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solartoday.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 3
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
VOLume 25, NO. 2 march 2011 sOLartOday. Org
Next Issue: Selling Green
Marketing solar and green building systems has never been
more competitive. We share examples of leading marketing
strategies and ofer hands-on guidelines.
ON THE COVER: Since arriving at Colorado State University in
1999 with a range of renewable energy and efciency projects under
her belt, Utility Engineer Carol Dollard has led photovoltaic (PV)
installations on many university buildings. This 5.3-megawatt PV feld,
completed late last year, is expected to save CSU millions via a 20-year
power purchase agreement with Fotowatio Renewable Ventures.
Photo courtesy of Dan Bihn, DanBihn.com.
®
Articles appearing in this magazine are indexed in Environmental Periodicals Bibliography and ArchiText Construction Index: afsonl.com.
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22
CasE sTudy
|
A Historic Home
Goes Net-Zero-Energy
By Mathew Grocof
In retrofting their 110-year-old Victorian, Mat and
Kelly Grocof ofer a model for restoring the nation’s
existing houses.
28
GSHP Value Rising
By Piljae Im, Xiaobing Liu and Jef Munk
In an East Tennessee demonstration project, Oak Ridge
National Lab and partners evaluate two ground-source
heat pump technologies that together promise to reduce
the up-front investment and increase energy cost savings.
34
Harnessing the Sun,
Lakota Style
By Mike Koshmrl
On the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota, solar
air heating helps ease crippling winter heating bills, while
providing jobs.
38
A Little Co-op
and How It Grew
By Robert Robinson
In Washington, D.C., a group of neighbors banded
together to win the fght for residential solar.
22
34
contents
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solartoday.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 5
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
10 advances
2011: Pricing Trends in PV
By Jay Holman
How the Clean Air Act Sells Solar
By Robert Ukeiley
IRS Provides Guidance for Residential PV
By Marc Schultz and Franc Del Fosse
16 innovators
Carol Dollard, PE, LEED AP
By Seth Masia
42 investing
Tide Turning for Ocean Energy?
By Rona Fried, Ph.D.
44 the trade
Small Wind and the
2011 National Electric Code
By Mick Sagrillo
46 solar installations
The Richmond Plunge, Richmond, Calif.
By Gina Johnson
62 system
accomplished
Osborne Coinage, Cincinnati
Solar Today is published by the american solar energy society, ases.org,
the u.s. section of the international solar energy society
®
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>
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6 What’s New at SolarToday.org
8 Perspective
20 View from the States: Policy Shifts
48 New Products Showcase:
Solar Manufacturing Equipment
58 Inside ASES
60 Dates
60 Ad Index
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6 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
what’s new at solartoday.org
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Plug-In Electric Vehicles:
How Ready is Your City?
By Antonio Benecchi and Shamsuddin Syed
Te conversation about plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs)
has matured greatly over the past year. Mass market
PEVs are fnally here. Te frst wave of commercial PEVs
will likely fourish in only the readiest of cities —
including traditional leaders like Portland and some
surprisingly aggressive followers, such as Houston. r
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Expanded from
“View from the
States,” page
20
>
Find policy
updates: solartoday.
org/states.
Expanded from
“A Historic Home
Goes Net-Zero-En-
ergy,” page 22
>
See a video and
case study on the
restoration of the
Grocofs’ 110-year-
old windows: solar
today.org/video.
20 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
view from the states
Iowa
Four years ago former Gov. Chet Culver, a Democrat, created the Iowa Power Fund, which provides matching grants and loans for new renewable energy projects. The Power Fund has helped grow Iowa’s wind market into the nation’s second larg- est. New Gov. Terry Barnstad, a Republican, campaigned against the fund, telling the Sioux City Journal it was a “colossal failure” and the $25 million budget should be reallocated to reducing taxes. More recently Barnstad reversed course, saying that he expects the Power Fund to continue under the management of a dierent department. At press time, the program’s fate hung in the balance. The state’s renewable energy community is skeptical. “We think it’s highly unlikely the Barnstad administra- tion extends [the Power Fund],” says Steve Fugate, managing director of the Iowa Renewable Energy Association. “A lot of his budget proposals are extremely draconian. The chances it continues to exist are nil.”
Policy Shifts: Where the States Are Headed
The shift in political power following the November 2010 elections may threaten solar and wind policies in key states. Here’s what’s happening.
New Mexico
One of the rst moves for Republican Gov. Susana Martinez was to re every member of the state’s Environmental Improve- ment Board. Martinez alleged that the board promoted “anti- business” policies. The same week the new governor appointed Harrison Schmitt, an outspoken climate change skeptic, to run New Mexico’s Energy, Minerals and Natural Resources Depart- ment. Martinez also halted a new greenhouse gas emissions regulation that had been passed in the closing days of former Gov. Bill Richardson’s administration. The move threatens to derail the Western Climate Initiative, which was designed to regulate emissions in seven U.S. states and four Canadian prov- inces. “We currently have common sense, balanced approaches to protecting our environment,” says Sanders Moore of Environ- ment New Mexico. “We need to maintain the protections and safeguards that are in place.”
Wisconsin
Wisconsin’s solar and wind economies are booming, driven by a robust renewable portfolio standard, the statewide Focus on Energy program and a number of municipal incentive programs. In Milwaukee, the number of solar installers has increased 250 percent since the beginning of 2009. The state’s wind capacity is up to 630 megawatts – nearly 90 percent of which has come online since mid-2008. But new Gov. Scott Walker’s support of renewable energy is unproven. During his campaign, Walker criticized Tom Barrett, his Democratic opponent, for support- ing “a radical environmental agenda that will cost us jobs.” After taking oce, Walker turned down $810 million in federal stimulus funds to build a train line from Milwaukee to Madison. Then, in his rst executive order, Walker proposed a regulatory reform that would prohibit developers from siting a wind tur- bine within 1,800 feet of the nearest property line. “When you’re operating with setback distances this extreme, a lot of projects will cease to be economically feasible,” says Michael Vickerman, executive director of RENEW Wisconsin. “It’s a shooting war right now. Whole businesses could shut down.”
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Installed PV Costs Plummet in 2010
By Galen Barbose, Naïm Darghouth and Ryan Wiser
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory research-
ers track trends in the installed cost of photovoltaics
(PV), which dropped more than 30 percent from
1998 to 2009. Early indications show that the rate of
decline accelerated in 2010.

1_64_March_ST11.indd 6 2/14/11 3:47:12 PM
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8 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
T
he American Solar Energy
Society (ASES) has a golden
opportunity in 2011 to drive the
transition to a new energy economy
at the state level. Last year’s mid-term
elections resulted in an historic number
of new legislators and a remarkable 29
new governors taking ofce. With this
large turnover in state leadership, we
face a tremendous need to educate the
new legislators, governors, state energy
ofce directors and their stafs on the
opportunity for economic recovery
and energy security that the sustainable
energy sectors can deliver. With more
than 10,000 members and regional
chapters in more than 40 states, ASES
is beter-positioned than any other nonproft clean
energy advocacy organization to lead the re-educa-
tion of our newly installed ofcials.
Several states made meaningful advances in
2010. For example, Colorado raised its renewable
energy standard (RES) to 30 percent (by 2020) and
California raised its standard to 33 percent (also by
2020). ASES can and should be active in pushing
other states for higher, more robust RESs in 2011.
Another critical issue will be to maintain the fund-
ing that allows state energy ofces to complete their
implementation of American Recovery and Rein-
vestment Act (ARR) programs. ASES chapters and
members could support revolving loan and loan-
loss-reserve programs that will ensure long-term
funding for state energy ofces.
When we speak of funding
ARRA-authorized programs, we’re
edging into the area of federal policy.
Energy policy activity in Washing-
ton since the mid-terms suggests
that for about the next two years our
focus will be to defend the ground
that clean energy has gained. A key
area for action will be to bulwark the
Environmental Protection Agency’s
authority to regulate greenhouse gas
emissions under the Clean Air Act.
Another issue of national concern is
the future of property-assessed clean
energy (PACE) programs. Tese local
fnancing tools are still in limbo due to
mortgage-lending rules established by
the Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie
Mae) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corp.
(Freddie Mac). ASES chapters and members should
step up in encouraging their congressional delega-
tions to support this innovative fnancing model.
Talk to your senators and congresspeople when
they’re at home in their districts. Tat’s the best time
to show them how PACE can support the vigorous
growth of local businesses.
As a society and industry, our strongest argu-
ment is our proven ability to generate jobs during
the worst economy since the Great Depression.
According to the Solar Energy Industries Associa-
tion’s National Jobs Census, the solar industry now
employs more than 100,000 people. ASES’ Green
Collar Jobs report estimates that aggressive deploy-
ment of renewable energy and energy-efciency
technologies should produce a net gain of 4.4 million
new jobs by 2020, over and above the 8.5 million
people employed by those industries in 2007. Pho-
tovoltaic (PV) installations rose 115 percent in 2010
alone, validating the Green Collar Jobs projection.
Te ASES Policy Commitee has begun devel-
oping a toolkit for chapters to use in educating
incoming administrations on best practices, model
policies and the economic development potential
of local sustainable energy businesses. We expect to
distribute the toolkit in time for the SOLAR 2011
Conference in Raleigh, N.C.
ASES has a story to tell. I urge you to get involved
in your local ASES chapter in 2011.Tat’s where the
action will be. See you all in Raleigh. ST
perspective
Taking our Message to the States
Now more than ever: Tink globally, act locally.
By JEFF LyNG
Irene PÉrez Law: ASES Interim Executive Director
Editorial
Gina R. Johnson: Editor/Associate Publisher
editor@solartoday.org
Seth Masia: Deputy Editor
Mike Koshmrl: Assistant Editor
Solartoday.org
Brooke Simmons: Manager of Online Publishing
Design
Allison J. Gray: Art Director
Dan Bihn: Photojournalist
Contributors
Richard Crume, Rona Fried, Chuck Kutscher, Joseph McCabe,
Liz Merry, Mick Sagrillo, Robert Ukeiley
Advertising
AnneteDelagrange: Director of Sales,
Colorado and Outside the U.S.
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GabrielaMartin, Chair
DanBihn PaulNotari
RichardCrume AlejandroPalomino
FrankKreith MickSagrillo
ChuckKutscher BobScheulen
JosephMcCabe RobertUkeiley
DonaMcClain JaneM. Weissman
ASES Operations
CarolynBeach: Membership Manager
RichardBurns: National Solar Tour Manager/
Chapters Liaison
BradleyD. Collins: National Campaign Director
ElenaHoffrichter: Bookkeeper
ChristyHonigman: Director of Development
KateHotchkiss: National Solar Conference Manager
AnnHuggins: Member Services
Dona McClain: Program Coordinator
Joel Moore: National Solar Conference Assistant
Chris Stimpson: Executive Campaigner
Solar Nation, a program of ASES
ASES Board of Directors
JeffLyng, Chair
MargotMcDonald, Immediate Past Chair
BillPoulin, Treasurer
JasonKeyes, Secretary
Toni Bouchard DavidHill
RichardCaputo NathalieOsborn
DavidComis DavidPanich
GregoryEdwards Tehri Parker
TrudyForsyth Jeff Peterson
AllisonGray PhilSmithers
MaryGuzowski MarkThornbloom
SOLAR TODAy (ISSN: 1042-0630) is published nine times
per year by the American Solar Energy Society, 4760 Walnut
Street, Suite 106, Boulder, Colorado 80301, 303.443.3130,
fax 303.443.3212, ases@ases.org, ases.org. Copyright © 2011
by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
leaDi ng the renewaBle energy revoluti on
SoLARToDAy. oRG
sOLaR TODAY
®
Jef Lyng is chair of
the american solar
energy society.
contact him at
chair@ases.org.
Get Involved:
register for solar 2011
SoLAR 2011 is America’s leading conference on
the emerging trends, technology and opportuni-
ties shaping the new energy economy. It’s widely
recognized by solar energy professionals for its
cutting-edge educational content. SOLAR 2011
will take place at the Raleigh Convention Center,
May 17-21. ASES expects to attract more than 5,000
solar professionals, business leaders and entre-
preneurs to downtown Raleigh, with participants
traveling from across the United States and interna-
tionally. Register at nationalsolarconference.org.
1_64_March_ST11.indd 8 2/14/11 3:47:13 PM
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10 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
advances solar technology | analysis | markets
irs guidance for Pv 14 utility-scale storage in hawaii 14 fuel cell trucks test in socal 57
from the Solar@Work e-bulletin
T
he North American solar photovoltaic (PV) mar-
ket is poised for very strong growth in 2011,
driven in large part by subsidies but also pushed
along by falling prices and innovations that reduce sys-
tem-installation time and the associated labor costs.
Solar technology continues to rapidly evolve as ven-
dors both pursue cost reductions and strive to over-
come the grid-stability issues that arise when many PV
systems are concentrated in a small geographic area.
Given the early stage of solar technology, opportunities
abound for cost reductions, reliability improvements
and increased safety, whether they come through
new cell chemistries, manufacturing improvements,
increased standardization or balance-of-system (BOS)
innovations.
Price Pressure Continues in PV Modules
PV modules continue to evolve, and it will be some
time before a fnal winner emerges in the race to reduce
module costs. In the end, it may turn out that the low-
cost solution depends on the application. However,
picking the winning cell chemistry is less important in
today’s market now that a number of manufacturers
have emerged as “bankable.” Even if another technol-
ogy prices crystalline silicon (c-Si) out of the market in
10 years, today it is the dominant cell chemistry and
developers can get funding for projects that use it.
With the potential for an oversupply of modules
in 2011, it could be business practices that differenti-
ate between bankable module manufacturers as much
or more than pricing. In the frenzied environment of
2010, some manufacturers reallocated modules from
North America to Germany in order to take advantage
of higher prices driven by the pending reduction of
German feed-in tariffs (FITs), and in some cases this had
a negative impact on project timelines in the United
States. These delays convinced some developers to
reevaluate their relationships with certain suppliers,
and if the market loosens in 2011 as expected, module
manufacturers that misled or mistreated customers in
the 2010 boom could suffer disproportionately.
Beyond relentless cost reduction, PV module man-
ufacturers are expected to continue to differentiate
themselves by adding intelligence to their modules in
the form of integrated microinverters and integrated
2011: Pricing Trends in PV
Pricing Trends continued on page 56
Jay holman (jholman@
energy-insights.com) is
research manager for
renewable energy
strategies at Idc (idc.com).
he holds an mBa from the
sloan school of manage-
ment, a master’s ee/cs
from mIt’s school of engi-
neering, and a bachelor’s
in physics from colgate
university.
By Jay HolMan
San Francisco
Plugs In
5-MW Array
A 5-megawatt (MW)
PV system went live in
January on the roof of San
Francisco’s Sunset Reser-
voir. The San Francisco
Public Utilities Commis-
sion purchases the power
under a 25-year power pur-
chase agreement with sys-
tem developer Recurrent
Energy. It triples the city’s
nonhydro renewable elec-
tricity and offsets power
used by the airport, light-
rail and city buildings.
1_64_March_ST11.indd 10 2/14/11 3:47:15 PM
solartoday.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 11
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
Brookhaven researchers
(left to right) Mircea Cotlet,
Ranjith Krishna Pai and Zhi-
hua Xu.
S
cientists at Brookhaven National Laboratory and
Los Alamos National Laboratory have fabricated
transparent thin flms capable of absorbing light
and generating electric charge over a relatively
large area. Te material, described in the journal Chem-
istry of Materials, could be used to develop transparent
solar panels or even windows that absorb solar energy to
generate electricity.
Te material consists of a semiconducting
polymer doped with carbon-rich fullerenes.
Under controlled conditions, the material self-
assembles to form a reproducible pattern of
micron-size hexagon-shaped cells over a relatively
large area (up to several millimeters).
“Though such honeycomb-patterned thin
flms have previously been made using conven-
tional polymers like polystyrene, this is the frst
report of such a material that blends semiconduc-
tors and fullerenes to absorb light and efciently
generate charge and charge separation,” said
lead scientist Mircea Cotlet, a physical chemist
at Brookhaven’s Center for Functional Nanoma-
terials (CFN).
Furthermore, the material remains largely
transparent because the polymer chains pack
densely only at the edges of the hexagons, while
remaining loosely packed and spread very thin
across the centers. “Te densely packed edges
strongly absorb light and may also facilitate con-
ducting electricity,” Cotlet explained, “while the
centers do not absorb much light and are rela-
tively transparent.”
“Combining these traits and achieving large-scale pat-
terning could enable a wide range of practical applications,
such as energy-generating solar windows, transparent solar
panels and new kinds of optical displays,” said co-author
Zhihua Xu, a materials scientist at the CFN.
“Imagine a house with windows made of this kind of
material, which, combined with a solar roof, would cut
its electricity costs signifcantly. Tis is prety exciting,”
Cotlet said.
Te scientists fabricated the honeycomb thin flms by
creating a fow of micrometer-size water droplets across a
thin layer of the polymer/fullerene-blend solution. Tese
water droplets self-assembled into large arrays within the
polymer solution. As the solvent completely evaporates,
the polymer forms a hexagonal honeycomb patern over
a large area.
“Tis is a cost-efective method, with potential to be
scaled up from the laboratory to industrial-scale produc-
tion,” Xu said.
Te research was supported at Los Alamos by the Depart-
ment of Energy Ofce of Science. Te work was also carried
out in part at the CFN and the Center for Integrated Nano-
technologies Gateway to Los Alamos (CINGLA) facility.
Te Brookhaven team included Mircea Cotlet, Zhihua Xu
and Ranjith Krishna Pai. Collaborators from Los Alamos
include Hsing-Lin Wang and Hsinhan Tsai, who are both
users of the CFN facilities at Brookhaven, Andrew Datel-
baum from the CINGLA facility, and project leader Andrew
Shreve of the Materials Physics and Applications Division.
Te CFN and CINGLA are two of the fve DOE Nano-
scale Science Research Centers (NSRCs), premier national
user facilities for interdisciplinary research at the nanoscale.
Together the NSRCs comprise a suite of complementary
facilities that provide researchers with state-of-the-art
capabilities to fabricate, process, characterize and model
nanoscale materials, and constitute the largest infrastruc-
ture investment of the National Nanotechnology Initiative.
Te NSRCs are located at DOE’s Argonne, Brookhaven,
Lawrence Berkeley, Oak Ridge, Sandia and Los Alamos
national laboratories.
Access the article at bit.ly/gPPDXZ.
—BROOkHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORy
Transparent PV Material May Find Use in Windows
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12 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
| clean air policy advances
robert ukeiley (rukeiley
@igc.org) is a lawyer
who represents envi-
ronmental nonprofts in
clean air act litigation
afecting energy issues.
By RoBERT UKEILEy
How the Clean Air Act Sells Solar
T
he Clean Air Act provides renewable energy compa-
nies with an opportunity to create or greatly expand
specifc regional markets for certain applications. All
that is required on the part of the renewable energy compa-
nies is a small amount of advocacy and information sharing
with local, state and federal air pollution control agencies.
To help you understand this opportunity, I will briefy
review the basic structure of the Clean Air Act. Te U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets National
Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS), which is the
acceptable amount of air pollution in the outside air for
various pollutants. EPA then designates every area in the
country as either “nonatainment,” meaning the air pollu-
tion in that area is worse than the NAAQS, or “atainment,”
meaning the air pollution in that area is beter than the
NAAQS. State or local air agencies then have to come up
with plans for how to lower air pollution in nonatainment
areas or not let air pollution increase in atainment areas.
Tese plans are known as State Implementation Plans, or
SIPs. EPA then approves or disapproves the SIPs, based on
various specifc criteria as well as whether the SIP will actu-
ally achieve its environmental objective. Te Clean Air Act
requires public notice and an opportunity for the public to
submit comments, both when the state or local air agency
creates the SIP and again when EPA is considering whether
to approve or disapprove the SIP.
SIPs for nonatainment areas usually have to contain
new rules applying Reasonably Available Control Technol-
ogy (RCT) to existing sources of pollution. RCT was
ofen thought of as “end of the pipe” pollution controls like
catalysts or scrubbers. However, RCT can be cleaner fuels
like the sun and wind.
For example, EPA recently considered the SIP for Cali-
fornia’s San Joaquin Valley fne-particulate-mater non-
atainment area. Te San Joaquin Valley could be a huge
renewable energy market. It is home to more than 4 million
people and is the nation’s leading agricultural area.
Among the sources of fne-particulate-mater air pol-
lution in the San Joaquin Valley are stationary agricultural
pump engines. RCT for these engines could be using PV
rather than diesel-fuel generators. Other relevant sources of
pollution are boilers, steam generators and process heaters of
various sizes, stationary gas turbines, reciprocating internal
combustion engines, residential water heaters, natural gas-
fred residential furnaces and wood-burning freplaces and
heaters. Successfully implementing RCT for these sources
could greatly expand the renewable energy market.
Tere are nonatainment areas across the country. If you
want to get involved in helping to ensure RCT is based on
renewable energy sources, a good place to start is meeting
with the planning section of your state or local air agencies
to fnd out what opportunities are coming up.
Cruise Ship Terminal Gets 1-MW Array
C
upertino Electric has commissioned a 1-MW roofop PV system at berths
93A and B of the World Cruise Ship Terminal at the Port of Los Angeles. Te
71,500-square-foot silicon array uses a self-ballasted racking system that does not
penetrate the terminal’s roof. Te Port and the Terminal are both agencies of the
city of Los Angeles, and the solar project is part of the city’s Solar LA Program,
which aims to put 400 MW on city roofops by 2014 and provide 10 percent of the
city’s electricity through renewable sources by 2020.
Cruise Ship Gets 80-kW Thin-Film Array
BAM Solar of Miami has installed an 80-kilowatt (kW) Uni-Solar
fexible thin-flm array on Royal Caribbean’s Allure of the Seas
cruise ship. The array provides a portion of the electricity used
by the ship’s shopping decks. BAM President Andrew Rasken
notes that the project required a lightweight array that would
tolerate foot trafc and, most importantly, fasten without deck
penetrations. This is the second such installation on a Royal
Caribbean ship.
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1_64_March_ST11.indd 12 2/14/11 3:47:18 PM
solartoday.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 13
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
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NEMA Publishes
Incandescent Bulb
Phase-Out Brochure
the national electrical manu-
facturers association (nema) has
published “lighting options for
your home,” a brochure clarify-
ing the upcoming phase-out of
incandescent light bulbs. Begin-
ning in 2012, and a year earlier in
california, traditional 100-watt,
75-watt, 60-watt and 40-watt
bulbs will be phased out, with a
completion date of 2014.
options for lighting homes
and offices include halogen,
compact fuorescent and leD
light sources, each of which is
explained in detail.
Download the publication at
tinyurl.com/nemalights.
Bakersfeld
College
Dedicates
1.1-MW
SunPower
System
s
unPower in December completed
a 1.1-MW solar power system at
Bakersfeld College in California. Te sys-
tem should supply about one-third of the
college’s electricity demand. Construct-
ed in fve months, the system features a
3.1-acre parking lot canopy with nearly
3,700 SunPower solar panels on tracking
mounts. Te array is designed to displace
2.3 million pounds of carbon dioxide each
year, equivalent to removing more than
5,900 cars from California’s roads over the
30-year life of the system.
1_64_March_ST11.indd 13 2/14/11 3:47:19 PM
14 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
| solar incentives advances
B
ecause renewable portfolio standard incentives
vary widely from state to state, residential solar
integrators and installers conducting operations in
more than one state may have a challenge with quantifying
the incentives available to their residential customers. One
might assume that the easy part would be quantifying the
federal income tax credit portion of the incentive package.
However, the amount of income tax credits available to a
homeowner depends on the income tax treatment of the
state incentives received. Fortunately, a recent private let-
ter ruling provides more guidance from the IRS.
Last year, with the assistance of the solar integrator
American Solar Electric, we sought an IRS private leter
ruling for an Arizona taxpayer who was seeking clarity
from the IRS on applicable federal income tax credits. Te
ruling, PLR 201035003, sheds light on the thought pro-
cess of the IRS in calculating the federal income tax credit
pursuant to Section 25D of the Internal Revenue Code.
Section 25D provides that an individual who purchases a
residential solar system is eligible for a federal income tax
credit equal to 30 percent of the cost of that system. In
addition, many states with a renewable portfolio standard
have a program by which an incentive is paid by the local
utility to residents who purchase and install a residential
solar system.
Te facts and circumstances of a particular state’s
subsidy or incentive program are crucial to determining
the tax implications of such payments and the applicable
federal income tax credit. For instance, payments received
from a utility are generally subject to income tax. How-
ever, Section 136 of the Internal Revenue Code provides
that a “subsidy” from a public utility to a customer for
the purchase or installation of an energy-conservation
measure is not considered gross income to the taxpayer.
Ideally, a homeowner would like to receive both the pay-
ment from the utility on a tax-free basis and the federal
income tax credit on the full purchase price of the system.
To prevent such “double dipping,” Section 136 provides
that the base on which the Section 25D tax credit is deter-
mined must be reduced by the amount of any payment
from a public utility that is excluded from gross income
pursuant to Section 136.
In PLR 201035003, the taxpayer sold title and own-
ership of all “environmental credits, benefts, emissions
reductions, ofsets and allowances” (including the renew-
able energy credits) generated over the applicable period
of time to the local utility for a one-time payment. Tis
one-time payment was paid pursuant to an interconnec-
tion and purchase agreement utilized by the utility in
compliance with Arizona’s renewable portfolio standard.
Te IRS determined that under the facts and circum-
stances at issue, the payment received in exchange for
the renewable energy credits and environmental atri-
butes was not a “subsidy” under Section 136 but rather
a sale transaction. Accordingly, the IRS concluded that
the taxpayer was able to obtain the Section 25D income
tax credit on the full purchase price of the residential
solar system (without reduction for the amount of the
payment received from the utility). Te IRS further con-
cluded that the taxpayer needed to report the gain from
the sale in gross income.
Ultimately, a private leter ruling is only binding upon
the IRS with respect to the taxpayer that requested the
ruling. Nonetheless, PLR 201035003 gives much-needed
insight into the views of the IRS, and we believe that inte-
grators, utilities and customers operating under incentive
programs similar to the one at issue in this ruling might
consider the implications of this guidance. We hope that
the IRS will issue general guidance applicable to all federal
taxpayers in the near future. For now, taxpayers should
consult with their tax advisors regarding the implications
of PLR 201035003.
L
arge-scale power storage has long been cited
as a goal to even out the intermittency of
solar and wind power. In Hawaii, massive bat-
tery banks are now becoming standard
operating procedure for wind and solar
resources serving small isolated grids.
In January, Kaua’i Island Utility Cooper-
ative (KIUC) agreed to purchase a 1.5 -MW
utility-scale battery storage system from
Xtreme Power of Kyle, Texas, to be installed at the
Koloa substation. This battery bank will smooth out
the power feed from a 3-MW photovoltaic project as
clouds pass over, helping to stabilize the utility’s rela-
tively small grid. Also in January, Xtreme announced
the sale of a 10-MW storage system to serve a 21-MW
wind farm to be built on Maui. Both systems will
come online later this year.
The sales mark the fourth and ffth large battery
systems sold by Xtreme in Hawaii. Battery banks are
already in place to serve wind farms on Maui, Lana’i
and Oahu. The new systems will bring installed bat-
tery capacity to 30 MW.
Utility-Scale Power Storage Goes Mainstream in Hawaii
the authors want you to
know that this article should
under no circumstance be
construed as providing tax
advice. marc schultz is a tax
partner with snell & wilmer
(swlaw.com), a law frm
with eight ofces across
the southwest. he chairs
the frm’s tax credit fnance
practice and co-chairs the
frm’s fund formation and
investment practice. franc
Del fosse is a transactional
partner with snell & wilmer.
he chairs the frm’s renew-
able energy industry group.
irs Provides guidance for residential Pv
By MARC SCHULTZ and
FRANC DEL FoSSE
1_64_March_ST11.indd 14 2/14/11 3:47:19 PM
solartoday.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 15
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
Cenergy Opens 1.1-MW System
for Primex Farms
Cenergy Power has completed a 1.108-MW PV system for
Primex Farms at its state-of-the-art processing facility in
Wasco, Calif. Primex is a leading grower of pistachios and
trader of dried fruits and nuts. The array bridges two facility
roofs and a set of carports, and is designed to produce about
1.7 million kilowatt-hours annually.
SolarWorld to
Power Haitian
Medical Clinics
some 100 kilowatts of modules
arrived in haiti in December, en route
to fve remote medical centers. the
shipment of 440 230-watt sunmodule
panels constitutes the third round of
equipment that solarworld has pro-
vided to meet growing humanitarian
needs in haiti since 2009.
the equipment will power medical
gear, refrigeration and air condition-
ing for clinics at la colline, arrondisse-
ment de lascahobas, thomonde,
Petite riviere and verrettes. installa-
tion work is expected to take place
through spring.
solar electric light fund (self),
a u.s. nonproft that uses sustain-
able energy to aid developing com-
munities, is managing the project
to largely replace diesel generators
at clinics of Partners in health (Pih),
an international medical relief orga-
nization. solarworld, self and Pih
staged a similar project at a clinic in
Boucain-carré, haiti, in 2009. after
the jan. 12, 2010, earthquake, solar-
world provided the nonproft water
missions international with panels for
water-pumping stations there.
Advances continues on page 57
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1_64_March_ST11.indd 15 2/14/11 3:47:20 PM
16 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
innovators
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carol Dollard, Pe, leeD aP
T
UCKED AGAINST THE FOOTHILLS WEST
of Fort Collins, Colo., is Christman Field, named
for Bert Christman, a local kid who trained as
a naval aviator, joined the American Volunteer
Group in Burma and was killed a month afer Pearl Harbor
while fying in defense of Rangoon. In 2007, Colorado State
University closed the airport.
Today, a 30-acre triangle at the southwest corner of
the feld is home to 5.3 megawats (MW) of photovoltaic
modules — the largest on-campus PV array in the United
States. Te project, completed in two phases in late 2009
and 2010, was driven by Carol Dollard, Colorado State’s
utility engineer, and a team of engineers and professionals
in the facilities department.
Dollard grew up with engineering in her blood. Her
father, a Boeing engineer, worked at NASA’s Manned
Spacefight Center in Huntsville, Ala., so she knew all about
PV for satellites. She built her frst solar water-heating sys-
tem as a high school science project and arrived on the
CSU campus, in 1978, she says, “determined to be a solar
engineer and save the world.” She spent the next couple of
years dividing her time between the Fort Collins campus
and the space fight center, where she interned. She earned
bachelor’s and master’s degrees in mechanical engineering
and LEED AP certifcation; she worked for the Plate River
Power Authority, the City of Longmont Electric Depart-
ment and the City of Fort Collins Utilities (a municipal
utility district), driving a wide variety of energy-efciency
and renewable energy projects. In 1999, she returned to the
university full-time, as a facilities engineer, and then added a
role as an adjunct professor of construction management.
Colorado’s Amendment 37, passed by voters in 2004,
established a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) with a
solar carve-out. In 2006, with the support of Michael Ran-
dall, Brian Chase and Steve Hultin of the facilities depart-
ment, Dollard began planning for a large PV array. Atorney
Jason Johnson handled the complex contract work.
Dollard’s group began with some smaller projects. Te
engineering building got an 18.9-kilowat (kW) array in
June 2009, followed by a 12.6-kW array at the Academic
Village, both systems installed by Bella Energy. Tose bids
came in at lower costs than the planning process had antici-
pated, an encouraging discovery. In recognition of win-
ter weather realities, these arrays were designed for wind
speeds of 90 mph, while the Christman Field arrays are
engineered to withstand 115-mph wind.
In August 2009, construction began on phase one of the
large Christman Field array. Te original Amendment 37
capped customer-sited, grid-tied solar projects at 2 MW,
so that’s what was designed. Funding came from Fotowatio
Renewable Ventures, which owns and operates the plant.
Colorado State agreed to purchase the electricity through
a purchase power agreement, and Xcel Energy purchased
In Colorado,
an engineer pioneers
utility-scale projects
for a university.

