the documentation. and labeling rules must also be specified. Cisco Systems./Type Ports 24 10Mb. Inc. Main Building Floor 1 IDF/MDF/POP Equipment Type Router Switch Model No 2620 1900 Qty 1 1 No. ./Type Ports 2 Ser/1 Fa 2 Ser/2 Fa Description/Function MEL Core\Distribution Layer SYD3 Core\Distribution Layer Cost See web See web 85 .159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. recommended equipment including patch panels.1 IG – Appendices Copyright © 2004./Type Ports 2 Ser/1 Fa 24 10Mb. 2 100Mb Description/Function Switch2 – Access Layer Cost See web Main Building Floor 3 IDF Equipment Type Switch Model No 1900 Qty 1 No. For each floor./Type Ports 24 10Mb.00 Administration Building Equipment Type Router Router Model No 2620 2621 Qty 1 1 No./Type Ports 2 Ser/1 Fa 12 – 100Mb ports Description/Function MEL Core\Distribution Layer Access Layer Cost See web $ 100.

Count all runs and adhere to TIA\EIA standards. The diagram must include the following: • • The length and number of cable runs. Floor1Room1Port1. VCC1:Floor1XFloor2Port1 are acceptable.1 IG – Appendices Copyright © 2004. The pinout (straight or crossover) cable types should be listed. .159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Inc. HCC1:Floor1Room1Port1. Instructors Signature:_________________________Date:_______________ 86 . The documentation should include a description of how cross connects for all trunks will be patched for the required logical topology. The Main Building has three floors and will use Category 5 throughout for the LANs.To help with the physical layer design the company has provided a diagram from their old site. Cisco Systems. Generic room names and port names such as IDFFloor 1. (Student should count all runs and adhere to TIA\EIA standards) The labeling convention for each of the outlets and patch panel. On each floor the horizontal cable runs will be no more than 30 meters. (Student should create and complete a similar drawing as above…could be hand drawn or use done using a graphics program) The company requires a similar diagram for the Main Building. If any standards apply in the region then these should be used. The length of cable needed between consecutive floors is 15 meters.

The company is receptive to suggestions or recommendations about other testing and about future network improvements. From VLAN/SW 3/Switch1 4/Switch3 2/Switch1 To VLAN/SW 2/Switch1 2/Switch1 3/Switch2 Protocol Telnet/TCP Telnet/TCP Ping/ICMP 1 1 1 Hosts Pass/Fail Pass Pass Pass 2.33 (VLAN2 Server) UP Trunk up/down Route Pass/Fail Pass 87 .0.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. The company requires that all devices be configured.97 (VLAN4) To Host 223.0.0. Testing and Verifying Strategy 1.33 (VLAN2 Server) 223. routing tables and VLAN databases are to be recorded as part of documentation.0. The company requires an http server machine to be set up in the Server VLAN and a minimum of a single client host on each of the other VLANs. The company specifies the following network testing.0. Inc.Phase 6: Test network The Company requires a demonstration of the functionality of the Main Building network and asks that a logically equivalent network be wired up with the equipment provided. . Demonstrate access of all hosts to each other and http service on the server machine. Demonstrate routing between Main Building VLANs. Cisco Systems. All configurations.1 IG – Appendices Copyright © 2004. From Host 223.33 (VLAN2 Server) Pass/Fail Pass Pass 3. Demonstrate behavior of the internetwork when a single trunk link fails.0.0.65 (VLAN3) To Host 223. From Host 223.0.0.0.0.65 (VLAN3) 223.0.

(Upgrade to Gigabit speeds…other recommendations should be brainstormed by students). Other demonstrations/tests (optional. Recommendation 1.1 IG – Appendices Copyright © 2004. (Students may use a variety of other tests – should probably be determined by a brainstorming session. group decision). Inc. .4. Recommendation 2. Instructors Signature:_________________________Date:_______________ 88 . Cisco Systems.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. chaired by the instructor). Recommendations for future network improvements.

All configurations.Phase 7: Final demonstration The company now wants a demonstration of the complete company internetwork.1 IG – Appendices Copyright © 2004.1 (Sls _Br) To Host 223.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.0.0. .65 (Host on VLAN3) 223. All devices are to be configured and access to the Internet Server address from all networks shown. routing tables.1 (Sls _Br) 223.0.0.0.0.0.1 (Sls_Br) 223.0.161 (Admin Lan) 223. Cisco Systems. The OSPF routing protocol with process id of 50 has been selected.161 (Admin_Lan) Path tested MEL-SYD1-SYD2SYD3 MEL-SYD1-VLAN2 Route Taken Same Same Pass/Fail Pass Pass SYD3-SYD2-SYD1VLAN3) MEL-SYD1-SYD2SYD3 Same Pass Same Pass Instructors Signature:_________________________Date:_______________ 89 .0. Test summary results: From Host 223.0. Because the network is quite small.33 (VLAN2 Server) 223.0.0. and outputs from connectivity testing are to be recorded and stored on a tftp server and on floppy disk.0.0.161 (Admin_Lan) 223. a single OSPF area is acceptable. Inc.0.0.

The document should be complete enough to allow a third party to install and configure the network without any additional documents. Inc.Phase 8: Presentation The final task in this case study is to deliver a 10-minute presentation of the main features of the design decisions and recommendations. .159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Cisco Systems. Instructors Signature:_________________________Date:_______________ 90 . A formal written report should also be provided that contains all of the design documents as well as all the supporting worksheets (see case study deliverables).1 IG – Appendices Copyright © 2004.

1 IG – Appendices Copyright © 2004.CCNA 3 Case Study Deliverables Once the case study problem has been solved. STP. Inc. . and switches Discussion on the physical layer design and equipment Discussion on testing and verification strategies Output of testing and verification commands from routers Output of testing and verification commands for switches Recommendations for future network upgrades Logical Diagram Physical Diagram IP Addressing Table Router Interface Table Switch Table PC addressing Table Routing Protocol Matrix Equipment Table Router Configurations (printed and floppy) Switch Configurations (printed and floppy) Testing Results (printed and floppy) 91 . The following items must be included in the final report: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • Outline Summary of the Company and Network Requirements Discussion on the implementation of IP address and VLSM Discussion on the implementation of Routing Discussion on the implementation of VLANs. Cisco Network Designer. the network has been successfully designed and the prototype implemented and tested.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Visio or a paint program can be used for the network diagrams. It is highly recommended that all tables be completed using a spreadsheet program such as Microsoft Excel. This report will include thorough and well-organized documentation of the process. Cisco Systems. a final report must be provided to your instructor.

V. . Cisco Systems.1 IG – Appendices Copyright © 2004. Inc. Appendices: A) Cisco Online Tools and Utilities B) Instructional Best Practices 92 .159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.

A user ID and password can be obtained with a valid Cisco service contract at http://tools.com/tac.cisco. Cisco Systems.1 IG – Appendix A Copyright © 2004.com/public/news_training/tac_overview.com/RPF/register/register.do.cisco.com. This document introduces ten valuable resources that are available to users at cisco. To learn more about the Cisco TAC website visit http://www.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. These resources can be found on the Cisco Technical Assistance Center (TAC) website at http://www.html. 93 . Inc. . and optimization of routers and switches.com user ID and password is required to access all of the tools on the Cisco TAC website.Appendix A: Cisco Online Tools and Utilities Cisco Systems offers a wide range of online documents and tools to assist in the configuration. A cisco.cisco. troubleshooting.

com/cgi-bin/Support/OutputInterpreter/home. switch.pl 94 . Output Interpreter uses a collection of show command outputs to perform the analysis. Inc. Cisco Systems. . and relevant troubleshooting information.1 Output Interpreter Output Interpreter is a Web-based application that provides a troubleshooting analysis and a course of action for a router. or PIX device.1 IG – Appendix A Copyright © 2004.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. which were previously supported by the Stack Decoder and the Error Message Decoder tools. warnings. Users paste the output of one or more supported commands into Output Interpreter to receive a report that includes errors. The report also includes crash analysis and error message decodes. https://www.cisco.

2 Error Message Decoder

Explanations for console error message strings are listed in the Cisco Software System Messages guide. http://www.cisco.com/cgi-bin/Support/Errordecoder/home.pl

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3 Software Bug Toolkit

The Software Bug Toolkit is a Web-based resource that is used to search for software bugs based on version and feature sets. The toolkit can be used to determine why a feature does not work. http://www.cisco.com/cgi-bin/Support/Bugtool/launch_bugtool.pl

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4 IP Subnet Calculator

IP Subnet Calculator is a Web-based resource that is used to calculate the subnet mask based on several variables. This tool can be used to verify network settings. http://www.cisco.com/cgi-bin/Support/IpSubnet/home.pl

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cisco. The password recovery procedure for every Cisco device can be found here.com/warp/public/474/ 98 . . http://www.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.1 IG – Appendix A Copyright © 2004.5 Password Recovery Procedures This Web page is the source for Cisco password recovery procedures. Cisco Systems. Inc.

help resolve networking problems. Cisco Systems. . which are provided directly by TAC engineers. Inc.html 99 . http://www.6 TAC Case Collection The TAC Case Collection is an evolution of the Troubleshooting Assistant tool.cisco.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.1 IG – Appendix A Copyright © 2004. These solutions. and performance issues. configuration. It allows users to interactively identify and troubleshoot common problems that involve hardware.com/kobayashi/support/tac/tsa/launch_tsa.

http://www. Users can match software features to Cisco IOS and CatOS releases. . or find out which software releases support their hardware.1 IG – Appendix A Copyright © 2004.com/cgi-bin/Support/CompNav/Index. compare IOS releases.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Inc.cisco.pl 100 .7 Software Advisor The Software Advisor helps users choose the appropriate software for network devices. Cisco Systems.

