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Clearing system harmonics generator Photovoltaic

S.TADJER, I.HABI Author Laboratory electrification of industrial enterprises, University of Boumerdes, Algeria

Abstract- In a context of diversity of energy production, the proposed article presents the design and simulation of a gridconnected PV system application to the compensation of harmonics and reactive power.





The great solar energy potential can overcome many shortcomings, when the improvement of living conditions of citizens, thus improving the power quality and stability of power systems. Clearing systems use a conventional harmonic capacity that does the network itself through a rectifier, thereby forming a floating source. The tension of the latter is not constant because of its sensitivity to exchange active power between the pollution load and the network. It is then necessary to regulate the DC bus voltage which is detrimental to the performance of harmonic filtering. II. NEED TO REGULATE THE DC BUS

The voltage change Vc across the capacitor storage depends primarily on the value of the capacity C. Indeed, a decrease of Cf causes an increase in Vc and vice versa. The main purpose of voltage regulation is therefore to limit the voltage change Vc using a capacity of as low as possible. In this way, the size of the capacitor can be optimized. Just as an excessive reduction in blood harmful. Neglecting the switching losses in the inverter and the energy stored in the inductance of output filter, the relationship between the power the power absorbed by the active filter and the voltage across the capacitor can be written as following form: d 1 (1) p c ( C dc Vdc ) dt 2 IV. HARMONIC COMPENSATION SYSTEM PROPOSED [2]

The power source filter is not an independent source of tension but an ability that is charged via the rectifier formed by diode connected in antiparallel across the transistors, the source is said to be floating source [1]. The voltage across it is not constant because of its sensitivity to exchange active power between the pollution load and the network. In case of imbalance of power between the pollution load and the network, the active filter that provides the power needed to restore balance. Losses in power components are also varying the voltage across the capacitor, hence the need to regulate the voltage to maintain a constant level. The main causes may change this tension are: - Losses in the active filter, - The injection currents for the fundamental transient pollution load, - The switching losses and conduction of the power switches. - The heat loss in the passive components Lf and Cf.



Converter DC/DC

Converter DC/AC IF

Icharge Commande MPPT Identification of harmonics Non linearload

Fig. 1. Diagram of the harmonic compensation system.



A photovoltaic cell is comparable to a photo-sensitive diode, its operation is based on the properties of semiconductor materials. The photovoltaic cell allows the direct conversion of light energy into electrical energy. Its operating principle is based on the photovoltaic effect. A cell consists of two thin layers of a semiconductor. These two layers are doped differently [3]. For layer N, it is a contribution of electron devices and the P layer is a deficit of

electrons. The two layers thus have a potential difference. The energy of light photons captured by electron devices (layer N), allows them to cross the potential barrier and generate an electrical current. To make the collection of this current, electrodes are deposited by screen printing on two layers of semiconductor (Fig. 2). The upper electrode is a grid allowing the passage of light rays. Anti-reflection layer is then deposited on the electrode to increase the amount of light absorbed. Photons

Voc: Open circuit voltage, Ico: Short-circuit, Vm, Im: Voltage and current at maximum power point. The power generated by a photovoltaic cell is given by: P = V. I The maximum power is achieved when:

(2) (3)

dP 0 dV


Grid Silicon type N V

Silicon type P I

Fig.2. Schematic of an elementary cell



The combination of several solar cells in series and parallel series gives what the call the photovoltaic generator with the general characteristics of IV and PV are shown in fig.3 and 4.
Current (A)

The optimized design of photovoltaic systems is inherently difficult. Indeed, the source side to a photovoltaic generator, the power output varies greatly depending on the lighting, temperature, but also aging overall system. Load side, both in nature (DC) or alternating current (AC) as the power grid, each has its own behavior that can be random. For the generator runs as often as possible in its optimal, the solution commonly adopted is then to introduce a static converter to act as source-load adapter. Under given conditions, it is the maximum power point of the characteristic power function of the voltage that can makes the most peak power installed. We can see in this figure the evolution of optimal power, a term reflecting the character on the lighting conditions and temperature of the power supplied. For the operation of a photovoltaic generator at its maximum operating point (MPP), MPPT controllers are often used. These controllers are designed to minimize the error between the operating power and the maximum power reference variable depending on weather conditions. The operating power of the PV generator is easily calculated from the voltage-current product. For cons, the determination of the maximum reference is more difficult for the latter depends on climatic conditions (light, temperature). This reference is then not constant and is characterized by a nonlinear function makes operation at maximum power more difficult. To overcome the difficulties, several methods are often adopted as analog methods and numerical methods using computer tools. VIII.

Icc Im Pm

Voltage (V) Vm Vco Fig.3. Current-voltage characteristic of a photovoltaic generator Power (W) Pm : maximum power point Pm

The operating principle of the active filter is the fact that it produces currents which oppose the harmonic currents created by non-linear loads [4]. The active filter is a voltage inverter consists of six bidirectional switches current and voltage switch one-way so as to impose alternative voltages (VF1, VF2, VF3) output of the inverter. Switches supposed ideals, always consist of a semiconductor controllable opening and closing (GTO, MOSFET, IGBT) connected in anti-parallel diode.



Voltage (V)

Fig.4. Power-voltage characteristic of a photovoltaic generator


Note well the presence of harmonics, the harmonic ratio is 31.26% overall. By connecting the photovoltaic system will power the DC bus of the inverter we obtain the form of the input current of the network as follows:

Fig.5. Diagram of a voltage inverter



The load used to illustrate the active filter is a rectifier to obtain a continuous feed, used in most household appliances. It is represented by the following figure:

Fig.8. Load current and its decomposition into Fourier series after compensation.

Fig.6. Diagram of the load used.

The system reduces the overall harmonic rate 31.26% to 2.99%. X.


This non-linear load has a relatively high level of harmonics, the current absorbed by the load and its decomposition into Fourier series are represented in the following figure:

This work allowed us to present an application of renewable energy, especially photovoltaics, the most developed in recent decades. This application is to compensate for harmonic disturbances by using a photovoltaic generator GPV. Harmonic currents are identified by the method of instantaneous power. The PV array generates a voltage that must be maintained constant by feeding the dimmer Boost DC bus of the active filter to reproduce the harmonic currents injected by the nonlinear load. REFERENCES
M.A.E. Allali, Contribution to the study of active compensating lowvoltage electrical , Doctoral thesis ULP Strasbourg, 2002. [2] S. Kim, Gwonjong Yoo, Jinsoo Song, A bifunctional utility connected photovoltaic system with power factor correction and U.P.S. facility, May 1996. [3] Yann Pankow Study of the integration of distributed generation in a network based on. Application to the PV generator PHD in electrical and electronic automatic. National center for technological research French, december 2004. [4] Y.Bakelli Study and design of a static converter for connecting a photovoltaic generator to the grid Memory Magister, university MHamed Bougara (FHC) Boumerdes, Algeria, July 2005. [1]

Fig7. Load current and its decomposition into Fourier series before compensation.