1_64_March_ST11.indd 16 2/14/11 3:47:21 PM
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1_64_March_ST11.indd 17 2/14/11 3:47:21 PM
18 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
innovators
Grab your opportunity.
Register now.
Register online nowfor SOLAR 2011,
the premier technical conference for solar energy and
energy efciency professionals in the U.S.
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SOLAR2011_ad_STMar2011_Reg-v2:Layout 1 1/14/11 6:13 PM Page 1
the renewable energy credits. Contractor AMEC installed 8,697 230-wat
Trina silicon modules on single-axis trackers, driven by eight motors and
feeding four locally built Advanced Energy inverters. Te system was online
by December 2009.
Because the project put 2 MW onto 15 acres, there was plenty of room
for wide spacing between the tracking arrays. Tis made construction easier
and obviated any shading issues, but in retrospect, Dollard says, they might
have spaced the arrays closer, which would have made room for more capac-
ity at the site. As it happened, the state legislature lifed the 2-MW cap on
PV when the RPS was expanded to 20 percent (it now stands at 30 percent
by 2020), and the planning team got to work on phase two. Contractor
GES flled the corners of the triangle, roughly another 15 acres, with 3.3
MW of the same modules on fxed frames, tilted 20 degrees. Phase two
went live in December. Te Christman solar feld can generate 8.5 million
kilowat-hours annually, enough to provide 33 percent of the Foothills
Campus’ annual energy use. Te university buys that power at a fxed rate
from Fotowatio, on a 20-year contract. With traditional electric rates rising
at about 6 percent annually, Dollard says, the entire project is expected to
save the university millions.
2010 also saw installation of a 15.75-kW PV roofop array at the Behav-
ioral Science Building and another 132-kW roofop array on the Lake Street
parking garage, both by Bella Energy, and a ground-mount 57-kW system
by Encore Electric at the Research Innovation Center. Dollard would like
to put solar water-heating panels on the university’s swimming pools and
residence halls, but capital is tight now, and most renewable incentives
support direct electric power generation. With the Colorado State Forest
Service (a CSU agency), facilities installed a wood-chip biomass boiler in
2008, and the department is now investigating burning biogas out of the
Larimer County landfll. Meanwhile, the university has six LEED Gold-
certifed buildings and is puting up six more. — SETH MASIA
Because the project put 2 MW onto 15 acres, there was plenty of room for
wide spacing between the tracking arrays.
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carol Dollard, Pe, leeD aP
1_64_March_ST11.indd 18 2/14/11 3:47:22 PM
$/W is soooo 2008.
Introducing the UJ6 module series
from Mitsubishi Electric
212 to 235 watts
With the solar industry shifting its focus from $/W to $/kWh, a module’s real-life energy performance is extremely important.
Mitsubishi Electric PV modules have one of the highest PTC ratings in the industry and are well known for exceeding power output
expectations in real life conditions. All of our PV modules have a tight +/- 3% power tolerance, a 25-year power output warranty,
and are known for their exceptional quality and reliability.
In our new UJ6 series, we’ve not only increased the number of cells per module from 50 to 60, we’ve also improved the cell
eciency to bring you more power per square foot. Mitsubishi Electric PV modules have some of the most innovative safety
features in the industry including a triple-layer junction box, 100% lead-free solder, and a back protection bar for extra support.
The new modules range in size from 212 watts to 235 watts and are designed for roof mount or ground mount commercial
installations.
For more information please
email pv@meus.mea.com
call 714-236-6137 or visit
www.MitsubishiElectricSolar.com
It’s all about $/kWh now.
1_64_March_ST11.indd 19 2/14/11 3:47:22 PM
20 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
view from the states
Iowa
Four years ago former Gov. Chet Culver, a Democrat, created
the Iowa Power Fund, which provides matching grants and
loans for new renewable energy projects. the Power fund has
helped grow iowa’s wind market into the nation’s second larg-
est. new gov. terry Barnstad, a republican, campaigned against
the fund, telling the Sioux City Journal it was a “colossal failure”
and the $25 million budget should be reallocated to reducing
taxes. more recently Barnstad reversed course, saying that he
expects the Power fund to continue under the management of
a diferent department. at press time, the program’s fate hung
in the balance. the state’s renewable energy community is
skeptical. “we think it’s highly unlikely the Barnstad administra-
tion extends [the Power fund],” says steve fugate, managing
director of the iowa renewable energy association.
Policy Shifts: Where the States Are Headed
The shift in political power following the November elections
may threaten solar and wind policies in key states. Here’s
what’s happening.
Compiled by Mike Koshmrl, Assistant Editor
New Mexico
one of the frst moves for Republican Gov. Susana Marti-
nez was to fre every member of the state’s Environmental
Improvement Board. martinez alleged that the board pro-
moted “anti-business” policies. the same week the new gover-
nor appointed harrison schmitt, an outspoken climate change
skeptic, to run new mexico’s energy, minerals and natural
resources Department. martinez also halted a new greenhouse
gas emissions regulation that had been passed in the closing
days of former gov. Bill richardson’s administration. the regula-
tion was later reinstated by the state supreme court. “we cur-
rently have common sense, balanced approaches to protecting
our environment,” says sanders moore of environment new
mexico. “we need to maintain the protections and safeguards
that are in place.”
Wisconsin
Wisconsin’s solar and wind economies are booming, driven
by a robust renewable portfolio standard, the statewide
Focus on Energy program and a number of municipal incen-
tive programs. in milwaukee, the number of solar installers has
increased 250 percent since the beginning of 2009. the state’s
wind capacity is up to 630 megawatts — nearly 90 percent of
which has come online since mid-2008. But new gov. scott
walker’s support of renewable energy is unproven. During his
campaign, walker criticized tom Barrett, his Democratic oppo-
nent, for supporting “a radical environmental agenda that will
cost us jobs.” after taking ofce, walker turned down $810
million in federal stimulus funds to build a train line from mil-
waukee to madison. then, in his frst executive order, walker
proposed a regulatory reform that would prohibit develop-
ers from siting a wind turbine within 1,800 feet of the nearest
property line. “when you’re operating with setback distances
this extreme, a lot of projects will cease to be economically
feasible,” says michael vickerman, executive director of renew
wisconsin. “it’s a shooting war right now. whole businesses
could shut down.”
1_64_March_ST11.indd 20 2/14/11 3:47:23 PM
solartoday.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 21
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
Florida
Very little is known about new Republican Gov. Rick Scott’s
stance on renewable energy policy. florida’s photovoltaic
incentive ($4 per watt) sunset june 30, and the state legislature
declined to appropriate any funding to restart the program.
with no state renewable portfolio standard and no incentive
program, it’s looking like a grim 2011 for the sunshine state’s
renewable energy business community. “the new governor
says that ‘my priority is jobs, jobs, jobs,’” says al simpler, owner
of tallahassee-based simpler solar. “well, the solar industry in
florida has lost roughly 30 percent of all its integrator busi-
nesses, and that’s just since june.”
New Jersey
Renewable energy policy in New Jersey, which has the
nation’s second-largest photovoltaic (PV) market, has seen
its ups and downs since Republican Gov. Chris Christie took
ofce in January. amendments made to the state’s energy
master Plan in august bolstered prospects for ofshore wind,
but put in place tighter restrictions on new onshore wind and
solar projects. new installations are now required to be sited
within 120 feet of existing structures on already disturbed land.
“the new rules severely restrict the ability to put clean energy
in most of new jersey’s coastal areas,” says jef tittel, the direc-
tor of the new jersey sierra club. “in fact, under those rules it’s
easier to put up a warehouse than a solar farm. it’s easier to put
a ferris wheel on a pier than a windmill.”
Michigan
Under Gov. Jennifer Granholm, renewable energy projects
made good progress — so much so that there’s a solid base
of emerging solar and wind manufacturers and a recogniz-
able jobs base. new gov. rick snyder was the frst republican
ever endorsed by the michigan league of conservation voters
and served on the board of the nature conservancy’s michigan
chapter. his administration is not likely to put the brakes on the
brightest area of jobs growth in the state. “michigan has expe-
rienced large investment in renewable energy, particularly in
the manufacturing side of the business,” says jennifer alvarado,
executive director of the great lakes renewable energy asso-
ciation, ases’ michigan chapter. “i think that gov. snyder will
want to continue this and use renewable energy as an oppor-
tunity for economic development.”
Ohio
As a personality on Fox News, ohio Gov. John Kasich has
repeatedly challenged climate change science and green-
house gas emissions policy. he has criticized ohio’s ambi-
tious renewable portfolio standard (rPs), saying it will “drive
up utility bills.” under pressure from the state’s fast-growing
renewable energy business community, he has since backed
down from his anti-rPs position. one of departing ohio gov.
ted strickland’s fnal pleas was for Kasich to save a $400 mil-
lion high-speed passenger rail project that would have been
fnanced entirely by the federal stimulus package. Before he
was sworn into ofce, Kasich confrmed he would turn down
the free federal money. “we’re hopeful that green jobs will be
part of gov. Kasich’s agenda,” says Bill spratley, the executive
director of green energy ohio, ases’ ohio chapter. “jobs are the
big issue here, and right now there’s just so much activity with
renewable energy. that’s why i’m optimistic.”
Pennsylvania
Pennsylvania is a coal state, and it has Marcellus shale natu-
ral gas reserves. nuclear plants provide about 21 percent of
the state’s electric power. During his campaign, incoming gov.
tom corbett espoused an energy policy calling for more of
everything, especially liquid fuels derived from coal, gas and
biomass. one goal: “refocusing the Department of environ-
mental Protection by getting back to basics.” corbett’s appoint-
ment of Patrick henderson as “energy executive,” an all-new
cabinet post, suggests this will not translate into neglect for
Pennsylvania’s growing renewable energy community. “Patrick
has a strong background and knows the solar issues,” says mau-
reen mulligan, owner of harrisburg-based sustainable futures
communications. “as the chief of staf for the senate energy,
resources and environment committee, he always had an open
door to the solar industry.”
cLIcK Find policy updates: solartoday.org/states.
1_64_March_ST11.indd 21 2/14/11 3:47:24 PM
22 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
case study historical renovation
I
t is essential that new houses be constructed to produce as much
energy as they use. But how much would we reduce our carbon output
if, in coming years, we did so but ignored existing homes? Te answer
is zero. Of the 130 million existing U.S. homes, the nearly half having
inadequate insulation are responsible for 22 percent of our carbon
emissions. Yet virtually all of the net-zero-energy homes in the United States
— fewer than 100 — are new construction or major gut renovations. What
will it take to address existing houses immediately and afordably?
In 2006, my wife, Kelly, and I found our dream come true in the Old
West Side Historic District of Ann Arbor, Mich.: a circa 1901 folk-Victorian
home with lead paint, asbestos siding, a 40 percent-efcient 1957 Mueller
Climatrol gas furnace and a gas-powered lawn mower out in the shed. Other
buyers saw a nightmare. We saw a rock-solid Edwardian-period home,
within walking distance of everything we need, with a 180-degree, south-
facing roof with a 45-degree pitch. Developing its potential, we knew, could
be an inspiration, an urgent calling and a model for not only preserving
history, but also protecting our future.
When we purchased our home, I had already started Greenovation.
TV, a multimedia website intended to educate others about how to make
existing homes sustainable. So, from the start, net-zero was a goal for our
new home. I was inspired by Ray Anderson, CEO of carpet-maker Inter-
face Inc. Anderson set a Mission Zero goal to transform his multinational
Kelly and matt grocof bought their
circa 1901 ann arbor, mich., home
in 2006. for most of the 1900s,
the family of Philip and elizabeth gauss
lived in the house.
Philip and elizabeth gauss at the
ann arbor, mich., house circa 1913.
their daughter gert, who was born
in the front parlor in 1920, sold the
house to the grocofs.
matthew grocof is a producer and host of greenovation.tV, contributor to the
environment report on public radio (environmentreport.org), the green renova-
tion expert for Old house Web (oldhouseweb.com), a frequent lecturer and has
been featured in the Washington Post, USA Today, Detroit Free Press, NBc detroit and
countless online magazines and blogs. USA Today recently honored the grocofs’
home as one of the top green houses of 2010. check out greenovation.tV for
instructional videos and information about grocof’s house restoration.

A Historic Home
Goes Net-Zero-Energy
In retrofitting their
110-year-old
Victorian,
Matt and Kelly Grocoff
offer a model for
restoring the nation’s
existing houses.
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By MaTTHEW GROCOFF
1_64_March_ST11.indd 22 2/14/11 3:47:25 PM
solartoday.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 23
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
Limited to 550 square
feet (51 square meters)
of roof space, the Gro-
cofs chose 18.1 per-
cent-efcient SunPower
225 Signature Black
panels. The panels’
black-on-black aesthet-
ics helped the system
gain approval from the
Ann Arbor Historic Dis-
trict Commission.
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1_64_March_ST11.indd 23 2/14/11 3:47:26 PM
24 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
case study historical renovation
corporation — in his words, a pillager and a thief — into a restorative company
that will eliminate any negative impact it has on the environment.
We created our own Mission Zero vision of a home that was powered by renew-
able energy, created zero waste and would be a restorative part of our commu-
nity (www.missionzerohouse.com). But producing our own energy was a goal we
thought would follow years of saving.
Before we began restoring our old home, it consumed about $2,800 in energy
annually. If we continued this consumption level in the house, we would spend
$83,510 over 20 years, when adjusted for 4 percent energy infation. With this
number in mind, we set out to determine how to best invest in our home.
In four years, we made our 110-year-old home exceptionally efcient through
retrofts that never compromised the structure. Ten the stars aligned last year, with
a 30 percent federal tax credit, an aggressive incentive program from our utility and
a solar loan fnancing option at 5.5 percent interest from SunPower (sunpowercorp.
com). With the addition of an 8.1-kilowat photovoltaic system last fall, our house
was on track to become the oldest residence in North America to achieve net-zero
energy, Michigan’s frst net-zero solar home and the frst net-zero historic rehabilita-
tion in a designated historic district.
Preserving the Past, Protecting the future
Reaching net-zero-energy is a challenge in any home. Exacerbating maters,
many tools available for a new construction or a gut rehab were not options for us.
Simple design and materials solutions like SIP or ICF superinsulation, triple-pane
new windows or maximizing south-facing windows would have required more new
material, negatively impacted the historic integrity of the house and, above all, were
prohibited by the Ann Arbor Historic District Commission.
To meet historic preservation standards, we needed to respect the character-
defning features of the home: We could not alter the interior plaster walls, original
wood clapboard siding or the 110-year-old single-pane windows; we could not
add or remove any windows or doors; and we needed approval from the Historic
District Commission to install roofop solar.
Rather than viewing them as barriers, I consider many of these preservation
restrictions to be sustainability standards. Limited to the same footprint, foor plan,
materials and design of the original home, we’re able to show how to improve the
homes where ordinary Americans live.
Pv system stats
Array Capacity: 8.1 kilowatts
Modules: 36 SunPower 225 Signature Black
225-watt panels
Inverters: Enphase M210 Microinverters
Partner: Mechanical Energy Systems, Canton, Mich.
Estimated annual production: 10,581 kilowatt-hours
Budgeted annual consumption: 10,253 kWh
grocof net-Zero-energy restoration
Year Built: 1901
Conditioned Space: 2,055 square feet
Living Space: 1,300 square feet
Insulation: $3,600, not including tax credits or incentives
UltimateAir Energy Recovery Ventilator: $3,600
Restoration of 110-year-old Windows: $6,000
Wattstopper Motion-Sensor Light Switches: $500
Bricor and Hansgrohe Showerheads: $80
Smart Strip: $50
CFL and LED Light Bulbs: $150
Current Cost Energy Monitor: $150
Trapp Co. Storm Windows with Low-E Glass: $1,600,
including 30% federal tax credit
WaterFurnace Envision
Geothermal Heat-Pump System, 3-Ton: $20,000,
including $300 rebate (now would be $14,000
with 30% federal tax credit)
8.1-Kilowatt SunPower Photovoltaic System: $19,900
after incentives
Photovoltaic System Cost Breakdown
Total cost before incentives: $56,150
Estimated federal tax credit: $16,800
Upfront REC payment from DTE Energy: $19,440*
Estimated annual payment from DTE Energy
for energy generation: $1,164
($23,300 over 20 years)
Estimated annual credit on DTE Energy bills: $1,164
Total system cost after incentives: $19,900
Estimated 20-year pre-tax proft: $26,690
Estimated 20-year utility costs without retrofts: $83,510
* Note: REC (renewable energy credit) payment
will be claimed as 1099 income on federal taxes.
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1_64_March_ST11.indd 24 2/14/11 3:47:27 PM
solartoday.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 25
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
insulating and sealing the envelope
Restoring the Windows. Drafy old windows, perhaps our home’s great-
est challenge, were also our biggest success. Not only did we believe we
should restore our windows, but historic-preservation standards prohibit
the replacement of original windows when they are reparable. Our windows
are wood, double-hung with single-pane wavy glass panes and pulley and
sash weights. None of the windows was operable.
Preservationists Lorri Sipes and Maggie Hostetler from the Wood Win-
dow Repair Co. (woodwindowrepair.biz) convinced me that they could
make our 110-year-old windows virtually as airtight as new. Te results have
made me a window-restoration evangelist.
Last June, on the morning before we began restoring our old windows,
the nonproft Clean Energy Coalition (cec-mi.org) performed a blower-
door test to establish a baseline airfow rate for our house. At 50 pascals,
we had an exchange rate of 4,400 cubic feet per minute (CFM50), typical
for an old Victorian.
Over several weeks, my wife, her father, a group of workshop participants
and I worked with Lorri and Maggie to restore the windows. We added sili-
cone bulb weather-stripping to the top, botom and meeting rails, bronze
weather-stripping to the jambs and restored or replaced the hardware.
Now all windows can be opened and closed with a single fnger. Te
follow-up blower-door tests measured only 1,500 CFM50, an astonishing
66 percent air-leakage reduction just from sealing the windows.
By adding storms, we achieved a total house air-leakage reduction of 70
percent. We used Snowbird storm windows with low-e glass from Trapp
Co. (trappdoors.com/storm_windows.htm). Te secondary pane created
a bit tighter air seal, 1,300 CFM50, while preserving the original windows.
Insulating with Low Impact. For more than a century our home had
zero insulation. Te atic had a single layer of newspaper dated 1902.
Te walls were hollow balloon framing. Te basement had mousetraps
and plenty of daylight coming through the sill plate on top of the original
stone foundation.
Since we could not — and did not want to — alter the interior plaster
walls, we hired Farmers Insulation (farmersinsulationinc.com) to blow
dense pack cellulose into the wall cavities to achieve an R-value between
11 and 13. We insisted that the installer remove two rows of the original
clapboard siding, then cut holes in the lathe sheathing to get the hose into
each cavity. Once the installation was complete, the installer was able to put
the original clapboard back in place without damaging the exterior.
Cellulose had the added benefts of reducing the fre risk in the balloon
framing and acting as a pest repellent (pests are the No. 1 cause of dam-
age to historic homes). We avoided spray foam in the walls because of the
potential for damage to the interior plaster and because it would become a
permanent part of the historic structure.
Meadowlark Energy (meadowlarkenergy.com), a whole-house perfor-
mance company, sprayed 5 inches (13 cm) of open-cell foam on the base-
ment sill plate. For the atic, we originally blew in R-60 of cellulose. But we
knew from the start it was not an ideal solution. First, the only place to install
Limited to the same footprint, foor plan,
materials and design of the original home,
we’re able to show how to improve the homes
where ordinary americans live.

In designing the PV system, Mechanical Energy Systems consulted with the
roofer to ensure the integrity of the hot roof and asphalt shingles. To avoid
roof leaks, the crew used Quick Mount PV’s fully fashed racking.
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26 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
case study historical renovation
return air ducts for the geothermal system was
in the atic. Simply wrapping them in layers of
insulation and burying them under cellulose was
far from optimal. Secondly, because the house
has no soft or ridge vents, the original gable
windows allowed the potential for moisture infl-
tration and did not adequately vent the atic. Te
atic also experienced annual temperature swings
from 150°F (66°C) in August to -20°F (-29°C)
in January — not a healthy environment for the
house or roof.
Tree years later, the addition of an energy
recovery ventilator (ERV) in the atic forced us
to correct that decision (more about the ERV
below). We worked with Meadowlark Energy
to spray 7 inches (18 cm) of Demilec Sealection
500 open-cell (demilecusa.com) on the under-
side of the roof deck to create a hot roof, turning
the atic into a conditioned space for the ventila-
tion system and the return air ducts. Tese mea-
sures altered no historical features of the house
and can be removed later if needed. Tey also
provide a great air seal and prevent criters from
fnding their way into the space.
installing efcient hvac systems
Te frst few months living in our house were
a trial in wastefulness and discomfort. Despite
the $350 per month utility bill we paid to run the
Mueller Climatrol furnace, we went to bed each
night in sweatshirts, under two comforters and
with a heated buckwheat pillow at our feet.
Although we installed our WaterFurnace
Envision ground-source system (waterfurnace.
com) a year before the 30 percent tax incentive
became available (we got only a $300 rebate),
it was still a no-brainer for us. By working the
$20,000 system into our mortgage, we were able
to have positive cash fow, as well as warm feet,
the moment we fipped the thermostat. Te sys-
tem also provides cheap-as-dirt air conditioning
and 60 percent of our hot water through an assist
from a desuperheater.
When it comes to ventilation, my mantra has
been “seal it tight, but ventilate right.” Many his-
toric preservationists insist that old houses are
designed to “breathe.” First, I don’t believe there
was any “design” to the leakiness of these houses.
Second, they should indeed breathe, but they
shouldn’t hyperventilate. Original passive-venti-
lation elements like basement and atic windows
should be restored and reactivated. But when
the house requires heating or cooling, the house
should be tight and mechanically ventilated.
Meadowlark Energy installed a RecoupAera-
tor 200DX ERV from UltimateAir (ultimateair.
com). With 95 percent recovery of heat energy,
it is the most efcient ERV on the market. Te
ERV also helps to balance air pressure, avoiding
uncontrolled airfow and moisture damage.
squeezing out every watt
When seeking net-zero, every wat counts. So
we installed CFLs, LEDs and WatStopper occu-
pancy sensors by Legrand (watstopper.com) to
eliminate lighting in unoccupied spaces.
We were also able to fnd afordable, highly
efcient appliances through Kenmore to outft
our all-electric house.
Perhaps the most overlooked energy savers in
the home are water-saving fxtures. Our master
bath shower has a Bricor 1.5-gallon per minute
(gpm) showerhead (bricor.com), which avoids
the need to heat 11,000 gallons each year. Our
guest bath has a Bricor 1.0-gpm showerhead, and
all faucets are fted with Bricor 0.5-gpm aerators.
By using only 55 gallons of fresh water per day,
only a fraction of which is hot water, we save a
couple hundred dollars per year on energy com-
pared to the average household.
Our Caroma Colonial dual-flush toilets
use only 0.8 gallons per fush and never clog
(caromausa.com). Tough we don’t directly
see this energy savings, it avoids the transport
of thousands of gallons of fresh city water and
sewage annually.
Ten, to make sure we meet our energy
budget, we monitor our live consumption with
a Current Cost Energy Monitor (currentcost.
com) connected to Google PowerMeter. (See
www.missionzerohouse.com.)
going solar
We were fortunate to fnd a house with a per-
fect roof angle (45 degrees at latitude 42.3) and
azimuth (180 degrees south) for our latitude.
We were limited to 550 square feet (51 square
meters) of roof space. Maximizing this space
was important.
The Grocofs’ Enphase microinverters include
monitoring that enables the couple to view live
solar production down to the individual panels.
Using this feature, they identifed shading that
was causing a 60 percent drop in production for
several panels.
The home’s windows are wood, double-hung with
single-pane wavy glass panes. over several weeks,
restorers weather-stripped the jambs and top, bot-
tom and meeting rails and restored or replaced the
hardware. Follow-up blower-door tests measured
1,500 CFM50, a 66 percent air-leakage reduction
just from sealing the windows.
For more than a century, the home had no insu-
lation. Meadowlark Energy applied open-cell
spray foam to the underside of the roof deck to
create a hot roof, turning the attic into a condi-
tioned space.
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1_64_March_ST11.indd 26 2/14/11 3:47:28 PM
solartoday.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 27
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
We worked with Mechanical Energy Systems from Canton, Mich.
(MES; mes1.com), which has been in business for more than 25 years.
Afer considering panels from several companies, we chose SunPower
225 Signature Black panels, which have an efciency rating of 18.1 per-
cent. Teir small size allowed us to ft 36 panels rather than 27 of the
less-efcient panels. Our conservative production estimate is 10,581
kilowat-hours annually. Because our entire roof is visible from the street,
the black-on-black aesthetics of the SunPower panels was important to
our geting approval from the Historic District Commission.
Both the local and state historic commissions required more rigorous
approval processes than did the city, including structural load analyses.
“We had to go through a lot of hoops, and in fact, I applaud them [for
their diligence],” said MES Sales Manager and Solar Designer Daren
Grifth. Part of Grifth’s challenge was educating the local commission
board about the viability of solar in Michigan and the cash-fow benefts
of solar and conservation — savings that enable us to make other pres-
ervation investments.
MES took special measures with the installation too, consulting with
our roofer to ensure the integrity of the hot roof and asphalt shingles. To
avoid roof leaks, MES used Quick Mount PV’s racking with full-sized
fashing (quickmountpv.com). Te crew ran system wiring through inte-
rior closets, avoiding exterior wiring completely.
To get the most from our inverters in a climate that can be gray, we
chose Enphase M210 microinverters (enphaseenergy.com). “Even with
up to 6 inches of snow, the microinverters can pull 5 to 25 wats with
adequate sun. Tat can generate enough heat to melt the snow — a pro-
found diference versus a single-inverter confguration’s performance,”
said Grifth. “I’ve seen 25 to 35 percent higher production because of
this low-voltage heating.” He credited the microinverters, in part, for
our panels nearly reaching the rated capacity of 207.1 wats on several
days this winter.
As a bonus, Enphase’s Enlighten monitoring system allows us to
publicly broadcast our live solar production down to the individual pan-
els. Using this feature, we were able to see that during the shortest days
of the year a leafess Norway Maple was still shading the lower row of
panels, causing a 60 percent drop in production for several panels. We’ve
decided to remove this tree and replace it with native or adaptive fruit
trees. (To see live performance data, go to www.missionzerohouse.com
and click on Energy.)
reducing, then Producing
Te basic recipe for retrofting existing homes is the same as for new
construction or major renovations: Install the most efcient heating,
cooling, ventilation and water-heating systems, seal and insulate the enve-
lope, reduce demand and change behavior. Add renewables and stir.
Like us, most homeowners won’t go through third-party certifcation,
hire an architect or perform upfront energy modeling. Tey will simply
make the changes needed to reduce, reduce and then produce. In the
many press interviews about our home, we’ve been saying that it will
produce more energy than we use. One writer said it best, though: “Te
Grocofs will consume no more then their house can produce.” Living by
current solar income alone is a worthy aspiration for us all. ST
air-leakage reduction in restored windows
Efforts reduce leakage 69.8 percent.
Pre-Window Post-Window Post-Storm
Repair Repair Windows
Cubic Feet per Minute of 4,400 1,530 1,330
Airfow at 50 pascals (CFM50)
Effective Leakage 241.6 84.0 73.0
Area (square inches)
Air Changes per Hour 15.70 5.46 4.75
at 50 pascals (ACH50)
Natural Air Changes 1.02 0.35 0.31
per Hour (ACHn)
Source: Clean Energy Coalition, cec-mi.org. Case study at bit.ly/grocofwindows.
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To avoid altering the interior plaster walls, dense
pack cellulose was blown into the wall cavities to
achieve an R-value between 11 and 13. Cellulose had
the added benefts of reducing fre risk and repelling
pests, the No. 1 cause of damage to historic homes.
cLIcK See a video and case study on the restoration of the Grocoffs’ 110-year-old windows: solartoday/video.
1_64_March_ST11.indd 27 2/14/11 3:47:29 PM
28 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
advances in ground-source heat pump systems
T
HERE’S A LOT TO LIKE ABOUT
GROUND-SOURCE HEAT PUMP
(GSHP) SYSTEMS. Tey’re sustainable
and proven in both residential and commercial
buildings. Because the earth provides a more
favorable heat source and heat sink than ambient
air, GSHPs are one of the most efcient technol-
ogies available for space conditioning and water
heating. Yet, recent studies reveal, less than 1
percent of U.S. houses use a GSHP system, with
economics cited as the major barrier to broader
use.
1
Improving the economics requires that we
reduce installation costs, improve system perfor-
mance or both. Tat is the aim of a research proj-
ect Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has
undertaken with several partners.
To reduce costs, we’re evaluating two technol-
ogies: (1) a foundation heat exchanger (FHX),
which applies only to new construction or addi-
tions to existing homes; and (2) a ground-source
integrated heat pump (GS-IHP), integrating
space heating, space cooling, on-demand dehu-
midifcation and water-heating functions into one
piece of equipment. Te GS-IHP, which applies
to new construction and retrofts, also promises
signifcant improvements in performance.
A litle more than a year into research dem-
onstrating the FHX, working with a state-of-
the-art GSHP unit, it has maintained comfort-
able temperatures for household heating and
cooling. Early estimates indicate that when
implemented at scale in the test region of East
Tennessee, the FHX approach may be feasible
at $1,000 per ton — a fraction of the cost of the
outdoor portion of traditional GSHP systems.
Although we’re still gathering performance data
for the GS-IHP prototype, our technology part-
ner plans to launch a product line based on the
technology later this year.
testing the fhX concept
Why do GSHP systems cost so much more
than conventional space-conditioning and water-
heating systems? Te cost premium is primarily
To reduce the cost of ground-source heat pumps, oak Ridge National Laboratory (oRNL) and its research
partners are testing two technologies — the foundation heat exchanger and integrated heat pump — in
the houses pictured above, built by Schaad Cos. in oak Ridge, Tenn. Advanced envelope designs and
energy-efciency strategies are built into the houses, which will be used for research for several years
before they are sold and occupied by their owners.
GSHP value rising
1_64_March_ST11.indd 28 2/14/11 3:47:33 PM
solartoday.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 29
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
sOLaR TODAY
®
MARCH 2011
VOL. 25, NO. 2
In an East Tennessee demonstration project, Oak Ridge
National Lab and partners evaluate two ground-source
heat pump technologies that together promise to reduce
the up-front investment and increase energy cost savings.
By PILJAE IM, XIAoBING LIU and JEFF MUNK
associated with drilling boreholes or excavating
trenches and installing vertical or horizontal
ground heat exchangers (or loops) in them. Te
FHX concept is based on the premise that today,
in many climates, it is economically feasible to
build new homes and home additions having
thermal loads so modest that they can be met
by a GSHP system whose loop is installed in the
construction excavations — without any extra
drilling or digging. Tese construction excava-
tions commonly include the overcut around the
basement and below the basement foor, util-
ity trenches (for buried water, sewer and power
lines) and footer drains. If this premise is true,
FHX has the potential to signifcantly reduce
GSHP cost premiums. ORNL’s research project
was designed to test this premise.
Unlike conventional horizontal ground heat
exchangers, loops buried in the overcut may
experience thermal interference with the base-
ment wall, an efect not accounted for by any
design tools for ground heat exchangers. Tis
research project focused on developing what is
needed to engineer loops in the overcut around
the basement. A team from Oklahoma State
University (OSU), led by Dr. Jef Spitler and
including Dr. Simon Rees (De Montfort Univer-
sity, United Kingdom) and several post-gradu-
ate students, joined the research partnership to
develop the necessary overcut-loop-design tool
and a model of the entire FHX (overcut, under-
foor, utility trench) suitable for integration into
EnergyPlus, the U.S. Department of Energy’s
fagship whole-building energy modeling sof-
ware. Te team uses experimental data collected
from a real installation of the FHX to validate the
design tool and simulation model.
Schaad Cos. (schaadcompanies.com),
ORNL’s founding partner in ZEBRAlliance
— a public-private collaboration to maximize
cost-efective energy efciency in buildings (zebr
alliance.com) — has built four energy-efcient
test houses in the Crossroads at Wolf Creek Sub-
division in Oak Ridge, Tenn. Houses 1 and 2
are three-level buildings with walkout basements
used for the FHX research.
Te side-by-side research houses have iden-
tical 3,700-square-foot floor plans. In these
unoccupied research houses, human impact on
energy use is simulated to match the national
average, with showers, lights, ovens, washers
and other energy-consuming equipment turned
on and of at exactly the same times. Simulating
occupancy eliminates a major source of uncer-
tainty in whole-house research projects of this
type. Houses 1 and 2 each test diferent envelope
strategies, but both have very low air leakage and
high levels of insulation, and thus have very low
heat gain and loss through the building enve-
lope. In short, they are exactly the type of home
where FHX should work. Te details of each
house’s envelope characteristics are described
in a recent paper.
2
Owing to their high-quality
thermal envelopes, the 3,700-square-foot houses
have been adequately served by one 2-ton GSHP
system each, whereas 4 to 5 tons of space-condi-
tioning capacity are typically installed in homes
of that size in East Tennessee.
Te objective of this research project was
to develop and validate the FHX design tools,
so these tools obviously were not available for
the design of the loops for houses 1 and 2. Te
two houses’ cooling and heating design loads
were calculated using “Manual J: Residential
Load Calculation” and associated sofware tools
developed by the Air Conditioning Contractors
of America (ACCA). Our team sized the heat
pumps using ACCA’s “Manual S: Residential
Equipment Selection.” Te overcut loops were
sized to take advantage of all the existing overcut,
and several team members at ORNL and OSU
estimated the remaining heat source/sink capac-
ity needs so that conventional loop-design sof-
ware could be used to size additional horizontal
loops needed to maintain the entering fuid tem-
perature of the heat pump between 35°F and
95°F (2°C to 35°C), given soil temperature and
thermal conductivity at the site. All overcuts and
Dr. Piljae im is a staf scientist at the Building tech-
nologies research and Integration center (BtrIc) of
Oak ridge National Laboratory and one of the prin-
cipal investigators for the project described here. he
has performed feasibility studies for the application of
gshP systems for numerous u.s. Navy and air Force
bases.
Dr. Xiaobing liu is a staf scientist at BtrIc. he has
been working on applying and improving gshP
technology for more than 10 years. he is the princi-
pal investigator of various gshP-related r&d projects
ongoing at Oak ridge National Laboratory.
jefrey munk is the BtrIc staf scientist responsible for
the experimental gshP systems in the ZeBralliance
(zebralliance.com) research houses.
ZeBralliance’s FhX research project has been sup-
ported by BtrIc’s numerous r&d stafs, including dr.
moonis ally, Van Baxter, John shonder, anthony gehl
and Patrick hughes, director of BtrIc.
notes
1
Xiaobing Liu, 2010, “Assessment of National
Benefts from Retrofting Existing Single-Family
Homes with Ground Source Heat Pump Sys-
tems,” ORNL/TM-2010/122.
2
Miller et al., 2010, “Advanced Residential Enve-
lopes for Two Pair of Energy-Saver Homes,” Pro-
ceedings of 2010 American Council for an Energy-
Efciency Economy Summer Study.