Users can search by feature. http://tools.jsp 101 . or compare two different releases.8 Feature Navigator II Cisco Feature Navigator II is a Web-based application that allows users to quickly find the right Cisco IOS Software release for the features they want to run on their networks.cisco.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Inc. Cisco Systems.1 IG – Appendix A Copyright © 2004.com/ITDIT/CFN/jsp/index. . search by release.

for TAC technical support tools.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. http://www.shtml 102 .com/kobayashi/support/tac/s_tac. Cisco Systems. Inc.com/. for documents that are located on http://www.cisco. .9 TAC Advanced Search TAC Advanced Search can be used to access the same resources used by TAC. or for entries in the Networking Professionals Connection discussion forums.1 IG – Appendix A Copyright © 2004.cisco. Users can search the entire TAC database for technical documents published by the Cisco TAC.

Appendix B: Instructional Best Practices B. universities.000 instructors. Fundamentals of Web Design. 103 .1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. Inc. The Academy program includes CCNA.1. instructional design and training models. Fundamentals of UNIX. Current research supports certain practices and strategies that help teachers maximize student learning. schools have explored the use of technology as an effective tool for teaching and learning in the classroom. The ideas presented in this module are taken from international sources such as kindergarten through high school.1 Definition of Best Practices B. form the foundation for effective teaching and learning environments across the Academy curriculum. or best practices. Fundamentals of Voice and Data Cabling. Cisco Systems. Fundamentals of Java. CCNP.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. . This section presents options that have been successful for certain audiences and certain topics.1 What is meant by best practices? Figure 1: Best Practices Since the early 1980s. and IT Essentials. and the IT teaching community. This section does not imply that all of these techniques apply equally well to all students in all curricula. community colleges. These techniques. These types of techniques are referred to as best practices. Each instructor brings unique experiences and talents to the program. The Academy teaching community consists of over 20. Instructional concepts such as student centered learning and brain compatible learning have emerged as powerful contributors to advanced student achievement.

teachers.Web Links International Society for Technology in Education: http://www. and curriculum Assessment and evaluation Productivity and professional practice Social.2 NETS Figure 1: NETS Standards The International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) is a nonprofit professional organization that prepares students. learning. teachers.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004.1.org/edtech/ North Central Regional Educational Laboratory: http://www. and human issues 104 . ethical. and human issues Technology productivity tools Technology communication tools Technology research tools Technology problem-solving and decision-making tools ISTE also features NETS for Teachers (NETS•T).159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. and administrators.org/ Milken Family Foundation: http://www.mff. The NETS for Students (NETS•S) are divided into six categories: • • • • • • Basic operations and concepts Social.asp Mid-Continent Research for Education and Learning: http://www. Cisco Systems. There are six categories for teacher standards that are based on current research on teaching and learning with technology.org/ B. The ISTE has considered the need for planning and integration as well as the emergence of new technologies in classrooms.org/ Alabama Best Practices Center: http://www.ncrel. The six categories are as follows: • • • • • • Technology operations and concepts Planning and designing learning environments and experiences Teaching.org/index.org/ Southeast Center for Teaching Quality: http://www. .iste. and administrators for a business world that demands proficiency in information technology.mcrel. The ISTE has written National Educational Technology Standards (NETS) for students. Inc. ethical.bestpracticescenter. legal.teachingquality.

3 Literacy.ca/ 105 .gc.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. Educational standards are important in all countries.org/ B. Web Links National Council for Teachers of English: http://www. math.ncte. Based upon a U. The following six categories encourage strong leadership in the area of information technology: • • • • • • Leadership and vision Learning and teaching Productivity and professional practice Support. educators have reached an agreement about the meaning of two significant concepts.org/standards/standards.nctm. Administrators must be prepared to lead the way to systemic reform. Cisco Systems.org/ American Association for the Advancement of Science: http://www.shtml Council for Teachers of Math: http://www. and by curriculum to achieve alignment with international educational standards.nsta. states and school districts across the United States have begun to raise standards in core subjects. consensus.edu/ National Research Council (NRC): http://www.nas. and ethical issues Web Links ISTE website: http://www. State and local standards keep the education system accountable for student achievement.iste.The ISTE has also developed the National Educational Technology Standards for Administrators (NETS•A). which were later published in the Goals 2000 Act. and science standards Since the late 1980s. As state standards have gained momentum.S. Inc. legal. . Academic standards are now used to clearly identify what students should learn and what teachers should teach.nrc-cnrc. a recognized set of indicators is used within school systems that utilize technology effectively. academic content standards and performance standards.org/ National Science Teachers Association: http://www. and operations Assessment and evaluation Social. management.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.aaas.org/ The National Academy of Science: http://www. The Academy program can be tailored by region.1. by country.

school characteristics.1. Two findings emerged when different types of knowledge presentation were compared internationally.S. Twelfth graders in the United States scored at the lowest possible levels in both math and science. Extensive data was collected from students. Eighth graders in the United States scored above the international level in science but below the international level in mathematics. In the United States. and policies. The 1999 assessment measured the mathematics and science abilities of eighth grade students. home contexts. . They invent their own solutions and then reflect on the process to better understand the mathematical concepts.S. The most recent implementation of this study is TIMSS 1999. teachers. students are not taught how to use the information that they are learning. This study also finds dissimilarities in teaching styles. The study completed in 1995 discovers that fourth grade students in the United States scored above the international average. They also investigated instructional practices. which included 38 countries. Students will then apply this problem-solving process to similar mathematical problems. In countries such as Japan. and school principals about the mathematics and science curricula.B. This study encourages educators to examine teaching practices and content to determine the methods that will lead to higher student achievement. the United States leads the world in the amount of math and science objectives that are covered within curriculum. However. Cisco Systems. U. Students are presented with a problem and try to solve the problem based on their current knowledge.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. students perform academically in comparison to students in other countries. Inc. problem-solving usually occurs after the teacher has demonstrated the process to find the correct answer based upon mathematical principals.4 TIMSS report Figure 1: TIMSS Report Participating Countries The Third International Mathematics and Science Study (TIMSS) indicates how U. Asian nations and European nations teach fewer objectives and give students more opportunities to use the knowledge in practical applications. 106 . The curriculum focuses on trends in math and science achievement. First. Problem-solving comes first in the sequence of learning. the order of methodology is reversed.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.

The next TIMSS assessment will occur in 2003. Web Links Third International Math and Science Study: http://isc.bc.edu/timss1999benchmark.html TIMSS International Study Center: http://timss.bc.edu/

B.1.5 Student-centered learning

Figure 1: Learner Model: Academy Student

Figure 1 illustrates the Cisco Networking Academy learner model. The model is designed to maximize student performance. Instructors are encouraged to strengthen and enhance the online curriculum and labs. When all components of the diagram have been established, research indicates that students are successful in their learning. This model represents a "constructivist learning" approach. Constructivist learning is derived from the Latin word constructus, which means to build. The Cisco Networking Academy allows students to develop knowledge that they can use in the real world. Constructivist learning is also known as student-centered learning. This type of learning is recognized as an exemplary instructional model. This method of teaching puts the students in control of their own learning. It allows them to practice their experimentation, inquiry, problem-solving, decision-making, and communication skills. Constructivist learning can occur on an individual level, in grouped pairs of students, or in small cooperative groups of three or four students. During constructivist activities, an essential question is presented to individuals or groups of students for thoughts and discussion. Students in a group setting will search for information about issues that surface during their discussion. Students will also assign roles and identify jobs that need to be completed for the benefit of the group. This allows students to tap into their current knowledge, and journey into new levels of comprehension through a continuous
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cycle of inquiry and exploration. Students who work individually will go through the same process without any team direction and input. These students will make their own decisions about the relevancy of information. They will rely on their peers and other data sources to determine which information is most useful. During this time, the teacher will assume a role that is different from the provider of skills and knowledge. The instructor will become a facilitator of learning. As students become immersed in their questions and desire to learn, teachers can ask essential questions to support thinking and exploration. As students struggle with challenges, teachers can introduce problem-solving strategies and encourage students to work through what is perceived to be a difficult situation. As students master the course content, teachers can introduce the next level of challenge. Web Links Pedagogical Application of Technology: A Consortium for Change: http://courses.temple.edu/ta/contructivist.htm

B.1.6 Multiple intelligences

Figure 1: Multiple Intelligences

The research of Howard Gardner provides great insight into how students learn. Students learn in different ways. There are multiple skills that go beyond the traditional verbal and mathematical abilities that are required to master new learning. According to Gardner, there are eight intelligences that people have a predetermined strength to use: • Verbal/Linguistic intelligence allows students to understand verbal and written forms of words. Students with strong verbal/linguistic intelligence easily recognize sounds, languages, and inflections of speech. Logical/Mathematical intelligence allows students to understand and interact with numbers, symbols, and patterns, especially within the disciplines of math and science. Bodily/Kinesthetic intelligence gives students a strong connection to new content through the movement and manipulation of body and external objects. Activities help students create cognitive connections for easy recall and comprehension.

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Musical/Rhythmic intelligence centers around melody, tune, pitch, rhythm, and patterns found in types of music or cadence. For some students, music presents an environment that fluctuates from peaceful to highly energetic. Their brains respond accordingly and the recall of new information becomes tied to a specific rhythm or cadence. Visual/Spatial intelligence is based on the ability to recognize and respond to visual content through written words or artistic designs. Visual/Spatial strength helps students interpret maps and charts and form mental images of information that is communicated by another person. Intrapersonal intelligence provides a confidence in oneself that allows a student to process new information through thought and reflection. Strong intrapersonal intelligence indicates a strong personal connection to feelings and emotions, which can take a student to a higher level of consciousness in learning. Interpersonal intelligence allows a student to accurately perceive the emotions, feelings, motivations, and intentions of others. Strong interpersonal intelligence indicates a strong team-player mentality. A student with this strength will work thoughtfully within group settings. Naturalist intelligence allows students to recognize natural phenomenon such as flora and fauna, soil and land, weather, and environmental issues. These students easily make choices related to issues such as survival in the wild or the proper clothing for different weather conditions.

