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BS4994 design of FRP equipments is different from steel design, due to certain fundamental differences between steel and FRP. Steel is isotropic where as FRP is anisotropic, having different properties in different directions.

**The Differences from Design of Steel
**

A comparison of design procedure is given below.

Object 1 2

(For thermoplastics, a creep based design procedure is adopted. But for TP liners used along with FRP, no design calculation is necessary as it is considered as non-contributing to the mechanical property of the laminate)

ISOTROPIC MATERIAL (LIKE STEEL) FRP

** Factor of safety is provided by relevant
**

specifications.

**• Detailed procedure exists for factor of safety
**

calculation based on method of manufacture, long-term behavior, temperature, cyclic loading and post-curing procedure.

**• Only steel properties considered for design • For ductile material: Design Stress = Yield
**

Stress / Factor of Safety

**• Resin and each form of glass (chopped
**

strand mat, woven roving, unidirectional filament winding etc) need be individually compared to find out is it a load limited or strain limited property (strength) that should be considered for design. If it is strain limited, whether it is resin strain limited or reinforcement strain limited? If reinforcement strain limited, CSM or WR or FW?

**• For brittle materials: Design Stress =
**

Ultimate Stress / Factor of Safety

** Load-limited allowable unit load (ul) is
**

calculated based on minimum laminate [UTUS] (Table 5 of BS4994-87) and factor of safety [K].

** Maximum allowable strain (us) is calculated
**

which is to be taken as smaller of 10% of allowable strain [ε R] of unreinforced resin and 0.2%

** Strain limited allowable unit load [us] is
**

calculated from allowable strain [ε ] laminate unit modulus [Xz] and

the unit is N/mm per Kg/m2 glass . K Resin strain below which design is resin-strain limited.43 1. I. When safety factor is high. or from the minimum laminate properties obtained from the design standard (For example. Know more UNIT STRENGTH AND MODULUS It is to avoid the uncertainty associated with specifying the thickness alone. UNIT STRENGTH is defined as strength in Newton per millimeter width for a layer consisting of 1 kg of glass reinforcement per square meter. strain of each layer under unit load uL is calculated from Xz ε d. Design Unit Loading uz for each type of layer is then calculated from ε d and Xz Suitability of proposed laminate construction is checked by comparing applied unit load Q and allowable unit loads [Σ ui mi ni] • NOTE 1: The transition from resin-strain limited to reinforcement-strain-limited condition occurs based on safety factor. 1. allowable reinforcement strain limit is reduced .e.19 1. design strain is then calculated as smallest of strain of all layers. It is the ratio of Unit Strength to direct strain.02 0. It is property per unit width. UNIT STRENGTH AND UNIT LOAD Unit strength is the strength of a laminate obtained by fracture tests.79 1. that BS4994 introduced the concept of "unit properties".89 8 10 12 14 16 • FRP design is done using new load units: unit loads. Otherwise [if us < uL for some of the layer]. For example. uz is taken as us of each layer. If for all layer. per unit mass of reinforcement. Similar is unit modulus. . Table 5 of BS4994-87) where as unit load is the force carried by a laminate resulting from pressure or any other applied forces in a laminate. us < uL.

find tensile-strength = load per unit width and unit thickness = Unit Tensile Load / t (N/mm2) . Calculate its thickness t (from glass content etc).NOTE: you can convert unit strength to conventional tensile-strength as follows: Suppose you have a laminate of 5 layers of CSM. Then. First. calculate Unit Tensile Load of laminate = 200 N/mm per Kg/m2 x Area Density (Kg/m2) x 5 (this is for unit width of the 5 layer laminate).

6 .75 m with an effective pressure of 2 bar (0.This requires that the design process is considered in three stages. The case study will follow the design process. the composite designer is faced with the additional task of designing the material to be used. In many respects. Case Study Parameters The vessel considered in this case study is a cylindrical vessel.1 to 1.0) temperature (range 1. assessment of allowable strain. which is used to evaluate the allowable design strain. the process of designing a composite vessel is the same as that facing the designer of metal vessels. ε L. For the case considered here. the vessel contents level will primarily be static. In so doing.2 MPa). although on occasion. Corrosion resistance. However. The operating temperature for the vessel is 40°C.2) cyclic loading (range 1.0) long term behaviour (range 1. they will generally take the opportunity to use a variety of differing layers within the laminate construction in order to achieve the most economical and desirable combination of properties. which account for the effects of loading. the vessel will be emptied and refilled.4) curing procedure (range 1. The design methodology used in this case study is that developed in BS4994. such as stainless steel and lined carbon steel vessels. calculation of the applied unit loads and the selection of an appropriate laminate configuration. these part factors are evaluated as follows: • For hand lay-up.5) The product of these factors. internal diameter 1. K.1 to 1.Pressure Vessel Design Case Study This case study considers the design of a cylindrical storage vessel typical of those used in chemical and process industries to store liquids. The design must take into account the design stress resulting from the pressure and size of the vessel in question.6 to 3. with wall thicknesses of between 5 and 50 mm.0 results in an overall design factor. and a further safety factor of 3. The majority of such vessels have diameters in the range 1 to 10 m. Allowable Design Strain BS4994 determines an allowable design strain through the use of a number of part factors.0 to 1.2 to 2. In service. strength and ease of fabrication make composite materials particularly attractive for this sort of application. using the BS4994 methodology. These part factors are defined as follows: • k1 • k2 • k3 • k4 • k5 method of manufacture (range 1. The installed cost of a GRP vessel compares favourably with that of more traditional materials. part factor k1 = 1. to develop a suitable laminate configuration. environment and manufacturing conditions on the long-term chemical and mechanical behaviour of the GRP laminates.