1_64_March_ST11.indd 29 2/14/11 3:47:33 PM
30 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
trenches received six-pipe loops (three circuits
of one-inch-diameter high-density polyethylene
pipe, out and back) with a minimum 1 foot of
spacing between pipes.
To obtain data for validating the overcut
loop-sizing method and performance-simulation
model, it is important that the overall loop be
sufciently sized so that loop operating tempera-
tures are in the design range. To accomplish this,
for the purposes of this experiment, our team
used horizontal loops installed in all the util-
ity trenches plus some additional trenching to
provide adequate capacity, rather than installing
loops below the basement foor. However, cal-
culations indicate that if the loop were installed
below the basement foor, no additional trench-
ing would have been necessary.
comparing standard,
integrated heat Pumps
Construction of houses 1 and 2 was com-
pleted in November 2009, and data collection
began in December. Baseline data was collect-
ed during the frst year, when each home used
one water-to-air heat pump for space condi-
tioning (the two-stage ClimateMaster model
TV026) and a separate water-to-water heat
pump for water heating. Te three-circuit (six-
pipe) ground loop was “headered” into a single
supply and return in the basement, allowing
the two heat pumps to operate in parallel, con-
nected to the common supply and return. Te
baseline data documents the performance of
the FHX−GSHP system using the best water-
source heat-pump equipment commercially
available, from industry partner ClimateMas-
ter; the equipment fully satisfes the space-con-
The loops of the FHX are placed in the foundation
excavation before being buried by backfll. Pre-
liminary data shows that this method of installing
heat exchangers in the construction excavations
rather than in separate boreholes or trenches
could signifcantly reduce the cost premiums
associated with ground-source heat pumps, with-
out sacrifcing their efciency.
Left, in the foundation heat exchanger (FHX) con-
cept, heat-exchange loops are installed only in
the construction excavations, without extra drill-
ing or digging. But unlike conventional horizontal
ground heat exchangers, with FHX the mass of
soil around the house’s foundation is subject to
heat transfer from the foundation itself (qw) and
from the heat-exchanger pipes by way of con-
duction within the soil (qp). Moisture fow takes
place within the soil as well. At the surface, heat
is transferred through convection, radiation and
evapotranspiration (qs). Researchers are develop-
ing tools to engineer loops in the overcut.
early estimates indicate that when
implemented at scale in the test
region of east tennessee, the
[foundation heat exchanger]
may be feasible at $1,000 per ton
— a fraction of the cost of the
outdoor portion of traditional
gshP systems.
advances in ground-source heat pump systems
1_64_March_ST11.indd 30 2/14/11 3:47:37 PM
solartoday.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 31
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
ditioning and water-heating loads in houses 1
and 2 with national average occupancy.
In November 2010, we replaced each home’s
two heat pumps with a single prototype GS-IHP
that provides both space conditioning and water
heating. For several years ClimateMaster has
been collaborating with ORNL under a Coop-
erative Research and Development Agreement
to develop the GS-IHP, which is expected to
be signifcantly more energy efcient than cur-
rently available heat pumps. Comparing data
from years one and two will establish the energy
savings of the GS-IHP compared to the two-
heat-pump confguration. However, the most
common GSHP confguration on the market
is a single water-to-air heat pump with a desu-
perheater, which provides only a portion of the
required hot water as a byproduct when the
compressor operates for space heating or cool-
ing. Afer the GS-IHP data is available, our team
will use calibrated models to compare the per-
formance of all three confgurations (one heat
pump with desuperheater, two heat pumps and
the GS-IHP). Cost estimates will also be pro-
vided. ClimateMaster anticipates launching a
Trilogy water-source heat-pump product line
based on the GS-IHP technology in 2011.
assessing early results
Preliminary analysis of the data measured at
the ZEBRlliance research houses since Novem-
ber 2009 indicates that space-conditioning and
water-heating needs could have been provided
to the houses with ground heat exchangers
installed in just the excavations required for
construction — the basement overcut, below
the basement foor and the utility trenches. As
mentioned, no extra digging or drilling would
have been required except making the utility
trenches slightly deeper than normal.
Te data showed that the installed loops and
heat pumps all performed as expected, indicat-
ing that they were adequately sized for the
3,700-square-foot homes. Temperatures of the
fuid entering the heat pumps ranged from 33°F
to 93°F (0.6°C to 34°C) at house 1 and 34°F to
90°F (1°C to 32°C) at house 2 — within good
proximity to the design range of 35°F to 95°F
(2°C to 35°C). Heating and cooling set points
maintained throughout the year were 71°F
and 76°F (22°C and 24°C), respectively. From
January through March 2010, the supplemental
electric resistance heater was never activated at
house 1 and consumed only 66 kilowat-hours
at house 2.
Early estimates indicate that when imple-
mented at scale by a production builder in this
region, this FHX approach may be feasible at
$1,000 per ton. Tat compares with traditional
vertical-loop and six-pipe-per-trench horizon-
tal-loop systems that typically are installed in
this region at $3,000 per ton and $2,250 per
ton, respectively. Te actual cost of a particu-
lar project may vary depending on drilling/
trenching conditions, regional cost variations,
underground soil thermal properties and build-
ing geometry.
Tis September we’re scheduled to release
the FHX-sizing tool and performance-simu-
lation model integrated with EnergyPlus, as
well as a comprehensive technical report doc-
umenting the basis for the FHX-sizing tool,
the performance-simulation model, the data
measurements and the validation of the sizing
tool and simulation model. ClimateMaster also
plans to make its Trilogy line of water-source
heat pumps, based on the GS-IHP technology,
commercially available in 2011. Tese and other
innovations may provide the afordability break-
through for GSHP systems that homebuilders,
homeowners and energy-efciency advocates
have been seeking. ST
Here, the frst stage of backflling has been com-
pleted, with the soil being well compacted to
ensure good contact and reliable heat exchange
between the earth and the loop.
During the frst year of data collection, the water-to-air heat pump at left and the water-to-water heat
pump (square box in the middle) installed in the basement supplied space conditioning and water heat-
ing, respectively. During the second year, these two units were replaced by an integrated heat pump that
is expected to show signifcant gains in efciency. oRNL and its partners will compare the performance
of both options, plus the common confguration of a water-to-air heat pump with desuperheater.
1_64_March_ST11.indd 31 2/14/11 3:47:38 PM
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Now with a certied operational temperature range of -13° to +131° F
The innovative Fronius IG Plus PV inverter for residential and commercial installations
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functionality even in the harshest climates. The IG Plus also offers:
Models from 3 to 12 kW available in a single inverter
Lightweight – even the commercial size inverters
Smart, integrated MIX™ technology to maximize
energy harvest even on cloudy days
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Standard 10-year warranty, upgradable to 15 years
Visit www.fronius-usa.com, or call 810-220-4414, for more information on this
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1_64_March_ST11.indd 32 2/14/11 3:47:38 PM
Extra cool.
The Fronius IG Plus PV Inverter
Now with a certied operational temperature range of -13° to +131° F
The innovative Fronius IG Plus PV inverter for residential and commercial installations
just got cooler with an operational temperature range of -13° to +131°F (-25° to +55°C) for
functionality even in the harshest climates. The IG Plus also offers:
Models from 3 to 12 kW available in a single inverter
Lightweight – even the commercial size inverters
Smart, integrated MIX™ technology to maximize
energy harvest even on cloudy days
A built-in six circuit string combiner
Field programmable to 208, 240, and 277 volts with
no loss in output power
Removable power stage for field service
Standard 10-year warranty, upgradable to 15 years
Visit www.fronius-usa.com, or call 810-220-4414, for more information on this
exciting line in the Fronius family.
1_64_March_ST11.indd 33 2/14/11 3:47:39 PM
34 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
forging a local solar economy
On the Pine Ridge Reservation
in South Dakota, solar air heating
helps ease crippling winter
heating bills, while providing jobs.
By MIKE KoSHMRL
Photos by DAN BIHN
Harnessing the Sun,
lakota style
I
n the Great Plains snowbelt, the wintertime spike in utility costs is an annoyance for
all, and burdensome for many. In Pine Ridge, S.D., per capita annual income is less
than $6,300. Shannon County, home to 80 percent of the residents at Pine Ridge, is
the second-most impoverished in the United States. Unemployment hovers near 90
percent. Life expectancy is 47 years for men and 54 years for women — among countries in
the Western Hemisphere, only Haiti is worse. A $300 monthly utility bill can mean holding
of on a trip to the grocery store, or forgoing reflling a prescription medication. In the worst
cases, when a storm has set in and a propane tank is empty, it can be deadly.
“We do lose elders here every year because of this,” said Richard Fox. Fox is national
program director at Trees, Water and People (TWP; treeswaterpeople.org), a nonproft
headquartered in Fort Collins, Colo., that supports sustainable heat, light and cooking tech-
nology for native peoples across the Americas. “Tey run out of propane on the 25th, and
mike Koshmrl (mkoshmrl@solartoday.org) is SOLAR TODAY’s assis-
tant editor.
To reduce the Lakotas’ heating expenses, Trees, Water and People helped
to establish Lakota Solar Enterprises, manufacturing and installing active
solar heaters. LSE now employs eight locals full-time and has provided
more than 700 supplemental solar air heaters, at no cost, to households
at impoverished reservations across the Great Plains.
1_64_March_ST11.indd 34 2/14/11 3:47:39 PM
solartoday.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 35
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
they’re waiting for a check to come on the frst.
Tey convince themselves that they can go with-
out heat for fve days, then a storm hits and they
end up being found dead.”
Tis reality of life at Pine Ridge became a
priority afer TWP hired Cynthia Isenhour, an
anthropologist who had identifed the most
pressing socioeconomic issues afecting the aver-
age Lakota family. A key issue was the high cost
of heating, caused by housing typifed by thin-
walled trailers and ramshackle one-story ram-
blers and exacerbated by the grossly inadequate
natural gas infrastructure. More than 90 percent
of residences on the reservation are heated with
pricier options, mostly propane, electric heat and
wood stoves. Isenhour’s research showed that
heating expenses consumed 50 to 70 percent of a
typical household’s cash income during the cold-
est months of the year.
Beginning in 2002, TWP researched ways
to reduce the Lakotas’ heating expenses. Tey
concluded that active solar heaters, due to their
simple, low-cost construction, would return
more British thermal units (Btu) for every dol-
lar invested than any other technology. Tey
then helped to establish a manufacturing and
installation business, Lakota Solar Enterprises
(LSE), which now employs eight locals full-time.
Te venture has provided more than 700 supple-
mental solar air heaters, at no cost, to house-
holds at impoverished reservations across the
Great Plains, including Pine Ridge, Rosebud and
Cheyenne River in South Dakota, Spirit Lake in
North Dakota and White Earth in Minnesota.
a natural Partnership forms
TWP’s Fox said that from the start, active
solar air heaters ofered to bring jobs to a com-
munity desperate for them. “Te air heaters
don’t require a high degree of technical expertise,
Active Solar Air Heating
at a glance
S
olar air heaters, while not commonplace,
are a tried and true technology. The
frst solar air heater was patented in 1890,
and a number of models came on the mar-
ket before the energy crises of the 1970s.
When a federal incentive was launched
in 1975, investment and development of
solar air heaters spiked, and by 1980 some
85 companies offered systems. After 1985
the federal incentive was pulled, innovation
nearly ceased, and the number of manufac-
turers and installers declined rapidly. Today,
unglazed solar air heaters developed by
the National Renewable Energy Lab, called
transpired collectors, are the more common
air-heating technology, but a couple of com-
panies still offer glazed-box collectors. These
include Lakota Solar Enterprises (lakota
solarenterprises.com) at Pine Ridge, S.D.; AAA
Solar Supply (aaasolar.com) of Albuquerque
N.M.; and YourSolarHome (yoursolarhome.
com) in Ontario, Canada.
(Top left) With Henry Red Cloud at the helm, Lakota Solar Enterprises (LSE) has trained 52 “solar warriors”
from tribes nationwide as solar technicians. (Top right) After struggling to fnd work, Silas Red Cloud
joined his father at LSE, on the manufacturing line. (Bottom) LSE’s Bret Tschacher navigates Skyview
monitoring software for the Red Cloud Renewable Energy Center’s SkyStream 3.7 residential wind turbine.
Listening in are Kyanne Dillabaugh (left) and Jef Parsons (right) from the Cheyenne River Reservation.
1_64_March_ST11.indd 35 2/14/11 3:47:41 PM
36 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
which we knew was important if we wanted to
get the community involved and put to work,”
Fox said. He also knew the heaters would be a
good hook for fundraising eforts, an important
consideration for a nonproft. “We can go to a
foundation and say: You put in $50,000 and
you’re directly providing 25 families with a solar
air-heating system,” he said. Ten in 2004, while
giving a workshop in air heater installation at
Oglala Lakota College on the Pine Ridge Reser-
vation (olc.edu), Fox had a fortuitous encounter
with a local.
Fox was teaching a group gathered around a
solar panel when Henry Red Cloud drove by the
community college. Red Cloud pulled a U-turn
and started listening. Earlier that year, while
operating his frewood business, Red Cloud had
heard about solar air heaters. Curiosity aroused,
he had found an online do-it-yourself guide and
phoned Bret Tschacher, a friend, to participate
in some garage magic. Using a walk-in freezer
door as the back end, Red Cloud and Tschacher
pulled together a crude solar air heater that day,
working into the night. When the sun came up,
they were surprised to fnd it serviceable.
Te following spring, TWP came up with
some fnancial support and was able to fund an
expanded program at Pine Ridge. Fox asked Red
Cloud to lead TWP’s Pine Ridge efort, not only
for his personal experience with the technology,
but also because of his name, which had signif-
cance in the community. Henry’s great-great
grandfather, Chief Red Cloud, led the Oglala
Lakota from 1868 to 1909 and is regarded as the
last great Lakota war chief. TWP would provide
marketing and business development assistance
if Red Cloud would run a Lakota-owned-and-
operated manufacturing and installation busi-
ness. Red Cloud signed on, and Lakota Solar
Enterprises was formed.
Business grows, heating Bills shrink
Before the manufacturing side of the busi-
ness was shifed to Red Cloud, TWP undertook
a two-year reengineering program, aimed at
incorporating efcient materials that were not
available when solar air heaters frst became pop-
ular in the 1970s. Engineers built a succession of
prototypes with incremental improvements, but
the project eventually was run by an engineer
who calls himself Lotus, from Rocky Mountain
Solar & Wind (RMSW; rockymtnsolar.com) in
Colorado Springs, Colo. Te reengineering pro-
cess looked at every possible part and confgura-
tion, and many parts were re-sourced to increase
heat production and retention. Some materials,
like the adhesives, were changed to accommo-
date an absorber that could reach temperatures
higher than 160°F (71°C).
The final design was a 32-square-foot
(2.97-square-meter) solar heating panel. Orient-
ed south and tilted 59 degrees from horizontal,
it captured solar heat with an efciency of 48.8
percent, which projected to 4.9 million Btu per
South Dakota heating season. Tat’s equivalent
to 1.436 megawat-hours of electricity. Satisfed
with this performance, TWP contracted with
RMSW to begin manufacturing. Lotus and the
TWP team standardized an efcient manufactur-
the lakota sun Panel
Lakota Solar Enterprises’ (LSE’s) standard air-heating kit sells for $1,400 plus shipping and
handling. Installation brings the total to about $2,000. Because of the simplicity of the
design, an entire system can be manufactured and installed by Henry Red Cloud and his
crew in less than a day. The primary components of a Lakota Sun Panel are —
l One 4-foot (1.2-meter) by 8-foot (2.4-meter) solar collector panel, with a black metal
absorber plate covered by tempered glass with an aluminum frame. A layer of miro-
therm, produced by Analod Solar (alanod-solar.com), is applied to the collector to maxi-
mize absorption.
l Wooden support stand, made of 2x4 and 4x4 lumber and some plywood.
l A 60-watt “squirrel cage”electric blower ftted with 6-inch-diameter (15-cm-diameter)
ductwork.
l An adjustable thermostat that automatically turns on when air in the collector reaches
110°F (43°C).
For more information, see lakotasolarenterprises.com.
“We do lose elders here
every year because of this.
… they convince them-
selves that they can go
without heat for fve days,
then a storm hits and they
end up being found dead.”
forging a local solar economy
1_64_March_ST11.indd 36 2/14/11 3:47:42 PM
solartoday.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 37
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
ing process and visited Pine Ridge to teach it to
Red Cloud and Tschacher. TWP handed over
the tooling and a step-by-step training video, and
LSE assumed manufacturing.
Te LSE solar air heater looks nothing like the
product of a NASA lab. It’s a 1970s-era technol-
ogy, implemented with 21st-century materials
and tweaked “Lakota style,” as Red Cloud puts
it. It looks makeshif but is sturdy and reliable.
Te goal was not to market a consumer product
to the outside world, but to create a simple, envi-
ronmentally friendly, inexpensive way to reduce
Lakota heating bills.
It works. For $2,000, including shipping,
manufacturing and installation, the system can
ofset 15 to 30 percent of an average household’s
heating costs for 25 years. Te heaters are purely
supplemental, with no heat storage. Te 4.9 mil-
lion Btu produced annually displace 82 gallons of
propane burned in a 65 percent-efcient furnace,
saving the homeowner $150 per year at today’s
regional propane rates. Because TWP provides
the heaters for free, that is money in pocket.
Trough 2008, TWP fnanced LSE’s heat-
ers primarily through individual donations and
small foundation grants. Tey managed to fund
just over 200 systems, most of which were dis-
tributed on a needs basis around the Pine Ridge
Reservation. TWP received several federal
grants in 2009, under the American Recovery
and Reinvestment Act. It proved be a watershed
year at LSE. Demand spiked, and the shop, now
named the Red Cloud Renewable Energy Center
(RCREC), hired fve full-time laborers. Tat year
278 LSE kits went out, and in 2010, another 203
lef the production line. To date, TWP and LSE
have placed about 700 solar air-heating kits.
Most systems produced during the last two
years have been sold outside Pine Ridge. To
accommodate this “export” business, RCREC
has doubled as a one-of-a-kind training facility,
where tribes from around the nation can learn
about the LSE installation techniques. Fify-two
“solar warriors” have now received “Solar Tech-
nician I” certifcates from Red Cloud. His tute-
lage has enabled installation of 443 air heaters by
locals on reservations as far away as White Earth,
of the Band of Ojibwe, in Minnesota.
“a new way to honor the old ways”
Since 2005, TWP and LSE have worked to
import other renewable energy technologies
onto tribal lands. Tat year they set up a demon-
stration home on the Rosebud Reservation, just
west of Pine Ridge. Partnering with Rosebud’s
Clean Energy Education Partnership, TWP and
LSE outfted the Litle Tunder residence with
a 2.4-kilowat (kW) wind turbine, 1.3-kW photo-
voltaic (PV) system, windbreak and shade trees,
and an LSE solar air heater.
Te Red Cloud Renewable Energy Center
now matches those fve applications and is add-
ing a sixth, with a ground-source heating system
along its north wall. Tschacher, Red Cloud’s
“wind warrior,” now leads wind turbine-instal-
lation workshops at RCREC. Along with Red
Cloud and LSE staff, Tschacher installed a
SkyStream 3.7 turbine (skystreamenergy.com)
at RCEC last May. A 2-kW PV array followed in
July, courtesy of Namaste Solar (namastesolar.
com) of Boulder, Colo. Red Cloud and Tschach-
er plan to acquire NABCEP certifcation under
open scholarships to Solar Energy International
(solarenergy.org) in Carbondale, Colo.
Red Cloud calls renewable energy “a new
way to honor the old ways”— drawing on nature
in alignment with Native American cultural and
spiritual beliefs. At Pine Ridge, the electricity
displaced by the LSE project means less reliance
on the Nebraska Public Power District, which
generates 96 percent of its electricity from coal.
Te Lakota, and other tribes, will have plenty
of opportunity to move away from fossil fuels.
Research at the National Renewable Energy
Lab has shown that wind and solar potential on
tribal lands is quite good. Ironically, this is in part
because their reservations were ofen situated on
the hotest, driest, windiest, and therefore least
desirable, parcels in the West.
While a renewable energy venture like LSE
might still be in a philanthropy-dependent stage,
it’s a frst step to pulling Native American com-
munities out of generational poverty. ST
cynthia Isenhour’s research
showed that heating
expenses consumed
50 to 70 percent of a
typical household’s cash
income during the coldest
months of the year.
Bret Tschacher has been a partner to Henry Red Cloud since Lakota Solar Enterprises’ inception in 2005.
Tschacher leads the wind installation trainings at the Red Cloud Renewable Energy Center and oversees
operations on the LSE manufacturing line.
1_64_March_ST11.indd 37 2/14/11 3:47:43 PM
38 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
T
his is a story about two determined teen-
age boys, a politically savvy mom and the
movement they created that has put solar
arrays on dozens of roofs in the urban heart of
Washington, D.C.
Te Mt. Pleasant neighborhood lies 2 miles
north of the White House. It’s a middle- and
working-class neighborhood of old row houses,
most dating from the early 1920s. About 100 of
these houses — roughly one-tenth — now have
grid-tied solar systems. Half a dozen other D.C.
neighborhoods have emulated this success.
once upon a time
In September 2006, afer atending a screen-
ing of Al Gore’s “An Inconvenient Truth,” best
friends Diego Arene-Morley and Walter Lynn
— then 12 years old — sat at a kitchen table with
Diego’s dad, Jef Morley, and Walter’s mom, Anya
Schoolman. Tey wanted to know how global
warming would afect them and what they might
do about it. “Can we go solar?” Walter asked.
Anya replied, “We already looked into solar.
It’s expensive and really complicated. If we are
going to do all the work to fgure this out, we
might as well do the whole neighborhood. Are
you guys in?”
They were. Thus, the Mt. Pleasant Solar
Co-op was conceived. Anya had the experience
to launch the movement. Afer earning a master’s
degree in international relations and environ-
mental policy at Columbia University’s School
of International and Public Afairs, she held
senior policy positions in the U.S. Department
of the Interior and went on to advise foundations
and nonprofts on environmental strategy and
program design.
A few neighbors joined the co-op right away
and the group developed a strategic plan:
• Sign up every neighbor interested in going
solar;
• Findaninstallerwillingtooferthegroupa
big discount;
launch a solar cooperative
A Little co-op
and how it grew
Set goals. Make solar energy accessible to all,
reduce the costs and remove the barriers. Costs are
coming down anyway, but group buying provides
effciencies of scale and helps installers deal more
effectively with permitting agencies.
Create an organizational structure to support
the mission. We’re registered as a co-operative
under D.C. law. Unlike 501 (c) (3) organizations, we
don’t raise funds, manage, govern or report to the
IRS. But we can lobby.
Find a good web developer. The website is an
indispensable communication tool. It not only gets
the word out, but it helps to pool resources and
avoid duplication of effort. Sample our sites:
mtpleasantsolarcoop.org
solardc.blogspot.com
sites.google.com/site/capitolhillenergycoop/
georgetownenergy.com
Participation is voluntary. People do what they’re
comfortable doing.We have few meetings and don’t
browbeat those who don’t show up.We avoid ask-
ing for money, unless it’s for something concrete like
our co-op yard signs.
Energy and information fow in both directions.
Few come to the co-op knowing a lot about renew-
ables or going solar. It’s easy to go to our periodic
meetings and ask questions of those who’ve been
there and done it.
Start small and focused, but broaden the base.
Now that we’ve succeeded with homeowners and
have expanded our political clout into other neigh-
borhoods, we can focus on the energy issues faced
by renters, multifamily buildings, small businesses
and nonproft organizations.
Share expertise. We don’t exercise control over
sister co-ops, but we share what we learn and act
collectively in the political arena.
making a co-op work
People want to go solar because it’s in their best interests to do so and they contact us
because our mission is to help them. They want control over energy costs for the same rea-
son they want a fxed-price mortgage. In Washington, D.C., our electric bills increased 41 per-
cent over the past fve years (from July 2005 to July 2010). Small businesses and nonprofts
need to stabilize their energy costs just to stay afoat.
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(From left) Mt. Pleasant Solar Co-op founders Jef Morley, Diego Arene-Morley,
Walter Lynn and Anya Schoolman spoke at the Solarama expo in September 2009.
1_64_March_ST11.indd 38 2/14/11 3:47:44 PM
solartoday.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 39
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
sOLaR TODAY
®
MARCH 2011
VOL. 25, NO. 2
In Washington, D.C., a group of neighbors banded
together to win the fght for residential solar.
By RoBERT RoBINSoN
• Identifyfriendsingovernmentandbusiness
and environmental organizations willing to sup-
port legislation to create a rebate program; and,
• Startinstallingthosepanels.
It wasn’t that simple, of course. At the
time, photovoltaic (PV) arrays were installing
for about $8 per wat, or about $24,000 for a
3-kilowatt (kW)
residential system.
With no federally
or locally funded
rebate programs
yet in place and
electricity retailing
at about 14 cents
per kilowat-hour,
it looked as if the
payback period
might be 10 years.
And it was ques-
tionable whether
the nei ghbor-
hood’s 85-year-old
roofs would bear
the load of solar
arrays without
substantial struc-
tural and water-
sealing work. Te few solar installers who had
experience with the fat roofs on Washington
row houses weren’t sure they wanted to install
in the city. Finally, political support for local
legislation to provide cash rebates for solar sys-
tems got shaky when rumors began circulating
in the Council of the District of Columbia (the
Council) that only rich, tree-hugging home-
owners wanted solar panels.
anya counseled us
to take Baby steps . . .
Diego and Walter leafeted the neighbor-
hood with adolescent zeal. Two hundred mem-
bers signed up and provided electric consump-
tion data. Members then conducted energy
audits and began conserving electricity. Walter
and Diego ran comparison tests and identifed
the most efcient and dependable compact
fuorescent lights (CFLs). Keith Ware, owner
of Eco Green Living, sold us $3,000 of these
CFLs below cost and we all went on an ef-
ciency binge.
Anya climbed
up and surveyed
more than 70
roofs. Installer
Chris Graves, of
Switch Energy, ran
financial pro for-
mas that showed,
given expected fed-
eral incentives and
renewable energy
credits, a payback
period less than
six years (see table).
Legal firms Skad-
den, Arps and Kaye
Scholer stepped
up with pro bono
legal services on
regulatory, legisla-
tive, liability and contracting maters.
The District of Columbia already had a
renewable portfolio standard (RPS), estab-
lished in 2005. Anya lobbied relentlessly with
the Council for solar renewable energy credits
(SRECs), with the result that they were includ-
ed in Councilmember Mary Cheh’s Clean
and Afordable Energy Act of 2008 (CAEA).
CAEA expanded the RPS (it now calls for 20
percent renewable by 2020, with a 0.4 percent
solar carve-out and high alternative compliance
payments). Te law also created a Renewable
Energy Incentive Program (REIP), providing a
$3-per-wat rebate for small renewable energy
systems funded at $2 million per year from
robert robinson is a communications consultant,
formerly chief of staf to a councilmember and an
administrator in the Office of the mayor in the
Washington, d.c., government. he lobbies for and is
active with the mt. Pleasant solar co-op and with d.c.
solar united Neighborhoods. a graduate of Lycoming
college in Pennsylvania, robinson attended Fettes
college in edinburgh, scotland. he lives with his wife
in mt. Pleasant. they went solar in 2009. contact him
at robrobin@me.com.
Policy goals
Program implementation and access. Most
of the federal funding for renewable programs
is targeted to large utility-scale and com-
mercial programs. We prefer that the benefts
of solar be widely dispersed to directly help
struggling homeowners, businesses, churches
and nonprofts.
Instead of offering grants only to commer-
cial entities going solar, the federal govern-
ment should make the 30 percent federal tax
credit available as a grant to any entity that
wants to go solar, including private individuals
and especially nonprofts like churches and
community-based organizations.
We need a national solar-garden or virtual
net-metering bill, requiring utilities nation-
wide to allow any citizen to get a credit on
their bill for a solar panel they own anywhere
in their billing area. Doesn’t matter if it’s on the
roof of a corporate-owned warehouse, a family
owned barn, a big box store or a church.
Focus funding on end-users. Our greatest
frustration came from watching millions of
dollars in renewable energy surcharges we
paid on our utility bills get expropriated by
local government to fll budget gaps else-
where. People don’t mind paying a surcharge
on their electric bills if the money is going to
be used to provide solar power and create
green jobs for the community!
2010 Estimated Costs/Benefts for a 3-kW Solar PV System
via the D.C. Renewable Energy Incentive Program
Expenditure/Revenue Up-Front Sale Annualized No Sale
Elements of SRECs* SREC Payments* of SRECs*
Return-on-investment
(break-even year) Year 1 Year 2 Year 3
Total 3-kW system cost $18,000 $18,000 $18,000
REIP cash rebate -$9,000 -$9,000 $9,000
Up-front SREC sale -$5,400 … …
Other payments … $1,200 …
per annum
Actual costs to applicant $3,600 $9,000 $9,000
Federal tax credit (30%) $5,940 $5,940 $5,940
Energy savings
($1,500 per year + $1,500 $1,500 $1,500
7% annual increases)
Annual revenues … $1,200 …
after break-even year per annum
* Solar renewable energy credits
1_64_March_ST11.indd 39 2/14/11 3:47:44 PM
40 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
utility-bill surcharges. It really helped
when federal rules removed the caps
on rebates to permit them to cover
30 percent of the total cost of a solar
install.
At last, we had a rebate program
in place! Installations went forward.
Creative ways were found to deal with
structural issues — for instance arrays
could anchor on the load-bearing
“party walls” between adjacent (and
connected) homes.
By September 2009, we celebrated
our frst 50 systems with a 12-home
solar tour and a Solarama festival to
promote our installers and related busi-
nesses. Two months later, the co-op
formalized relationships with solar installers and
neighborhood job trainers to stabilize REIP fund-
ing for green-collar jobs.
Te program grew. Anya helped to orga-
nize sister co-ops in the Capitol Hill, George-
town, Petworth, Shepherd Park, Palisades and
Ward 8 neighborhoods (this would give us a
wider base of political support). Articles on the
co-op appeared in the Scientifc American blog,
Grist and CNBC blog. Te Discovery Chan-
nel produced a program called “Powering the
Future, Leading the Charge,” featuring the
co-op. By the close of 2010 we watched the
completion of our 100th solar installation in
the Mt. Pleasant neighborhood.
Tere have been bureaucratic and political
problems. We have had to work vigilantly with
the members of the Council to keep the city gov-
ernment from hijacking REIP funds to spend on
other programs. In the spring of 2010 we con-
ducted two lobbying ofensives to recover pro-
gram funding and hire staf to clear the backlog
of REIP applications for FY 2010 and 2011.
utility issues
Te 2008 action by the Council also estab-
lished a net-metering requirement, but the Pub-
lic Service Commission (PSC) didn’t issue fnal
rules until June 2010. So co-op members waited
month afer sunny month for the utility company,
Pepco (originally the Potomac Elec-
tric Power Co.), to install meters
that would measure current in both
directions. Until those meters come
online, systems that produce more
electricity than the home uses pro-
duce exaggerated bills. Te old meters
don’t calculate negative numbers —
all electric fow is additive. Since solar
inverters track our electric produc-
tion but not consumption, and the
old meters track our consumption
but not solar electricity passing back
to the grid, our monthly bills are all
but unverifable.
As utilities move toward “critical
peak” pricing, net-metering debates
return. Why assess transmission and distribution
charges for surplus PV power, if it will reduce
peak load and if it’s not being “wheeled” to other
distribution circuits?
Meanwhile, Pepco received $149.4 mil-
lion in federal stimulus funding for smart grid
design. We want to see the company incor-
porate renewable-friendly standards and best
practices regarding net-metering and solar
credits, such as those proposed by the Inter-
state Renewable Energy Council. Tis efort
may require some years of adversarial processes
before the PSC, unless national or local legis-
lation is enacted to set policies supportive of
distributed generation. ST
Get started with online and local resources.
Find out what the U.S. Department of Energy
(DOE), solar co-ops, solar gardens and community
solar are doing:
eere.energy.gov
mtpleasantsolarcoop.org
solargardens.org
nwseed.org
To learn about the laws and programs appli-
cable in your community, go to the Database of
State Incentives for Renewables and Effciency,
dsireusa.org. The website also lists local offcials
responsible for administering these programs.
This is an invaluable contact list.
Find out about your local interconnection and
net metering policies at the Interstate Renewable
Energy Council site, irecusa.org.
Ask your electric utility and public utility com-
mission (PUC) if they offer programs to install solar
energy on homes, multifamily buildings and busi-
nesses. Make sure you know who to go to if you
are in a dispute with the utility. Is it the PUC, a
consumer advocacy offce, a people’s counsel or
something else?
Calculate your potential solar energy produc-
tion by going to rredc.nrel.gov/solar/calculators/
PVWATTS/version1/.
Meet with potential co-op members and
decide what organizational structure is right for
you and fle with the state or local government.
Explore getting pro bono legal representation to
help you adopt an organizational structure and
get you up and running. Remember: If you orga-
nize as a 501 (c) (3) nonproft corporation, you can
raise money, but you must fle annually with the
IRS and you may not lobby.
Go to work.
1) Have co-op members collect their monthly bills
and become familiar with their usage patterns
and costs for the past two years.
2) Urge them to get energy audits (some jurisdic-
tions offer them free of charge) and initiate eff-
ciency measures to improve the performance
of insulation, window and door sealing, HVAC,
appliances and lighting.
3) Visit FindSolar.com to obtain a list of solar
installers in your area.
4) Contact licensed and bonded roofers to assess
the readiness of your members’ roofs to
support thin-flm or solar panel photovoltaic
systems.
5) Work with local offcials responsible for admin-
istering incentive programs to help your co-op
and installers understand how to comply with
the application, permitting and interconnec-
tion processes.
6) Explore with your co-op and legal advisers
what benefts of membership you can provide
immediately and over time, including:
• information sharing between members;
• buying power/economies of scale/negotiations:
with solar installers, roofers, panel manufactur-
ers, other renewable and effciency equipment
suppliers;
• building your co-op’s political muscle to improve
and extend funding and support for renewable
energy incentive programs; and,
• using that muscle to push for more solar-friendly
programs, policies and rules.
Develop an organizational
infrastructure, including:
• a detailed database to help you capture informa-
tion about potential and current members,
• a co-op website, and
• a media contact list including local, state and
trade media.
launch a solar cooperative
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The co-op’s frst installation was built by Standard
Solar for Tom Kelly (foreground). He’s talking with
electrician Amacire Bocoum.
How to Start a Solar Co-op
1_64_March_ST11.indd 40 2/14/11 3:47:45 PM
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1_64_March_ST11.indd 41 2/14/11 3:47:45 PM
42 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
rona fried, Ph.D., is
president of sustainable
Business.com, the online
community for green
business: daily sustain-
able business and inves-
tor news, Green Dream
Jobs, Business Connec-
tions and the sustainable
investing newsletter,
Progressive Investor.
contact fried at rona@
sustainablebusiness.com.
Consult your fnancial
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investing
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green stocks report
By RoNA FRIED, Ph.D.
tide turning for ocean energy?
Surge of prototype projects could signal dramatic growth in ocean energy industry.
I
s the global ocean energy industry at a turning point?
With all the atention focused on energy efciency,
wind, solar and smart grid development, we haven’t
heard much about ocean energy in the last year or two.
Financing is tight and venture capital is extra cautious as
the world struggles to get through this tough recession. It’s
not the best time for a new industry to gain footing.
High initial costs and long development lead times
make the ocean power industry dependent on govern-
ment support. Ocean energy has received much less sup-
port than solar or wind, but that could change. Costs are
high because prototypes must stand up to ocean storms,
and in the United States they must navigate a confusion of
overlapping ofshore permiting authorities.
Afer only a dozen wave and tidal prototypes were
installed in 2009, more than 45 projects will have been test-
ed in 2010 and 2011, according to IHS Emerging Energy
Research. If these prototypes are successful, IHS believes
the global ocean energy project pipeline is poised to begin
scaling. Tey estimate that more than 1.8 gigawats (GW)
of ocean projects in 16 countries are in the pipeline.
Tanks to government policy support, the United King-
dom holds the lead in ocean energy — 300 megawats
(MW) of projects are in the pipeline to be installed over
the next fve years. Te UK wants to add 1.3 GW by 2020
to help meet its legally binding 2020 renewable targets. Ire-
land, France, Portugal, South Korea and Australia are also
key ocean energy markets and will remain the industry’s
primary focus for the next decade, according to IHS.
And it’s not just tiny
start-ups that are push-
ing the feld forward.
A slew of established
energy frms, including
European utilities and
global technology sup-
pliers with hydro and
ofshore wind experi-
ence, are interested in
establishing leadership
positions.
Of the various forms
of ocean energy, tidal
energy is poised to mature frst because it ofers the promise
of predictable, lower-cost electricity and a standard design.
“Te strong synergies between tidal turbine manufac-
turing and the hydropower industry have atracted major
power sector OEMs,” says IHS Senior Renewable Power
Analyst Marianne Boust. “Over the past two years, all
three of the major hydropower turbine vendors — Andritz
Hydro, Alstom Hydro and Voith Hydro — who account
for over 80 percent of the global hydro turbine supply, have
jumped into the tidal sector.”
Because these large hydro players see tidal energy as a
synergistic growth opportunity, they are crucial to catalyz-
ing quick development and commercialization of the tidal
industry. Tey could help the ocean energy industry over-
come its technological challenges and drive down costs.
Key companies that are active in scaling Europe’s ofshore
wind industry are also eyeing ocean energy as they scale their
renewable portfolios. Iberdrola-ScotishPower, Vatenfall,
RWE and SSE all have a strong presence in ofshore wind.
Each is broadening to include ocean energy. A few have taken
equity stakes in ocean technology frms, but most are funding
project development through joint ventures.
Te only pure-play publicly traded company in ocean
energy is Ocean Power Technologies (OPT), which is
developing the frst commercial-scale wave energy system
in the United States of the coast of Oregon. Te 1.5-MW
wave energy system, which will power about 1,000 homes,
is expected to be deployed in 2011.
In September, OPT received $4.8 million in funding
from the U.S. Department of Energy, on top of $2 million
it received in 2008. Tey are using the funds to construct
the Oregon project and to develop its next-generation
500-kilowat (kW)system, which will have greater power
extraction efciency. Te company is also focused on
implementing a “design-for-manufacture” approach and
reducing maintenance costs, to achieve lower installed
capital and energy costs and make wave power more com-
petitive with fossil fuels.
Also in September, OPT connected a wave energy
device to the U.S. grid for the frst time at the U.S. Navy’s
Marine Corps Base in Hawaii. Te connection demon-
strates the ability of wave systems to produce utility-grade
renewable energy that can be transmited to the grid.
Te Navy has supported Ocean Power’s technology
development through its $15 million Litoral Expedition-
ary Autonomous PowerBuoy (LEAP) program. OPT is
providing an autonomous wave energy-conversion system
for the Navy’s near-coast anti-terrorism and maritime sur-
veillance program.
OPT is also working with Mitsui Engineering & Ship-
building Co. to apply its technology of the coast of Japan.
In October 2009, a Japanese consortium signed a memoran-
dum of understanding to develop wave energy in Japan.
Te IHS study, “Global Ocean Energy Markets and Strate-
gies: 2010-2030,” analyzes the various ocean technologies and
companies and the potential size and timing for ocean energy
scaling: tinyurl.com/opreport. ST
Pelamis wave power
machine at work at the
Aguçadoura Wave Park
of Portugal.
P
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1_64_March_ST11.indd 42 2/14/11 3:47:45 PM
Kipp & Zonen USA Inc.
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Bohemia NY 11716
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T: +1 (0) 631 589 2065 ext. 338
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M:
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To maximize the effectiveness of your solar energy system, you need
to know how it is performing. A Kipp & Zonen pyranometer
accurately measures the solar radiation available to your system in
real time. Comparing this with the power generated allows you to
calculate the efficiency of the system. A drop in efficiency indicates
the need for cleaning, ageing or a fault, allowing you to schedule
preventive maintenance and to monitor your return on investment.
Make that difference and contact Kipp & Zonen for the solutions
available.
1_64_March_ST11.indd 43 2/14/11 3:47:46 PM
44 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
W
hile the National Electric Code (NEC) applies
to any electric equipment, wiring or device that is
connected to the national electric grid, it wasn’t
until 2010 that an article specifc to the unique characteristics
of grid-interconnected and batery-charging small wind tur-
bines was adopted. Te development of Article 694 began in
March 2008 and it was fnally accepted in June 2010 by the
National Fire Protection Association, the folks who update
and publish the NEC as an ANSI Standard.
Over that time, 50 stakeholders from across the coun-
try and representing many more disciplines than small
wind provided input and guidance for the draf document.
Dr. Rob Wills, PE, of WindMonitoring.com and Rob-
ert Preus, PE, of
Advanced Renew-
able Technology
LLC, co-chaired
the Wind-NEC
code-writing com-
mittee. For their
efforts, they were
recognized last
June by Wind Pow-
ering America with
the Small Wind
Advocacy Award
at the 2010 Small
Wind Conference
in Wisconsin.
Like other sec-
tions of the NEC, you will likely need to review Article
694 many times before you are able to absorb all of its
ramifcations. Briefy, the sections of Article 694 encom-
pass the following:
• Section I covers defnitions and the scope of Article
694. “Small wind turbines” are defned as those up to and
including 100 kilowats in nameplate capacity at 11 meters
per second (24.6 mph) wind speed. All wind turbines that
generate electricity, regardless of blade orientation, tower
style or where they are mounted, are covered by Article
694.
• Section II elaborates on circuit requirements,
including voltage and current limitations as well as con-
ductor and over-current protection sizing. As Article 240
focuses on over-current protection requirements, that
article is referenced.
• Section III goes over the details of disconnecting
the wind turbine from the electrical system. Some wind
turbines are designed to never be disconnected from their
load, lest rotor rpm increase uncontrollably. Tis section
recognizes that unique feature of small-wind technology,
with an exception for turbines that would be deleteriously
afected by the incorporation of a “disconnecting means.”
• Section IV reviews allowable wiring methods for
small wind turbines.
• Section V covers grounding and refers to Article
250, which details grounding requirements.
• Section VI covers required safety marking and sig-
nage specifc to the installation.
• Section VII briefy refers to interconnecting the
wind turbine to the utility system, then defers to Article
705, which covers this topic and requirements in detail.
• Section VIII entails storage bateries and associated
controllers. Since Article 480 more thoroughly covers bat-
teries, that article is referenced as well.
• Section IX covers small wind systems that are
designed to operate over 600 volts and refers to Article
490 for more details.
Besides all of the above bolded articles, other articles
pertinent to small wind installations include —
• Article 285 on surge-protection devices, a require-
ment for small wind systems.
• Article 300 covers wiring requirements and wiring
methods with numerous tables and formulas. For many
electrical questions, this is a “core” article.
• Articles 500 to 516 on hazardous locations are also
referenced. Hazardous locations are defned as those where
fammable liquids, gases or fbers are a concern.
• Interestingly, there is no mention of Article 690,
which covers photovoltaic systems. “Interestingly” because
694 was paterned of of 690 and the lessons learned in
implementing that article. Tis is also interesting because
many small-wind installers use 690 as an electrical require-
ment guide in the feld.
As small-wind installers, we are required to abide by the
rules laid out by all of the articles referenced above. How-
ever, as a small-wind installer, don’t even try to memorize
any or all of these articles — there’s simply too much detail
to absorb. I’ve run across few inspectors who could cite the
NEC chapter and verse, and it’s their job.
A good working knowledge of the NEC and the articles
that apply to small wind installations, however, is a require-
ment for any installation company doing business today.
At the very least, become familiar with the articles and what
they cover so that you can more easily fnd what you need
in the code book. Knowing what to look for and where to
fnd it in the code book is an essential skill!
In lieu of this, retain the services of a good electrician.
Depending on how small wind turbines are permited in
your area, this may be required anyway. ST
small wind and the 2011 national electric code
Article 694 has been published. It’s time to learn about it. By MICK SAGRILLo
the trade
mick sagrillo (msagrillo
@wizunwired. net) of
sagrillo Power & light is
a small-wind consultant
and educator.
Best Practices
Patterned very roughly
on Article 690, the new
code has important
diferences. For instance,
over-current protection is
scaled for continuous at-
capacity operation.
s
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hands-on news and information
1_64_March_ST11.indd 44 2/14/11 3:47:47 PM
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1_64_March_ST11.indd 45 2/14/11 3:47:48 PM
46 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
solar installations
W
hen Richmond Plunge, the oldest
and largest public pool in Califor-
nia’s Bay Area, renovated afer being
shutered for 14 years, sustainability was the pri-
ority. To heat the Richmond, Calif., pool’s water
— saline to avoid chlorine storage on-site — the
city subcontracted Sun Light & Power (SLP;
sunlightandpower.com) to install 3,200 square
feet (297 square meters) of solar water panels.
Long a community icon in Richmond, the
Plunge fell into disrepair and in 1997 was closed.
But the city hadn’t given up on it. Trough a pri-
vate/public partnership, Richmond raised $7.5
million in city redevelopment money, funds
from a regional voter measure and individual
grants and donations. Berkeley, Calif.-based
architect Todd Jersey (toddjerseyarchitecture.
com) developed a renovation plan to transform
the 1926 Natatorium, as it was once known,
into the greenest, healthiest pool in the nation.
Energy-ofseting and -saving features include a
30-kilowat photovoltaic array and 200 operable
windows that alone save $100,000 annually in
electricity that would be required for mechanical
dehumidifcation.
Te jewel of the renovation is the
innovative pool, with a saline chlori-
nation system that uses electrically
charged titanium plates to release chlo-
rine from the salt molecules. It sofens
the water and is beter for your skin
than chemicals, according to Jersey.
Te water is further treated by a UV
system that eliminates chloramines,
the toxic byproduct of chlorine in pool
water that produces a chlorine smell
and stings your eyes. Eighty Heliodyne
Gobi 410 collectors heat 324,000 gal-
lons (1,225 kiloliters) of pool water in
an active closed-loop system with a Delta T Pro
Advanced Controller (heliodyne.com).
Because the pool had been nonfunctional for
years, Sun Light & Power started from scratch,
designing a system that would cover as much of
the total load as possible. Te large, uninterrupt-
ed roof ofered minimal shading concerns. But
the length of the array required special design
consideration.
“Copper pipe expands 1 inch over 100 feet
[of length] in solar thermal systems,” explained
Martin Morehouse, solar thermal department
manager at SLP and design engineer on the proj-
ect. “Tat’s a lot of expansion as you go 300 feet
down the roof.” To avoid damaging the pipes
and allow movement in the system where need-
s
u
n