Gardner believes that all individuals have strength in one or more of these intelligences and they will follow a changing pattern of strength that depends on their stages of human life and circumstances. For student achievement to be maximized, the Cisco Networking Academy Program encourages instructors to identify the intelligence that best reflects the learning style of individual students. Web Links Project Zero: http://www.pz.harvard.edu/

B.1.7 Inquiry-based learning

Figure 1: Inquiry Based Learning

When people uncover uncertain, curious, or interesting phenomena in life, questions naturally arise that encourage quests for answers. Inquiry is a natural process that begins as soon as a child starts to experiment with language. As questions are asked, the answers often lead to more questions. This begins a cycle of inquiry for learning. In education, instructors refer to this process as "inquiry-based learning" or "problem-based learning".
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There will be times when the instructor takes control of the learning environment.The basic requirements of either practice are strong reading skills and good scientific observation techniques. but do not assume that they do.html Project Based Learning: What is it?: http://www. Students begin to realize that they will often require a team approach to find the solution to essential questions. Use proper lighting in all areas of the lab to help students see more effectively.org/projectbased/ B.4teachers. the range of control must remain flexible. Inc.1. Teachers show students that even instructors address problems on a daily basis in and out of school. The instructor is always a role model for lifelong learning. here are some general considerations to keep in mind: • • • Ask visually impaired students if they need help on specific tasks. this team consists of the students and the instructor.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. 110 . One methodology for inquiry-based learning is called KWHLAQ.biopoint. In inquiry-based learning. Use contrasting light and dark colors to help students differentiate between cables and routers.8 Special needs Figure 1: Special Needs When there are visually impaired students in a classroom. They also model the fact that sometimes problems are solved successfully and other times they are not.ascd. times when the students exercise more independence. Web Links Big Rocks and Powerful Kingdoms Personal Learning in Science and Social Studies: http://www.org/readingroom/classlead/9911/2nov99. and times when the instructor and students share control of the direction for learning. The students will ask for help if they need it.html Using the Internet to Promote Inquiry-based Learning: http://www.com/msla/links. . Cisco Systems.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. The following questions breakdown the KWHLAQ method: • • • • • • What do learners think they Know about the subject? What do learners Want to find out about the subject? How are learners going to go about finding the answers? What do learners anticipate Learning? What have they learned? Can learners Apply their learning to other subjects or projects? What new Questions have surfaced throughout the time of inquiry? Within any inquiry-based learning activity or project.

Reword sentences or phrases if necessary to convey messages to students who are speech-readers. Establish open communication with the student. . 111 . • • • • • • • When there are physically impaired students in a classroom. and voice synthesis programs. especially those that are visually impaired. When there are hearing impaired students in a classroom. and exams. Offer a copy of instructor notes to the student for review on tests. Provide preferential seating in the lab to accommodate transportation devices. here are some general considerations to keep in mind: • • Make sure the labs are well lighted so the speaker can be clearly seen. Provide special devices for students with physical disabilities such as word processors.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. in the classroom. a social worker or special teacher of the visually impaired may be called in to help these students cope with their learning environment. and doctor to find the right balance of work that matches individual endurance and capability. Get close to the students when speaking. Provide hats or visors to reduce the glare that is associated with many vision disorders. Initiate conversations with students by specifically calling their names. Stress the importance of only one person talking at a time during group work. parent.• • • • Provide pocket or lighted magnifiers for reading to assist students with low vision. instruct hearing impaired students to use ear phones to keep extraneous noise to a minimum. Cisco Systems. Use a computer for testing. Consider giving these students shorter work assignments with rest periods built into the schedule. ergonomically designed furniture.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. If background noise is unavoidable with online learning. Turn radios. Encourage all students. tasks. Inc. If feelings of hopelessness or fear occur. Be sensitive to background noise in the lab. Configure the lab space to accommodate wheel chairs and other transportation aids. Use bold lines and write in large print when information is taught or presented. Be conscious of speaking distinctly and not too fast. Kurzweil print readers. laptop computers. and televisions off during work times. portable tape recorders for books on tape. here are some general considerations to keep in mind: • • • • • • • • Be prepared to give physically impaired students more time if necessary to complete hands-on labs. It is important to be on equal eye level with a student when having a conversation. cell phones. Speak face to face. Be patient when students are tired or frustrated with the impact of their disabilities in the lab learning environment.

Discuss the steps and thoughts that occur during the problem-solving process. Provide numerous models. examples. • • • • 112 . Many students with learning disabilities will have a higher level of motivation to succeed in response to peer interactions than when working alone. Teaching Strategies. Many of these suggestions also apply to students without learning disabilities: • • Engage the students with lesson starters that illicit emotion and feelings. This introduction to learning instructs the brain to pay attention. Use simple memory tools to help students process information for retrieval at a later time. This strategy is related to Howard Gardner's work with multiple intelligences. Provide opportunities for teamwork.Web Links Disabilities. Teach students to write their own personal learning goals.as. Cisco Systems. music.edu/~scidis/sitemap. Instruct them to write short and long term goals and provide feedback on their progress. color. Mnemonics can use pictures.wvu. These tools are called mnemonics and include rhythms or unique patterns of language that are easy to remember. and Resources: http://www. Inc.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. Speak aloud in class to benefit students with learning disabilities.9 Learning disabilities Figure 1: Learning Disabilities Instructors will probably have a few students with learning disabilities in their classes. .1.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. and representations of curriculum concepts. The following list summarizes some approaches to teaching students with learning disabilities.html B. and movement.

and what they still need to learn at the end of each topic. Organizers prepare the brain for the arrival of new content. . analyze. • • • • • Web Links National Center for Learning Disabilities: http://www. Use movement and action. This extra time can be very important.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. Reflection moves new knowledge into long-term memory.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. The mind easily latches onto the silly and unimaginable. which is a powerful stimulant to the brain. These are important motivators that can help some students with learning disabilities process information.html 113 . and synthesize levels of comprehension. Instruct students to talk about or write about what they have learned. Students can work through tasks more easily when they are calm and focused. Help students with learning disabilities maintain an emotional state that is free from anger and frustration. Cisco Systems.as. Inc.ncld. what they found interesting.edu/~scidis/learning. Use humor.org/ Strategies for Teaching Students with Learning Disabilities: http://www. Offer additional time for students with learning disabilities to formulate responses to questions.wvu.• Use visual advance organizers to introduce new concepts. This technique builds upon existing knowledge to facilitate the acquisition of new knowledge. The hands-on labs will greatly benefit these students.

The required lab equipment for CCNA 1 includes workstations.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. and troubleshoot TCP/IP. hubs.2. Cisco Systems. Approximately 50 percent of all class time is spent on lab exercises.B.2 Lab-Centric Instruction B. switches. switches. and switched networks with some remote connectivity. CCNA 2 students acquire lab skills that enable them to perform the following tasks: • • • Interconnect networking devices Use the Cisco Internet Operating System (IOS) to configure and test routers Build and troubleshoot a multi-router network The required lab equipment for CCNA 3 includes workstations. a variety of cable making and cable testing tools. jacks. routed.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. Ethernet. switches. and cable installation materials. and patch panels The required lab equipment for CCNA 2 includes workstations. hubs. design. CCNA 3 students acquire lab skills that enable them to perform the following tasks: • • • • Switch configuration VLAN configuration Intermediate routing protocol implementation Use of access control lists to provide traffic control and security on a simple network The required lab equipment for CCNA 4 includes workstations. operate. and routers. 114 . The CCNA curriculum consists of four courses: • • • • Networking Basics Routers and Routing Basics Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing WAN Technologies The curriculum is lab intensive. . switches. Students acquire lab skills in the following WAN technology areas: • • • PPP ISDN Frame Relay Students also must pass a comprehensive lab-skills exam as part of this course. Optional WAN simulation equipment is also recommended. and routers.1 CCNA labs The CCNA curriculum teaches students how to plan. install. CCNA 1 students acquire lab skills that enable them to perform the following tasks: • • • Configure networking properties on workstations Make and test patch cables Install and test cable runs. hubs. hubs. Inc. and routers.

routed. Ethernet.Standard and premium lab bundles are available. The CCNP curriculum consists of four courses: • • • • Advanced Routing Remote Access Multilayer Switching Network Troubleshooting The curriculum is lab intensive.2 CCNP labs Figure 1: CCNP Labs The CCNP curriculum teaches students how to plan.2.net/ B. Web Links Cisco Networking Academy Program: http://cisco. operate.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. Approximately 50 percent of all class time spent on lab exercises. install. and troubleshoot enterprise-level TCP/IP. 115 .159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Inc. and switched networks with substantial remote access. Cisco Systems.netacad. A variety of optional bundles are also available. design. The student-to-equipment ratio should be as low as possible. .