assuming operation at 40°C.e. i. part factor k3 = 1.2 N/mm/(kg/m2) and 25.2% or 0. the extensibility is 16 200 N/mm/(kg/m2). then. part factor k5 = 1. the design remains load limited and the design unit loading ux = uL. Applied Loads The applied loading on the vessel is then calculated using conventional analysis techniques. giving ε L L = 0. giving ε For WR. as The "load limited" allowable limit loading uL is given by where u is the ultimate tensile unit strength (UTUS is in N/mm per kg/m2 ) of the material. Assuming a resin strain to failure of 3%. chopped strand mat (CSM) the UTuS is 200 N/mm/(kg/m2).1 x ε ε r (where is the fracture strain of unreinforced resin in a simple tensile test. in this case. assuming occasional filling and emptying. part factor k2 = 2.1 • For curing procedure. and use of a resin system with a heat distortion temperature of 80°C or higher.14% = 0. thus uL = 25. For CSM. assuming post cure at elevated temperature. 17.1 Therefore. thus uL = 17.8 N/mm/(kg/m2) The load limited allowable strain is given by where u and K are as previously defined and X is the laminate extensibility.0 • For temperature.• For long term behaviour.2 N/mm/(kg/m2) woven rovings (WR) the UTuS is 300 N/mm/(kg/m2). In this . and K is the design factor calculated above. part factor k4 = 1.8 N/mm/(kg/m2) for CSM and WR respectively.16% r There is a further overriding upper limit to the design strain of the lesser of 0.0 • For cyclic stressing. the extensibility is 12 700 N/mm/(kg/m2).

case. the vessel wall circumferential unit stress is given by: where P is the pressure. giving a total wall thickness of 22. Therefore a total weight of 10.6 kg m-2 16 layers 600 g m-2 = 9.6 kg m-2 Total = 10.2 kg m-2 Assuming a glass content of 30% for CSM. The total quantity of reinforcement. the wall thickness would be 2. it is possible to design the laminate construction. hence per kg/m2 of glass The design of the laminate can then be determined from . in this first case for a vessel constructed simply from multiple CSM layers.2 kg m-2 of reinforcement is required. but one suitable configuration would be: 2 layers 300 g m-2 (one at each surface) = 0.2 mm per kg/m2 of glass. in which case the laminate construction is determined as follows: The design unit loading in the WR must be reduced such that the strain does not exceed the design limit for CSM. Laminate Construction At this point. assuming no significant axial loading. D is the vessel diameter and t is the vessel wall thickness. A more efficient structure is obtained using a combination of CSM with WR.4 mm. is simply determined by: where wx is the weight of a single layer and nx is the number of layers. The distribution of this would be selected according to manufacturers' individual preferences.

2 x 0.6 x 0.15 (Note that this is slightly deeper than would be used for a typical metallic construction).16 TOTAL 178.8 x5 129. and a glass content of 55% for CSM with 0.25 and ri /Di = 0.95 mm per kg/m2 of glass.2 mm per kg/m2 of glass.8 18. The membrane unit load for a domed end subject to pressure is given by For the current case.45 Calculation 17.2 x 1. the vessel wall thickness would be 13. the shape factor Ks is approximately equal to 1. that is . At these values.10 22.30 5. a typical geometry would be hi /Di = 0.2 x 0.5 Total 25.6 x 0.80 22.Therefore a suitable design would be as follows: Detail Reinforced gel coat 1500 g/m2 CSM 800 g/m2 WR x5 450 g/m2 CSM 800 g/m2 WR 300 g/m2 CSM Resin rich layer with binding tissue 17.5 mm. Dished End Design If a torispherical end is desired for such a vessel.08 17.78.14 In this case. assuming a glass content of 30% for CSM with 2.

and a glass content of 55% for CSM with 0.45 Calculation 17. assuming a glass content of 30% for CSM with 2.2 Total 20.30 5.8 x12 309.64 22.2 x 0.8 18.08 17.16 TOTAL 353. as previously. . and the assumed value of Ks = 1.6 x 0.95 mm per kg/m2 of glass.Assuming a construction of CSM mat and woven rovings. similar to that for the vessel shell.72 This gives an actual laminate thickness of 25.78 is reasonable. then the calculation would need to be repeated with a better estimate for the value of Ks until convergence was achieved.2 mm per kg/m2 of glass.2 x 1. If it had been found that the value of Ks was not acceptable. For a laminate of this thickness.6 x 0.2 x 0.06. gives a required weight of reinforcement is given by Therefore a suitable design would be as follows: Detail Reinforced gel coat 1200 g/m2 CSM 800 g/m2 WR x12 450 g/m2 CSM 800 g/m2 WR 300 g/m2 CSM Resin rich layer with binding tissue 17.84 22.

Reference: BS4994 . Design. Design strain. Code . Part factors. BSI 1973. Keywords: BS4994. Laminate.Specification for Vessels and Tanks in Reinforced Plastics.

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