l
i
g
h
t

&

P
o
w
e
r

s
u
n

l
i
g
h
t

&

P
o
w
e
r

Got a PV or thermal installation to share?
Send your proposal and photos to editor@
solartoday.org.
Solar heating
helps make
this 1926
pool among
the nation’s
greenest.
The large, uninterrupted roof ofered minimal shading con-
cerns. But the length of the 3,200-square-foot array required
special design considerations.
Te Richmond Plunge
The jewel of the renovation is the innovative
pool, with UV disinfection and saline chlorina-
tion. Eighty Heliodyne Gobi 410 collectors heat
324,000 gallons (1,225 kiloliters) of pool water in
an active closed-loop system.
1_64_March_ST11.indd 46 2/14/11 3:47:49 PM
solartoday.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 47
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.













D
u
ra
bility W
a
rra
n
t
y
YEARS
1
0
ed, the crew installed thermal-expansion joints
— basically fexible, u-shaped copper braided
pipes — under the collectors.
“Te interesting and cool thing is that we
ran the pipe before installing the panels,”
said Morehouse. “Tat minimized the visual
impact, which was important with a historical
building like this, and also provided thermal
expansion.”
Te large system presented some balance-
of-system challenges, as well. SLP worked with
a Canadian frm to size two heat exchangers.
According to Morehouse, “The redundant
heat exchangers allow [the Plunge] to run both
most of the time, but they have the capabil-
ity to shut one down for maintenance and still
maintain service.”
Te pool’s mechanical systems are a nice
complement. “It’s fantastic how the pool pump’s
variable-frequency drive helps us maintain
the necessary fow rate despite the additional
restriction caused by the heat exchangers,” said
Morehouse. “Tey can use the pool pump itself
to provide the specifc fow-rate requirements
and help us maintain a nice, low temperature
diference across the heat exchanger.”
Te installation itself was prety standard,
according to Construction Superintendent
Jonathan McChesney. “They reroofed the
whole building and had done all of the seismic
engineering beforehand, so the installation was
prety straightforward — just a lot of posts,”
he said.
SLP, in partnership with Heliodyne, is
monitoring system production and will pro-
vide the city with online data analysis. SLP
projects the system will produce roughly
10,591 therms annually. By ofseting boiler
heating, it will offset the equivalent of an
estimated 323.3 megawatt-hours, and 74
tons of CO
2
, annually. Te city fnanced the
system with no subsidies, according to SLP.
— GINA R. JOHNSON
solar thermal system
highlights
richmond Plunge, richmond, calif.
Richmond’s climate:
Solar Resource: 5.10 kilowatt-hours/
square meter/day
Average High/Record Low Temps:
57°F–73°F (14°C–23°C)/24°F (-4.4°C)
System details:
Designer and Installer: Sun Light &
Power
Collector Area: 3,200 square feet (297
square meters) of panels
Average Production: 10,591 therms
annually
Collectors: 80 Heliodyne Gobi 410 col-
lectors
Controls: Heliodyne Delta-T Pro (wireless)
Heat Exchangers: Gasketed, fat-plate
heat exchanger
Advanced industrial components:
Pump: Grundfos 80-160/2 three-phase
circulator pump
Freeze Control: Propylene glycol
System Installation: Rack-mounted on a
pitched roof, composite materials. 22.6°
tilt, 130° azimuth
Commissioned: August 2010
1_64_March_ST11.indd 47 2/14/11 3:47:51 PM
48 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
new products showcase
| manufacturing equipment
aBB Ofers Mid-Range Robot Portfolio
ABB’s new compact IRB 2600 features a wide working range and
a payload capacity up to 20 kilograms, with improved accuracy
and speed for handling photovoltaic panels up to 810 mm x
1,580 mm. With a total arm weight of less than 300 kg, it can be
mounted to the foor, wall or shelf, helping to reduce foor space
requirements and increasing access to the equipment being
served. Three arm lengths are available, and it’s clean-room com-
pliant up to ISo 14644-1 class 5. abb.com/robotics
Edwards Expands Vacuum Pump Line
Edwards has expanded its range of magnetically levitated turbomo-
lecular pumps with the introduction of the STP-iXA2206 and STP-
iXA3306. Developed for solar, glass coating, semiconductor and LCD
etch applications, the STP-iXA3306 ofers a maximum pumping speed
of 3,200 liters per second and improved throughput performance at
high gas fows. The STP-iXA2206 ofers the same pumping speed of the
earlier STP-A2203, yet the maximum throughput capability has been
increased. It features the latest-generation small power supply, which
has been incorporated into the popular onboard controller. The pumps
feature a fve-axis magnetic bearing system with maintenance intervals
as long as fve years. edwardsvacuum.com
1_64_March_ST11.indd 48 2/14/11 3:47:53 PM
Ad_Solar_Today_March_2011_issue_en_paths.indd 1 1/10/11 4:36 PM 1_64_March_ST11.indd 49 2/14/11 3:47:56 PM
50 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
Bluestar Launches silicones
in North america
Bluestar Silicones has announced the
North American introduction of a new
range of silicone elastomers for the
production of solar photovoltaic (PV)
panels. The new product range includes
the CAF line of one-component silicones
for frame sealing and junction bonding,
curing at room temperature. They ofer
excellent adhesion to several back sheet
materials such as polyvinyl fuoride
(PVF) and polyethylene terephthalate
(PET) and also adhere to junction box
materials such as polyphenylene oxide
(PPo) and polycarbonate. The launch
also includes Sunsil 2030, a two-com-
ponent silicone RTV for frame sealing,
ofering full cure in 30 minutes. For
potting and encapsulation, Bluestar has
introduced pourable two-component
silicone elastomers, which cure at room
temperature by polyaddition reaction.
www.bluestarsilicones.com
Precision Ofers
PFC-design software
Power factor correction circuits employ
a number of magnetic components, and
inductors play a critical role in the boost
pre-regulator. By using Precision Inc.’s
interactive PL Product Tool, engineers
can easily calculate PL product and char-
acterize PFC inductors over a range of
output power. Coverage is 200 to 1,000
watts output power. This gives circuit
designers insight into the relationship
among output power, ripple current,
switching frequency and the PFC induc-
tor, and allows them to make educated
trade-ofs. The PL Product Tool then
specifes the standard Precision inductor
component that is optimum for the PFC
application. pfc.precision-inc.com
new products
Grab your
opportunity
The premier technical conference for solar
energy and energy efciency professionals in
the U.S. ofers you:
• In-depth Industry Trainings
• Professional Education; continuing education credits
• Career & Business Development
• and, of course, lots more.
Vsit www.nationalsolarconference.org
Presented by American Solar Energy Society with North Carolina Sustainable Energy Association
May 17 – 21, 2011 • Raleigh, North Carolina
SOLAR2011_ad_STMar2011_Sessions-v2:Layout 1 1/14/11 5:59 PM Page 1
1_64_March_ST11.indd 50 2/14/11 3:47:57 PM
1_64_March_ST11.indd 51 2/14/11 3:47:57 PM
52 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
new products
Check out the
SolarToday.org
Exclusives we’re
planning for March
Can’t get
enough
SOLAR TODAY?
Installed PV Costs
Plummet in 2010
Plug-In Electric Vehicles:
How Ready is Your City?
SolarToday.org
Visit regularly for more
web-exclusive features
and blog postings!
Plasmadust Process Improves application of Busbars
Reinhausen of Regensburg, Germany, has introduced a plasma
generator for layer deposition at ambient pressure and 100° C. The
system can thus deposit a solderable metal alloy on the aluminium
back layer without heating the silicon wafer. The material can be
put down in lines or dots according to the cell design, with adhesion
values greater than 2 N in a peel test. www.reinhausen.com/en
Lord Ofers
Thermally
Conductive
Encapsulant
Designed for encapsula-
tion applications where
high heat dissipation is
required, Lord SC-305 is a
two-component silicone
system. Composed of an
addition-curing polymer
that will not depolymerize
when heated in confned
spaces, the material can
be room temperature or
heat-cured for maximum
adhesion. Meets UL 94
V-o for fame retardancy.
lord.com

Expl ore your gi vi ng opti ons at
www. Amer i canSol ar Energy. org
L e a d i n g t h e r e n e w a b l e e n e r g y r e v o l u t i o n
Donated assets such as stocks, bonds, mutual funds
or real estate may provide you with an income tax
deduction based on the fair market value of the gift and
eliminate all capital gains taxes. This would allow you
to make a substantially greater gift than you otherwise
would have thought possible, for the
same out-of-pocket cost.
Stock or Real Estate:
The Smart Way to Give
1_64_March_ST11.indd 52 2/14/11 3:47:58 PM
A Wholesale Solar Distributor
2
5
y
e
ars
“I used to be a solar installer. When I
founded Session Solar it was my goal to
build a wholesale company that supports
solar installers—from quality products and
fair pricing to technical design support. Our
priority is our clients, whether they are solar
veterans or new to the business, we are here
to help.”
Elmar Niewerth
CEO SolarMarkt US / dba Session Solar
831-438-9000
info@sessionsolar.com
Session Solar is a national distributor for installers, contractors and developers. We understand the varied
needs of solar professionals and support our clients with:
Session Solar is the North American subsidiary of SolarMarkt AG, founded in Germany in 1985.
• Name brand products
• Competitive pricing
• Free design & diagrams
• Same day quotes
• Unbeatable service
• Project development
MC
1_64_March_ST11.indd 53 2/14/11 3:47:58 PM
54 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
new products | for home power
Evergreen Launches
Es-E series Modules
ES-E Series String Ribbon solar panels from
Evergreen Solar, available in 210-
to 220-watt versions, feature a higher volt-
age for compatibility with microinverter-
based residential installation. They are IEC
61701 salt-mist-certifed for long life in
coastal regions, UL- and CEC-listed and ISo
9001-certifed. evergreensolar.com
sMa iPhone app Provides PV
data anytime, anywhere
Critical performance data from any PV
system is now available on the iPhone
with the SMA Sunny Portal application.
Available for free download from the
Apple App Store, it allows solar power
system owners and operators to manage,
monitor and display PV system perfor-
mance instantly, anytime and anywhere.
The app displays energy yield for the day,
month, year and life-to-date, in addition
to listing Co
2
savings in tons per year.
This data is uploaded daily via the SMA
Sunny WebBox, a communication hub
that continuously collects data from the
solar inverters. sma-america.com
southwest Windpower Ofers
“smart-Grid” small Turbine
The Skystream 600, designed for farm and
residential installation, is said to produce
7,400 kilowatt-hours per year at 12-mph
average wind speed — that calculates out
to an average of 800 watts. With an inte-
grated inverter, the unit is designed for easy
installation, and its web-based monitoring
system reports output to any internet-con-
nected location. windenergy.com
A DRIVER WITH
NO MOVING PARTS
USE AC/DC
• FSEC LISTED
• FlaSEIA MEMBER
• M.I. PARTICIPANT
• SINCE 1975
SOLAR WATER HEAT E R S • I N S TANT HOT WATER CIRC.
• RADIANT FLOOR ZONE and INJECTION PUMPS
3.5 Watt, 5 Watt, 10 Watt • Max. Head = 3 feet • Max. Flow = 3 gpm
PV Panel Direct DC –OR– 12 Volt Battery –OR– AC-DC Adapter
THE FUTURE IS NOW!
A PUMP WITHOUT
SEALS, STAINLESS
AND BRONZE
RUNS ON LOW-COST
4 WATT PV PANEL BELIEVE IT!
IVAN LABS INC. JUPITER, FLORIDA USA
TEL. 561-747-5354 • FAX: 561-746-9760
ivandelsol@bellsouth.net
Ivan Lab 9/1/08 10:55 AM Page 1
1_64_March_ST11.indd 54 2/14/11 3:48:00 PM
1_64_March_ST11.indd 55 2/14/11 3:48:00 PM
56 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
advances
DC-optimization devices. AC modules are already hitting
the market, and smart modules containing integrated
DC optimization devices are likely to hit the market in
2011. Rather than the standardization that might be
expected in a rapidly growing market, 2011 will be a year
of trial and error as the number of component and sys-
tem architecture options for developers expands rather
than consolidates. The two key questions around AC
modules and smart modules are related to reliability and
whether promised labor and balance-of-system savings
will materialize. Only time will tell.
Prices to Drop in Inverters, Too
Large increases in inverter-manufacturing capac-
ity are bringing inverter prices down, helping to stoke
growth in PV system installations. Supporting this trend
in the United States is the availability of UL-listed trans-
formerless inverters, which are less expensive and more
effcient than inverters with transformers. Resisting the
cost-reduction trend is an increase in inverter reliability
and functionality, which can lower the levelized cost
of energy (LCOE) from PV systems, but can increase
up-front costs. Microinverters cost more per watt than
central inverters, so as they gain market share they’ll
push average inverter prices up. Even so, the majority
of inverters will continue to be central, and the declin-
ing trend in central inverter prices should dominate the
North American market in 2011.
Microinverters are expected to continue strong
growth in 2011, particularly in the residential market.
The advantages of microinverters do appear to be attrac-
tive to the residential market and will only increase with
greater availability of AC modules, so the longer micro-
inverters remain on the market without signifcant reli-
ability problems, the faster they are expected to grow.
However, the reliability question is a real one, and the
lack of reliability standards is causing as much or more
uncertainty in the inverter market as in the PV module
market. While UL and IEC standards address safety and
ftness-for-use issues related to PV modules and invert-
ers, they do not provide an indicator of how long an
operating device might last in the feld. Developers are
left to rely on the warranty, which offers some comfort
but does not alleviate the disruption that comes with the
widespread failure of a whole class of devices.
2011 will be an important year for shaking out
the large number of microinverter and DC-optimizer
manufacturers. Partnerships between these companies
and module manufacturers will be critical for achieving
their full potential, and companies that cannot partner
may not be able to compete. 2011 should provide some
insight into what intelligence and functionality will
remain in central inverters and what will be moved to
the module. Central inverters are most at risk of being
replaced by microinverters in the residential market,
while for larger installations the risk is that inverters
will become less intelligent and more commoditized
as functionality moves to smart modules or bolt-on
DC optimizers.
achieving High Grid Penetration
Overlaying these developments is the eventual
requirement for added inverter functionality to enable
high penetration of PV systems on the grid. This func-
tionality includes low-voltage ride through (LVRT), volt-
age support and communications-and-control capabili-
ties, among others. This functionality is already required
for large, behind-the-fence utility-scale PV systems, but
it is not required for commercial or residential behind-
the-meter installations. Historically, PV systems have
been so dispersed throughout the grid that the distur-
bances caused by PV systems dropping offine due to
voltage fuctuations on the grid, or suddenly reducing
their output due to a passing cloud, were minor relative
to total grid capacity. However, as penetration levels of
PV systems increase, these disturbances threaten grid
stability on a wider scale, and inverters will require some
of the functionality described above if PV systems are to
achieve very high levels of penetration. Unfortunately,
new standards will need to be developed before that
functionality can be required for commercial and resi-
dential PV systems, and those standards are not expect-
ed to materialize for another 18 to 24 months.
In the near term, utilities will likely simply deny per-
mits for new PV systems that could disrupt the grid.
This is already happening in some localities in New
Jersey, and although it is a rare enough occurrence
that it is unlikely to impact overall growth in PV instal-
lations in 2011, it is something to keep an eye on and
a development that will infuence inverter design mov-
ing forward. ST
If you haven’t been getting
Solar@Work, the e-bulletin
from ASES and Solar Today,
this feature is part of what
you missed last month.
Get Solar@Work delivered to
your e-mail box, free. To sign up,
go to solartoday.org/sw.
While you’re there, log in to
ASES.org and renew your SOLAR
TODAY subscription: go to ases.
org/login.
Pricing Trends from page 10
Key questions around
AC modules relate to
reliability and whether
promised savings will
materialize.
1_64_March_ST11.indd 56 2/14/11 3:48:00 PM
solartoday.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 57
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
People and products,
you can count on.
YOUR
PV GLOBAL
SUPPLIER
alba solar
USA | SPAIN | GERMANY | FRANCE | PORTUGAL
ALBASOLAR
info@albasolar.us
www.albasolar.us
T
wo new non-polluting trucks powered by zero-emission plug-in elec-
tric/hydrogen fuel cells began duty-cycle testing at the ports of Los
Angeles and Long Beach in January. One big-rig truck and one terminal
tractor, both built by Vision Motor Corp.
of El Segundo, will work normal portside
short-haul jobs for 18 months, fnanced in
part by $212,500 furnished by the the ports
from their Technology Advancement Pro-
gram (TAP) funds.
Both vehicles are electric trucks, with
bateries recharged by hydrogen fuel cells.
Te on-road heavy-duty truck will be oper-
ated by Total Transportation Services Inc.,
a local trucking frm that serves both ports.
Te yard tractor will be operated on the
property of California Cartage Express, another local trucking frm.
Te ports’ TAP encourages the commercialization of clean goods-
movement vehicles and equipment. Each port has budgeted $1.5 million
annually for the TAP since 2007. Te U.S. Environmental Protection
Agency bestowed the 2010 Clean Air Technologies Award to the ports
for the TAP. kyocera Ships
Millionth Module
from Tijuana Plant
Kyocera’s Tijuana,
Mexico, plant has pro-
duced its 1 millionth solar
module. More than 400
employees gathered for a
celebration by signing the
back of the module to com-
memorate the event.
In December 2004,
nearly 30 years afer manu-
facturing its frst solar mod-
ules in Japan, the company
commenced module pro-
duction in Tijuana. Tat
facility expanded, opening
a second plant in 2009 to
increase the capacity in
Tijuana to 240 megawats
per year. In June, the com-
pany began its first U.S.
production of solar mod-
ules, with an initial capacity
target of 30 MW per year in
San Diego. Te company’s
target is to produce a giga-
wat annually, worldwide,
by the spring of 2013. ST
Fuel Cell Trucks in Test at SoCal Ports
Advances from page 15
v
i
s
i
o
n

m
o
t
o
r

c
o
r
P
.
1_64_March_ST11.indd 57 2/14/11 3:48:01 PM
58 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
J
ef Lyng became the chair of the ASES Board
with the new year. At the same time, he lef his
job as solar program manager in the Colorado Gov-
ernor’s Energy Ofce to become director of market
development on the West Coast for OPOWER in
San Francisco. Te company provides systems that
help utility customers to track and reduce energy
use. Lyng holds a bachelor’s from the College of Environmental Science
and Forestry of the State University of New York and a master’s in building
systems engineering from the University of Colorado, where he was project
leader for the winning team in the 2005 Solar Decathlon. Before joining
the Governor’s Energy Ofce, he worked for Xcel Energy, consulting on
demand-side management and solar programs, including the design of a
10-kilowat photovoltaic system at Coors Field in Denver.
Margot McDonald has assumed the post of immediate past chair.
inside ases
|
American Solar Energy Society news
Jef Lyng
Steps Up to
ASES Chair
alabama
Alabama Solar Assoc.
P: 256.658.5189
arch42@gmail.com
al-solar.org
contact: a. morton archibald jr.
arizona
Arizona Solar Energy Assoc.
P: 602.952.8192
j2envarch@aol.com
arizonasolarenergy.org
contact: Daniel aiello
arkansas New Chapter!
Arkansas Renewable Energy Assoc.
P: 877.575.0379
info@arkansasrenewableenergyassoc.org
arkansasrenewableenergyassoc.org
contact: frank Kelly
California
NorCal Solar Energy Assoc.
P: 510.705.8813
solarinfo@norcalsolar.org
norcalsolar.org
contact: erin middleton
*Redwood Empire Solar Living Assoc.
P: 707.744.2017
sli@solarliving.org
solarliving.org
contact: coral mills
San Diego Renewable Energy Society
P: 619.778.7263
info@sdres.org
sdres.org
contact: Bruce rogow
Colorado
*Colorado Renewable Energy Society
P: 303.806.5317
info@cres-energy.org
cres-energy.org
Exec. Dir.: Tony Frank
Connecticut
*Northeast Sustainable Energy Assoc.
P: 413.774.6051
nesea@nesea.org
nesea.org
exec. Dir.: jennifer marrapese
Solar Energy Assoc. of Connecticut
nesea local chapter
P: 860.233.5684
ramank0@yahoo.com
solarenergyofct.org
contact: K. raman
get involved: locate an ASES chapter in your community
delaware
*Northeast Sustainable Energy Assoc.
P: 413.774.6051
nesea@nesea.org
nesea.org
exec. Dir.: jennifer marrapese
Sustainable Delaware
nesea local chapter
P: 302.645.2657
johnmateyko@verizon.net
contact: john mateyko
Florida
Florida Renewable Energy Assoc.
P: 352.241.4733
info@cleanenergyflorida.org
cleanenergyflorida.org
contact: craig williams
Georgia
Georgia Solar Energy Assoc.
P. 678.810.0929
joy.kramer@gasolar.org
gasolar.org
contact: joy Kramer
Idaho New Chapter!
Idaho Renewable Energy Assoc.
P: 208.639.0656
dustin@idahosolar.org
idahosolar.org
contact: Dustin w. Baker
Illinois
Illinois Solar Energy Assoc.
P: 312.376.8245
illinoissolar.org
contact: mark Burger
*Midwest Renewable Energy Assoc.
P: 715.592.6595
info@the-mrea.org
the-mrea.org
contact: Doug stingle
Indiana New Chapter!
Indiana Renewable Energy Assoc.
P: 574.536.9483
indianarenew@homeandmobileenergy.com
indianarenew.org
contact: leon Bontrager
Iowa
*Midwest Renewable Energy Assoc.
P: 715.592.6595
info@the-mrea.org
the-mrea.org
contact: Doug stingle
Kansas
Heartland Renewable Energy Society
P: 816.224.5550
cwolfe@craigwolfeeco.org
heartlandrenewable.org
contact: craig wolfe
Kentucky
Kentucky Solar Energy Society
P: 502.634.1004
chair@kyses.org
kyses.org
contact: jef auxier
Louisiana
Louisiana Solar Energy Society
P: 225.767.0715
info@lses.org
lses.org
contact: jef shaw
Maine
*Northeast Sustainable Energy Assoc.
P: 413.774.6051
nesea@nesea.org
nesea.org
exec. Dir.: jennifer marrapese
Maine Solar Energy Assoc.
nesea local chapter
P: 207.497.2204
sunwatt@juno.com
mainesolar.org
contact: richard Komp
Maryland
Potomac Region Solar Energy Assoc.
info@prsea.org
prsea.org
contact: nelson Buck
Massachusetts
*Northeast Sustainable Energy Assoc.
P: 413.774.6051
nesea@nesea.org
nesea.org
exec. Dir.: jennifer marrapese
Boston Area Solar Energy Assoc.
nesea local chapter
P: 617.242.2150
hkv@solarwave.com
basea.org
contact: henry K. vandermark

Cape and Islands
Renewable Energy Collaborative
nesea local chapter
P: 774.487.4614
chrisp@weeinfo.com
cirenew.org
contact: chris Powicki
Springfeld Area Sustainable Energy Assoc.
nesea local chapter
P: 413.734.1456
sasea@gmail.com
nesea.org/sasea
contact: mike Kocsmiersky
Michigan
*Great Lakes Renewable Energy Assoc.
P: 517.646.6269 or 800.434.9788
info@glrea.org
glrea.org
contact: samantha Keeney
*Midwest Renewable Energy Assoc.
P: 715.592.6595
info@the-mrea.org
the-mrea.org
contact: Doug stingle
Minnesota
Minnesota Renewable Energy Society
P: 612.308.4757
info@mnrenewables.org
mnrenewables.org
contact: David Boyce
Mississippi
Mississippi Solar Energy Society
sdlewis@megagate.com
contact: steve lewis
Missouri
Heartland Renewable Energy Society
P: 816.224.5550
cwolfe@craigwolfeeco.org
heartlandrenewable.org
contact: craig wolfe
Nevada
Sunrise Sustainable Resources Group
P: 775.224.1877
philip_moore@charter.net.
sunrisenevada.org
contact: Philip moore
Solar NV
P: 702.507.0093
contact@solarnv.org
solarnv.org
contact: Deidre radford
New Hampshire
*Northeast Sustainable Energy Assoc.
P: 413.774.6051
nesea@nesea.org
nesea.org
exec. Dir.: jennifer marrapese
KEY
*
= stafed ofce
Green = a chapter of the Northeast
Sustainable Energy Assoc.
Don’t Miss
the 40th
ASES
National
Solar
Conference
Join us May 17–21 in Raleigh,
N.C., to celebrate the longest-running
educational event for solar energy pro-
fessionals in the United States. It’s the
40th anniversary of the inaugural ASES
National Solar Conference, and it’s shap-
ing up to be an extraordinary event.
Come to learn. The SOLAR 2011
program was developed by solar energy
experts in all topical areas — technology,
buildings, policy, professional education,
workforce development and consumer
education. Many sessions offer continu-
ing education credits for architects,
1_64_March_ST11.indd 58 2/14/11 3:48:01 PM
solartoday.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 59
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
DI vI S I OnS
Divisions Chair:
David L. Comis
dcomis@sentech.org
Clean Energy and Water
Chair: Nathan Miten
mitenater@gmail.com
Concentrating Solar Power
Chair: Alison Mason
alison.mason@skyfuel.com
Sustainable Transportation
Chair: Scote Elliot
selliot@greentechconsultants.com
Resource Applications
Chair: Justin Robinson
jrobinson@campbellsci.com
Small Wind
Co-chairs: Trudy Forsyth
trudy_forsyth@nrel.gov
Karin Sinclair
karin_sinclair@nrel.gov
Solar Buildings
Chair: Vikram Sami
vssami@yahoo.com
Solar Electric
Chair: Joseph McCabe
energyideas@gmail.com
Solar Thermal
Chair: Barry Butler
barry@butlersunsolutions.com
Sustainability
Chair: David Panich
dpanich@pnarch.com
b OAR D c OmmI T T e e S
Education
Chair: Nathalie Osborn
education@ases.org
International
Chair: John Reynolds
international@ases.org
Policy
Chair: David Hill
policy@ases.org
me mb e R c OmmI T T e e S
Membership
Chair: Allison Gray
membership@ases.org
Ethics
ethics@ases.org
*New Hampshire Sustainable Energy Assoc.
nesea local chapter
P: 603.226.4732 (22nhsea)
madeline@nhsea.org
nhsea.org
contact: madeline mcelaney
New Jersey
*Northeast Sustainable Energy Assoc.
P: 413.774.6051
nesea@nesea.org
nesea.org
exec. Dir.: jennifer marrapese
Central Jersey Sustainable Energy Assoc.
nesea local chapter
P: 732.695.2578
nesea.nj@gmail.com
contact: Beth robinson
New Mexico
New Mexico Solar Energy Assoc.
P: 505.246.0400, 888.886.6765
info@nmsea.org
nmsea.org
contact: mary mcarthur, ron herman
New york
New york Solar Energy Society New Chapter!
P: 917.974.4606
wyldon1@gmail.com
nyses.org
contact: wyldon fishman
*Northeast Sustainable Energy Assoc.
P: 413.774.6051
nesea@nesea.org
nesea.org
exec. Dir.: jennifer marrapese
GreenHome NyC
nesea local chapter
P: 917.846.2374
slenard@greenhomenyc.org
greenhomenyc.org
contact: steven lenard
Western New york
Sustainable Energy Assoc.
nesea local chapter
P: 716.881.1639
jkbozer@aol.com
contact: joan Bozer
North Carolina
North Carolina Sustainable Energy Assoc.
P: 919.832.7601
ofcemanager@energync.org
energync.org
exec. Dir.: ivan urlaub
Ohio
*Green Energy ohio
P: 614.985.6131
geo@greenenergyohio.org
greenenergyohio.org
exec. Dir.: william a. spratley
Oregon
*Solar oregon
P: 503.231.5662
hadley@solaroregon.org
solaroregon.org
contact: hadley Price
Pennsylvania
*Northeast Sustainable Energy Assoc.
P: 413.774.6051
nesea@nesea.org
nesea.org
exec. Dir.: jennifer marrapese
Philadelphia Solar Energy Assoc.
nesea local chapter
P: 610.489.1105
kira@sunpowerbuilders.com
contact: Kira costanza
Rhode Island
*Northeast Sustainable Energy Assoc.
P: 413.774.6051
nesea@nesea.org
nesea.org
exec. Dir.: jennifer marrapese
Rhode Island Solar Energy Assoc.
nesea local chapter
P: 401.855.1170
johntaborjacobson@yahoo.com
contact: john jacobson
south Carolina
South Carolina Solar Council
P: 803.737.8030
emyers@energy.sc.gov
contact: erika myers
Tennessee New Chapter!
Tenneessee Solar Energy Assoc.
P: 865.974.9218
jim@tnsolarenergy.org or
steve@tnsolarenergy.org
tnsolarenergy.org
contact: jim hackworth or steven levy
Texas
*Texas Solar Energy Society
P: 512.326.3391, 800.465.5049
info@txses.org
txses.org
exec. Dir.: natalie marquis
utah
Utah Solar Energy Assoc.
P: 801.501.9353
ofarnsworth@aeesolar.com
utsolar.org
contact: orrin farnsworth
Vermont
*Northeast Sustainable Energy Assoc.
P: 413.774.6051
nesea@nesea.org
nesea.org
exec. Dir.: jennifer marrapese
Building For Social Responsibility
nesea local chapter
jvansteensburg@bsr-vt.org
bsr-vt.org
exec. Dir.: jessica van steensburg
Virginia
Potomac Region Solar Energy Assoc.
P: 866.477.5369
info@prsea.org
prsea.org
contact: nelson Buck
Washington state
Solar Washington Assoc.
P: 206.246.1200
info@solarwashington.org
solarwashington.org
contact: Peter Barton
Washington, d.C.
Potomac Region Solar Energy Assoc.
P: 866.477.5369
info@prsea.org
prsea.org
contact: nelson Buck
Wisconsin
*Midwest Renewable Energy Assoc.
P: 715.592.6595
info@the-mrea.org
the-mrea.org
contact: Doug stingle
STUDenT CHAPTERS
Appalachian State University
Sustainable Energy Society
P: 828.262.7333
asuses@gmail.com
asuses.net
contact: mike uchal
NCSU Renewable Energy Society
P: 919.515.9782
University of Florida
P: 561.827.3608
ases.uf@gmail.com
ufases.org
contact: alex Palomino
University of Mass. Lowell
Solar Energy Assoc.
nesea local student chapter
P: 978.934.2968
john_dufy@uml.edu
energy.caeds.eng.uml.edu
contact: john j. Dufy
ASES Trust Fund
$450,000 and higher
c.e. Bennett foundation
$50,000 – $150,000
otto and Phoebe hass fund at
the seattle foundation $75,000
$25,000 – $50,000
Karl w. and renate Böer $40,000
mrs. lammot du Pont copeland $25,000
$10,000 – $25,000
richard collins $10,000
molly o. ross $10,000
The ASES Trust Fund was established
in November 1999 to receive
contributions to an endowment for
ASES that will provide income for
ASES educational programs in
perpetuity. To make a donation,
visit ases.org/donate.
installers, engineers and more. Of our
attendees and exhibitors, 95 percent say
that the ASES National Solar Conference
pays for itself in terms of business and
career development. It’s a no-brainer
— build your customer base, develop
your market and grow your business by
attending SOLAR 2011.
There is no better way to begin or
continue your professional education
in solar energy than the ASES National
Solar Conference. Register and fnd out
more by visiting nationalsolarconfer-
ence.org. We’ll see you there.
1_64_March_ST11.indd 59 2/14/11 3:48:01 PM
60 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
March
2 Online Webinar
Achieving Low-Cost PV
The Vote Solar Initiative
votesolar.org
4-5 Boston
MIT Energy Conference
Contact 510.759.1174
mitenergyconference.com
8-10 Saratoga, N.Y.
Clean Energy Workforce
Education Conference
IREC
Contact info@irecusa.org
irecusa.org
8-10 Boston
NESEA’s Building Energy 2011
Northeast Sustainable Energy Association
Contact 413.774.6051
nesea.org
9 Tampa, Fla., and Boston
Residential Inverter Training
Solectria Renewables
solren.com
12-21 Costa Rica
Renewable Energy for
the Developing World Workshop
Solar Energy International
Contact 970.963.8855
solarenergy.org
14-15 Atlanta
Greenprints Conference and Tradeshow
Contact Ruth Ann Rosenberg, 404.604.3595
greenprints.org
22 Elkridge, Md.
PV Systems and the
National Electric Code Workshop
IEC Chesapeake
Contact 301.621.9545
iec-chesapeake.com
24 York, Pa.
PV Systems and the
National Electric Code Workshop
IEC Chesapeake
Contact 301.621.9545
iec-chesapeake.com
April
2-10 Havana
Renewable Energy and
Energy Efciency in Cuba
Solar Energy International
Contact 970.963.8855
solarenergy.org
8-16 Jonesport, Maine
Do yourself Solar! Spring 2011
Contact 207.546.1639
dadsolar.com
14-15 Seattle
3rd Annual Global Marine
Renewable Energy Conference
Contact 1.866.463.2844
globalmarinerenewable.com
May
17-21 Raleigh, N.C.
SOLAR 2011, the ASES National Solar
Conference
Contact ASES, 303.443.3130
nationalsolarconference.org
dates
Is Solar Energy
Right for Me?
Learn about how solar works.
If you are a renewable energy
professional, visit FindSolar.com
to enroll your company.
Sponsored by the American Solar Energy Society
FindSolar.com FindSolar.com
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with renewable resources
for your specific needs.
Easy online calculation
tool to see how solar can
work for you.
It’s Easy
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advertising index
AEE Solar ..................................................... 4
Alba Solar ............................................... 57
Apollo Gate Operators ....................... 45
ASES ......................................................... 52
Conergy....................................................... 2
Delta ......................................................... 49
Enphase Energy .................................... 55
FindSolar.com ....................................... 60
Fronius USA LLC .............................. 32-33
Gear Solar .............................................. 52
Geoking Solar ....................................... 60
IVAN Labs ................................................ 54
Jinko Solar ............................................... 15
Kipp & Zonen ........................................ 43
Meca Solar .............................................. 41
Mitsubishi Electric ................................ 19
Miyachi Unitek ...................................... 17
Schletter Inc. ........................................... 47
Schneider Electric .................................... 9
Session Solar ........................................ 53
SOLAR 2011 ......................................18, 50
Solar FlexRack ....................................... 51
SOLAR TODAY ........................................ 57
Solmetric Corp. ......................................... 6
Steibel Eltron ......................................... 61
SunEarth ................................................. 57
Tianwei New Energy ........................... 64
Trina Solar............................................... 63
Unirac ........................................................... 7
Westinghouse Solar ............................. 13
cLIcK for solar event listings, go to solartoday.org/dates.
1_64_March_ST11.indd 60 2/14/11 3:48:02 PM
SOLKIT 2 includes:
info@stiebel-eltron-usa.com
Season after season,
the sun gives its light to the earth,
allowing life to bloom.
Every day a limitless crop of free,
clean energy reaches our planet.
Stiebel Eltron manufactures all the tools you
need for a successful thermal solar harvest.
And we’ve been doing so since 1976.
From our highly efficient flat plate collectors and
storage tanks to our complete line of mounting
hardware, pump stations, controllers, and
accessories, we have it all.
SBB 300 Plus Storage Tank
2 x SOL 25 PLUS
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Pump station with
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Because every installation is
different, we have a full line of
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hardware kits available. All
components and accessories are
available for individual sale.
Si mply the Best
TOLL FREE 800.582.8423
www.stiebel-eltron-usa.com
Harvest the power of
Harvest the power of
the
the
Sun
Sun
Stiebel Eltron is your one stop source for thermal solar products.
1_64_March_ST11.indd 61 2/14/11 3:48:02 PM
62 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org
Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.
system accomplished
Osborne Coinage of Cincinnati, founded in 1835, is the oldest private mint in
America, making custom coins, medallions and tokens for mass transit and casino
use. Afer enacting a number of energy-saving strategies, the company wanted a so-
lar array to ofset a large portion of its electrical usage. Osborne began by installing
a 45-kilowat array at its sister company, Doran Manufacturing, and then followed
up with a larger array for Osborne Coinage.
Te historic Osborne structure has a complex roof with many obstructions and
some shading challenges. Project Developer John Fanselow of Tird Sun Solar
(third-sun.com) chose high-efciency SunPower modules in an aerodynamic “tiled” orientation
for both installations to maximize the amount of power produced per square foot. Te aerody-
namic orientation minimizes wind-induced torque, and roof loading totals just 4 pounds per
square foot. Both arrays are ballasted, with no roof penetrations, and are sized to make the best
use of available space while taking maximum advantage of state incentives. Te system produces
more power than promised, and Osborne is considering additional systems. ST
system accomplished is a new SOLAR TODAY feature, focusing on unique design or installation problems and how they were solved.
if you have solved a difcult installation problem, we want to hear about it. email smasia @ solartoday.org.
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Osborne Coinage:
Ballasted System
Resolves Issues
with Historic Roof
1_64_March_ST11.indd 62 2/14/11 3:48:06 PM
Solar has never been more popular
Ocial Sponsor of
As the world’s most prestigious sport, F1 embodies the pursuit of excellence
through technological expertise and innovation. At Trina Solar, it’s because of
this shared passion for innovation that we’ve teamed up with the Renault F1
Team, one of Formula One’s most advanced teams. As solar accelerates on the
track to grid parity, we think it’s time to bring solar to an even larger audience –
the world. For more information, visit us at www.trinasolar.com
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TS_NA_Solar Today-8.5-10.88 inch.pdf 1 2010-11-9 10:02:19
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1_64_March_ST11.indd 64 2/14/11 3:48:06 PM