net/ 116 . and a WAN simulator. routers. point-to-point. and a WAN simulator. ISDN. Cisco Systems. Inc. and X. hubs. routers. and BGP routing protocols. switches. Frame Relay. CCNP 1 students acquire lab skills that enable them to perform the following tasks: • • • Design scalable networks Implement advanced IP address management techniques Configure and test the EIGRP. routers. Web Links Cisco Networking Academy Program: http://cisco. and switches. switches. CCNP 4 students acquire lab skills and the ability to troubleshoot the following: • • • • • • LANs WANs Switches Routers TCP/IP Protocols Routing Protocols Standard and premium lab bundles are available. which help make most enterprise Intranets and the Internet possible The required lab equipment for CCNP 2 includes workstations.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. .159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. and routers.25 WAN protocol configuration and testing Basic network security The required lab equipment in CCNP 3 includes workstations. switches. The student-to-equipment ratio should be as low as possible. CCNP 2 students acquire lab skills such as the following: • • • WAN design Dial-up. OSPF.netacad.The required lab equipment for CCNP 1 includes workstations. CCNP 3 students acquire lab skills such as the following: • • • Switch and VLAN configuration Multilayer switching and redundancy technology implementation Campus LAN design Required lab equipment for CCNP 4 includes workstations. A variety of optional bundles are also available.

and edit configuration files. Cisco Networking Academy now offers the NDG NETLAB solution. students can practice configuration tasks just as they would with their Networking Academy equipment. Students can work in teams to configure an entire topology or schedule individual time to practice new commands. The NETLAB automation and sharing capabilities allow Cisco Networking Academies to maximize the use of their equipment and save money in the process.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.2. Students can also program one or more of the devices. This course will examine this issue in more depth and suggest how instructors and Academies can use these technologies or implement their own versions of them. This will allow students to maintain a consistent topology to practice the configuration commands covered in the Academy curriculum and labs. and sponsored curriculum to help lower student-to-equipment ratios in distance-learning situations. 117 . Students will usually access the equipment in the evening or on the weekends from their homes or another location with Internet access. students can perform these configuration tasks outside of the Academy.B. Since the NETLAB environment equipment is similar to the equipment used by Cisco Networking Academy programs.3 NETLAB Figure 1: NETLAB Many educators are interested in remote access to shared lab equipment to give students more access to hands-on experiences. CCNP. This web-based appliance allows Cisco Networking Academies to host live router topologies and curriculum over the Internet. These technologies are currently fully implemented only for the CCNA courses.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. The use of NETLAB in the Cisco Networking Academy will allow students to log in. Since the NETLAB equipment can be accessed from any PC with a browser that is connected to the Internet. . The networking hardware is identical to the lab bundle used in Cisco Networking Academies worldwide. create. Cisco Systems. Inc. Remote access technologies can be used in courses such as the CCNA.

Although NETLAB seems intuitive and easy to use. The final equipment configurations of students can be saved for instructor review. Cisco Systems. administrators and instructors should spend time becoming familiar with the numerous features of NETLAB. Since NETLAB can save and store these configuration files. Interested Academies will receive a survey that will help identify any changes that will need to be made for the NETLAB tool to function and information on how to order the necessary equipment. . Academies will be selected for this program based upon a review of several factors. NETLAB records every command and router output in log files.com. To learn how to utilize NETLAB. This is especially useful when students are just beginning to learn new configuration tasks. Academies will need to have the proper infrastructure in place and must be able to demonstrate a sufficiently high level of technical expertise. For information on how to become one of the Academies that participates in the NETLAB project pilot. Please e-mail netlab-question@cisco.Some instructors may choose to implement use of the NETLAB system within the classroom. During each lab reservation.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. Upon the successful completion of this pilot program. the instructor can issue configuration commands to one or more devices while students shadow the Telnet session of the instructor.com with any questions or requests for additional information. NETLAB has also been used by instructors to review the work of students on real equipment.netdevgroup. Inc. NETLAB is currently deployed as a pilot program at selected Cisco Networking Academies. Instructors can also identify and correct common mistakes that are made by students during lab exercises. This process is designed to minimize potential deployment problems and to enhance the success of a production deployment. the Cisco Networking Academy Program has created an online curriculum and comprehensive administrator. please e-mail netlab-pilot@cisco. Instructors can use the instructor-led lab features of NETLAB to lead the class through a lab. Another way instructors can use NETLAB within the classroom is the team approach. This feature allows instructors to determine the ability of students to implement the concepts learned in the classroom.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Web Links NGD NETLAB: http://www. instructor and student guides. The team can use NETLAB to share access and control over the routers while other teams try to configure other routers in the topology. it is easy for the instructor to evaluate the performance of each team. Cisco will offer NETLAB to all Cisco Networking Academies. Technical capacity will be one of the more important criteria. During instructor-led sessions. A survey will be provided to interested Academies to identify the requirements for a successful solution.htm 118 .com/netlab. A team of students is given an assignment to configure one or more of the routers in a topology.

The hands-on lab or configuration task will include a complete flash analogue that can be done by students even if they have no access to the lab equipment. The Help feature in the simulation can be used to obtain the necessary information to complete the required task. Therefore.B. • • 119 . many commands can be issued in any order. This is the most open-ended environment.2.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. Inc. such as. graphical user interfaces (GUIs). Examples of simulations are content items. This exercise gives students immediate practice when a new command or procedure is introduced. and programming language development environments. which is available and free to all CCNA and CCNP students. For command-line interfaces such as IOS or UNIX. This exercise involves a step-by-step simulation of hands-on labs and configuration tasks. Figure 1 shows a simulation activity from the UNIX curriculum. These simulations help move online curriculum away from an e-reading approach to a more interactive e-learning approach. There are generally three levels of Academy simulations: • Syntax drill – The simplest and most scripted activity can be thought of as a syntax drill. One class of these activities is simulation. it supports a wide variety of hardware and software behavior. The Academy curriculum contains a variety of interactive Flash activities. This level is not scripted.4 Simulations Figure 1: Simulations Research indicates that learning is more extensive when content is interactive and provides instant feedback.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. . Simulation – The third level is called simulation. command-line interfaces (CLIs). The best example of this third level simulation environment is eSIM. Lab drill – The second level can be thought of as a lab drill. Cisco Systems.

These simulations have many cognitive benefits.5 Sponsored curriculum labs Figure 1: Sponsored Curriculum Labs 120 . many more simulations across the curricula will be developed for the Cisco Networking Academy Program.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. In the future.2. B. Cisco Systems. For example. This helps students increase their level of comprehension in a simulated environment before they are required to demonstrate a final proficiency with equipment and programming. .Flash simulations are meant to complement hands-on experience with lab equipment and actual programming. simulations allow students to perform a simulative lab activity prior to an actual lab activity. Inc.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.

1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. Inc. .Figure 2: Sponsored Curriculum Labs Figure 3: Sponsored Curriculum Labs 121 .159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Cisco Systems.

The six sponsored curricula also require dedicated labs and a variety of hardware and software. and troubleshoot hardware and software problems through hands-on activities and labs. IT Essentials: Network Operating Systems Network Operating Systems. Fundamentals of Voice and Data Cabling Fundamentals of Voice and Data Cabling. This is designed as a 70-hour course. They are summarized in the following sections: IT Essentials: PC Hardware and Software IT Essentials PC Hardware and Software. which is sponsored by Hewlett-Packard Company. 70-hour course. Handson labs will utilize the Windows 2000 and Linux NOSs. This course helps students prepare for the CompTIA A+ certification exam. NT. install operating systems and software. and XP NOSs. An introduction to networking is also included. is an extensive introduction to multiuser. is designed for students interested in the physical aspects of voice and data network cabling and installation. . Inc. It stresses the following competencies: Documentation Design Installation issues Laboratory safety On-the-job safety Working effectively in group environments 122 . it addresses a broad range of topics that might benefit from a longer delivery model.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. This is a 70-hour course. which is sponsored by Hewlett-Packard Company. lab-oriented. back up procedures. and remote access. Students will develop skills in the following areas: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • How to read network design documentation Part list set up and purchase How to pull and mount cable Cable management How to choose wiring closets Patch panel installation Termination Jack installation and cable testing This is a hands-on. Students learn the functionality of hardware and software components and the suggested best practices for maintenance and safety issues. and signal transmission. This course will discuss the characteristics of the Linux. multitasking network operating systems (NOSs). types of media and cabling. security issues. presents an in-depth exposure to computer hardware and operating systems. However. Students learn how to assemble and configure computers. physical and logical networks. which is sponsored by Panduit. The course focuses on cabling issues related to data and voice connections and discusses the industry and worldwide standards. Windows 2000. Cisco Systems.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. Students will explore a variety of topics such as installation procedures.

and mail. This course also addresses the demand for training and preparation to be a Sun Certified Programmer for JavaTM 2 Platform. This course has been designed as a 70-hour course.netacad. The course also teaches students how to use the JAVA language object oriented technologies to solve business problems. Cisco Systems. Adobe LiveMotionTM. and Adobe Premiere®. provides a conceptual comprehension of Object Oriented programming. Students will learn the fundamental commandline features of the Solaris environment: • • • • • File system navigation File permissions The vi text editor Command shells Basic network use CDE features include standard desktop tools. Students will learn how to use this language to create classes. which is sponsored by Sun Microsystems. navigation. and interactivity. text editor. which is sponsored by Sun Microsystems. printing.net/cnacs/prot-doc/new_courses. About half of this time is spent on the instructor-facilitated online multimedia material and the rest is spent on lab exercises. The emphasis of the course will be on design elements that involve layout. and applications. Inc. Fundamentals of Web Design Fundamentals of Web Design. Adobe GoLiveTM.Fundamentals of UNIX Fundamentals of UNIX. Topics include the language fundamentals and the Java language application programming interface (API).159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. This is designed as a 70-hour course.html 123 . which is sponsored by Adobe Systems. since it uses five Adobe applications. The course is designed for 70 hours. Adobe Illustrator®. Web Links Instructor Community: New Courses: http://cisco.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. However. About half of the course time is spent on the instructor-facilitated online multimedia material and the rest is spent on lab exercises. provides students with the following: • • • Ability to use UNIX operating system commands Hands-on experience with basic Sun Microsystems SolarisTM operating environment commands Introduction to the Common Desktop Environment (CDE). objects. Fundamentals of Java Programming Fundamentals of Java Programming. which is the graphical interface between different environments This class is intended for new users of UNIX. . Cisco Networking Academy students will learn Web design in preparation for higher education or jobs in the Internet economy. Hands-on Web design exercises will use Adobe® Photoshop®. will focus on the overall production processes related to website design. it may be beneficial to use a longer delivery model or some pre-selection and screening of students. However. it addresses some very advanced topics that might benefit from a longer delivery model or some pre-selection and screening of students.