C

ON

E RG
Y

QUA L IT Y
E

IN GERM

A

N

M
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A

VO L um e 25, N O. 2 m arch 2011 s O L a r tO d ay. O r g
®

contents

22
matthew grocoff, greenovation.tv

28

features

22 CasE sTudy | A Historic Home
Goes Net-Zero-Energy

34
DanBihn.com

By Matthew Grocoff In retrofitting their 110-year-old Victorian, Matt and Kelly Grocoff offer a model for restoring the nation’s existing houses.

Rising 28 GSHP ValueLiu and Jeff Munk By Piljae Im, Xiaobing

In an East Tennessee demonstration project, Oak Ridge National Lab and partners evaluate two ground-source heat pump technologies that together promise to reduce the up-front investment and increase energy cost savings.

ON THE COVER: Since arriving at Colorado State University in 1999 with a range of renewable energy and efficiency projects under her belt, Utility Engineer Carol Dollard has led photovoltaic (PV) installations on many university buildings. This 5.3-megawatt PV field, completed late last year, is expected to save CSU millions via a 20-year power purchase agreement with Fotowatio Renewable Ventures.
Photo courtesy of Dan Bihn, DanBihn.com.

34 Harnessing the Sun,
Lakota Style
By Mike Koshmrl On the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota, solar air heating helps ease crippling winter heating bills, while providing jobs.

Next Issue: Selling Green
Marketing solar and green building systems has never been more competitive. We share examples of leading marketing strategies and offer hands-on guidelines.

38 A Little Co-op

and How It Grew

By Robert Robinson In Washington, D.C., a group of neighbors banded together to win the fight for residential solar.
solartoday.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 3

Articles appearing in this magazine are indexed in Environmental Periodicals Bibliography and ArchiText Construction Index: afsonl.com.

Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.

” JOHN ROGERS Paci c Blue Solar.Get all that AEE Solar has to o er: 3 decades of solar expertise Industry-leading tech support Broadest selection of the products you need Best-in-class training and dealer services A partner fully dedicated to your solar success Get REC’s New High-Efficiency Peak Energy Module from AEE Solar! PEAK ENERGY MODULE “ AEE has been there for us since the beginning.com sales@aeesolar. From the terri c service your sales team gives us to great advice from your engineers. Inc.aeesolar.com T H E O N LY W H O L E S A L E D I S T R I B U T O R YO U ’ L L E V E R N E E D . Having a supplier like AEE de nitely gives us a competitive advantage. “ AEE Solar consistently o ers us sales and product support on demand.” TERRY HUFFT Top Hat Energy MORE POWER PER SQUARE FOOT US-PRODUCED SILICON ROBUST AND DURABLE DESIGN ENERGY PAYBACK TIME OF ONE YEAR www. helping us grow our company. doing business with AEE Solar is always a pleasure. You go above and beyond to make sure we have the products we need and the ability to deliver them in a timely manner.

Ph.5 tons > > > delivered to your inbox.595 gallons Solid Waste 12.org sOLaR TODAY environmental statement SOLAR TODAY is printed with vegetable ink on paper containing 100 percent postconsumer waste. PE.s. This issue saves: X Greenhouse Gases 44. Calif. video. ases. By Gina Johnson john fanselow.D. go paperless. thirD sun solar.org Perspective 20 View from the States: Policy Shifts 48 New Products Showcase: Solar Manufacturing Equipment 58 Inside ASES sun light & Power 10 advances 2011: Pricing Trends in PV By Jay Holman How the Clean Air Act Sells Solar By Robert Ukeiley IRS Provides Guidance for Residential PV By Marc Schultz and Franc Del Fosse 60 Dates 60 Ad Index 16 innovators Carol Dollard.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 5 . the u. discussion. Cincinnati 62 go to> solartoday. the paper is produced at a biomass-powered mill.® Solar Today is published by the american solar energy society. cincinnatti 62 system accomplished Osborne Coinage. solartoday. section of the international solar energy society in every issue 6 8 What’s New at SolarToday. 44 the trade Small Wind and the 2011 National Electric Code By Mick Sagrillo Pelamis 46 solar installations The Richmond Plunge. Richmond.org. Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.2 tons Solar@Work Solar ToDaY digital InTeRAcTIve Trees 288 Energy 208 million Btu Water 12. LEED AP By Seth Masia 42 46 42 investing Tide Turning for Ocean Energy? By Rona Fried.

New Gov. All rights reserved. the number of solar installers has increased 250 percent since the beginning of 2009. such as Houston.” page 22 > . The move threatens to derail the Western Climate Initiative. The first wave of commercial PEVs will likely flourish in only the readiest of cities — including traditional leaders like Portland and some surprisingly aggressive followers.” says Michael Vickerman. At press time.what’s new at solartoday. org/digital.” Iowa One of the rst moves for Republican Gov. driven by a robust renewable portfolio standard.” After taking o ce. balanced approaches to protecting our environment. Preview mode shows the sun path overlay adjusted to the device’s orientation.com See a video and case study on the restoration of the Grocoffs’ 110-yearold windows: solar today. org/states. matthew grocoff. Pitch and azimuth measurements are built-in. In Milwaukee. campaigned against the fund.org/video. One-handed operation makes your shade measurements a snap.” says Steve Fugate. The state’s wind capacity is up to 630 megawatts – nearly 90 percent of which has come online since mid-2008. managing director of the Iowa Renewable Energy Association. Walker criticized Tom Barrett. saying that he expects the Power Fund to continue under the management of a di erent department. his Democratic opponent.org ➚ Wisconsin’s solar and wind economies are booming. which dropped more than 30 percent from 1998 to 2009. Bill Richardson’s administration. in his rst executive order.org Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. Here’s what’s happening. Early indications show that the rate of decline accelerated in 2010. “We think it’s highly unlikely the Barnstad administration extends [the Power Fund].tv Expanded from “A Historic Home Goes Net-Zero-Energy. which was designed to regulate emissions in seven U. which provides matching grants and loans for new renewable energy projects. an outspoken climate change skeptic. Walker turned down $810 million in federal stimulus funds to build a train line from Milwaukee to Madison. Installed PV Costs Plummet in 2010 By Galen Barbose. “We need to maintain the protections and safeguards that are in place. The same week the new governor appointed Harrison Schmitt. Mass market PEVs are finally here. the program’s fate hung in the balance. The new SunEye 210. Expert Tools. Naïm Darghouth and Ryan Wiser Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory researchers track trends in the installed cost of photovoltaics (PV). Terry Barnstad. executive director of RENEW Wisconsin. The Power Fund has helped grow Iowa’s wind market into the nation’s second largest. greenovation. the statewide Focus on Energy program and a number of municipal incentive programs.” New Mexico 20 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday. Scott Walker’s support of renewable energy is unproven. The chances it continues to exist are nil. a Democrat. “A lot of his budget proposals are extremely draconian. Chet Culver.” page 20 Find policy updates: solartoday. Susana Martinez was to re every member of the state’s Environmental Improvement Board. Walker proposed a regulatory reform that would prohibit developers from siting a wind turbine within 1.S. to run New Mexico’s Energy. Better Solar. More recently Barnstad reversed course. Martinez also halted a new greenhouse gas emissions regulation that had been passed in the closing days of former Gov. Then. states and four Canadian provinces. rolanD Berger strategy consultants Plug-In Electric Vehicles: How Ready is Your City? lawrence BerKeley national laBoratory Download This Issue Keep an electronic copy of this issue and search the sOLAR TODAY archives.oRG exclusives By Antonio Benecchi and Shamsuddin Syed The conversation about plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) has matured greatly over the past year. Follow American Solar Energy Society 6 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday. “We currently have common sense. Whole businesses could shut down. INSIDE THIS ISSUE: Clicks for Web Extras view from the states The shift in political power following the November 2010 elections may threaten solar and wind policies in key states. During his campaign.solmetric. Minerals and Natural Resources Department. “It’s a shooting war right now. > Four years ago former Gov.800 feet of the nearest property line.” says Sanders Moore of Environment New Mexico. All rights reserved. The state’s renewable energy community is skeptical. Site evaluation just got easier. Policy Shifts: Where the States Are Headed Expanded from “View from the States. Martinez alleged that the board promoted “antibusiness” policies. for supporting “a radical environmental agenda that will cost us jobs. a Republican. telling the Sioux City Journal it was a “colossal failure” and the $25 million budget should be reallocated to reducing taxes. Watch an introductory video at www. But new Gov.org SoLARToDAy. a lot of projects will cease to be economically feasible. created the Iowa Power Fund.” Wisconsin Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. access the digital edition at solartoday. “When you’re operating with setback distances this extreme.

R A HILTI GROUP COMPANY .

perspective
Taking our Message to the States
Now more than ever: Think globally, act locally.
When we speak of funding he American Solar Energy ARRA-authorized programs, we’re Society (ASES) has a golden edging into the area of federal policy. opportunity in 2011 to drive the Energy policy activity in Washingtransition to a new energy economy ton since the mid-terms suggests at the state level. Last year’s mid-term that for about the next two years our elections resulted in an historic number focus will be to defend the ground of new legislators and a remarkable 29 that clean energy has gained. A key new governors taking office. With this area for action will be to bulwark the large turnover in state leadership, we Environmental Protection Agency’s face a tremendous need to educate the authority to regulate greenhouse gas new legislators, governors, state energy Jeff Lyng is chair of emissions under the Clean Air Act. office directors and their staffs on the the american solar Another issue of national concern is opportunity for economic recovery energy society. the future of property-assessed clean and energy security that the sustainable contact him at energy (PACE) programs. These local energy sectors can deliver. With more chair@ases.org. financing tools are still in limbo due to than 10,000 members and regional mortgage-lending rules established by chapters in more than 40 states, ASES the Federal National Mortgage Association (Fannie is better-positioned than any other nonprofit clean Mae) and the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corp. energy advocacy organization to lead the re-educa(Freddie Mac). ASES chapters and members should tion of our newly installed officials. step up in encouraging their congressional delegaSeveral states made meaningful advances in tions to support this innovative financing model. 2010. For example, Colorado raised its renewable Talk to your senators and congresspeople when energy standard (RES) to 30 percent (by 2020) and they’re at home in their districts. That’s the best time California raised its standard to 33 percent (also by to show them how PACE can support the vigorous 2020). ASES can and should be active in pushing growth of local businesses. other states for higher, more robust RESs in 2011. As a society and industry, our strongest arguAnother critical issue will be to maintain the fundment is our proven ability to generate jobs during ing that allows state energy offices to complete their the worst economy since the Great Depression. implementation of American Recovery and ReinAccording to the Solar Energy Industries Associavestment Act (ARRA) programs. ASES chapters and tion’s National Jobs Census, the solar industry now members could support revolving loan and loanemploys more than 100,000 people. ASES’ Green loss-reserve programs that will ensure long-term Collar Jobs report estimates that aggressive deployfunding for state energy offices. ment of renewable energy and energy-efficiency technologies should produce a net gain of 4.4 million new jobs by 2020, over and above the 8.5 million Get Involved: people employed by those industries in 2007. Phoregister for solar 2011 tovoltaic (PV) installations rose 115 percent in 2010 SoLAR 2011 is America’s leading conference on alone, validating the Green Collar Jobs projection. the emerging trends, technology and opportuniThe ASES Policy Committee has begun develties shaping the new energy economy. It’s widely oping a toolkit for chapters to use in educating recognized by solar energy professionals for its incoming administrations on best practices, model cutting-edge educational content. SOLAR 2011 policies and the economic development potential will take place at the Raleigh Convention Center, of local sustainable energy businesses. We expect to May 17-21. ASES expects to attract more than 5,000 distribute the toolkit in time for the SOLAR 2011 solar professionals, business leaders and entreConference in Raleigh, N.C. preneurs to downtown Raleigh, with participants ASES has a story to tell. I urge you to get involved traveling from across the United States and internain your local ASES chapter in 2011.That’s where the tionally. Register at nationalsolarconference.org. action will be. See you all in Raleigh. ST 8 March 2011
SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org

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S o L A R ToDAy.oR G

Irene PÉrez Law: ASES Interim Executive Director

Editorial

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advances
from the Solar@Work e-bulletin

solar technology | analysis | markets

irs guidance for Pv 14 utility-scale storage in hawaii 14 fuel cell trucks test in socal 57

2011: Pricing Trends in PV
By Jay HolMan
he North American solar photovoltaic (PV) market is poised for very strong growth in 2011, driven in large part by subsidies but also pushed along by falling prices and innovations that reduce system-installation time and the associated labor costs. Solar technology continues to rapidly evolve as vendors both pursue cost reductions and strive to overcome the grid-stability issues that arise when many PV systems are concentrated in a small geographic area. Given the early stage of solar technology, opportunities abound for cost reductions, reliability improvements and increased safety, whether they come through new cell chemistries, manufacturing improvements, increased standardization or balance-of-system (BOS) innovations.

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Jay holman (jholman@ energy-insights.com) is research manager for renewable energy strategies at Idc (idc.com). he holds an mBa from the sloan school of management, a master’s ee/cs from mIt’s school of engineering, and a bachelor’s in physics from colgate university.

Price Pressure Continues in PV Modules
PV modules continue to evolve, and it will be some time before a final winner emerges in the race to reduce module costs. In the end, it may turn out that the lowcost solution depends on the application. However, picking the winning cell chemistry is less important in today’s market now that a number of manufacturers

have emerged as “bankable.” Even if another technology prices crystalline silicon (c-Si) out of the market in 10 years, today it is the dominant cell chemistry and developers can get funding for projects that use it. With the potential for an oversupply of modules in 2011, it could be business practices that differentiate between bankable module manufacturers as much or more than pricing. In the frenzied environment of 2010, some manufacturers reallocated modules from North America to Germany in order to take advantage of higher prices driven by the pending reduction of German feed-in tariffs (FITs), and in some cases this had a negative impact on project timelines in the United States. These delays convinced some developers to reevaluate their relationships with certain suppliers, and if the market loosens in 2011 as expected, module manufacturers that misled or mistreated customers in the 2010 boom could suffer disproportionately. Beyond relentless cost reduction, PV module manufacturers are expected to continue to differentiate themselves by adding intelligence to their modules in the form of integrated microinverters and integrated
Pricing Trends continued on page 56

San Francisco Plugs In 5-MW Array
A 5-megawatt (MW) PV system went live in January on the roof of San Francisco’s Sunset Reservoir. The San Francisco Public Utilities Commission purchases the power under a 25-year power purchase agreement with system developer Recurrent Energy. It triples the city’s nonhydro renewable electricity and offsets power used by the airport, lightrail and city buildings.

10 March 2011

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Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved.

solartoday. Access the article at bit. The scientists fabricated the honeycomb thin films by creating a flow of micrometer-size water droplets across a thin layer of the polymer/fullerene-blend solution.” Xu said.” said lead scientist Mircea Cotlet. All rights reserved. The work was also carried out in part at the CFN and the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies Gateway to Los Alamos (CINGLA) facility. Zhihua Xu and Ranjith Krishna Pai. the material selfassembles to form a reproducible pattern of micron-size hexagon-shaped cells over a relatively large area (up to several millimeters). would cut its electricity costs significantly. and constitute the largest infrastructure investment of the National Nanotechnology Initiative. “Though such honeycomb-patterned thin films have previously been made using conventional polymers like polystyrene. The Brookhaven team included Mircea Cotlet. The CFN and CINGLA are two of the five DOE Nanoscale Science Research Centers (NSRCs). Sandia and Los Alamos national laboratories. process.” “Combining these traits and achieving large-scale patterning could enable a wide range of practical applications.” Cotlet explained. premier national user facilities for interdisciplinary research at the nanoscale. The research was supported at Los Alamos by the Department of Energy Office of Science. while remaining loosely packed and spread very thin across the centers. Andrew Dattelbaum from the CINGLA facility. Under controlled conditions. “Imagine a house with windows made of this kind of material. such as energy-generating solar windows. Furthermore. who are both users of the CFN facilities at Brookhaven. These water droplets self-assembled into large arrays within the polymer solution. a physical chemist at Brookhaven’s Center for Functional Nanomaterials (CFN).Transparent PV Material May Find Use in Windows S cientists at Brookhaven National Laboratory and Los Alamos National Laboratory have fabricated transparent thin films capable of absorbing light and generating electric charge over a relatively large area. this is the first report of such a material that blends semiconductors and fullerenes to absorb light and efficiently generate charge and charge separation. and project leader Andrew Shreve of the Materials Physics and Applications Division. This is pretty exciting. the material remains largely transparent because the polymer chains pack densely only at the edges of the hexagons. could be used to develop transparent solar panels or even windows that absorb solar energy to generate electricity. The NSRCs are located at DOE’s Argonne. —BROOkHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORy Brookhaven researchers (left to right) Mircea Cotlet. Together the NSRCs comprise a suite of complementary facilities that provide researchers with state-of-the-art capabilities to fabricate.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 11 BrooKhaven national laBoratory . “The densely packed edges strongly absorb light and may also facilitate conducting electricity. “This is a cost-effective method. As the solvent completely evaporates. with potential to be scaled up from the laboratory to industrial-scale production. “while the centers do not absorb much light and are relatively transparent. Oak Ridge.ly/gPPDXZ. characterize and model nanoscale materials. Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. transparent solar panels and new kinds of optical displays. The material consists of a semiconducting polymer doped with carbon-rich fullerenes. Brookhaven. Collaborators from Los Alamos include Hsing-Lin Wang and Hsinhan Tsai.” said co-author Zhihua Xu. the polymer forms a hexagonal honeycomb pattern over a large area. The material. described in the journal Chemistry of Materials. a materials scientist at the CFN. Ranjith Krishna Pai and Zhihua Xu. Lawrence Berkeley.” Cotlet said. which. combined with a solar roof.

500-square-foot silicon array uses a self-ballasted racking system that does not penetrate the terminal’s roof. SIPs for nonattainment areas usually have to contain new rules applying Reasonably Available Control Technology (RACT) to existing sources of pollution. BAM President Andrew Rasken notes that the project required a lightweight array that would tolerate foot traffic and. EPA then approves or disapproves the SIPs. a good place to start is meeting with the planning section of your state or local air agencies to find out what opportunities are coming up. EPA then designates every area in the country as either “nonattainment. Other relevant sources of pollution are boilers. RACT for these engines could be using PV rather than diesel-fuel generators.advances By RoBERT UKEILEy | clean air policy How the Clean Air Act Sells Solar T robert ukeiley (rukeiley @igc. I will briefly review the basic structure of the Clean Air Act. natural gasfired residential furnaces and wood-burning fireplaces and heaters. steam generators and process heaters of various sizes. These plans are known as State Implementation Plans. However. RACT can be cleaner fuels like the sun and wind. There are nonattainment areas across the country.” meaning the air pollution in that area is better than the NAAQS. The Clean Air Act requires public notice and an opportunity for the public to submit comments. which is the acceptable amount of air pollution in the outside air for various pollutants. The U. It is home to more than 4 million people and is the nation’s leading agricultural area. Among the sources of fine-particulate-matter air pollution in the San Joaquin Valley are stationary agricultural pump engines. All that is required on the part of the renewable energy companies is a small amount of advocacy and information sharing with local. or SIPs. Successfully implementing RACT for these sources could greatly expand the renewable energy market. or “attainment. stationary gas turbines.org) is a lawyer who represents environmental nonprofits in clean air act litigation affecting energy issues. This is the second such installation on a Royal Caribbean ship. both when the state or local air agency creates the SIP and again when EPA is considering whether to approve or disapprove the SIP. RACT was often thought of as “end of the pipe” pollution controls like catalysts or scrubbers. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) sets National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS). The San Joaquin Valley could be a huge renewable energy market. If you want to get involved in helping to ensure RACT is based on renewable energy sources. All rights reserved. fasten without deck penetrations. most importantly. To help you understand this opportunity. and the solar project is part of the city’s Solar LA Program. The Port and the Terminal are both agencies of the city of Los Angeles. based on various specific criteria as well as whether the SIP will actually achieve its environmental objective. EPA recently considered the SIP for California’s San Joaquin Valley fine-particulate-matter nonattainment area. The array provides a portion of the electricity used by the ship’s shopping decks. For example.org 12 March 2011 Port of los angeles Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. State or local air agencies then have to come up with plans for how to lower air pollution in nonattainment areas or not let air pollution increase in attainment areas.” meaning the air pollution in that area is worse than the NAAQS. SOLAR TODAY solartoday. reciprocating internal combustion engines. which aims to put 400 MW on city rooftops by 2014 and provide 10 percent of the city’s electricity through renewable sources by 2020. residential water heaters. Cruise Ship Gets 80-kW Thin-Film Array BAM Solar of Miami has installed an 80-kilowatt (kW) Uni-Solar flexible thin-film array on Royal Caribbean’s Allure of the Seas cruise ship. royal cariBBean . The 71. he Clean Air Act provides renewable energy companies with an opportunity to create or greatly expand specific regional markets for certain applications.S. state and federal air pollution control agencies. Cruise Ship Terminal Gets 1-MW Array C upertino Electric has commissioned a 1-MW rooftop PV system at berths 93A and B of the World Cruise Ship Terminal at the Port of Los Angeles.

Constructed in five months. Download the publication at tinyurl. with a completion date of 2014. The array is designed to displace 2.com/Installer Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc.. Beginning in 2012.com/Homeowner Become a Dealer: 888. The system should supply about one-third of the college’s electricity demand. s a U ic e er Se Am PV th -5 d 3r ril Ap Homeowners Solar Power For The Way Your Live Installers at in TH O BO Grow Your Business with The Most Trusted Name Under The Sun 16 #5 Reduce Your Electric Bills.Reduce Your Carbon Footprint See How With Our FREE (Register Online) Webinars Established Brand | Innovative Technology Get Solar on Your Home FREE Solar Evaluations @ WestinghouseSolar. .2248 WestinghouseSolar. each of which is explained in detail. 60-watt and 40-watt bulbs will be phased out. solartoday. compact fluorescent and leD light sources.900 cars from California’s roads over the 30-year life of the system. options for lighting homes and offices include halogen.1-acre parking lot canopy with nearly s 3. the national electrical manufacturers association (nema) has published “lighting options for your home. All rights reserved. the system features a 3.NEMA Publishes Incandescent Bulb Phase-Out Brochure Bakersfield College Dedicates 1. traditional 100-watt.. 75-watt..1-MW SunPower System unPower in December completed a 1.1-MW solar power system at Bakersfield College in California.com/nemalights. equivalent to removing more than 5.” a brochure clarifying the upcoming phase-out of incandescent light bulbs.700 SunPower solar panels on tracking mounts.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 13 .3 million pounds of carbon dioxide each year..395. and a year earlier in california.

B ecause renewable portfolio standard incentives vary widely from state to state. massive battery banks are now becoming standard operating procedure for wind and solar resources serving small isolated grids. To prevent such “double dipping. a homeowner would like to receive both the payment from the utility on a tax-free basis and the federal income tax credit on the full purchase price of the system. For now. Xtreme announced the sale of a 10-MW storage system to serve a 21-MW wind farm to be built on Maui. benefits. All rights reserved. he chairs the firm’s renewable energy industry group. we sought an IRS private letter ruling for an Arizona taxpayer who was seeking clarity from the IRS on applicable federal income tax credits. Section 25D provides that an individual who purchases a residential solar system is eligible for a federal income tax credit equal to 30 percent of the cost of that system. PLR 201035003. The IRS determined that under the facts and circumstances at issue. This one-time payment was paid pursuant to an interconnection and purchase agreement utilized by the utility in compliance with Arizona’s renewable portfolio standard. In January. he chairs the firm’s tax credit finance practice and co-chairs the firm’s fund formation and investment practice. For instance. The ruling.org L the power feed from a 3-MW photovoltaic project as clouds pass over. the taxpayer sold title and ownership of all “environmental credits. Also in January. emissions reductions.com). Both systems will come online later this year. The sales mark the fourth and fifth large battery systems sold by Xtreme in Hawaii. many states with a renewable portfolio standard have a program by which an incentive is paid by the local utility to residents who purchase and install a residential solar system. utilities and customers operating under incentive programs similar to the one at issue in this ruling might consider the implications of this guidance. . In addition. Fortunately. sheds light on the thought process of the IRS in calculating the federal income tax credit pursuant to Section 25D of the Internal Revenue Code. residential solar integrators and installers conducting operations in more than one state may have a challenge with quantifying the incentives available to their residential customers. the payment received in exchange for the renewable energy credits and environmental attributes was not a “subsidy” under Section 136 but rather a sale transaction. Texas. Utility-Scale Power Storage Goes Mainstream in Hawaii arge-scale power storage has long been cited as a goal to even out the intermittency of solar and wind power. marc schultz is a tax partner with snell & wilmer (swlaw.” Section 136 provides that the base on which the Section 25D tax credit is determined must be reduced by the amount of any payment from a public utility that is excluded from gross income pursuant to Section 136.advances | solar incentives irs Provides guidance for residential Pv By MARC SCHULTZ and FRANC DEL FoSSE the authors want you to know that this article should under no circumstance be construed as providing tax advice. However. a recent private letter ruling provides more guidance from the IRS. The IRS further concluded that the taxpayer needed to report the gain from the sale in gross income. offsets and allowances” (including the renewable energy credits) generated over the applicable period of time to the local utility for a one-time payment. Section 136 of the Internal Revenue Code provides that a “subsidy” from a public utility to a customer for the purchase or installation of an energy-conservation measure is not considered gross income to the taxpayer. a law firm with eight offices across the southwest. and we believe that integrators. helping to stabilize the utility’s relatively small grid. taxpayers should consult with their tax advisors regarding the implications of PLR 201035003. franc Del fosse is a transactional partner with snell & wilmer. a private letter ruling is only binding upon the IRS with respect to the taxpayer that requested the ruling. Ultimately. Accordingly. The new systems will bring installed battery capacity to 30 MW. PLR 201035003 gives much-needed insight into the views of the IRS. Battery banks are already in place to serve wind farms on Maui. Last year. The facts and circumstances of a particular state’s subsidy or incentive program are crucial to determining the tax implications of such payments and the applicable federal income tax credit. to be installed at the Koloa substation. One might assume that the easy part would be quantifying the federal income tax credit portion of the incentive package. the IRS concluded that the taxpayer was able to obtain the Section 25D income tax credit on the full purchase price of the residential solar system (without reduction for the amount of the payment received from the utility). Lana’i and Oahu. This battery bank will smooth out 14 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday. We hope that the IRS will issue general guidance applicable to all federal taxpayers in the near future. Ideally. However. Nonetheless. In Hawaii. the amount of income tax credits available to a homeowner depends on the income tax treatment of the state incentives received.5 -MW utility-scale battery storage system from Xtreme Power of Kyle. In PLR 201035003. Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. with the assistance of the solar integrator American Solar Electric. Kaua’i Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) agreed to purchase a 1. payments received from a utility are generally subject to income tax.

SolarWorld to Power Haitian Medical Clinics some 100 kilowatts of modules arrived in haiti in December. solarworld. self and Pih staged a similar project at a clinic in Boucain-carré. solartoday. 2010. 12. en route to five remote medical centers. an international medical relief organization. All rights reserved. the equipment will power medical gear. refrigeration and air conditioning for clinics at la colline.108-MW PV system for Primex Farms at its state-of-the-art processing facility in Wasco. Calif. Primex is a leading grower of pistachios and trader of dried fruits and nuts. in 2009.7 million kilowatt-hours annually.s. is managing the project to largely replace diesel generators at clinics of Partners in health (Pih). and is designed to produce about 1. Petite riviere and verrettes. installation work is expected to take place through spring. nonprofit that uses sustainable energy to aid developing communities. Advances continues on page 57 Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. The array bridges two facility roofs and a set of carports. after the jan. a u. arrondissement de lascahobas. thomonde. solar electric light fund (self).Cenergy Opens 1. earthquake. solarworld provided the nonprofit water missions international with panels for water-pumping stations there. the shipment of 440 230-watt sunmodule panels constitutes the third round of equipment that solarworld has provided to meet growing humanitarian needs in haiti since 2009. haiti.1-MW System for Primex Farms cenergy Power Cenergy Power has completed a 1.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 15 .

Today. Colorado’s Amendment 37.. which owns and operates the plant. while the Christman Field arrays are engineered to withstand 115-mph wind. Attorney Jason Johnson handled the complex contract work. T DanBihn. Dollard began planning for a large PV array. She built her first solar water-heating system as a high school science project and arrived on the CSU campus. UCKED AGAINST THE FOOTHILLS WEST of Fort Collins.. Ala. so that’s what was designed. Brian Chase and Steve Hultin of the facilities department. Those bids came in at lower costs than the planning process had anticipated. construction began on phase one of the large Christman Field array. and a team of engineers and professionals in the facilities department. passed by voters in 2004. a Boeing engineer. In 1999. Colorado State agreed to purchase the electricity through a purchase power agreement. Colorado State’s utility engineer. In August 2009. in 1978. so she knew all about PV for satellites.innovators | carol Dollard. All rights reserved. and Xcel Energy purchased ➢ Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. is Christman Field.3 megawatts (MW) of photovoltaic modules — the largest on-campus PV array in the United States. joined the American Volunteer Group in Burma and was killed a month after Pearl Harbor while flying in defense of Rangoon. where she interned. The project.” She spent the next couple of years dividing her time between the Fort Collins campus and the space flight center.9-kilowatt (kW) array in June 2009. The original Amendment 37 capped customer-sited. Her father. an engineer pioneers utility-scale projects for a university. with the support of Michael Randall. Funding came from Fotowatio Renewable Ventures. a 30-acre triangle at the southwest corner of the field is home to 5. grid-tied solar projects at 2 MW. leeD aP In Colorado. as a facilities engineer.6-kW array at the Academic Village. In 2007. the City of Longmont Electric Department and the City of Fort Collins Utilities (a municipal utility district). Dollard’s group began with some smaller projects. named for Bert Christman. Colo. she says. established a renewable portfolio standard (RPS) with a solar carve-out.org . worked at NASA’s Manned Spaceflight Center in Huntsville.com 16 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday. these arrays were designed for wind speeds of 90 mph. an encouraging discovery. She earned bachelor’s and master’s degrees in mechanical engineering and LEED AP certification. “determined to be a solar engineer and save the world. both systems installed by Bella Energy. she returned to the university full-time. In 2006. driving a wide variety of energy-efficiency and renewable energy projects. she worked for the Platte River Power Authority. a local kid who trained as a naval aviator. Colorado State University closed the airport. completed in two phases in late 2009 and 2010. Pe. was driven by Carol Dollard. In recognition of winter weather realities. followed by a 12. Dollard grew up with engineering in her blood. The engineering building got an 18. and then added a role as an adjunct professor of construction management.

com • 24/7 Repair Service: 1-866-751-7378 .O. with all post sales support coming from the same facility whether it’s your application.com www.miyachi. and output data to meet the most stringent manufacturing standards. built-in quality monitors. CA 91017-7133 Tel: (626) 303-5676 • FAX: (626) 358-8048 • info@muc.miyachiunitek. Find out why more and more companies are turning to Miyachi Unitek for their solar manufacturing needs. Myrtle Ave. Typical Applications: • Ribbon to cells • Edge connectors to cells • Ribbon to ribbon interconnects • Buss bars • Junction box connections • Laser marking of thin film metal backing • Laser marking of silicon • Laser marking of aluminum panel frames • Laser welding of conductor strips to thin film metal backed cells We stand behind every system built to solve each manufacturing challenge. All of our welders feature closed loop power feedback. service. • P. or spares. Contact us today! Corporate Office: 1820 S. system engineering. Box 5033 • Monrovia.Equipment & Automation Solutions for the Solar Industry Miyachi Unitek offers a comprehensive range of both laser and resistance welding technologies for today's solar manufacturers.

with 3.697 230-watt residence halls. Contractor GES filled the corners of the triangle. and the planning team got to work on phase two. tilted 20 degrees. North Carolina 18 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday. Register online now for SOLAR 2011. they 6:13 certified 1 DanBihn. there was plenty of room for parking garage. there was plenty of room Larimer County landfill.5 million kilowatt-hours annually. facilities installed a wood-chip biomass boiler in by December 2009. The system was online Service (a CSU agency). With the Colorado State Forest feeding four locally built Advanced Energy inverters. but in retrospect. Dollard says. enough to provide 33 percent of the Foothills Campus’ annual energy use. Dollard says. 2011 • Raleigh. Visit www. and a ground-mount 57-kW system wide spacing between the tracking arrays. leeD aP have spaced the arrays closer.org Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. on a 20-year contract.3 MW of the same modules on fixed frames. 2008. .com Grab your opportunity. the state legislature lifted the 2-MW cap on PV when the RPS was expanded to 20 percent (it now stands at 30 percent by 2020). Pe. This made construction easier andSOLAR2011_ad_STMar2011_Reg-v2:Layout 1 1/14/11 might PM Pagebuildings and is putting up six more. The university buys that power at a fixed rate from Fotowatio. the premier technical conference for solar energy and energy efficiency professionals in the U. driven by eight motors and support direct electric power generation. Register now. the university has six LEED Goldfor wide spacing between the tracking arrays. Dollard would like to put solar water-heating panels on the university’s swimming pools and the renewable energy credits. by Encore Electric at the Research Innovation Center. and the department is now investigating burning biogas out of the Because the project put 2 MW onto 15 acres. Contractor AMEC installed 8.innovators | carol Dollard. 2010 also saw installation of a 15. The Christman solar field can generate 8.75-kW PV rooftop array at the Behavioral Science Building and another 132-kW rooftop array on the Lake Street Because the project put 2 MW onto 15 acres.S. both by Bella Energy. Meanwhile. All rights reserved. Phase two went live in December.org Presented by American Solar Energy Society with North Carolina Sustainable Energy Association May 17–21. but capital is tight now. which would have made room for more capacity at the site.nationalsolarconference. As it happened. roughly another 15 acres. and most renewable incentives Trina silicon modules on single-axis trackers. — SETH MASIA obviated any shading issues. With traditional electric rates rising at about 6 percent annually. the entire project is expected to save the university millions.

MitsubishiElectricSolar. we’ve also improved the cell e ciency to bring you more power per square foot. In our new UJ6 series. Mitsubishi Electric PV modules have some of the most innovative safety features in the industry including a triple-layer junction box.com call 714-236-6137 or visit www. a 25-year power output warranty.com . 100% lead-free solder. and are known for their exceptional quality and reliability. Mitsubishi Electric PV modules have one of the highest PTC ratings in the industry and are well known for exceeding power output expectations in real life conditions. Introducing the UJ6 module series from Mitsubishi Electric 212 to 235 watts With the solar industry shifting its focus from $/W to $/kWh. It’s all about $/kWh now. we’ve not only increased the number of cells per module from 50 to 60. The new modules range in size from 212 watts to 235 watts and are designed for roof mount or ground mount commercial installations. a module’s real-life energy performance is extremely important.3% power tolerance. and a back protection bar for extra support.$/W is soooo 2008. For more information please email pv@meus.mea. All of our PV modules have a tight +/.

driven by a robust renewable portfolio standard. Susana Martinez was to fire every member of the state’s Environmental Improvement Board. martinez alleged that the board promoted “anti-business” policies. . the regulation was later reinstated by the state supreme court. which provides matching grants and loans for new renewable energy projects. terry Barnstad. walker criticized tom Barrett. the program’s fate hung in the balance. Chet Culver. “we think it’s highly unlikely the Barnstad administration extends [the Power fund]. Assistant Editor Iowa Four years ago former Gov. the number of solar installers has increased 250 percent since the beginning of 2009. a republican. at press time. telling the Sioux City Journal it was a “colossal failure” and the $25 million budget should be reallocated to reducing taxes.” says michael vickerman. “we need to maintain the protections and safeguards that are in place. the statewide Focus on Energy program and a number of municipal incentive programs. minerals and natural resources Department.800 feet of the nearest property line. martinez also halted a new greenhouse gas emissions regulation that had been passed in the closing days of former gov. scott walker’s support of renewable energy is unproven. his Democratic opponent. Compiled by Mike Koshmrl. whole businesses could shut down. All rights reserved. the state’s renewable energy community is skeptical. more recently Barnstad reversed course. new gov. an outspoken climate change skeptic. executive director of renew wisconsin.” after taking office. a Democrat. the same week the new governor appointed harrison schmitt. the Power fund has helped grow iowa’s wind market into the nation’s second largest.” 20 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday. the state’s wind capacity is up to 630 megawatts — nearly 90 percent of which has come online since mid-2008. then. in his first executive order. walker proposed a regulatory reform that would prohibit developers from siting a wind turbine within 1. in milwaukee. “we currently have common sense. But new gov.” says steve fugate. managing director of the iowa renewable energy association. Here’s what’s happening. During his campaign.view from the states Wisconsin Policy Shifts: Where the States Are Headed The shift in political power following the November elections may threaten solar and wind policies in key states. to run new mexico’s energy. Bill richardson’s administration. Wisconsin’s solar and wind economies are booming. “it’s a shooting war right now.” says sanders moore of environment new mexico. a lot of projects will cease to be economically feasible.” New Mexico one of the first moves for Republican Gov. walker turned down $810 million in federal stimulus funds to build a train line from milwaukee to madison. campaigned against the fund. balanced approaches to protecting our environment. created the Iowa Power Fund. “when you’re operating with setback distances this extreme.org Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. saying that he expects the Power fund to continue under the management of a different department. for supporting “a radical environmental agenda that will cost us jobs.

and it has Marcellus shale natural gas reserves. nuclear plants provide about 21 percent of the state’s electric power. John Kasich has repeatedly challenged climate change science and greenhouse gas emissions policy. Kasich confirmed he would turn down the free federal money. and that’s just since june. one of departing ohio gov. tom corbett espoused an energy policy calling for more of everything. he has criticized ohio’s ambitious renewable portfolio standard (rPs).’” says al simpler. the solar industry in florida has lost roughly 30 percent of all its integrator businesses. During his campaign.” corbett’s appointment of Patrick henderson as “energy executive. it’s looking like a grim 2011 for the sunshine state’s renewable energy business community.org/states.” solartoday. Chris Christie took office in January. one goal: “refocusing the Department of environmental Protection by getting back to basics. “jobs are the big issue here. “as the chief of staff for the senate energy. “the new rules severely restrict the ability to put clean energy in most of new jersey’s coastal areas. ases’ michigan chapter. renewable energy projects made good progress — so much so that there’s a solid base of emerging solar and wind manufacturers and a recognizable jobs base.cLIcK Find policy updates: solartoday.” Pennsylvania Pennsylvania is a coal state. executive director of the great lakes renewable energy association. “the new governor says that ‘my priority is jobs. owner of tallahassee-based simpler solar.” New Jersey Florida Very little is known about new Republican Gov.” says jeff tittel. Michigan Under Gov.” Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. saying it will “drive up utility bills.” under pressure from the state’s fast-growing renewable energy business community. Renewable energy policy in New Jersey. Kasich’s agenda. he has since backed down from his anti-rPs position. the executive director of green energy ohio. ted strickland’s final pleas was for Kasich to save a $400 million high-speed passenger rail project that would have been financed entirely by the federal stimulus package. “in fact. Jennifer Granholm. jobs. “michigan has experienced large investment in renewable energy. particularly in the manufacturing side of the business. gas and biomass.” says maureen mulligan. Rick Scott’s stance on renewable energy policy. new installations are now required to be sited within 120 feet of existing structures on already disturbed land. owner of harrisburg-based sustainable futures communications.” Ohio As a personality on Fox News. the director of the new jersey sierra club.” says Bill spratley. new gov. All rights reserved. it’s easier to put a ferris wheel on a pier than a windmill. amendments made to the state’s energy master Plan in august bolstered prospects for offshore wind. especially liquid fuels derived from coal. has seen its ups and downs since Republican Gov. with no state renewable portfolio standard and no incentive program. “we’re hopeful that green jobs will be part of gov. under those rules it’s easier to put up a warehouse than a solar farm. “i think that gov.” says jennifer alvarado. “well. that’s why i’m optimistic. which has the nation’s second-largest photovoltaic (PV) market. “Patrick has a strong background and knows the solar issues.” an all-new cabinet post.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 21 . ohio Gov. he always had an open door to the solar industry. Before he was sworn into office. but put in place tighter restrictions on new onshore wind and solar projects. his administration is not likely to put the brakes on the brightest area of jobs growth in the state. resources and environment committee. incoming gov. snyder will want to continue this and use renewable energy as an opportunity for economic development. and right now there’s just so much activity with renewable energy. and the state legislature declined to appropriate any funding to restart the program. florida’s photovoltaic incentive ($4 per watt) sunset june 30. suggests this will not translate into neglect for Pennsylvania’s growing renewable energy community. ases’ ohio chapter. jobs. rick snyder was the first republican ever endorsed by the michigan league of conservation voters and served on the board of the nature conservancy’s michigan chapter.

my wife. contributor to the environment report on public radio (environmentreport. USA Today recently honored the grocoffs’ home as one of the top green houses of 2010. Kelly and matt grocoff bought their circa 1901 ann arbor. mich. home in 2006. the family of Philip and elizabeth gauss lived in the house. Yet virtually all of the net-zero-energy homes in the United States — fewer than 100 — are new construction or major gut renovations. mich. But how much would we reduce our carbon output if. I was inspired by Ray Anderson. By MaTTHEW GROCOFF I t is essential that new houses be constructed to produce as much energy as they use. TV. USA Today.: a circa 1901 folk-Victorian matthew grocoff is a producer and host of greenovation. Of the 130 million existing U. could be an inspiration. check out greenovation. southfacing roof with a 45-degree pitch.S. Other buyers saw a nightmare. Mich. with a 180-degree. We saw a rock-solid Edwardian-period home. from the start. asbestos siding. the nearly half having inadequate insulation are responsible for 22 percent of our carbon emissions. greenovation.org Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. in coming years. Matt and Kelly Grocoff offer a model for restoring the nation’s existing houses. a 40 percent-efficient 1957 Mueller Climatrol gas furnace and a gas-powered lawn mower out in the shed. a frequent lecturer and has been featured in the Washington Post. What will it take to address existing houses immediately and affordably? In 2006. So. sold the house to the grocoffs. I had already started Greenovation. CEO of carpet-maker Interface Inc. an urgent calling and a model for not only preserving history.tV. Philip and elizabeth gauss at the ann arbor. 22 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.tv In retrofitting their 110-year-old Victorian. for most of the 1900s. and I found our dream come true in the Old West Side Historic District of Ann Arbor.org). their daughter gert. but also protecting our future. net-zero was a goal for our new home. Anderson set a Mission Zero goal to transform his multinational ➢ countless online magazines and blogs. within walking distance of everything we need. When we purchased our home. All rights reserved. . who was born in the front parlor in 1920. NBc detroit and home with lead paint. a multimedia website intended to educate others about how to make existing homes sustainable. Detroit Free Press..tV for instructional videos and information about grocoff’s house restoration. Developing its potential. we did so but ignored existing homes? The answer is zero. Kelly. the green renovation expert for Old house Web (oldhouseweb. homes.case study historical renovation A Historic Home Goes Net-Zero-Energy courtesy of matthew grocoff. we knew. house circa 1913..com).

the Grocoffs chose 18. All rights reserved.tv .Limited to 550 square feet (51 square meters) of roof space. The panels’ black-on-black aesthetics helped the system gain approval from the Ann Arbor Historic District Commission. greenovation.1 percent-efficient SunPower 225 Signature Black panels.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 23 matthew grocoff. solartoday. Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc.

164 ($23. com).000.000 Wattstopper Motion-Sensor Light Switches: $500 Bricor and Hansgrohe Showerheads: $80 Smart Strip: $50 CFL and LED Light Bulbs: $150 Current Cost Energy Monitor: $150 Trapp Co.300 square feet Insulation: $3. Canton. including $300 rebate (now would be $14.600. In four years. not including tax credits or incentives UltimateAir Energy Recovery Ventilator: $3. I consider many of these preservation restrictions to be sustainability standards. we set out to determine how to best invest in our home. a pillager and a thief — into a restorative company that will eliminate any negative impact it has on the environment. when adjusted for 4 percent energy inflation. with a 30 percent federal tax credit. Protecting the future Reaching net-zero-energy is a challenge in any home. above all.600. we would spend $83.164 Total system cost after incentives: $19. we made our 110-year-old home exceptionally efficient through retrofits that never compromised the structure. To meet historic preservation standards. Simple design and materials solutions like SIP or ICF superinsulation.600 Restoration of 110-year-old Windows: $6. original wood clapboard siding or the 110-year-old single-pane windows. materials and design of the original home. our house was on track to become the oldest residence in North America to achieve net-zero energy.org matthew grocoff.510 over 20 years. Before we began restoring our old home. triple-pane new windows or maximizing south-facing windows would have required more new material. Preserving the Past. Exacerbating matters. * Note: REC (renewable energy credit) payment will be claimed as 1099 income on federal taxes. Rather than viewing them as barriers.1-Kilowatt SunPower Photovoltaic System: $19.440* Estimated annual payment from DTE Energy for energy generation: $1.tv . Estimated annual production: 10.case study historical renovation grocoff net-Zero-energy restoration Year Built: 1901 Conditioned Space: 2. With the addition of an 8. we’re able to show how to improve the homes where ordinary Americans live.missionzerohouse. But producing our own energy was a goal we thought would follow years of saving. negatively impacted the historic integrity of the house and.510 corporation — in his words. Pv system stats Array Capacity: 8.055 square feet Living Space: 1. Limited to the same footprint.900 after incentives Photovoltaic System Cost Breakdown Total cost before incentives: $56. Storm Windows with Low-E Glass: $1. we needed to respect the characterdefining features of the home: We could not alter the interior plaster walls. Michigan’s first net-zero solar home and the first net-zero historic rehabilitation in a designated historic district. were prohibited by the Ann Arbor Historic District Commission. greenovation. We created our own Mission Zero vision of a home that was powered by renewable energy.253 kWh 24 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.1-kilowatt photovoltaic system last fall. floor plan.5 percent interest from SunPower (sunpowercorp.800 in energy annually. and we needed approval from the Historic District Commission to install rooftop solar.690 Estimated 20-year utility costs without retrofits: $83. created zero waste and would be a restorative part of our community (www. we could not add or remove any windows or doors. With this number in mind. 3-Ton: $20.300 over 20 years) Estimated annual credit on DTE Energy bills: $1.000 with 30% federal tax credit) 8. If we continued this consumption level in the house. including 30% federal tax credit WaterFurnace Envision Geothermal Heat-Pump System. Mich.150 Estimated federal tax credit: $16.com). it consumed about $2. an aggressive incentive program from our utility and a solar loan financing option at 5. many tools available for a new construction or a gut rehab were not options for us.1 kilowatts Modules: 36 SunPower 225 Signature Black 225-watt panels Inverters: Enphase M210 Microinverters Partner: Mechanical Energy Systems. All rights reserved. Then the stars aligned last year.900 Estimated 20-year pre-tax profit: $26. Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc.800 Upfront REC payment from DTE Energy: $19.581 kilowatt-hours Budgeted annual consumption: 10.

The results have made me a window-restoration evangelist. a whole-house performance company. For the attic. Drafty old windows. we had an exchange rate of 4.org) performed a blowerdoor test to establish a baseline airflow rate for our house.tv insulating and sealing the envelope Restoring the Windows.In designing the PV system. an astonishing 66 percent air-leakage reduction just from sealing the windows. greenovation. greenovation. we achieved a total house air-leakage reduction of 70 percent. Preservationists Lorri Sipes and Maggie Hostetler from the Wood Window Repair Co. The attic had a single layer of newspaper dated 1902. Last June. while preserving the original windows. typical for an old Victorian. were also our biggest success.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 25 . Over several weeks.com/storm_windows. At 50 pascals. her father. To avoid roof leaks. Once the installation was complete. bottom and meeting rails. we hired Farmers Insulation (farmersinsulationinc. perhaps our home’s greatest challenge. We used Snowbird storm windows with low-e glass from Trapp Co. the nonprofit Clean Energy Coalition (cec-mi. a group of workshop participants and I worked with Lorri and Maggie to restore the windows. matthew grocoff. Cellulose had the added benefits of reducing the fire risk in the balloon framing and acting as a pest repellent (pests are the No. we originally blew in R-60 of cellulose. sprayed 5 inches (13 cm) of open-cell foam on the basement sill plate. the only place to install ➢ solartoday. None of the windows was operable. the crew used Quick Mount PV’s fully flashed racking. matthew grocoff. bronze weather-stripping to the jambs and restored or replaced the hardware. We insisted that the installer remove two rows of the original clapboard siding. Since we could not — and did not want to — alter the interior plaster Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. my wife. we’re able to show how to improve the homes where ordinary americans live.300 CFM50. then cut holes in the lathe sheathing to get the hose into each cavity. walls. double-hung with single-pane wavy glass panes and pulley and sash weights. By adding storms. but historic-preservation standards prohibit the replacement of original windows when they are reparable.com).500 CFM50. 1. For more than a century our home had zero insulation.400 cubic feet per minute (CFM50). floor plan. We avoided spray foam in the walls because of the potential for damage to the interior plaster and because it would become a permanent part of the historic structure. (woodwindowrepair. Insulating with Low Impact. Not only did we believe we should restore our windows. Mechanical Energy Systems consulted with the roofer to ensure the integrity of the hot roof and asphalt shingles. But we knew from the start it was not an ideal solution. 1 cause of damage to historic homes). the installer was able to put the original clapboard back in place without damaging the exterior. materials and design of the original home.tv Limited to the same footprint.biz) convinced me that they could make our 110-year-old windows virtually as airtight as new. We added silicone bulb weather-stripping to the top. First. Our windows are wood. (trappdoors.com) to blow dense pack cellulose into the wall cavities to achieve an R-value between 11 and 13. The basement had mousetraps and plenty of daylight coming through the sill plate on top of the original stone foundation. The walls were hollow balloon framing. The follow-up blower-door tests measured only 1. The secondary pane created a bit tighter air seal.htm). Meadowlark Energy (meadowlarkenergy. Now all windows can be opened and closed with a single finger. on the morning before we began restoring our old windows. All rights reserved.

They also provide a great air seal and prevent critters from finding their way into the space.0-gpm showerhead.com) to eliminate lighting in unoccupied spaces.” First. Though we don’t directly see this energy savings. a 66 percent air-leakage reduction just from sealing the windows. but ventilate right. but they shouldn’t hyperventilate. Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc.5-gpm aerators. greenovation. Using this feature. return air ducts for the geothermal system was in the attic. Secondly. By working the $20. it avoids the transport of thousands of gallons of fresh city water and sewage annually.com). it is the most efficient ERV on the market. We were limited to 550 square feet (51 square meters) of roof space. over several weeks.tv The Grocoffs’ Enphase microinverters include monitoring that enables the couple to view live solar production down to the individual panels. Second. com).000 system into our mortgage.3) and azimuth (180 degrees south) for our latitude. Meadowlark Energy installed a RecoupAerator 200DX ERV from UltimateAir (ultimateair. But when the house requires heating or cooling. So we installed CFLs. Maximizing this space was important. I don’t believe there was any “design” to the leakiness of these houses. Three years later. We worked with Meadowlark Energy to spray 7 inches (18 cm) of Demilec Sealection 500 open-cell (demilecusa. we were able to have positive cash flow. restorers weather-stripped the jambs and top. Then. Follow-up blower-door tests measured 1. the home had no insulation. and all faucets are fitted with Bricor 0. we save a couple hundred dollars per year on energy compared to the average household. For more than a century. These measures altered no historical features of the house and can be removed later if needed. avoiding uncontrolled airflow and moisture damage. (See www.com) on the underside of the roof deck to create a hot roof. matthew grocoff.org squeezing out every watt When seeking net-zero. Our master bath shower has a Bricor 1. turning the attic into a conditioned space for the ventilation system and the return air ducts. Our guest bath has a Bricor 1. under two comforters and with a heated buckwheat pillow at our feet. we monitor our live consumption with a Current Cost Energy Monitor (currentcost. Meadowlark Energy applied open-cell spray foam to the underside of the roof deck to create a hot roof. By using only 55 gallons of fresh water per day.” Many historic preservationists insist that old houses are designed to “breathe. the moment we flipped the thermostat. the addition of an energy recovery ventilator (ERV) in the attic forced us to correct that decision (more about the ERV below). which avoids the need to heat 11. greenovation. com) a year before the 30 percent tax incentive became available (we got only a $300 rebate). the original gable windows allowed the potential for moisture infiltration and did not adequately vent the attic. installing efficient hvac systems The first few months living in our house were a trial in wastefulness and discomfort. highly efficient appliances through Kenmore to outfit our all-electric house.8 gallons per flush and never clog (caromausa.case study historical renovation matthew grocoff. com) connected to Google PowerMeter.com). they identified shading that was causing a 60 percent drop in production for several panels. they should indeed breathe. the house should be tight and mechanically ventilated. it was still a no-brainer for us. With 95 percent recovery of heat energy. double-hung with single-pane wavy glass panes. we went to bed each night in sweatshirts. only a fraction of which is hot water. because the house has no soffit or ridge vents.) going solar We were fortunate to find a house with a perfect roof angle (45 degrees at latitude 42. every watt counts. All rights reserved.5-gallon per minute (gpm) showerhead (bricor. Although we installed our WaterFurnace Envision ground-source system (waterfurnace.tv matthew grocoff. Original passive-ventilation elements like basement and attic windows should be restored and reactivated. Despite the $350 per month utility bill we paid to run the Mueller Climatrol furnace.500 CFM50. to make sure we meet our energy budget. my mantra has been “seal it tight.missionzerohouse. The home’s windows are wood. bottom and meeting rails and restored or replaced the hardware. When it comes to ventilation. greenovation. LEDs and WattStopper occupancy sensors by Legrand (wattstopper. Simply wrapping them in layers of insulation and burying them under cellulose was far from optimal. 26 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday. The ERV also helps to balance air pressure. turning the attic into a conditioned space. Our Caroma Colonial dual-flush toilets use only 0.tv . The attic also experienced annual temperature swings from 150°F (66°C) in August to -20°F (-29°C) in January — not a healthy environment for the house or roof.com. Perhaps the most overlooked energy savers in the home are water-saving fixtures. The system also provides cheap-as-dirt air conditioning and 60 percent of our hot water through an assist from a desuperheater.000 gallons each year. We were also able to find affordable. as well as warm feet.

reduce and then produce. then Producing The basic recipe for retrofitting existing homes is the same as for new construction or major renovations: Install the most efficient heating.” said Griffith.) reducing. Add renewables and stir. Pre-Window Repair Cubic Feet per Minute of Airflow at 50 pascals (CFM50) Effective Leakage Area (square inches) Air Changes per Hour at 50 pascals (ACH50) Natural Air Changes per Hour (ACHn) 4. hire an architect or perform upfront energy modeling. in part.75 0. and in fact. As a bonus. Case study at bit. (MES.com). which has been in business for more than 25 years.70 1.com and click on Energy. “I’ve seen 25 to 35 percent higher production because of this low-voltage heating. The crew ran system wiring through interior closets. mes1.6 15. reduce demand and change behavior.8 percent.530 84. though: “The Grocoffs will consume no more then their house can produce. After considering panels from several companies. Their small size allowed us to fit 36 panels rather than 27 of the less-efficient panels.46 0. the No. Because our entire roof is visible from the street. Like us.31 Source: Clean Energy Coalition. cec-mi. we chose Enphase M210 microinverters (enphaseenergy.” said MES Sales Manager and Solar Designer Daren Griffith.com). Our conservative production estimate is 10. MES took special measures with the installation too. causing a 60 percent drop in production for several panels.1 watts on several days this winter. Part of Griffith’s challenge was educating the local commission board about the viability of solar in Michigan and the cash-flow benefits of solar and conservation — savings that enable us to make other preservation investments.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 27 cyBelle coDish To avoid altering the interior plaster walls.cLIcK See a video and case study on the restoration of the Grocoffs’ 110-year-old windows: solartoday/video. Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. In the many press interviews about our home. MES used Quick Mount PV’s racking with full-sized flashing (quickmountpv. To avoid roof leaks. including structural load analyses. dense pack cellulose was blown into the wall cavities to achieve an R-value between 11 and 13. seal and insulate the envelope. Using this feature. go to www. One writer said it best. the microinverters can pull 5 to 25 watts with adequate sun.com).1 percent. To get the most from our inverters in a climate that can be gray.400 241. cooling. the black-on-black aesthetics of the SunPower panels was important to our getting approval from the Historic District Commission. We worked with Mechanical Energy Systems from Canton. “We had to go through a lot of hoops. air-leakage reduction in restored windows Efforts reduce leakage 69. avoiding exterior wiring completely. They will simply make the changes needed to reduce. which have an efficiency rating of 18.” He credited the microinverters. Mich. All rights reserved.35 1.org. Both the local and state historic commissions required more rigorous approval processes than did the city. for our panels nearly reaching the rated capacity of 207.0 4.ly/grocoffwindows. Cellulose had the added benefits of reducing fire risk and repelling pests.” Living by current solar income alone is a worthy aspiration for us all. we chose SunPower 225 Signature Black panels. 1 cause of damage to historic homes. we’ve been saying that it will produce more energy than we use. “Even with up to 6 inches of snow. That can generate enough heat to melt the snow — a profound difference versus a single-inverter configuration’s performance. ventilation and water-heating systems.missionzerohouse. consulting with our roofer to ensure the integrity of the hot roof and asphalt shingles.581 kilowatt-hours annually. . We’ve decided to remove this tree and replace it with native or adaptive fruit trees.0 5. I applaud them [for their diligence].330 73. (To see live performance data. we were able to see that during the shortest days of the year a leafless Norway Maple was still shading the lower row of panels. ST solartoday. Enphase’s Enlighten monitoring system allows us to publicly broadcast our live solar production down to the individual panels. most homeowners won’t go through third-party certification.02 Post-Window Post-Storm Repair Windows 1.

org To reduce the cost of ground-source heat pumps. in oak Ridge. testing the fhX concept Why do GSHP systems cost so much more than conventional space-conditioning and waterheating systems? The cost premium is primarily 28 March 2011 Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. the FHX approach may be feasible at $1. improve system performance or both. working with a state-ofthe-art GSHP unit. which will be used for research for several years before they are sold and occupied by their owners. All rights reserved. we’re evaluating two technologies: (1) a foundation heat exchanger (FHX). oak Ridge National Laboratory (oRNL) and its research partners are testing two technologies — the foundation heat exchanger and integrated heat pump — in the houses pictured above. Early estimates indicate that when implemented at scale in the test region of East Tennessee. integrating space heating. which applies to new construction and retrofits.advances in ground-source heat pump systems GSHP value rising T HERE’S A LOT TO LIKE ABOUT GROUND-SOURCE HEAT PUMP (GSHP) SYSTEMS. To reduce costs. The GS-IHP. with economics cited as the major barrier to broader use. Although we’re still gathering performance data for the GS-IHP prototype. and (2) a ground-source integrated heat pump (GS-IHP). space cooling. Tenn. less than 1 percent of U. That is the aim of a research project Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has undertaken with several partners. Because the earth provides a more favorable heat source and heat sink than ambient air. recent studies reveal. built by Schaad Cos. also promises significant improvements in performance. it has maintained comfortable temperatures for household heating and cooling. our technology partner plans to launch a product line based on the technology later this year.000 per ton — a fraction of the cost of the outdoor portion of traditional GSHP systems. Yet.S. A little more than a year into research demonstrating the FHX.1 Improving the economics requires that we reduce installation costs. which applies only to new construction or additions to existing homes. houses use a GSHP system. They’re sustainable and proven in both residential and commercial buildings. SOLAR TODAY solartoday. on-demand dehumidification and water-heating functions into one piece of equipment. . GSHPs are one of the most efficient technologies available for space conditioning and water heating. Advanced envelope designs and energy-efficiency strategies are built into the houses.