6 Emerging technologies Figure 1: PIX Firewall PhotoZoom Figure 2: IP Phone 124 .B. Cisco Systems. .159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.2. Inc.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004.

Each of these courses will have an associated lab bundle.cisco.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.com/warp/public/779/largeent/issues/security/ IP Telephony: http://www. Inc.html Wireless solutions: http://www.shtml 125 . Cisco Systems.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004.com/warp/public/779/smbiz/netsolutions/find/wireless.com/warp/public/779/largeent/learn/technologies/IPtelephony. which will allow for the successful implementation of the labs.Figure 3: Wireless LAN In the future. Web Links Network security issues: http://cisco. new technologies such as network security.cisco. . wireless LANs . and wireless LANs may be the basis for Academy courses. and other networking technologies. The goal of these course will be to train professionals who can implement network security . IP telephony . IP telephony.

in a structured lab environment.2. students will be able to diagnose and fix the problems in a finite amount of time. However. even if it is not formally taught. Troubleshooting is used to identify and correct hardware. Inc. Cisco Systems.B. that have been experienced previously by the students. Instructors may use their own preferred method. This is the preferred method for Cisco courses. One instructional troubleshooting method involves deliberately introducing a finite number of problems. . and programming problems.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. software. Troubleshooting and debugging skills are necessary for students who seek further education and employment in the IT industry. the overall benefit to the student is worth this investment. There are literally over a hundred approaches to troubleshooting.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Figure shows one approach. Instructors will typically need to spend more time on lab preparation to teach students about troubleshooting. With practice.7 Troubleshooting Figure 1: Steps in the Problem-Solving Model Troubleshooting is a form of educational inquiry that is necessary in most Academy courses. This method must be integrated with labs that do the following: • • • • Expose students to a working system Demonstrate the typical failure modes of that system Allow students to experience first hand the symptoms of those failure modes Provide opportunities for students to practice diagnosis and repair 126 .

lib.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.html 127 .1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004.Web Links Teaching Methods Web Resources: http://www.troubleshooters. Inc.vt.com/socscience/education/methods/resources.com/tuni.edu/ejournals/JTE/v2n2/html/deluca.mhhe. Cisco Systems. .htm Journal of Technology Education: http://scholar.html The Universal Troubleshooting Process (UTP): http://www.

Sometimes these activities are called service learning. A three-week challenge that teaches more complex tasks might be called "Wire the School Computer Lab". This need for versatile apprentices became the Cisco Certified Network Associate (CCNA) curriculum. 128 . a simple 50-minute challenge lab for the first semester might be titled "Make a Patch Cable that Works Successfully". it asks the students to create a product.3 Project-based Instruction B.3. NetDay is a great example of challenge-based learning. Unlike step-by-step labs. . educational institutions around the world experienced a demand for computer networks that exceeded the skilled personnel available to install and maintain those networks. In the mid-1990s. First. the lab asks students to solve a problem. which is a science education reform project. The Cisco Networking Academy Program originated as a community project. these exercises encourage students to develop their own solutions to various problems or challenges. Inc. Cisco engineer George Ward worked to address these issues. Teaching and learning environments extend beyond the lab setting. For example.1 Challenges and projects Figure 1: Challenges and Projects NetDay challenges are problem-based labs or projects that are advocated by AAAS Project 2061. Opportunities for realworld applications emerge when students can use their networking skills in projects that contribute to community initiatives.B. Second. Cisco Systems. He articulated the need for a course sequence that would train high school students to support their school networks. and Cisco encourages instructors to incorporate it into their classes. These challenges consist of two basic parts. The challenges vary in content and duration ranges from 50 minutes to 3 weeks.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004.

Cisco Systems. "These students return to the classroom with an incredible amount of energy after these experiences. where Cisco Systems partners with Mary's Center for Maternal and Child Care. .159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Another example of community outreach takes place in Washington. As a result. It is a popular type of community project that involves students. and others who work together to get students connected to the Internet.A NetDay occurs when a community volunteers time to wire a school. These benefits are described in a quote from Max Anis. One quote from a student demonstrates the value of this learning experience. Now the center can access important health and insurance information needed to assist families and their children. Mary's Center now has a fully operational wireless network that can support their computer needs.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. parents. "This really helped me see the big picture of how everything works together and what tech support is like". With help from a volunteer system engineer and three students from the Cisco Networking Academy Program at Bell Multicultural High School. a Networking Academy instructor at Bell High School. D. Academy students participate in numerous NetDays. 129 . they are even more determined to complete the program and continue their pursuit of a career in the industry". Inc. Academy students receive many benefits from working on real-world projects. Another example of a community project was developed by the Cisco Academy of South West Ohio (CASWO). Academy students helped set up the network for the conference and provided technical assistance to conference managers and presenters. This Academy and its students provided technical support for the annual Ohio SchoolNet Technology Conference. network administrators.C.

Whether students will troubleshoot problems in an existing network or design and check a network to meet specifications. They will learn that the ability to employ good problem-solving procedures and documentation will ultimately determine their success with problem solving. Chapter 1. The matrix teaches students how to define a problem. This includes suggestions on how to choose effective problems.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004.3. uses the problem solving matrix to introduce the problem solving cycle and its iterative nature. explains how the entire process can be iterated. The website associated with this section has online resources and written materials that can be downloaded and a video that can be ordered. 130 . . and Technology Education. Cisco Systems. Chapter 4. There are other methods that are also effective. the process involves an iterative problem-solving procedure. it proceeds through research and problem-solving matrices and design specification tests. Cisco also wants students to experience the use of these procedures to gain a better comprehension of why some potential solutions work and others do not. Inc.2 Design activities Figure 1: Dartmouth Problem-Solving Cycle Design is an iterative process that starts with brainstorming. Multiple repetitions of this process are required until an adequate solution to a problem is achieved. Guiding Students Through the Problem-Solving Cycle. Cisco encourages instructors to use the method that works best for them and their students. which is one of the most important aspects of engineering. The Engineering Problem-Solving Cycle of the Engineering Problem Solving for Mathematics.B. how to set up the right environment for brainstorming sessions. For Internet problems and issues related to general engineering. The goal is for students to gain an appreciation for the importance of problem solving.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Science. Any Academy curriculum with projects or design activities allows instructors to introduce elements of the Dartmouth Problem-Solving and Design Method. From there. and how to analyze the results of these sessions. problem-solving matrices are useful when there many alternatives for a given number of constraints.

Inc. These techniques can be applied to areas such as introductions to new topics and integral parts of design work. The instructor wants a high quantity of responses. .1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. Documentation. is a good resource for students to learn how to conduct site surveys. "What does the word 'network' mean?" There are four simple rules for this brainstorming activity: • • • • The wildest possible ideas are accepted. keep work logs.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. During a carousel session.Eventually. Web Links Dartmouth Problem-Solving and Design Method: http://thayer. Figure 1 shows some responses to the question.dartmouth. problems are documented on large sheets of chart paper around a room. Responses can build on the ideas of other people.edu/teps/index. students will be able to use the lessons learned from failed problem-solving attempts to save time when they try to solve new problems. produce engineering reports. 131 . Research. and Testing.html B. There will be no censorship of ideas. Another method for brainstorming is called carousel brainstorming. This is a strategy used for creative thinking when multiple solutions are possible to solve an issue or problem. Cisco Systems.3. Chapter 5.3 Brainstorming Figure 1: Cluster Diagram Brainstorming techniques can be useful for teaching IT curriculum. and create portfolios.

Students in small cooperative groups are given different colored pens and asked to go around the room and brainstorm solutions to the problems listed on the different chart papers. This is done in 30-second rotation sessions. The process continues until students have an opportunity to respond to all problems or issues listed on papers around the room. SCAMPER is another example of a brainstorming activity that encourages students to think creatively. Scamper is an acronym for substitute, combine, adapt, modify, put to other uses, eliminate, and reverse. It was first implemented in the 1940s by Alex Osborne and it was revised in the early 1980s by Bob Eberle. SCAMPER involves a series of questions related to a new process or concept. After students encounter new information, they respond to the following questions: • • • • • • • Substitute – What material, methods, processes, or situations can be used in place of this? Combine – What materials, methods, processes, or situations can be combined or added to influence this issue or problem? Adapt – Can the materials, methods, processes, or situations be used in another way to find a solution? Modify – Can this be made bigger, stronger, and more frequent? Can it be made smaller and more compact? Put to other uses – Can this be used instead of other materials, methods, processes, or situations? Eliminate – Can parts of this be eliminated? Reverse – Can the work be done backwards? Can this process be reversed?