Navy and air Force bases. an effect not accounted for by any design tools for ground heat exchangers. John shonder. whereas 4 to 5 tons of space-conditioning capacity are typically installed in homes of that size in East Tennessee. In these unoccupied research houses. Our team sized the heat pumps using ACCA’s “Manual S: Residential Equipment Selection. solartoday. but both have very low air leakage and high levels of insulation. 2010. director of BtrIc. anthony gehl and Patrick hughes. ZeBralliance’s FhX research project has been supported by BtrIc’s numerous r&d staffs. including dr. The details of each house’s envelope characteristics are described in a recent paper.” The overcut loops were sized to take advantage of all the existing overcut. By PILJAE IM. A team from Oklahoma State University (OSU). given soil temperature and thermal conductivity at the site. Department of Energy’s flagship whole-building energy modeling software. 2010. All rights reserved. Simulating occupancy eliminates a major source of uncertainty in whole-house research projects of this type. Van Baxter. so these tools obviously were not available for the design of the loops for houses 1 and 2. the 3. Houses 1 and 2 each test different envelope strategies. 2 1 Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc.” Proceedings of 2010 American Council for an EnergyEfficiency Economy Summer Study. XIAoBING LIU and JEFF MUNK associated with drilling boreholes or excavating trenches and installing vertical or horizontal ground heat exchangers (or loops) in them. jeffrey munk is the BtrIc staff scientist responsible for the experimental gshP systems in the ZeBralliance (zebralliance. The objective of this research project was to develop and validate the FHX design tools. Houses 1 and 2 are three-level buildings with walkout basements used for the FHX research. moonis ally. underfloor. joined the research partnership to develop the necessary overcut-loop-design tool and a model of the entire FHX (overcut. the U. The two houses’ cooling and heating design loads were calculated using “Manual J: Residential Load Calculation” and associated software tools developed by the Air Conditioning Contractors of America (ACCA).700-square-foot floor plans. loops buried in the overcut may experience thermal interference with the basement wall.com). utility trenches (for buried water. 2 ® In an East Tennessee demonstration project. Unlike conventional horizontal ground heat exchangers.s. If this premise is true. (schaadcompanies. washers and other energy-consuming equipment turned on and off at exactly the same times. he has been working on applying and improving gshP technology for more than 10 years. utility trench) suitable for integration into EnergyPlus. “Advanced Residential Envelopes for Two Pair of Energy-Saver Homes. and thus have very low heat gain and loss through the building envelope. NO. and several team members at ORNL and OSU estimated the remaining heat source/sink capacity needs so that conventional loop-design software could be used to size additional horizontal loops needed to maintain the entering fluid temperature of the heat pump between 35°F and 95°F (2°C to 35°C). This research project focused on developing what is needed to engineer loops in the overcut around the basement. The team uses experimental data collected from a real installation of the FHX to validate the design tool and simulation model. ORNL’s founding partner in ZEBRAlliance — a public-private collaboration to maximize cost-effective energy efficiency in buildings (zebr alliance. Dr.S. with showers.sOLaR TODAY MARCH 2011 VOL. United Kingdom) and several post-graduate students. All overcuts and ➢ Dr. notes Xiaobing Liu. Piljae im is a staff scientist at the Building technologies research and Integration center (BtrIc) of Oak ridge National Laboratory and one of the principal investigators for the project described here. it is economically feasible to build new homes and home additions having thermal loads so modest that they can be met by a GSHP system whose loop is installed in the construction excavations — without any extra drilling or digging. In short. sewer and power lines) and footer drains.. led by Dr. ORNL’s research project was designed to test this premise. lights. Oak Ridge National Lab and partners evaluate two ground-source heat pump technologies that together promise to reduce the up-front investment and increase energy cost savings. Jeff Spitler and including Dr. Simon Rees (De Montfort University. he has performed feasibility studies for the application of gshP systems for numerous u. FHX has the potential to significantly reduce GSHP cost premiums.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 29 .” ORNL/TM-2010/122.com) — has built four energy-efficient test houses in the Crossroads at Wolf Creek Subdivision in Oak Ridge. human impact on energy use is simulated to match the national average. in many climates. Tenn. Miller et al.com) research houses. 25.2 Owing to their high-quality thermal envelopes. Xiaobing liu is a staff scientist at BtrIc. The side-by-side research houses have identical 3. “Assessment of National Benefits from Retrofitting Existing Single-Family Homes with Ground Source Heat Pump Systems. ovens. they are exactly the type of home where FHX should work. The FHX concept is based on the premise that today. Schaad Cos. he is the principal investigator of various gshP-related r&d projects ongoing at Oak ridge National Laboratory.700-square-foot houses have been adequately served by one 2-ton GSHP system each. These construction excavations commonly include the overcut around the basement and below the basement floor.

with FHX the mass of soil around the house’s foundation is subject to heat transfer from the foundation itself (qw) and from the heat-exchanger pipes by way of conduction within the soil (qp). heat is transferred through convection. To obtain data for validating the overcut loop-sizing method and performance-simulation model. without sacrificing their efficiency. for the purposes of this experiment. out and back) with a minimum 1 foot of spacing between pipes. and data collection began in December. comparing standard. allowing the two heat pumps to operate in parallel.org Left. when each home used one water-to-air heat pump for space condi- tioning (the two-stage ClimateMaster model TTV026) and a separate water-to-water heat pump for water heating. connected to the common supply and return.advances in ground-source heat pump systems early estimates indicate that when implemented at scale in the test region of east tennessee. Researchers are developing tools to engineer loops in the overcut. However. At the surface. Moisture flow takes place within the soil as well. heat-exchange loops are installed only in the construction excavations. 30 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday. without extra drilling or digging. integrated heat Pumps Construction of houses 1 and 2 was completed in November 2009. . no additional trenching would have been necessary. the equipment fully satisfies the space-con- Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. The three-circuit (sixpipe) ground loop was “headered” into a single supply and return in the basement. To accomplish this. trenches received six-pipe loops (three circuits of one-inch-diameter high-density polyethylene pipe.000 per ton — a fraction of the cost of the outdoor portion of traditional gshP systems. the [foundation heat exchanger] may be feasible at $1. our team used horizontal loops installed in all the utility trenches plus some additional trenching to provide adequate capacity. Preliminary data shows that this method of installing heat exchangers in the construction excavations rather than in separate boreholes or trenches could significantly reduce the cost premiums associated with ground-source heat pumps. calculations indicate that if the loop were installed below the basement floor. Baseline data was collected during the first year. But unlike conventional horizontal ground heat exchangers. All rights reserved. The loops of the FHX are placed in the foundation excavation before being buried by backfill. rather than installing loops below the basement floor. in the foundation heat exchanger (FHX) concept. The baseline data documents the performance of the FHX−GSHP system using the best watersource heat-pump equipment commercially available. it is important that the overall loop be sufficiently sized so that loop operating temperatures are in the design range. from industry partner ClimateMaster. radiation and evapotranspiration (qs).

the data measurements and the validation of the sizing tool and simulation model. This September we’re scheduled to release the FHX-sizing tool and performance-simulation model integrated with EnergyPlus.Here. . our team will use calibrated models to compare the performance of all three configurations (one heat pump with desuperheater.700-square-foot homes. indicating that they were adequately sized for the 3. From January through March 2010. this FHX approach may be feasible at $1. no extra digging or drilling would have been required except making the utility trenches slightly deeper than normal. respectively. oRNL and its partners will compare the performance of both options. Comparing data from years one and two will establish the energy savings of the GS-IHP compared to the twoheat-pump configuration. the performance-simulation model. ditioning and water-heating loads in houses 1 and 2 with national average occupancy. the most common GSHP configuration on the market is a single water-to-air heat pump with a desuperheater. Cost estimates will also be provided. In November 2010. respectively.6°C to 34°C) at house 1 and 34°F to 90°F (1°C to 32°C) at house 2 — within good proximity to the design range of 35°F to 95°F (2°C to 35°C). with the soil being well compacted to ensure good contact and reliable heat exchange between the earth and the loop. two heat pumps and the GS-IHP). As mentioned. below the basement floor and the utility trenches. These and other innovations may provide the affordability breakthrough for GSHP systems that homebuilders. The actual cost of a particular project may vary depending on drilling/ trenching conditions. assessing early results Preliminary analysis of the data measured at the ZEBRAlliance research houses since November 2009 indicates that space-conditioning and water-heating needs could have been provided to the houses with ground heat exchangers installed in just the excavations required for construction — the basement overcut. these two units were replaced by an integrated heat pump that is expected to show significant gains in efficiency. During the first year of data collection. which is expected to be significantly more energy efficient than currently available heat pumps. During the second year. ST solartoday.000 per ton and $2.250 per ton. Heating and cooling set points maintained throughout the year were 71°F and 76°F (22°C and 24°C). homeowners and energy-efficiency advocates have been seeking. respectively. After the GS-IHP data is available. ClimateMaster also plans to make its Trilogy line of water-source heat pumps. regional cost variations. the water-to-air heat pump at left and the water-to-water heat pump (square box in the middle) installed in the basement supplied space conditioning and water heating. the supplemental electric resistance heater was never activated at house 1 and consumed only 66 kilowatt-hours at house 2. plus the common configuration of a water-to-air heat pump with desuperheater. we replaced each home’s two heat pumps with a single prototype GS-IHP that provides both space conditioning and water heating. Temperatures of the fluid entering the heat pumps ranged from 33°F to 93°F (0. That compares with traditional vertical-loop and six-pipe-per-trench horizontal-loop systems that typically are installed in this region at $3. All rights reserved. underground soil thermal properties and building geometry. For several years ClimateMaster has been collaborating with ORNL under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement to develop the GS-IHP. ClimateMaster anticipates launching a Trilogy water-source heat-pump product line based on the GS-IHP technology in 2011. Early estimates indicate that when implemented at scale by a production builder in this region. The data showed that the installed loops and heat pumps all performed as expected.000 per ton.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 31 Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. which provides only a portion of the required hot water as a byproduct when the compressor operates for space heating or cooling. based on the GS-IHP technology. the first stage of backfilling has been completed. However. commercially available in 2011. as well as a comprehensive technical report documenting the basis for the FHX-sizing tool.

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only Haiti is worse. 34 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday. treeswaterpeople. “We do lose elders here every year because of this.. A $300 monthly utility bill can mean holding off on a trip to the grocery store. On the Pine Ridge Reservation in South Dakota. per capita annual income is less than $6. Shannon County. Unemployment hovers near 90 percent. is the second-most impoverished in the United States. and Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc.org). to households at impoverished reservations across the Great Plains. I n the Great Plains snowbelt. light and cooking technology for native peoples across the Americas. home to 80 percent of the residents at Pine Ridge. Water and People (TWP. when a storm has set in and a propane tank is empty.” said Richard Fox. solar air heating helps ease crippling winter heating bills. Colo. LSE now employs eight locals full-time and has provided more than 700 supplemental solar air heaters. Water and People helped to establish Lakota Solar Enterprises. the wintertime spike in utility costs is an annoyance for all. Fox is national program director at Trees. All rights reserved. Life expectancy is 47 years for men and 54 years for women — among countries in the Western Hemisphere.org) is SOLAR TODAY’s assistant editor. at no cost. it can be deadly. a nonprofit headquartered in Fort Collins. or forgoing refilling a prescription medication. In Pine Ridge.org . that supports sustainable heat. manufacturing and installing active solar heaters.forging a local solar economy Harnessing the Sun. lakota style To reduce the Lakotas’ heating expenses. S. By MIKE KoSHMRL Photos by DAN BIHN mike Koshmrl (mkoshmrl@solartoday.300.D. Trees. In the worst cases. “They run out of propane on the 25th. while providing jobs. and burdensome for many..

to households at impoverished reservations across the Great Plains. solartoday. and YourSolarHome (yoursolarhome. active solar air heaters offered to bring jobs to a community desperate for them. while not commonplace. Lakota Solar Enterprises (LSE) has trained 52 “solar warriors” from tribes nationwide as solar technicians. More than 90 percent of residences on the reservation are heated with pricier options. Spirit Lake in North Dakota and White Earth in Minnesota. TWP researched ways to reduce the Lakotas’ heating expenses. Lakota Solar Enterprises (LSE). which now employs eight locals full-time. are the more common air-heating technology. All rights reserved. Listening in are Kyanne Dillabaugh (left) and Jeff Parsons (right) from the Cheyenne River Reservation. are a tried and true technology. would return more British thermal units (Btu) for every dollar invested than any other technology. S. including Pine Ridge. mostly propane. Beginning in 2002. low-cost construction.” This reality of life at Pine Ridge became a priority after TWP hired Cynthia Isenhour. They then helped to establish a manufacturing and installation business. They concluded that active solar heaters. A key issue was the high cost of heating. at no cost. . (Top left) With Henry Red Cloud at the helm. The first solar air heater was patented in 1890.com) of Albuquerque N. natural gas infrastructure. “The air heaters don’t require a high degree of technical expertise.Active Solar Air Heating at a glance S olar air heaters. due to their simple. but a couple of companies still offer glazed-box collectors. com) in Ontario. When a federal incentive was launched in 1975. Rosebud and Cheyenne River in South Dakota. on the manufacturing line. Canada. These include Lakota Solar Enterprises (lakota solarenterprises. innovation nearly ceased. unglazed solar air heaters developed by the National Renewable Energy Lab. investment and development of solar air heaters spiked. They convince themselves that they can go without heat for five days. Isenhour’s research showed that heating expenses consumed 50 to 70 percent of a typical household’s cash income during the coldest months of the year. then a storm hits and they end up being found dead. and by 1980 some 85 companies offered systems.. Today.D. and a number of models came on the market before the energy crises of the 1970s. (Bottom) LSE’s Bret Tschacher navigates Skyview monitoring software for the Red Cloud Renewable Energy Center’s SkyStream 3. Silas Red Cloud joined his father at LSE. electric heat and wood stoves. called transpired collectors.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 35 Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc.com) at Pine Ridge.7 residential wind turbine.M. After 1985 the federal incentive was pulled. AAA Solar Supply (aaasolar. (Top right) After struggling to find work. they’re waiting for a check to come on the first. The venture has provided more than 700 supplemental solar air heaters. and the number of manufacturers and installers declined rapidly.. an anthropologist who had identified the most pressing socioeconomic issues affecting the average Lakota family. caused by housing typified by thinwalled trailers and ramshackle one-story ramblers and exacerbated by the grossly inadequate a natural Partnership forms TWP’s Fox said that from the start.

Engineers built a succession of prototypes with incremental improvements. Red Cloud had heard about solar air heaters. it captured solar heat with an efficiency of 48. That’s equivalent to 1. Henry’s great-great grandfather. The primary components of a Lakota Sun Panel are — l One 4-foot (1.000. The following spring. which had significance in the community. Red Cloud and Tschacher pulled together a crude solar air heater that day.” he said. Satisfied with this performance.000 and you’re directly providing 25 families with a solar air-heating system. Then in 2004.” 36 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.com). Oriented south and tilted 59 degrees from horizontal. Chief Red Cloud.edu).” Fox said. For more information. TWP contracted with RMSW to begin manufacturing. Fox had a fortuitous encounter with a local. heating Bills shrink Before the manufacturing side of the business was shifted to Red Cloud. which projected to 4. Installation brings the total to about $2. they were surprised to find it serviceable. All rights reserved. Earlier that year. Red Cloud pulled a U-turn and started listening.400 plus shipping and handling. Fox asked Red Cloud to lead TWP’s Pine Ridge effort.9 million Btu per South Dakota heating season. Because of the simplicity of the design.org marketing and business development assistance if Red Cloud would run a Lakota-owned-andoperated manufacturing and installation business. … they convince themselves that they can go without heat for five days. were changed to accommodate an absorber that could reach temperatures higher than 160°F (71°C). while giving a workshop in air heater installation at Oglala Lakota College on the Pine Ridge Reservation (olc. rockymtnsolar. Fox was teaching a group gathered around a solar panel when Henry Red Cloud drove by the community college. . “We do lose elders here every year because of this. while operating his firewood business. The reengineering process looked at every possible part and configuration. then a storm hits and they end up being found dead. aimed at incorporating efficient materials that were not available when solar air heaters first became popular in the 1970s. an important consideration for a nonprofit. but also because of his name.com. made of 2x4 and 4x4 lumber and some plywood. Using a walk-in freezer door as the back end. A layer of mirotherm. Colo. a friend. Red Cloud signed on. Business grows. but the project eventually was run by an engineer who calls himself Lotus. working into the night.436 megawatt-hours of electricity. and Lakota Solar Enterprises was formed. TWP would provide the lakota sun Panel Lakota Solar Enterprises’ (LSE’s) standard air-heating kit sells for $1.4-meter) solar collector panel. Some materials. He also knew the heaters would be a good hook for fundraising efforts. l A 60-watt “squirrel cage” electric blower fitted with 6-inch-diameter (15-cm-diameter) ductwork. led the Oglala Lakota from 1868 to 1909 and is regarded as the last great Lakota war chief. he had found an online do-it-yourself guide and phoned Bret Tschacher. and many parts were re-sourced to increase heat production and retention. see lakotasolarenterprises. produced by Analod Solar (alanod-solar. “We can go to a foundation and say: You put in $50. Lotus and the TWP team standardized an efficient manufactur- Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. from Rocky Mountain Solar & Wind (RMSW.97-square-meter) solar heating panel. l An adjustable thermostat that automatically turns on when air in the collector reaches 110°F (43°C). an entire system can be manufactured and installed by Henry Red Cloud and his crew in less than a day. TWP came up with some financial support and was able to fund an expanded program at Pine Ridge. l Wooden support stand. When the sun came up. not only for his personal experience with the technology.2-meter) by 8-foot (2. is applied to the collector to maximize absorption. Curiosity aroused. The final design was a 32-square-foot (2.forging a local solar economy which we knew was important if we wanted to get the community involved and put to work. TWP undertook a two-year reengineering program.com) in Colorado Springs.8 percent. like the adhesives. with a black metal absorber plate covered by tempered glass with an aluminum frame. to participate in some garage magic.

The 4. parcels in the West.7 turbine (skystreamenergy. Along with Red Cloud and LSE staff. Demand spiked. To accommodate this “export” business. . Most systems produced during the last two years have been sold outside Pine Ridge. that is money in pocket.org) in Carbondale. Red Cloud and Tschacher plan to acquire NABCEP certification under open scholarships to Solar Energy International (solarenergy.3-kW photovoltaic (PV) system.com) at RCEC last May. While a renewable energy venture like LSE might still be in a philanthropy-dependent stage. Red Cloud calls renewable energy “a new way to honor the old ways”— drawing on nature in alignment with Native American cultural and spiritual beliefs. “a new way to honor the old ways” Since 2005. saving the homeowner $150 per year at today’s regional propane rates. implemented with 21st-century materials and tweaked “Lakota style. with a ground-source heating system along its north wall. It looks makeshift but is sturdy and reliable. Tschacher installed a SkyStream 3. and therefore least desirable. At Pine Ridge. Colo. Tschacher leads the wind installation trainings at the Red Cloud Renewable Energy Center and oversees operations on the LSE manufacturing line. All rights reserved. will have plenty of opportunity to move away from fossil fuels.” now leads wind turbine-installation workshops at RCREC.4-kilowatt (kW) wind turbine. windbreak and shade trees. courtesy of Namaste Solar (namastesolar. For $2. windiest. The heaters are purely supplemental. now named the Red Cloud Renewable Energy Center (RCREC). hired five full-time laborers. Fifty-two “solar warriors” have now received “Solar Technician I” certificates from Red Cloud. To date. it’s a first step to pulling Native American communities out of generational poverty. A 2-kW PV array followed in July. ing process and visited Pine Ridge to teach it to Red Cloud and Tschacher. inexpensive way to reduce Lakota heating bills. Ironically. just west of Pine Ridge. His tutelage has enabled installation of 443 air heaters by locals on reservations as far away as White Earth. It proved be a watershed year at LSE. It’s a 1970s-era technology. with no heat storage.9 million Btu produced annually displace 82 gallons of propane burned in a 65 percent-efficient furnace. most of which were distributed on a needs basis around the Pine Ridge Reservation. TWP received several federal grants in 2009. Research at the National Renewable Energy Lab has shown that wind and solar potential on tribal lands is quite good.000. Tschacher. The goal was not to market a consumer product to the outside world. TWP and LSE have placed about 700 solar air-heating kits.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 37 Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. and LSE assumed manufacturing. TWP and LSE have worked to import other renewable energy technologies onto tribal lands. driest. RCREC has doubled as a one-of-a-kind training facility. Because TWP provides the heaters for free. TWP financed LSE’s heaters primarily through individual donations and small foundation grants. where tribes from around the nation can learn about the LSE installation techniques. That year 278 LSE kits went out. and the shop. the electricity displaced by the LSE project means less reliance on the Nebraska Public Power District. including shipping. Bret Tschacher has been a partner to Henry Red Cloud since Lakota Solar Enterprises’ inception in 2005. of the Band of Ojibwe. and in 2010. The Lakota. It works. They managed to fund just over 200 systems. com) of Boulder. Partnering with Rosebud’s Clean Energy Education Partnership. manufacturing and installation. and an LSE solar air heater. TWP and LSE outfitted the Little Thunder residence with a 2. another 203 left the production line. That year they set up a demonstration home on the Rosebud Reservation. TWP handed over the tooling and a step-by-step training video. ST solartoday. The LSE solar air heater looks nothing like the product of a NASA lab. in Minnesota. Through 2008. which generates 96 percent of its electricity from coal. but to create a simple. 1. the system can offset 15 to 30 percent of an average household’s heating costs for 25 years. and other tribes. under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act.cynthia Isenhour’s research showed that heating expenses consumed 50 to 70 percent of a typical household’s cash income during the coldest months of the year. Red Cloud’s “wind warrior. this is in part because their reservations were often situated on the hottest. environmentally friendly. Colo. The Red Cloud Renewable Energy Center now matches those five applications and is adding a sixth.” as Red Cloud puts it.

Set goals. “Can we go solar?” Walter asked.C. Anya Schoolman. T once upon a time In September 2006.C. Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. manage. About 100 of these houses — roughly one-tenth — now have grid-tied solar systems. a politically savvy mom and the movement they created that has put solar arrays on dozens of roofs in the urban heart of Washington. Share expertise. she held senior policy positions in the U. small businesses and nonprofit organizations. D. Pleasant Solar Co-op founders Jeff Morley.S. Energy and information flow in both directions. Pleasant neighborhood lies 2 miles north of the White House.org ricK reinharD (From left) Mt. Costs are coming down anyway. Are you guys in?” They were. All rights reserved. we might as well do the whole neighborhood. “We already looked into solar. We’re registered as a co-operative under D. Anya had the experience to launch the movement. we can focus on the energy issues faced by renters. making a co-op work People want to go solar because it’s in their best interests to do so and they contact us because our mission is to help them. Make solar energy accessible to all. Create an organizational structure to support the mission. Small businesses and nonprofits need to stabilize their energy costs just to stay afloat. We don’t exercise control over sister co-ops. after attending a screening of Al Gore’s “An Inconvenient Truth. neighborhoods have emulated this success. but we share what we learn and act collectively in the political arena.launch a solar cooperative A Little co-op and how it grew his is a story about two determined teenage boys. reduce the costs and remove the barriers. People do what they’re comfortable doing. Department of the Interior and went on to advise foundations and nonprofits on environmental strategy and program design. Now that we’ve succeeded with homeowners and have expanded our political clout into other neighborhoods. unless it’s for something concrete like our co-op yard signs. Half a dozen other D. Diego Arene-Morley.C. Walter Lynn and Anya Schoolman spoke at the Solarama expo in September 2009. Anya replied. After earning a master’s degree in international relations and environmental policy at Columbia University’s School of International and Public Affairs. 38 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday. law.google.com sites. and Walter’s mom. It’s expensive and really complicated. A few neighbors joined the co-op right away and the group developed a strategic plan: • Sign up every neighbor interested in going solar. we don’t raise funds.org solardc. most dating from the early 1920s.com Participation is voluntary. Unlike 501 (c) (3) organizations. multifamily buildings. our electric bills increased 41 percent over the past five years (from July 2005 to July 2010). but broaden the base. Start small and focused. We avoid asking for money. Thus. • Find an installer willing to offer the group a big discount.and working-class neighborhood of old row houses. but it helps to pool resources and avoid duplication of effort. It’s a middle. They wanted to know how global warming would affect them and what they might do about it. Pleasant Solar Co-op was conceived.C. The website is an indispensable communication tool. D.com/site/capitolhillenergycoop/ georgetownenergy. They want control over energy costs for the same reason they want a fixed-price mortgage. We have few meetings and don’t browbeat those who don’t show up. In Washington.. but group buying provides efficiencies of scale and helps installers deal more effectively with permitting agencies. But we can lobby. It not only gets the word out.” best friends Diego Arene-Morley and Walter Lynn — then 12 years old — sat at a kitchen table with Diego’s dad. govern or report to the IRS. Sample our sites: mtpleasantsolarcoop. the Mt. . The Mt. Jeff Morley.blogspot. Few come to the co-op knowing a lot about renewables or going solar. Find a good web developer. It’s easy to go to our periodic meetings and ask questions of those who’ve been there and done it. If we are going to do all the work to figure this out.

owner It wasn’t that simple. d. percent renewable by 2020.500 $1. a payback And it was quesActual costs to applicant $3. .000 $18. Pleasant solar co-op and with d. 25. he lobbies for and is active with the mt. formerly chief of staff to a councilmember and an administrator in the Office of the mayor in the Washington. Most of the federal funding for renewable programs is targeted to large utility-scale and commercial programs.4 percent solar carve-out and high alternative compliance anya counseled us payments). Members then conducted energy • Identify friends in government and business audits and began conserving electricity.940 $5. they went solar in 2009.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 39 . or about $24. contact him at robrobin@me.* Solar renewable energy credits regulatory.500 den.500 per year + $1. By RoBERT RoBINSoN tion data.000 $18. 2 ® In Washington.sOLaR TODAY MARCH 2011 VOL.000 of these time.000 for a ciency binge.940 $5. scotland. estabrow houses weren’t sure they wanted to install lished in 2005. Our greatest frustration came from watching millions of dollars in renewable energy surcharges we paid on our utility bills get expropriated by local government to fill budget gaps elsewhere. of yet in place and Switch Energy. churches and nonprofits. Walter and environmental organizations willing to supand Diego ran comparison tests and identified port legislation to create a rebate program.000 -$9.C.600 $9.200 … per annum up with pro bono arrays without after break-even year legal services on substantial struc. a family owned barn. solar united Neighborhoods.. photovoltaic (PV) arrays were installing CFLs below cost and we all went on an effifor about $8 per watt. the most efficient and dependable compact • Start installing those panels. . including private individuals and especially nonprofits like churches and community-based organizations. Two hundred memsystems funded at $2 million per year from bers signed up and provided electric consumpCopyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. REIP cash rebate -$9. Other payments per annum credits. The law also created a Renewable to take Baby steps . At the of Eco Green Living. fluorescent lights (CFLs). liability and contracting matters. per kilowatt-hour. legislatural and watertive. ran electricity retailing Return-on-investment (break-even year) Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 financial pro forat about 14 cents Total 3-kW system cost $18. Renewable Energy Incentive Program more than 70 or locally funded Up-Front Sale Annualized No Sale roofs. All rights reserved.. Instead of offering grants only to commercial entities going solar. NO. Installer rebate programs Expenditure/Revenue Elements of SRECs* SREC Payments* of SRECs* Chris Graves. sold us $3. Doesn’t matter if it’s on the roof of a corporate-owned warehouse.000 $9. The few solar installers who had The District of Columbia already had a experience with the flat roofs on Washington renewable portfolio standard (RPS). a graduate of Lycoming college in Pennsylvania. tree-hugging homeCAEA expanded the RPS (it now calls for 20 owners wanted solar panels. businesses. Focus funding on end-users.200 … renewable energy might be 10 years. 2010 Estimated Costs/Benefits for a 3-kW Solar PV System up and surveyed With no federally via the D. requiring utilities nationwide to allow any citizen to get a credit on their bill for a solar panel they own anywhere in their billing area. government.940 six years (see table). with a 0. We need a national solar-garden or virtual net-metering bill.400 … … eral incentives and payback period … $1. 3-kilowatt (kW) Anya climbed residential system. D.c. of course.com.c. Council) that only rich. Arps and Kaye roofs would bear 7% annual increases) Scholer stepped the load of solar Annual revenues … $1. robert robinson is a communications consultant.C. a big box store or a church.000 $9. the federal government should make the 30 percent federal tax credit available as a grant to any entity that wants to go solar. Pleasant. political support for local the Council for solar renewable energy credits legislation to provide cash rebates for solar sys(SRECs). and.000 given expected fedit looked as if the Up-front SREC sale -$5.500 $1. providing a Diego and Walter leafleted the neighbor$3-per-watt rebate for small renewable energy hood with adolescent zeal. sealing work. Finally.000 period less than tionable whether Federal tax credit (30%) $5. the neighborEnergy savings Legal firms Skadhood’s 85-year-old ($1. We prefer that the benefits of solar be widely dispersed to directly help struggling homeowners. Anya lobbied relentlessly with in the city. Policy goals Program implementation and access. robinson attended Fettes college in edinburgh. with the result that they were includtems got shaky when rumors began circulating ed in Councilmember Mary Cheh’s Clean in the Council of the District of Columbia (the and Affordable Energy Act of 2008 (CAEA). a group of neighbors banded together to win the fight for residential solar.000 mas that showed. Energy Incentive Program (REIP). People don’t mind paying a surcharge on their electric bills if the money is going to be used to provide solar power and create green jobs for the community! solartoday. Keith Ware. he lives with his wife in mt.

solar co-ops. state and trade media. go to the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency. Grist and CNBC blog. Make sure you know who to go to if you are in a dispute with the utility. Find out about your local interconnection and net metering policies at the Interstate Renewable Energy Council site.org. This is an invaluable contact list. Since solar inverters track our electric production but not consumption. including: • a detailed database to help you capture information about potential and current members. • buying power/economies of scale/negotiations: with solar installers.4 milducted two lobbying offensives to recover prolion in federal stimulus funding for smart grid gram funding and hire staff to clear the backlog design. Creative ways were found to deal with structural issues — for instance arrays could anchor on the load-bearing “party walls” between adjacent (and connected) homes. Find out what the U.com to obtain a list of solar installers in your area. So co-op members waited distributed generation.nrel. permitting and interconnection processes. policies and rules. As utilities move toward “critical peak” pricing. but unverifiable.gov/solar/calculators/ PVWATTS/version1/. 5) Work with local officials responsible for administering incentive programs to help your co-op and installers understand how to comply with the application. Two months later.S. 3) Visit FindSolar. This effort The 2008 action by the Council also estabmay require some years of adversarial processes lished a net-metering requirement. window and door sealing. • building your co-op’s political muscle to improve and extend funding and support for renewable energy incentive programs. ST month after sunny month for the utility company. panel manufacturers. • a co-op website.launch a solar cooperative How to Start a Solar Co-op Get started with online and local resources. 40 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday. Develop an organizational infrastructure. The old meters don’t calculate negative numbers — all electric flow is additive.org To learn about the laws and programs applicable in your community. By September 2009. Meet with potential co-op members and decide what organizational structure is right for you and file with the state or local government.” featuring the co-op. a consumer advocacy office.org Pepco (originally the Potomac Electric Power Co. we celebrated our first 50 systems with a 12-home solar tour and a Solarama festival to promote our installers and related businesses. 1) Have co-op members collect their monthly bills and become familiar with their usage patterns and costs for the past two years. other renewable and efficiency equipment suppliers. Pepco received $149. Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. and • a media contact list including local. Anya helped to organize sister co-ops in the Capitol Hill. Department of Energy (DOE). and the old meters track our consumption The co-op’s first installation was built by Standard but not solar electricity passing back Solar for Tom Kelly (foreground). By the close of 2010 we watched the completion of our 100th solar installation in the Mt. The website also lists local officials responsible for administering these programs.gov mtpleasantsolarcoop. we had a rebate program in place! Installations went forward. Go to work. solar gardens and community solar are doing: eere. including: • information sharing between members. The Discovery Channel produced a program called “Powering the Future. net-metering debates There have been bureaucratic and political return. irecusa. roofers. • using that muscle to push for more solar-friendly programs.org nwseed. such as those proposed by the Interutility issues state Renewable Energy Council. Explore getting pro bono legal representation to help you adopt an organizational structure and get you up and running. Pleasant neighborhood. 4) Contact licensed and bonded roofers to assess the readiness of your members’ roofs to support thin-film or solar panel photovoltaic systems. He’s talking with to the grid. to install meters that would measure current in both directions. Why assess transmission and distribution problems. Ask your electric utility and public utility commission (PUC) if they offer programs to install solar energy on homes.org. appliances and lighting. Remember: If you organize as a 501 (c) (3) nonprofit corporation. systems that produce more electricity than the home uses produce exaggerated bills. unless national or local legislic Service Commission (PSC) didn’t issue final lation is enacted to set policies supportive of rules until June 2010. All rights reserved. Is it the PUC. utility-bill surcharges. 6) Explore with your co-op and legal advisers what benefits of membership you can provide immediately and over time. It really helped when federal rules removed the caps on rebates to permit them to cover 30 percent of the total cost of a solar install. We want to see the company incorof REIP applications for FY 2010 and 2011. and. the co-op formalized relationships with solar installers and neighborhood job trainers to stabilize REIP funding for green-collar jobs. We have had to work vigilantly with charges for surplus PV power. Until those meters come online. Articles on the co-op appeared in the Scientific American blog. ricK reinharD .energy. a people’s counsel or something else? Calculate your potential solar energy production by going to rredc. if it will reduce the members of the Council to keep the city govpeak load and if it’s not being “wheeled” to other ernment from hijacking REIP funds to spend on distribution circuits? other programs. dsireusa. The program grew. but you must file annually with the IRS and you may not lobby. Shepherd Park. In the spring of 2010 we conMeanwhile. Leading the Charge. Palisades and Ward 8 neighborhoods (this would give us a wider base of political support).org solargardens. you can raise money. Petworth. At last. porate renewable-friendly standards and best practices regarding net-metering and solar credits. Georgetown. 2) Urge them to get energy audits (some jurisdictions offer them free of charge) and initiate efficiency measures to improve the performance of insulation.). HVAC. our monthly bills are all electrician Amacire Bocoum. multifamily buildings and businesses. but the Pubbefore the PSC.

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They estimate that more than 1. is president of sustainable Business.investing By RoNA FRIED.” Because these large hydro players see tidal energy as a synergistic growth opportunity. but most are funding project development through joint ventures. more than 45 projects will have been tested in 2010 and 2011. Key companies that are active in scaling Europe’s offshore wind industry are also eyeing ocean energy as they scale their renewable portfolios. OPTT is also working with Mitsui Engineering & Shipbuilding Co. France. The IHS study. Ph. It’s not the best time for a new industry to gain footing.D. are interested in establishing leadership positions. The Navy has supported Ocean Power’s technology development through its $15 million Littoral Expeditionary Autonomous PowerBuoy (LEAP) program. Vattenfall.000 homes. according to IHS Emerging Energy Research. all three of the major hydropower turbine vendors — Andritz I Surge of prototype projects could signal dramatic growth in ocean energy industry. to achieve lower installed capital and energy costs and make wave power more competitive with fossil fuels. A few have taken equity stakes in ocean technology firms.D. Portugal. Ph. contact fried at rona@ sustainablebusiness. In September. High initial costs and long development lead times make the ocean power industry dependent on government support. 42 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday. After only a dozen wave and tidal prototypes were installed in 2009. In October 2009.8 million in funding from the U. Also in September.5-MW wave energy system. they are crucial to catalyzing quick development and commercialization of the tidal industry. OPTT received $4. South Korea and Australia are also key ocean energy markets and will remain the industry’s primary focus for the next decade. is expected to be deployed in 2011. The UK wants to add 1.com. grid for the first time at the U. Consult your financial advisor before making any investment. which will power about 1.com. Ireland. Financing is tight and venture capital is extra cautious as the world struggles to get through this tough recession. They are using the funds to construct the Oregon project and to develop its next-generation 500-kilowatt (kW)system. to apply its technology off the coast of Japan. solar and smart grid development. Of the various forms of ocean energy. a Japanese consortium signed a memorandum of understanding to develop wave energy in Japan. Iberdrola-ScottishPower. Pelamis Pelamis wave power machine at work at the Aguçadoura Wave Park off Portugal. wind. but that could change. Progressive Investor. “Global Ocean Energy Markets and Strategies: 2010-2030. | green stocks report tide turning for ocean energy? s the global ocean energy industry at a turning point? With all the attention focused on energy efficiency. Hydro. “Over the past two years. “The strong synergies between tidal turbine manufacturing and the hydropower industry have attracted major power sector OEMs. If these prototypes are successful.. OPTT connected a wave energy device to the U. Costs are high because prototypes must stand up to ocean storms. Business Connections and the sustainable investing newsletter.S. The company is also focused on implementing a “design-for-manufacture” approach and reducing maintenance costs.com/opreport. IHS believes the global ocean energy project pipeline is poised to begin scaling. and in the United States they must navigate a confusion of overlapping offshore permitting authorities. Ocean energy has received much less support than solar or wind.” says IHS Senior Renewable Power Analyst Marianne Boust. The only pure-play publicly traded company in ocean energy is Ocean Power Technologies (OPTT). we haven’t heard much about ocean energy in the last year or two. have jumped into the tidal sector. lower-cost electricity and a standard design. Department of Energy.8 gigawatts (GW) of ocean projects in 16 countries are in the pipeline. Navy’s Marine Corps Base in Hawaii. A slew of established energy firms.” analyzes the various ocean technologies and companies and the potential size and timing for ocean energy scaling: tinyurl. Alstom Hydro and Voith Hydro — who account for over 80 percent of the global hydro turbine supply. And it’s not just tiny start-ups that are pushing the field forward. rona fried. The connection demonstrates the ability of wave systems to produce utility-grade renewable energy that can be transmitted to the grid. ST Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. according to IHS. which will have greater power extraction efficiency.org . RWE and SSE all have a strong presence in offshore wind. the United Kingdom holds the lead in ocean energy — 300 megawatts (MW) of projects are in the pipeline to be installed over the next five years.S. Each is broadening to include ocean energy. tidal energy is poised to mature first because it offers the promise of predictable. Thanks to government policy support. Green Dream Jobs. All rights reserved. which is developing the first commercial-scale wave energy system in the United States off the coast of Oregon.3 GW by 2020 to help meet its legally binding 2020 renewable targets. OPTT is providing an autonomous wave energy-conversion system for the Navy’s near-coast anti-terrorism and maritime surveillance program. The 1. on top of $2 million it received in 2008. They could help the ocean energy industry overcome its technological challenges and drive down costs. the online community for green business: daily sustainable business and investor news.S. including European utilities and global technology suppliers with hydro and offshore wind experience.

allowing you to schedule preventive maintenance and to monitor your return on investment. Make that difference and contact Kipp & Zonen for the solutions available. ageing or a fault.com . A drop in efficiency indicates the need for cleaning.Accurately Monitoring the Performance of your Solar Energy System To maximize the effectiveness of your solar energy system. you need to know how it is performing. SALES OFFICE Kipp & Zonen USA Inc.esposito@kippzonen. 338 F: +1 (0) 631 589 2068 M: +1 (0) 631 786 1 558 rodney. A Kipp & Zonen pyranometer accurately measures the solar radiation available to your system in real time. 125 Wilbur Place Bohemia NY 11716 USA Rodney Esposito T: +1 (0) 631 589 2065 ext.kippzonen. Comparing this with the power generated allows you to calculate the efficiency of the system.com www.