SCAMPER emphasizes that no response is too crazy or inconceivable. Web Links Gifted Education - A Resource Guide for Teachers: http://www.bced.gov.bc.ca/specialed/gifted/process.htm Scamper: http://www.discover.tased.edu.au/english/scamper.htm

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B.3.4 Case studies

Figure 1: Case Studies

Case study teaching methods have become more important in many professions such as law, medicine, and business. Case studies that are specified in the course or instructor-developed can be used to integrate many concepts throughout the Academy curricula. Figure 1 shows a case study from the CCNP curriculum. The International Travel Agency is a fictitious business for which a CCNP certified individual might be asked to provide network services. Web Links Use of Master Classroom Technology to Implement a Case Study Approach to Learning: http://www.mtsu.edu/~itconf/papers96/MASTER.HTM

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Case Study Teaching in Science: A Bibliography: http://ublib.buffalo.edu/libraries/projects/cases/article2.htm

B.3.5 Web research

Figure 1: Cisco.com

The Internet has a tremendous amount of resources for people who want to understand or install networks. Students can also research products, answer questions, or perform extension activities. Academy students are encouraged to use the links built into the Instructors Guide or their favorite websites. The online documentation for Cisco Systems, Sun Microsystems, HP, Panduit, and other sponsors is particularly important. In terms of bandwidth capabilities, the Web resources related to networking far exceed any textbook or online curriculum. Students must find the resources and be cautious consumers. The ability to use the Internet as a resource is a very useful skill for students to develop. Web Links Cisco: http://www.cisco.com/ Sun: http://www.sun.com/index.xml Adobe: http://www.adobe.com/ Panduit: http://www.panduit.com/ Hewlett Packard: http://www.hp.com/ Google: http://www.google.com/ Yahoo: http://www.yahoo.com/

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CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.1 IG – Appendix B

Copyright © 2004, Cisco Systems, Inc.

Inc.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.4 Instructional Strategies B. teachers can review strategies that will help students become better listeners. or in a shorter time frame as a mini-lecture. This will prepare them to be more effective communicators in the academic and working world. Instructor-led environments allow instructors to cover specified subject matter with a large group or small group of students at the same time.B. This style of instruction can take place in an extended time frame. 135 . Cisco Systems.4. A mini-lecture is a 10-minute lecture format that might consist of the following elements: • • • • A hook A pretest or focus question to test for comprehension The actual lecture A short question or activity Studies have found that relatively short.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. . An effective classroom strategy for this style of instruction is to present all lectures at a predetermined class time. Academy instructors must communicate information to students based on required competencies and performance objectives.1 Instructor-led classrooms Figure 1: Instructor-Led Classrooms The instructor-led style of instruction is currently the most commonly used approach. which might require an entire class period. Mini-lectures focus on smaller chunks of content that students may need to hear at some point in the learning process. Within the instructor-led environment. The current focus on the cooperative dynamics of learning has taken attention away from the importance of knowledgebased processes and procedures. engaging lectures that include demonstrations are excellent adjuncts to the online curriculum and lab activities. and as a precursor to individual and group work.

install. which are chunks of information that fit together into a comprehensive whole. This person helps get students excited and keeps them excited about what they are learning. product. there is a strong need for a course facilitator. .2 Self-paced instruction Academy courses implement self-paced instruction and learning strategies. Students learn to be team players and acquire skills that will help them in their professions. Notes or Ideas – Important information from the lesson is recorded.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Reflect – Students think about. draft.4. However. Self-paced instruction in an online environment allows students to journey through new competencies or knowledge with flexible time and space requirements. The content is presented in modules. Self-paced instruction will provide the path to their success. In self-paced instruction. and progress. Self-paced instruction includes the following components: • • • • • • Learn – Knowledge is gained through vocabulary. and maintain networks. As they begin their voyage into new content. This person also monitors student progress. Cooperative work is a foundation strategy used when instructors ask students to analyze and synthesize complex information. students should view the content individually or in pairs of two while the instructor circulates throughout the room to check for problems and comprehension. and activities. Vocabulary – Students use the glossary to list and define new terms. Cisco Systems. online learning will allow students to become actively involved with the content. Study Guides provide an organized method for students to record the important concepts of each lesson. In any online or self-paced program. These can be used for review and reflection.3 Cooperative/collaborative work Cooperative work occurs when students work in groups for extended periods of time. and respond to. Through exploration and experimentation. questions about the learning.B. such as the creation of graphic organizers and the use of logical induction to solve problems. record process. Remember that a primary goal of the Cisco Networking Academy Program is to train students to design. Research shows that cooperative learning environments stimulate cognitive activities in the areas of higher-order thinking. they should not be overly used. and collaboration. labbased endeavor. Instructors may periodically interrupt students to provide additional information or clarify content.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. Inc. Curiosity and inquiry will drive student interest. plan. This strategy supports advanced thought processes.4. record findings. students will encounter linked resources through the Internet and other electronic connections. The online lessons are an important part of Academy instruction. This method of teaching and learning is used in online environments. and show the results of the performance lab or activity. content. Apply – Students organize. Modules are effective because they allow students to acquire new knowledge in manageable pieces. Their responses focus on the content. problem solving. When the online curriculum is used in a classroom. process. Students who work in cooperative group situations reach objectives and goals with better accuracy than if they work individually on a task. The purpose of online learning should be stated early in the course so students understand what objectives and performances they will be required to master during a course experience. students learn new content at a speed of comprehension that best fits their learning style. Students work together for the benefit of all group members. B. This is fundamentally a hands-on. 136 . Activity – Students complete the activity assigned in class.

The student roles within the group may be formal and assigned. . Small groups Small groups usually have three to five students. The following examples illustrate some of the types of groups and the purposes for which they might be used. The instructor can assign partners. Some group activities will not require the group members to assume any specific roles. Inc. ask questions. Instructors can divide the class into student groups to conduct reviews. It is important to know how and when to use groups for the most effective instruction. A pair may partner with another pair so that the absence of one student will not disrupt their work.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. The team members may be assigned as follows: • • • • • Appointed Selected by other members of the team Grouped informally based on classroom seating arrangements Selected alphabetically Selected through some other random method 137 . roles may be unassigned but naturally assumed by members of the group. Teams A team usually has a specified purpose and consists of three to ten members.Cooperative work occurs when students work in groups for extended periods of time to enhance the learning experience and create an energetic classroom atmosphere. Students can work in teams of two or they can form a larger group. lab. The instructors can assign members to a group. Students can work with other students based on the classroom seating arrangement. a note taker. Students might be grouped together as follows: • • • Groups of two students to study online curriculum Groups of three students to complete cabling. A formal or assigned role may be a leader. or informal and unassigned. and work on performance labs or other activities. Students can also partner with three students in classes with an odd number of students. and programming activities Groups of five students to take oral exams and work as network or programming teams There are a variety of ways to engage students through cooperative learning. Cisco Systems. learn content. The students can work with other students based on the classroom seating arrangement. Small groups can be formed in the following ways: • • • The students can choose their own partners. or a timekeeper. In informal groups. Pairs or partners There are different methods that instructors can use to partner students: • • • Each student can choose another student with whom they want to work. a summarizer. a speaker.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004.

html Enhancing Student Thinking through Collaborative Learning. This is done so that all of the team members understand their roles and responsibilities within the group.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. The end product or result of the team effort may contribute to the grades of all or individual team members.net/ericdigests/ed422586. . They compete with other teams to determine which team can accomplish the criteria and objectives of a performance task with the most speed and accuracy.html 138 .Team members may or may not have assigned roles. Each competitive team has a specific purpose.edu/tstrategies/tsgwcl. Whole class This type of group is designed to involve all of the students. This depends on the performance task.ericfacility. If there are specific roles. This student configuration facilitates the following activities: • • • • Teacher-led discussions Student-led discussions Demonstrations Presentations Web Links Teaching Strategies: Group Work and Cooperative Learning: http://www. interest. Cisco Systems. The members of each team receive rubrics and criteria for the task. Large groups A large group of students can be configured in a variety of ways: • • • • • Smaller teams Groups Partners Individuals Whole class The parameters and criteria for large group discussion and participation should be established prior to the task or activity.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. they may be based on skill. or necessity. ERIC Digest: http://www. Competitive teams The selection of team members for competitive team activities is similar to the previous description.umich. Inc. The parameters for participation and topic focus are clarified in advance so that all participants understand their roles and responsibilities within the class.crlt.

Research states that this is one technique that stimulates significant learning within the brain since it requires critical analysis and articulation before the acquired knowledge can be taught to others. The content to be learned is broken into three sections. Members from each group move to an expert group where the main points of the content are discussed. The content is distributed so each home group receives one of the three sections of content.tamu. Cisco Systems.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. Web Links Training: How To Do Tasks: http://www.edu/wklemm/logic10.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.4 Jigsaws Figure 1: Jigsaw Puzzle The teaching and learning strategy known as the expert jigsaw was configured by Elliot Aronson in the late 1970s. Three different colors are used to distinguish between the three content sections to be learned. . which are called home groups.html 139 . Each group is assigned a number or a name.B. Members of the expert group process this new information and return to their home groups to teach other members the main points of what they learned from the activity. Students are divided into three groups. Cooperative group skills are a prerequisite for this type of learning. This strategy asks students to explore new information within the dynamics of a group setting.4. Inc. The use of color codes is a useful technique to implement within this activity.cvm.

B. Rowe’s greatest contributions was to study the time between when an instructor finishes asking the class a question and when the instructor breaks the silence and prompts the class further to respond to the question. Dr. With high-level questions. and evidence. This concept can lead to significant improvements in student learning. Rowe called the time between Q and P the wait time. the instructor finishes asking a question. The average wait time for teachers after they ask a question in a classroom is approximately 1. Instructors should ask students questions about the concepts that they will continue to understand long after the little details fade away from their short-term memories. The late Dr. An example of a low-level question is to ask students to name the levels of the food pyramid or list the elements on the periodic table. students are typically given questions that test their low-level and high-level cognitive abilities. Figure 1 shows a timeline.1 IG – Appendix B . reasoning. This is the most common type of question that students are asked in schools. the following significant improvements in classroom dynamics occurred: • • 140 . the instructor breaks the silence.5 Ask the right questions Figure 1: Ask the Right Questions In classrooms and labs across the United States. Rowe discovered that if the wait time was extended from about 1 second to beyond 3 seconds. Mary Budd Rowe was an accomplished science educator at the University of Florida and Stanford University.4. student answers are more accurate and organized. Dr. Instructors who ask low-level questions expect students to respond with basic recall of facts and comprehension based on information they heard in a lecture or read from the curriculum. either with encouragement or the correct answer. CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Research indicates that with just a 3-second waiting period. Students are required to analyze and synthesize information.5 seconds. The instructors who participated in the study had an average wait time of about 1 second after they asked a question and before they took further action to elicit a response. An example of a high-level question is to ask students to predict the next world epidemic or explain why rockets cannot launch into outer space in extremely cold weather. At time Q. High-level questions are more open-ended and interpretive. One of Dr. Dr.159 Longer responses by students More participation by more students with more confidence Copyright © 2004. students are asked to communicate their knowledge through logic. At time P. Cisco Systems. Rowe studied classroom dynamics. These concepts will require teachers and students to reflect on the intrinsic value of the questions that they ask and the truths that these questions may uncover. Inc.

or engage in metacognition. comment or question? Students record their thoughts on the right side of the chart as they apply the categories to the new content. heard. Ideas and perspectives are shared until they reach common conclusions. or interesting.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.4. Instructors can read an article written by Dr. or interacted with new information. Cisco Systems. Students respond to the following questions in relation to specific content: • • • What do they consider to be a Plus? What do they consider to be a Minus? What do they consider to be an interesting process. minus. After students have read.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. The first method is called Plus.6 PMI Figure 1: PMI Many of the best instructional strategies help students think about their thought processes. This section will discuss three methods that are linked to easily-understood instruction. M. 29l-308. b.• • • • Increase in student-to-student interactions More questions asked Improvements on complex assessments Better classroom management Instructors who use question and answer techniques to teach networking should increase the wait time to see if student learning improves. B. Relation of wait-time and rewards to the development language. which encourages higher student achievement. Rowe to learn more about this concept. Students can work individually on PMI charts and then share their responses with a partner or a larger group. Rowe. part one: wait time. 141 . 11(2). Minus. This practice is metacognitive and asks students to evaluate their thoughts about new information. they create a T-chart. The left side of the chart includes an area for items that might qualify as plus. Journal of Research in Science Teaching. part two: rewards. Interesting (PMI). 8l-94. There are many strategies that are currently implemented in classrooms. . Other strategies encourage students to use knowledge in new and innovative ways. Many resources about different forms of wait time are also available on the Web.. logic and fate control: a. Inc. (1974). PMI is especially useful during lecture sessions since it provides students with an opportunity and a method to digest new content. 11(4).

ascd.com/pmi.html B. Cisco Systems.org/cms/objectlib/ascdframeset/index.html Activating and Engaging Habits of Mind: http://www.mindtools.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.7 Graphic organizers Figure 1: Cluster Diagram 142 . . Inc.4.org/pu blications/books/2000costa1/2000costatoc.ascd.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004.Web Links PMI: http://www.cfm?publication=http://www.

1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. . Inc.Figure 2: Problem-Solving Matrix Figure 3: Flowchart 143 . Cisco Systems.

Inc.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Cisco Systems.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. .Figure 4: Block Diagrams Figure 5: Extended Star Topology in a Multi-Building Campus 144 .

1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. Cisco Systems. .Figure 6: Main Building First Floor Figure 7: Digital Signal 145 .159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Inc.

.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. Inc. Cisco Systems.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.Figure 8: Spectrum Diagram of a Voltage versus Frequency Graph Figure 9: Data Encapsulation 146 .

Inc. .3 Frame Format Figure 11: Local Area Networks and Devices 147 .159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Cisco Systems.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004.Figure 10: Ethernet and IEEE 802.

Flowcharts and process flow diagrams are generally used to graphically represent various branches of a process. When students brainstorm. troubleshooting. Cluster diagrams are also used as concept maps or to present course material to students. They are not circuit-level schematic diagrams. the option that earns the highest score against the specification rubric is chosen. and communications processes. and graphics. network architecture.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Block diagrams are standard in the electronics industry. A block diagram of the following components is a good accompaniment to flowcharts that explain the processes that occur among the blocks: 148 . Graphic organizers also enable students to arrange large chunks of new information into smaller chunks. Inc. narratives. In theory. Flowcharts are used throughout the curriculum to describe configuration. weighted rubrics. Problem-solving matrices are a standard part of design documentation. or protocols are listed vertically and the specifications against which choices will be rated are listed horizontally. Graphic organizers are shown in Figures through . Cluster diagrams help students generate and organize thoughts. design is a repetitious process and many layers of matrices are typically created with increasingly refined specifications. A few simple symbols or pictorials and arrows are used to indicate the flow of information. Similar ideas are grouped together. Flowcharts are a standard part of computer programming. and significant brainstorming and research. . These techniques help students make connections between their current knowledge and the information needed to reach a more complete comprehension of a learning objective. These methods were publicized by a psychologist named David Ausubel in the late 1960s.Figure 12: Wide Area Networks and Devices Advanced organizers can be used to tap into the prior knowledge of students. Block diagrams include simple descriptions of the functions of the various blocks. Cisco Systems. These smaller pieces are easier to learn and understand. There are many forms of advanced organizers such as exposition. a variety of design options such as network media.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. a question or concept is put in the center of a cluster and all of their ideas are added to the cluster. In their simplest form. They can also be used to assess how well students understand a concept. Block diagrams represent an intermediate level of detail for electrical systems. However.

gmu. ports. Inc. There are certain truths for students who set personal achievement goals. Students identify how a goal fits into their future plans through reflection. they can identify and connect to a greater purpose to reach their goals. Both of these diagrams are used extensively. Cisco Systems. Physical topologies refer to the devices. interconnections. Students demonstrate their dedication to reach their final goals through progress. which is a device that measures voltage.4. Personal goals give students a map for their success. These graphs summarize many important networking concepts. These graphs show the output from an oscilloscope.8 Setting goals Students perform well when they have a plan and access to the necessary resources. .159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Electrical engineers refer to voltage versus time graphs of signals as the time domain. and decision-making.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. The research on goal setting and its impact on learning is impressive.edu/immersion/knowledgebase/strategies/cognitivism/AdvancedOrganizers . When students set personal achievement goals.htm B. problem solving. particularly in the first semester curriculum: • • • • • • • • • • • • • Bits Bytes Analog signals Digital signals Noise. and physical layout of a network. attenuation Reflection Collision AC DC RFI EMI Encoding Transmission errors Web Links David Ausubel: Advance Organizers http://chd.• • • The internal components of a PC The internal components of a router The devices that make up the LAN or a WAN In networking there are logical topological diagrams and physical topological diagrams. Students define the steps they need to take to reach long-term and short-term goals.gse. 149 . They set criteria for each level of achievement and conjure up a mental picture of the results they want. Students should list the small steps and the larger milestones and use visual reminders. Logical topologies refer to logical interconnections and the flow of information in a network. It is important to create a design or an intended course of action.

Instructors should set aside time for students to determine their progress. .The achievement of a goal is only possible if students are willing to make decisions and modify their behavior along the way. Instructors also demonstrate risk-taking behaviors in the classroom.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. Students can be shown how to tap into their personal experiences and knowledge to find solutions to their problems. They encourage their students to try new strategies if they believe a strategy may help them reach their goals. Cisco Systems. Finally.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. disappointments. or difficulties they encounter. Students will continuously put additional procedures in place to help them reach the next step toward their goals.4. there must be an evaluation process. Students should measure their accomplishments at each level of their action plan. B.9 Kinesthetic activities Figure 1: Kinesthetic Activities 150 . students need to make connections with other people. They should seek out people with the knowledge to advance their comprehension and the passion to keep them motivated and encouraged. This can be done through reflection and journal writing activities. Inc. These instructors can demonstrate time-management skills in the classroom and monitor student goal-setting behaviors. It is a fundamental psychological principal that learning requires the assimilation of new comprehension into a current level of comprehension. Instructors who advocate the practice of goal-setting in their courses should provide opportunities to discuss goal-setting skills as they pertain to personal goals. Students must dedicate their strengths and resources to the goal in spite of any diversions. To successfully reach their goals.

org/creative. story. Cisco Systems. Each student represents a specific place value of 128. 16. Role-playing activities can be used to help students understand events. discoveries. Students can create a script for role-playing or ad-lib the actions and dialogue. Most IT courses require knowledge of binary arithmetic.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. 32.html 151 . Kinesthetic activities can be a helpful way to introduce basic IT concepts.Figure 2: Kinesthetic Activities A kinesthetic activity refers to the movement of the body to act out or communicate something.mindsinmotion. 4. or real life situation. Web Links Kinesthetic Teaching: http://www. They help students understand complex and normally invisible processes. .1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. Figures and show an activity that can be done with eight students. or 1 for 8-bit binary numbers. Role-playing occurs when students act out or dramatize a scenario. The kinesthetic activities in this section demonstrate the networking process. These exercises are also known as role-playing activities or skits. Inc. event. 8. 2. Many IT processes and algorithms can be expressed through kinesthetic activities. 64. The instructor picks a number between decimal 0 and 255 and each student must decide if they should sit to represent binary 0 or stand to represent binary 1. or interpersonal relationships.

152 . feelings.5. they can improve their information processing skills and become better problem solvers and communicators. Journals are self-reflective and encourage students to reveal personal thoughts. The entire class or groups of students discuss review questions and enhance their levels of comprehension through the discussion. Inc. This is an example of the jigsaw technique. • • Web Links Learning Through Technology: http://www. If instructors decide to practice this type of assessment in their classrooms.edu/nise/cl1/ilt/default. Pairs or small groups of students discuss and answer review questions before each student completes the review. what confuses them.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. Metacognition occurs when people think about their thought processes. This provides important information about how students interact with.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. Some students may choose not to share this type of information. Small groups each discuss a portion of the questions and explain their findings to other groups to demonstrate their knowledge.asp B. Cisco Systems. and leaves out an important piece of information. The entire class plays a game in which one person states a fact. Student teams or small groups design analogies to explain concepts to other teams of students.wisc. the fact could be “This is the first layer of the OSI” and the correct response would be “What is the physical layer?” Points can be awarded for correct responses based on the level of difficulty. The teaching and learning environment is strengthened when instructors and students take time each day for reflection. which represents the correct answer to a question. For example. This can be done through written.2 Journals and reflection An effective evaluation practice for students is to write in journals and reflect on academic experiences. A learning log asks students to document their learning steps and indicate what is clear.wcer. Students can document their individual learning process and highlight important concepts. new content. and ideas. When students ask essential questions about their learning experiences. and process. Reflection is an important tool to develop new comprehensions about the world. or musical activities.5. . verbal.1 Review strategies Most lessons contain review questions that pertain to content from the previous lesson. Instructors can determine if students are satisfied with their program and motivated to continue. and what they would like to learn more about. there must be clear communication between the instructor and the students about the purpose of this activity.5 Assessment Strategies B.B. Strategies for the use of review questions can be selected from the following list: • • • • • Individual students answer review questions on their computers. The rest of the class must respond with the missing information in the form of a question. kinesthetic. Pairs of students discuss and answer review questions on their computers.

. The reflection process helps students analyze and synthesize new comprehension. details. Instructors that incorporate journal writing into curriculum will usually set aside a period of time for this process. magazine pictures. Prior to a reporting period. These journals are usually paperbound composition books in which pages are dated and added. These thoughts can take many forms such as words. This may not seem important at first. Inc. Through this type of reflection. illustrations. The process helps students analyze and become more responsible for their learning. Thoughts and ideas can be written down in a dedicated. troubleshooting.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. procedures and observations. students should reflect on one or more of the following categories: • • • • Content Product Process Progress Throughout the year. and newspapers. personal paper space or in a word processor file. students should review their reflections and acknowledge the growth in their comprehension. students should write a brief paper that explains their growth in knowledge and the skills they acquired in the preceding weeks. After each lesson. Student reflection is an important element of instruction with limited time requirements. However. the students think about an aspect of the lesson and write a reaction in the study guide. hardware and software notes. Some examples of reflection and journal writing for Academy courses are as follows: • • • • • • • • • • • Key ideas from class presentations Discussions Activities related to lesson content Personal analysis that shows a connection with the content purpose Questions or statements that indicate a need for further clarification or inquiry Attention to the process required to accomplish an important task Application of learned material to other content or subjects A demonstration of the connection between concept or content Thoughtfulness as demonstrated by goals for improvement Other actions that demonstrate self-learning Acquired knowledge 153 . Journal entries can take the form of guided or free-style writing. teachers and students can track their comprehension of issues and themes over time.Journals provide a space for inner thought and reflection on experiences that occur in the teaching and learning process. The teacher and students can use this time to reflect on completed tasks or make predictions about future experiences. It also links prior learning to present and future learning. Academy instructors may want to instruct students to keep a technical or engineering journal to record details about all aspects of their network design and installation experiences. This internalization of learning helps the students set goals and make sense of the learning process. sentences. Cisco Systems. but never removed.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. maps. equipment logs. it will help students develop a habit that will become more important as they increase their networking experiences. The entries would include things such as daily reflections. During reflection. Students use the cognitive processes of assimilation and accommodation to move learning from short term to long-term memory. charts. and router configurations.

all curriculum content associated with a project.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. Quantitative data can be associated with each level of performance.5. Levels of success and quality are identified at different levels of a predetermined scale. research skills. and other components such as design.3 Rubrics Figure 1: Grading Rubric Sample Another good instructional practice is the use of rubrics as a form of assessment. Rubrics assess observable learning behavior. Inc.html B. cooperative skills. .• • • • • • • • • • • Important concepts Skills Improvements Effective strategies Ineffective strategies Group activities Instructor performance Progress Shortcomings Goals for further learning Applications of knowledge Web Links Student Reflection Questions: http://pblmm. organization of thought.ca.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.us/PBLGuide/PlanAssess/StReflectionQuestions. 154 . and the ability to communicate emerging knowledge. A rubric allows criteria to be established for outcomes that are acquired through individual or group projects.k12. Cisco Systems.

For Academy courses. Inc. Many rubrics are based on a four-point scale. This portfolio can contribute to graduation criteria. content. Students maintain their portfolios to include all of their best work throughout all semesters of a curriculum.com/exworthy/rubric. A portfolio is a paper. where four points represent the best level. portfolios are continually revised and improved. or any performance lab or activity.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. there is a specific set of performance levels for all objectives. Before an assessment of student interactions.5. Cisco Systems. One of the most important benefits of rubric assessment is the control it gives to students. As with any educational initiative.4 Portfolio A portfolio is an example of authentic assessment.The rubric has two primary functions for teaching and learning.4teachers. Portfolios show growth over time and include student reflections on different periods of learning. Academy students might keep a portfolio of their experience in building a network and examples of configurations they created for different scenarios.org. Web Links RUBISTAR: http://rubistar. rubrics create specific expectation criteria for the final performance of a lab or activity. electronic. Rubrics that are developed by both students and teachers can help students organize and prepare for learning through advance knowledge of their assessment expectations. Web Links Guidelines for Portfolio Assessment in Teaching English: http://www. students should be aware of the expectations. Students who are given direction and the freedom to choose their path of learning. Rubrics communicate expectations and give students a level of achievement to work toward.htm B.html 155 . Community projects are also good examples of accomplishments.org/ Rubrics and Assessments: http://home. they save them in a portfolio. Each rubric contains a criterion that defines the elements that indicate learning proficiency. and skills. In the demonstration of each task. It can also serve as an impressive display for potential employers. A portfolio of accomplishments must be presented before many companies will hire an individual. or online collection that shows the best work of a student.il/ministry/portfolio/default. are empowered to accomplish high levels of achievement. As students complete major presentations or networking projects.rr.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.etni. classroom work. This will help them begin the process of self-assessment as they progress through the individual tasks that are reflected in the rubric. Students can create their own rubrics based on established standards and performance objectives. Each point on the scale has specific criteria that describe the performance characteristics. The Cisco Networking Academy Program is well suited for this type of assessment. . Assessment occurs continuously through self-monitoring and self-evaluation. Many secondary school districts encourage portfolio-based assessments. It also allows students to contribute to the development of the grading scale for their performance labs or activities.socal.

Inc.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. .5 Oral exams Figure 1: Oral Exams Figure 2: Oral Exams 156 .B. Cisco Systems.5.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.

This process is one that distinguishes the Cisco Networking Academy Program from all other programs. Careful preparation can minimize the intimidation that is felt by some students. Instructors are encouraged to develop their own techniques for oral examinations and should use them to test for benchmark comprehension. This method of oral testing usually motivates the students to study hard and with a lot of enthusiasm. each individual member of a team enters the room alone and is asked one of the questions by the board.1 IG – Appendix B . they have been tested on their hands-on expertise with equipment. B. Then. Students use cables and routers to assemble a network in a lab. is to give teams of students the exam questions. The models for oral exams are usually based on job interviews and graduate school oral exams. and rubrics prior to the exam session. Establish scheduled exam times. Examples of oral exams are found in Semester 2 Lesson Plans. The students do not know which question they will be asked in advance. answers. The number of routers to connect will vary based on equipment access. Inc. Students study and complete assessment activities in groups. which can be after school if necessary. Lab exams include all of the following: • • • • • • • 157 . CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.6 Lab exams Figure 1: Lab Exams Lab exams are also known as skills exams. These exams give students an opportunity to demonstrate their knowledge of cable and router configuration.5. Cisco Systems. This practice supports authentic assessment and gives students higher credibility in the job market. A method that works particularly well for groups of diverse students. When students graduate from the Academy.Well-planned oral examinations can be powerful learning experiences for students. Their performance task is to connect cables and routers so every router can successfully communicate with the other routers.159 Practical exams Performance exams Demonstration labs Skills-based and performance assessments Authentic assessment Mastery learning Formative and summative exams Copyright © 2004.

certain lenses are indispensable to ensure a high quality experience for students. The following example uses UNIX: • • • • • • Equity – Do all Academy students have adequate access to information about UNIX? Curriculum – Do the online curriculum and skills-based labs provide ample opportunities for students to learn about UNIX? Teaching – Do all Academy students have access to instructors who use instructional best practices to teach UNIX? Learning – Do students have adequate resources to construct their own iterative comprehension of UNIX? Assessment – Do all students have access to online and skills-based formative and summative assessments? Technology – What technologies enable the effective teaching of UNIX? 158 . Inc. Web Links Certification Magazine: http://www.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004.certmag. Cisco Systems.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3.com/warp/public/625/ccie/ B.7 Six lenses Figure 1: Six Lenses In any learning endeavor.Cisco recommends a simple pass or fail grade.5. . There are six different perspectives that are supported in the Academy courses: • • • • • • Equity Curriculum Teaching Learning Assessment Technology It is important to ask questions about these factors in all Academy curriculums.com/issues/aug01/feature_long. with opportunities to retake the skills exam if necessary.cfm CCIE: http://www.cisco.

As instructors work through this orientation they are encouraged to revisit these essential questions. Cisco presented some useful content. tools. Inc. Cisco Systems.159 CCNA 3 Switching Basics and Intermediate Routing v3. In this section. instructors should decide what teaching methods are best for their students.1 IG – Appendix B Copyright © 2004. and perspectives. . 159 . Ultimately.

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