I’ve run across few inspectors who could cite the NEC chapter and verse. Dr. lest rotor rpm increase uncontrollably. For their efforts. co-chaired the Wind-NEC code-writing committee. All wind turbines that generate electricity. are covered by Article 694. you will likely need to review Article 694 many times before you are able to absorb all of its ramifications. As small-wind installers. • Section VI covers required safety marking and signage specific to the installation. This is also interesting because many small-wind installers use 690 as an electrical requirement guide in the field. Depending on how small wind turbines are permitted in your area. “Interestingly” because 694 was patterned off of 690 and the lessons learned in implementing that article. Hazardous locations are defined as those where flammable liquids. By MICK SAGRILLo Patterned very roughly on Article 690. tower style or where they are mounted.net) of sagrillo Power & light is a small-wind consultant and educator.the trade Best Practices | hands-on news and information small wind and the 2011 national electric code mick sagrillo (msagrillo @wizunwired. regardless of blade orientation. • Section IX covers small wind systems that are designed to operate over 600 volts and refers to Article 490 for more details. over-current protection is scaled for continuous atcapacity operation. don’t even try to memorize any or all of these articles — there’s simply too much detail to absorb. it wasn’t until 2010 that an article specific to the unique characteristics of grid-interconnected and battery-charging small wind turbines was adopted. • Interestingly. gases or fibers are a concern. hile the National Electric Code (NEC) applies to any electric equipment. A good working knowledge of the NEC and the articles that apply to small wind installations. this is a “core” article. of WindMonitoring.org . they were recognized last June by Wind Powering America with the Small Wind Advocacy Award at the 2010 Small Wind Conference in Wisconsin. the new code has important differences. that article is referenced as well. become familiar with the articles and what they cover so that you can more easily find what you need in the code book. retain the services of a good electrician. Knowing what to look for and where to find it in the code book is an essential skill! In lieu of this. As Article 240 focuses on over-current protection requirements. Some wind turbines are designed to never be disconnected from their load. • Section VIII entails storage batteries and associated controllers. • Article 300 covers wiring requirements and wiring methods with numerous tables and formulas. 50 stakeholders from across the country and representing many more disciplines than small wind provided input and guidance for the draft document. with an exception for turbines that would be deleteriously affected by the incorporation of a “disconnecting means. “Small wind turbines” are defined as those up to and including 100 kilowatts in nameplate capacity at 11 meters per second (24. • Section V covers grounding and refers to Article 250. wiring or device that is connected to the national electric grid. • Articles 500 to 516 on hazardous locations are also referenced. Briefly. It’s time to learn about it. Since Article 480 more thoroughly covers batteries.6 mph) wind speed. including voltage and current limitations as well as conductor and over-current protection sizing. Besides all of the above bolded articles. of Advanced Renewable Technology LLC. which details grounding requirements. Like other sections of the NEC. At the very least. Rob Wills. which covers photovoltaic systems. the folks who update and publish the NEC as an ANSI Standard. PE. other articles pertinent to small wind installations include — • Article 285 on surge-protection devices. Over that time. a requirement for small wind systems. this may be required anyway. • Section II elaborates on circuit requirements.” • Section IV reviews allowable wiring methods for small wind turbines. which covers this topic and requirements in detail. as a small-wind installer. seth masia 44 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday. then defers to Article 705. ST Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. however. the sections of Article 694 encompass the following: • Section I covers definitions and the scope of Article 694. • Section III goes over the details of disconnecting the wind turbine from the electrical system. For instance. This section recognizes that unique feature of small-wind technology. W Article 694 has been published. PE. • Section VII briefly refers to interconnecting the wind turbine to the utility system. However. there is no mention of Article 690.com and Robert Preus. we are required to abide by the rules laid out by all of the articles referenced above. is a requirement for any installation company doing business today. The development of Article 694 began in March 2008 and it was finally accepted in June 2010 by the National Fire Protection Association. For many electrical questions. and it’s their job. that article is referenced. All rights reserved.

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the toxic byproduct of chlorine in pool water that produces a chlorine smell and stings your eyes. with UV disinfection and saline chlorination. 46 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday. designing a system that would cover as much of the total load as possible. as it was once known. the oldest and largest public pool in California’s Bay Area. sun light & Power an active closed-loop system with a Delta T Pro Advanced Controller (heliodyne. Calif.000 gallons (1. Energy-offsetting and -saving features include a 30-kilowatt photovoltaic array and 200 operable windows that alone save $100. Eighty Heliodyne The large. Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. com) developed a renovation plan to transform the 1926 Natatorium. the Plunge fell into disrepair and in 1997 was closed.000 annually in electricity that would be required for mechanical dehumidification. “That’s a lot of expansion as you go 300 feet down the roof. Because the pool had been nonfunctional for years. sustainability was the priority. healthiest pool in the nation. according to Jersey.. Eighty Heliodyne Gobi 410 collectors heat 324.org The jewel of the renovation is the innovative pool. All rights reserved. Berkeley. with a saline chlorination system that uses electrically charged titanium plates to release chlorine from the salt molecules.” To avoid damaging the pipes and allow movement in the system where need- Got a PV or thermal installation to share? Send your proposal and photos to editor@ solartoday. uninterrupted roof offered minimal shading conGobi 410 collectors heat 324.200-square-foot array required lons (1. into the greenest. But the length of the 3. It softens the water and is better for your skin than chemicals. “Copper pipe expands 1 inch over 100 feet [of length] in solar thermal systems. funds from a regional voter measure and individual grants and donations. To heat the Richmond. uninterrupted roof offered minimal shading concerns. The Richmond Plunge hen Richmond Plunge. sun light & Power . But the city hadn’t given up on it.org.000 galcerns. solar thermal department manager at SLP and design engineer on the project. Long a community icon in Richmond.225 kiloliters) of pool water in special design considerations. renovated after being shuttered for 14 years. Sun Light & Power started from scratch. The large. Calif.com) to install 3.-based architect Todd Jersey (toddjerseyarchitecture. But the length of the array required special design consideration.200 square feet (297 square meters) of solar water panels.com).5 million in city redevelopment money.solar installations Solar heating helps make this 1926 pool among the nation’s greenest.225 kiloliters) of pool water in an active closed-loop system. sunlightandpower. The jewel of the renovation is the innovative pool.” explained Martin Morehouse. Richmond raised $7. Through a pri- W vate/public partnership. The water is further treated by a UV system that eliminates chloramines. pool’s water — saline to avoid chlorine storage on-site — the city subcontracted Sun Light & Power (SLP.

low temperature difference across the heat exchanger. By offsetting boiler heating. calif. Richmond’s climate: Solar Resource: 5. is monitoring system production and will provide the city with online data analysis. SLP projects the system will produce roughly 10. flat-plate heat exchanger Advanced industrial components: Pump: Grundfos 80-160/2 three-phase circulator pump Freeze Control: Propylene glycol System Installation: Rack-mounted on a pitched roof. “That minimized the visual impact.591 therms annually.200 square feet (297 square meters) of panels Average Production: 10.3 megawatt-hours. “The interesting and cool thing is that we ran the pipe before installing the panels. 22. — GINA R. annually. According to Morehouse. so the installation was pretty straightforward — just a lot of posts. JOHNSON solar thermal system highlights richmond Plunge. which was important with a historical building like this. as well.6° tilt. and also provided thermal expansion.” he said. SLP worked with a Canadian firm to size two heat exchangers. the crew installed thermal-expansion joints — basically flexible. “The redundant heat exchangers allow [the Plunge] to run both most of the time. according to SLP.” The large system presented some balanceof-system challenges.” said Morehouse.” said Morehouse.ed. “They can use the pool pump itself to provide the specific flow-rate requirements and help us maintain a nice. richmond. solartoday. “It’s fantastic how the pool pump’s variable-frequency drive helps us maintain the necessary flow rate despite the additional restriction caused by the heat exchangers.” The installation itself was pretty standard. composite materials. All rights reserved. The city financed the system with no subsidies. “They reroofed the whole building and had done all of the seismic engineering beforehand.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 47 . according to Construction Superintendent Jonathan McChesney. 130° azimuth Commissioned: August 2010 Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc.” The pool’s mechanical systems are a nice complement. SLP. u-shaped copper braided pipes — under the collectors.10 kilowatt-hours/ square meter/day Average High/Record Low Temps: 57°F–73°F (14°C–23°C)/24°F (-4. it will offset the equivalent of an estimated 323. and 74 tons of CO2.591 therms annually Collectors: 80 Heliodyne Gobi 410 collectors Controls: Heliodyne Delta-T Pro (wireless) Heat Exchangers: Gasketed. in partnership with Heliodyne. but they have the capability to shut one down for maintenance and still maintain service.4°C) 10 YEARS ility War ra rab Du y nt System details: Designer and Installer: Sun Light & Power Collector Area: 3.

the STP-iXA3306 offers a maximum pumping speed of 3.com 48 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday. wall or shelf. which has been incorporated into the popular onboard controller. It features the latest-generation small power supply. semiconductor and LCD etch applications. Developed for solar.200 liters per second and improved throughput performance at high gas flows. helping to reduce floor space requirements and increasing access to the equipment being served.new products showcase | manufacturing equipment aBB Offers Mid-Range Robot Portfolio ABB’s new compact IRB 2600 features a wide working range and a payload capacity up to 20 kilograms. . with improved accuracy and speed for handling photovoltaic panels up to 810 mm x 1. abb. The STP-iXA2206 offers the same pumping speed of the earlier STP-A2203.580 mm. The pumps feature a five-axis magnetic bearing system with maintenance intervals as long as five years. edwardsvacuum.com/robotics Edwards Expands Vacuum Pump Line Edwards has expanded its range of magnetically levitated turbomolecular pumps with the introduction of the STP-iXA2206 and STPiXA3306.org Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. Three arm lengths are available. All rights reserved. it can be mounted to the floor. glass coating. and it’s clean-room compliant up to ISo 14644-1 class 5. yet the maximum throughput capability has been increased. With a total arm weight of less than 300 kg.

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By using Precision Inc.com SOLAR2011_ad_STMar2011_Sessions-v2:Layout 1 Grab your opportunity The premier technical conference for solar energy and energy efficiency professionals in the U. a two-component silicone RTV for frame sealing. pfc. The PL Product Tool then specifies the standard Precision inductor component that is optimum for the PFC application.precision-inc.new products Bluestar Launches silicones in North america Bluestar Silicones has announced the North American introduction of a new range of silicone elastomers for the production of solar photovoltaic (PV) panels. For potting and encapsulation. which cure at room temperature by polyaddition reaction. of course. Bluestar has introduced pourable two-component silicone elastomers. ripple current. Coverage is 200 to 1. and allows them to make educated trade-offs. engineers can easily calculate PL product and characterize PFC inductors over a range of output power. www. and inductors play a critical role in the boost pre-regulator.bluestarsilicones.S.com 1/14/11 5:59 PM Page 1 Precision Offers PFC-design software Power factor correction circuits employ a number of magnetic components.nationalsolarconference. All rights reserved. lots more. switching frequency and the PFC inductor.000 watts output power. continuing education credits • Career & Business Development • and.org Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. offers you: • In-depth Industry Trainings • Professional Education. The launch also includes Sunsil 2030. . offering full cure in 30 minutes. Vsit www. The new product range includes the CAF line of one-component silicones for frame sealing and junction bonding. They offer excellent adhesion to several back sheet materials such as polyvinyl fluoride (PVF) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and also adhere to junction box materials such as polyphenylene oxide (PPo) and polycarbonate. curing at room temperature. 2011 • Raleigh. North Carolina 50 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org Presented by American Solar Energy Society with North Carolina Sustainable Energy Association May 17 – 21.’s interactive PL Product Tool. This gives circuit designers insight into the relationship among output power.

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The material can be put down in lines or dots according to the cell design. lord. Composed of an addition-curing polymer that will not depolymerize when heated in confined spaces. mutual funds or real estate may provide you with an income tax deduction based on the fair market value of the gift and eliminate all capital gains taxes. This would allow you to make a substantially greater gift than you otherwise would have thought possible. All rights reserved. the material can be room temperature or heat-cured for maximum adhesion.reinhausen. SOLAR TODAY ? Can’t get enough Check out the SolarToday. for the same out-of-pocket cost.com Plasmadust Process Improves application of Busbars Reinhausen of Regensburg. Lord SC-305 is a two-component silicone system.org Visit regularly for more web-exclusive features and blog postings! SolarToday.org Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc.org Exclusives we’re planning for March Plug-In Electric Vehicles: How Ready is Your City? Installed PV Costs Plummet in 2010 Leading the renewable energy revolution Explore your giving options at w w w. A mericanSolarEnergy. www. Germany.com/en Stock or Real Estate: The Smart Way to Give Donated assets such as stocks.new products Lord Offers Thermally Conductive Encapsulant Designed for encapsulation applications where high heat dissipation is required.org 52 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday. has introduced a plasma generator for layer deposition at ambient pressure and 100° C. . bonds. with adhesion values greater than 2 N in a peel test. The system can thus deposit a solderable metal alloy on the aluminium back layer without heating the silicon wafer. Meets UL 94 V-o for flame retardancy.

whether they are solar veterans or new to the business.” Elmar Niewerth CEO SolarMarkt US / dba Session Solar Session Solar is a national distributor for installers. We understand the varied needs of solar professionals and support our clients with: • Name brand products • Competitive pricing • Free design & diagrams • Same day quotes • Unbeatable service • Project development Session Solar is the North American subsidiary of SolarMarkt AG. founded in Germany in 1985.com 831-438-9000 “I used to be a solar installer. MC . When I founded Session Solar it was my goal to build a wholesale company that supports solar installers—from quality products and fair pricing to technical design support.rs 25 yea A Wholesale Solar Distributor info@sessionsolar. we are here to help. contractors and developers. Our priority is our clients.

561-747-5354 • FAX: 561-746-9760 ivandelsol@bellsouth.new products | for home power sMa iPhone app Provides PV data anytime. STAINLESS AND BRONZE Evergreen Launches Es-E series Modules • • • • FSEC LISTED FlaSEIA MEMBER M. • RADIANT FLOOR ZONE and INJECTION PUMPS THE FUTURE IS NOW! A DRIVER WITH NO MOVING PARTS USE AC/DC A PUMP WITHOUT SEALS. With an integrated inverter.5 Watt. Available for free download from the Apple App Store. sma-america. UL. in addition to listing Co2 savings in tons per year. RUNS ON LOW-COST 4 WATT PV PANEL JUPITER. the unit is designed for easy installation. year and life-to-date.400 kilowatt-hours per year at 12-mph average wind speed — that calculates out to an average of 800 watts. monitor and display PV system performance instantly. evergreensolar. designed for farm and residential installation. The app displays energy yield for the day. FLORIDA USA TEL. a communication hub that continuously collects data from the solar inverters. anywhere Critical performance data from any PV system is now available on the iPhone with the SMA Sunny Portal application. windenergy. . 10 Watt • Max. This data is uploaded daily via the SMA Sunny WebBox. it allows solar power system owners and operators to manage. Head = 3 feet • Max. PARTICIPANT SINCE 1975 BELIEVE IT! IVAN LABS INC. Flow = 3 gpm PV Panel Direct DC –OR– 12 Volt Battery –OR– AC-DC Adapter 54 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.com Ivan Lab 9/1/08 10:55 AM Page 1 SOLAR WATER HEAT E R S • I N S TANT HOT WATER CIRC. is said to produce 7. available in 210to 220-watt versions. feature a higher voltage for compatibility with microinverterbased residential installation.com Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc.org ES-E Series String Ribbon solar panels from Evergreen Solar. anytime and anywhere. All rights reserved. They are IEC 61701 salt-mist-certified for long life in coastal regions. and its web-based monitoring system reports output to any internet-connected location.com southwest Windpower Offers “smart-Grid” small Turbine The Skystream 600. 5 Watt.and CEC-listed and ISo 9001-certified.net 3. month.I.

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The advantages of microinverters do appear to be attractive to the residential market and will only increase with greater availability of AC modules. which are less expensive and more efficient than inverters with transformers. log in to ASES. To sign up. Developers are left to rely on the warranty. push average inverter prices up. 2011 should provide some insight into what intelligence and functionality will remain in central inverters and what will be moved to the module. and smart modules containing integrated DC optimization devices are likely to hit the market in 2011. achieving High Grid Penetration Overlaying these developments is the eventual requirement for added inverter functionality to enable high penetration of PV systems on the grid. However. AC modules are already hitting the market.advances Pricing Trends from page 10 DC-optimization devices. This functionality includes low-voltage ride through (LVRT). Too Large increases in inverter-manufacturing capacity are bringing inverter prices down. All rights reserved. Only time will tell. or suddenly reducing their output due to a passing cloud. The two key questions around AC modules and smart modules are related to reliability and whether promised labor and balance-of-system savings will materialize. However. While UL and IEC standards address safety and fitness-for-use issues related to PV modules and invert56 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday. In the near term. Unfortunately. the majority of inverters will continue to be central. helping to stoke growth in PV system installations. among others. the e-bulletin from ASES and Solar Today. the reliability question is a real one. Get Solar@Work delivered to your e-mail box. 2011 will be an important year for shaking out the large number of microinverter and DC-optimizer manufacturers. org/login. new standards will need to be developed before that functionality can be required for commercial and residential PV systems. Microinverters cost more per watt than central inverters.org/sw.org and renew your SOLAR TODAY subscription: go to ases. particularly in the residential market. and although it is a rare enough occurrence that it is unlikely to impact overall growth in PV installations in 2011. Rather than the standardization that might be expected in a rapidly growing market. which can lower the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) from PV systems. but it is not required for commercial or residential behindthe-meter installations. and those standards are not expected to materialize for another 18 to 24 months. Central inverters are most at risk of being replaced by microinverters in the residential market. go to solartoday. 2011 will be a year of trial and error as the number of component and system architecture options for developers expands rather than consolidates. behind-the-fence utility-scale PV systems. PV systems have been so dispersed throughout the grid that the disturbances caused by PV systems dropping offline due to voltage fluctuations on the grid. ST Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. were minor relative to total grid capacity. This functionality is already required for large. and inverters will require some of the functionality described above if PV systems are to achieve very high levels of penetration. Prices to Drop in Inverters. they do not provide an indicator of how long an operating device might last in the field. If you haven’t been getting Solar@Work. so the longer microinverters remain on the market without significant reliability problems. Resisting the cost-reduction trend is an increase in inverter reliability and functionality. Even so. but can increase up-front costs. which offers some comfort but does not alleviate the disruption that comes with the widespread failure of a whole class of devices. This is already happening in some localities in New Jersey. these disturbances threaten grid stability on a wider scale. Historically. Partnerships between these companies and module manufacturers will be critical for achieving their full potential. and the declining trend in central inverter prices should dominate the North American market in 2011. and the lack of reliability standards is causing as much or more uncertainty in the inverter market as in the PV module market. While you’re there. while for larger installations the risk is that inverters will become less intelligent and more commoditized as functionality moves to smart modules or bolt-on DC optimizers. utilities will likely simply deny permits for new PV systems that could disrupt the grid. as penetration levels of PV systems increase. it is something to keep an eye on and a development that will influence inverter design moving forward. this feature is part of what you missed last month. Microinverters are expected to continue strong growth in 2011. voltage support and communications-and-control capabilities. so as they gain market share they’ll ers. free. the faster they are expected to grow. Key questions around AC modules relate to reliability and whether promised savings will materialize. Supporting this trend in the United States is the availability of UL-listed transformerless inverters.org . and companies that cannot partner may not be able to compete.

USA | SPAIN | GERMANY | FRANCE | PORTUGAL ALBASOLAR info@albasolar.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 57 . T YOUR PV GLOBAL SUPPLIER vision motor corP. In December 2004. That facility expanded.500 furnished by the the ports from their Technology Advancement Program (TAP) funds. The on-road heavy-duty truck will be operated by Total Transportation Services Inc.. worldwide. production of solar modules. kyocera Ships Millionth Module from Tijuana Plant Kyocera’s Tijuana. with batteries recharged by hydrogen fuel cells. Environmental Protection Agency bestowed the 2010 Clean Air Technologies Award to the ports for the TAP. opening a second plant in 2009 to increase the capacity in Tijuana to 240 megawatts per year. the company began its first U.alba solar Advances from page 15 Fuel Cell Trucks in Test at SoCal Ports wo new non-polluting trucks powered by zero-emission plug-in electric/hydrogen fuel cells began duty-cycle testing at the ports of Los Angeles and Long Beach in January. In June.S. plant has produced its 1 millionth solar module.albasolar.S. a local trucking firm that serves both ports. Each port has budgeted $1. with an initial capacity target of 30 MW per year in San Diego. another local trucking firm. you can count on. Both vehicles are electric trucks.us www.5 million annually for the TAP since 2007. the company commenced module production in Tijuana. both built by Vision Motor Corp. The ports’ TAP encourages the commercialization of clean goodsmovement vehicles and equipment. of El Segundo.us Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. All rights reserved. One big-rig truck and one terminal tractor. The U. solartoday. will work normal portside short-haul jobs for 18 months. financed in part by $212. nearly 30 years after manufacturing its first solar modules in Japan. More than 400 employees gathered for a celebration by signing the back of the module to commemorate the event. ST People and products. by the spring of 2013. The yard tractor will be operated on the property of California Cartage Express. Mexico. The company’s target is to produce a gigawatt annually.

org contact: Doug stingle Kansas Heartland Renewable Energy Society P: 816.487. All rights reserved. including the design of a 10-kilowatt photovoltaic system at Coors Field in Denver.org exec.org nesea.com cirenew.8245 illinoissolar.1456 sasea@gmail.4733 info@cleanenergyflorida. J Don’t Miss the 40th ASES National Solar Conference Join us May 17–21 in Raleigh.952.org lses.org contact: craig wolfe Kentucky Kentucky Solar Energy Society P: 502. N. arizona Arizona Solar Energy Assoc.2657 johnmateyko@verizon. 678. workforce development and consumer education.org contact: a. P: 715.497.6595 info@the-mrea. P: 413.: jennifer marrapese Maine Solar Energy Assoc.744. vandermark Cape and Islands Renewable Energy Collaborative nesea local chapter P: 774.639.kramer@gasolar.6051 nesea@nesea. buildings. nesea local chapter P: 413. It’s the 40th anniversary of the inaugural ASES National Solar Conference.774.org contact: chris Powicki Springfield Area Sustainable Energy Assoc.org nesea.org contact: jeff auxier Louisiana Louisiana Solar Energy Society P: 225.0929 joy. sunrisenevada.org exec. Dir..778. Dir.net. to celebrate the longest-running educational event for solar energy professionals in the United States.org cres-energy.: jennifer marrapese 58 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday.org contact: leon Bontrager Iowa *Midwest Renewable Energy Assoc.806.org prsea. The company provides systems that help utility customers to track and reduce energy use. P: 517. raman delaware *Northeast Sustainable Energy Assoc. nesea local chapter P: 617.org the-mrea.734. consulting on demand-side management and solar programs.0379 info@arkansasrenewableenergyassoc.6051 nesea@nesea.6269 or 800. P: 715.org contact: Bruce rogow Colorado *Colorado Renewable Energy Society P: 303. Many sessions offer continuing education credits for architects. Lyng holds a bachelor’s from the College of Environmental Science and Forestry of the State University of New York and a master’s in building systems engineering from the University of Colorado. P: 312.6595 info@the-mrea.com arizonasolarenergy. .241. P: 413. Dir.com indianarenew.5189 arch42@gmail.: jennifer marrapese Solar Energy Assoc. professional education.org arkansasrenewableenergyassoc.org idahosolar.0093 contact@solarnv.org sdres.242. P: 877.592.org/sasea contact: mike Kocsmiersky Michigan *Great Lakes Renewable Energy Assoc. Dir.774.507. he left his job as solar program manager in the Colorado Governor’s Energy Office to become director of market development on the West Coast for OPOWER in San Francisco. Before joining the Governor’s Energy Office.5684 ramank0@yahoo.org cleanenergyflorida.org solarliving. Come to learn.2017 sli@solarliving.: jennifer marrapese Boston Area Solar Energy Assoc.5317 info@cres-energy.org nesea.org contact: Deidre radford KEY Green = a chapter of the Northeast * = staffed office Sustainable Energy Assoc.6595 info@the-mrea.6051 nesea@nesea.org exec.org gasolar. policy.810.org norcalsolar.org contact: samantha Keeney *Midwest Renewable Energy Assoc.org contact: coral mills San Diego Renewable Energy Society P: 619. P: 413.774.org heartlandrenewable.org nesea.com solarenergyofct. The SOLAR 2011 program was developed by solar energy experts in all topical areas — technology.1877 philip_moore@charter.org the-mrea.4614 chrisp@weeinfo.2150 hkv@solarwave.net contact: john mateyko Florida Florida Renewable Energy Assoc.705. P: 707. P: 602.org the-mrea.com basea.9788 info@glrea.org contact: frank Kelly California NorCal Solar Energy Assoc.org solarnv.592.org contact: K. nesea local chapter P: 207.org contact: Doug stingle Minnesota Minnesota Renewable Energy Society P: 612.inside ases Jeff Lyng Steps Up to ASES Chair | American Solar Energy Society news eff Lyng became the chair of the ASES Board with the new year.org contact: Philip moore Solar NV P: 702. morton archibald jr.1004 chair@kyses.308. Baker Illinois Illinois Solar Energy Assoc. getinvolved: locate an ASES chapter in your community alabama Alabama Solar Assoc.org heartlandrenewable. P: 510.224.: Tony Frank Connecticut *Northeast Sustainable Energy Assoc. P: 208.org contact: nelson Buck Massachusetts *Northeast Sustainable Energy Assoc.9483 indianarenew@homeandmobileenergy. he worked for Xcel Energy.224.org exec.7263 info@sdres. info@prsea.org Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc.org contact: joy Kramer Idaho New Chapter! Idaho Renewable Energy Assoc.592.org contact: mark Burger *Midwest Renewable Energy Assoc. P: 256.634.com nesea.224.org mnrenewables.org contact: craig williams Georgia Georgia Solar Energy Assoc. P: 413.774.org contact: jeff shaw Maine *Northeast Sustainable Energy Assoc.0656 dustin@idahosolar.8192 j2envarch@aol.5550 cwolfe@craigwolfeeco. where he was project leader for the winning team in the 2005 Solar Decathlon.org contact: erin middleton *Redwood Empire Solar Living Assoc.6051 nesea@nesea.658.org contact: Doug stingle Indiana New Chapter! Indiana Renewable Energy Assoc.org kyses.C.6051 nesea@nesea. Margot McDonald has assumed the post of immediate past chair.233.org contact: henry K.4757 info@mnrenewables.org contact: Daniel aiello arkansas New Chapter! Arkansas Renewable Energy Assoc.774.org glrea. P: 352.org Exec.646. New Hampshire *Northeast Sustainable Energy Assoc.org contact: David Boyce Mississippi Mississippi Solar Energy Society sdlewis@megagate. and it’s shaping up to be an extraordinary event. P: 574.767. Dir.575.645.536. of Connecticut nesea local chapter P: 860. P: 715. Dir.com contact: steve lewis Missouri Heartland Renewable Energy Society P: 816.com mainesolar.com al-solar.org nesea.org contact: Dustin w.: jennifer marrapese Sustainable Delaware nesea local chapter P: 302.434.8813 solarinfo@norcalsolar. P: 413.org contact: craig wolfe Nevada Sunrise Sustainable Resources Group P: 775.org exec.5550 cwolfe@craigwolfeeco.org contact: richard Komp Maryland Potomac Region Solar Energy Assoc. At the same time.376.2204 sunwatt@juno.0715 info@lses. P.

eng.9218 jim@tnsolarenergy.org prsea.3391. Dir.org contact: wyldon fishman *Northeast Sustainable Energy Assoc. lammot du Pont copeland $25.org contact: madeline mcelaney New Jersey *Northeast Sustainable Energy Assoc.886.org exec.org energync.nj@gmail.5369 info@prsea.org exec.sc. Dir.8030 emyers@energy.e.com nyses.231.4606 wyldon1@gmail.000 DIvISIOnS $10.org nesea.org contact: steven lenard Western New york Sustainable Energy Assoc.5049 info@txses.: jennifer marrapese GreenHome NyC nesea local chapter P: 917.org nmsea.org contact: orrin farnsworth Vermont *Northeast Sustainable Energy Assoc. There is no better way to begin or continue your professional education in solar energy than the ASES National Solar Conference.org Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc.2374 slenard@greenhomenyc.000 richard collins $10. Lowell Solar Energy Assoc.774. Dir. P: 865. P: 919.000 – $50. ron herman New york New york Solar Energy Society New Chapter! P: 917. P: 505.774.262.0400.com bOARD cOmmITTeeS Education Chair: Nathalie Osborn education@ases.org nesea.000 Divisions Chair: David L.org Policy Chair: David Hill policy@ases.net contact: mike uchal NCSU Renewable Energy Society P: 919. ross $10.226.C. P: 413.com Sustainability Chair: David Panich dpanich@pnarch.246.org exec.org nesea.985.489. ASES Trust Fund The ASES Trust Fund was established in November 1999 to receive contributions to an endowment for ASES that will provide income for ASES educational programs in perpetuity.2578 nesea.org solaroregon.caeds.974. nesea local chapter P: 732.org SOLAR TODAY March 2011 59 .000 otto and Phoebe hass fund at the seattle foundation $75. Dir.501.477.org prsea.855.org/donate.246. 95 percent say that the ASES National Solar Conference pays for itself in terms of business and career development. develop your market and grow your business by attending SOLAR 2011.326.6051 nesea@nesea.9353 ofarnsworth@aeesolar.7601 officemanager@energync.9782 University of Florida P: 561.mason@skyfuel.org exec. Of our attendees and exhibitors.edu contact: john j. P: 413.org or steve@tnsolarenergy.org greenhomenyc.org contact: nelson Buck Washington state Solar Washington Assoc. spratley Oregon *Solar oregon P: 503.: jessica van steensburg Virginia Potomac Region Solar Energy Assoc. Comis dcomis@sentech.695.edu energy. P: 866.com *New Hampshire Sustainable Energy Assoc.827.477.org contact: hadley Price Pennsylvania *Northeast Sustainable Energy Assoc.org contact: alex Palomino University of Mass.org greenenergyohio.6595 info@the-mrea.org nesea.881.1200 info@solarwashington.org International Chair: John Reynolds international@ases. P: 413.774.000 – $150.com Concentrating Solar Power Chair: Alison Mason alison.com contact: Beth robinson New Mexico New Mexico Solar Energy Assoc. P: 715. P: 206. Register and find out more by visiting nationalsolarconference.6765 info@nmsea. P: 413.org exec.org the-mrea.: jennifer marrapese Central Jersey Sustainable Energy Assoc. Duffy Resource Applications Chair: Justin Robinson jrobinson@campbellsci. $450. All rights reserved.6051 nesea@nesea. It’s a no-brainer — build your customer base. 888. P: 866.846.592.uf@gmail.2968 john_duffy@uml. We’ll see you there.974. Bennett foundation $50.com Solar Thermal Chair: Barry Butler barry@butlersunsolutions.1170 johntaborjacobson@yahoo. Dir.org exec. Potomac Region Solar Energy Assoc.org exec.org.installers.832.774.5662 hadley@solaroregon.5369 info@prsea. nesea local chapter P: 610. d.: william a.com asuses.1639 jkbozer@aol. nesea local chapter P: 716.org exec.org contact: Doug stingle STUDenT CHAPTERS Appalachian State University Sustainable Energy Society P: 828.934.org exec.1105 kira@sunpowerbuilders.6051 nesea@nesea.com Solar Electric Chair: Joseph McCabe energyideas@gmail.: jennifer marrapese Rhode Island Solar Energy Assoc. Dir.org membeR cOmmITTeeS Membership Chair: Allison Gray membership@ases. Dir.org solarwashington.org nhsea.org contact: jim hackworth or steven levy Texas *Texas Solar Energy Society P: 512.gov Solar Buildings Chair: Vikram Sami vssami@yahoo.000 Karl w.com contact: Kira costanza Rhode Island *Northeast Sustainable Energy Assoc.org contact: mary mcarthur.: jennifer marrapese Philadelphia Solar Energy Assoc.000 molly o.6051 nesea@nesea. Dir. and renate Böer $40.org Ethics ethics@ases.000 – $25. engineers and more. Dir.org nesea.6051 nesea@nesea.gov contact: erika myers Tennessee New Chapter! Tenneessee Solar Energy Assoc. 800.org Clean Energy and Water Chair: Nathan Mitten mittenater@gmail.com Sustainable Transportation Chair: Scotte Elliott selliott@greentechconsultants.000 mrs.org tnsolarenergy.gov Karin Sinclair karin_sinclair@nrel. visit ases.3608 ases.774.000 $25.4732 (22nhsea) madeline@nhsea. To make a donation.000 and higher c.org contact: Peter Barton Washington.uml.com Small Wind Co-chairs: Trudy Forsyth trudy_forsyth@nrel.org contact: nelson Buck Wisconsin *Midwest Renewable Energy Assoc. solartoday. nesea local student chapter P: 978.com utsolar. nesea local chapter P: 603.465.6131 geo@greenenergyohio.7333 asuses@gmail.org txses. P: 801.com ufases.: jennifer marrapese Building For Social Responsibility nesea local chapter jvansteensburg@bsr-vt.737. nesea local chapter P: 401.: ivan urlaub Ohio *Green Energy ohio P: 614.com contact: john jacobson south Carolina South Carolina Solar Council P: 803.: natalie marquis utah Utah Solar Energy Assoc. P: 413.515.org bsr-vt.com contact: joan Bozer North Carolina North Carolina Sustainable Energy Assoc.

..9 Session Solar ........................ Md.............4 Alba Solar ................................... ........ N........................org April 2-10 Havana Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency in Cuba Solar Energy International Contact 970......... 43 Meca Solar....................................621.......... 303......866.................com May 17-21 Raleigh....C..... 52 Geoking Solar ...18........ N.org 24 York................com to enroll your company.......org/dates...... PV Systems and the National Electric Code Workshop IEC Chesapeake Contact 301........... 17 Schletter Inc............................................................................com Residential Inverter Training AEE Solar ..Y..........32-33 Gear Solar ...3130 nationalsolarconference.................. Fla..... Pa..... Easy online calculation tool to see how solar can work for you.. Maine Contact 207............................. 41 Mitsubishi Electric ....6051 nesea... 15 Kipp & Zonen ...................... 57 Solmetric Corp............. 54 Jinko Solar ................... PV Systems and the National Electric Code Workshop IEC Chesapeake Contact 301..................... go to solartoday.............. 53 SOLAR 2011 .......8855 solarenergy.........1639 dadsolar..................604...... . 19 Miyachi Unitek ..........................................3595 greenprints.........................963...com .... 13 Is Solar Energy Right for Me? It’s Quick It’s Easy Find solar professionals in your own neighborhood............. 64 Trina Solar.............. and Boston Solectria Renewables solren.............1174 mitenergyconference... 52 Conergy.463............ If you are a renewable energy professional......546.........org Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc..........774.......... Sponsored by the American Solar Energy Society 60 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday..... visit FindSolar............org 4-5 Boston MIT Energy Conference Contact 510......8855 solarenergy.........443......................963..2 Delta ................... 57 Apollo Gate Operators ....... 51 SOLAR TODAY .........com 14-15 Seattle 3rd Annual Global Marine Renewable Energy Conference Contact 1.... 55 FindSolar.............................. the ASES National Solar Conference Contact ASES..759....................... 57 Tianwei New Energy ................. 45 ASES ..com It’s Free! Learn about how solar works............................................ Clean Energy Workforce Education Conference IREC Contact info@irecusa............... 60 IVAN Labs............org 22 Elkridge..........com Do yourself Solar! Spring 2011 8-10 Saratoga....... 60 Fronius USA LLC .......6 Steibel Eltron ........................... Find certified professionals with renewable resources for your specific needs....................................... 49 Enphase Energy ........................ 47 Schneider Electric.................... | advertising index 12-21 Costa Rica Renewable Energy for the Developing World Workshop Solar Energy International Contact 970....... 404.. SOLAR 2011....................org irecusa............................com 8-10 Boston NESEA’s Building Energy 2011 Northeast Sustainable Energy Association Contact 413.... Do the Numbers FindSolar...........9545 iec-chesapeake...2844 globalmarinerenewable........com 14-15 Atlanta Greenprints Conference and Tradeshow Contact Ruth Ann Rosenberg...........org 9 Tampa....org cLIcK for solar event listings................ 50 Solar FlexRack ...........................................org 8-16 Jonesport............ 63 Unirac....dates March 2 Online Webinar Achieving Low-Cost PV The Vote Solar Initiative votesolar...... 61 SunEarth ...........................7 Westinghouse Solar ................. All rights reserved...9545 iec-chesapeake.621...................................

stiebel-eltron-usa.Harvest the power of the Season after season.com . Sun 2 x SOL 25 PLUS Flat Plate Collectors Stiebel Eltron is your one stop source for thermal solar products.com TOLL FREE 800. Stiebel Eltron manufactures all the tools you need for a successful thermal solar harvest. All components and accessories are available for individual sale. and accessories. Simply the Best SBB 300 Plus Storage Tank www. Every day a limitless crop of free.8423 info@stiebel-eltron-usa. we have it all.582. the sun gives its light to the earth. we have a full line of SOLKITS and mounting hardware kits available. From our highly efficient flat plate collectors and storage tanks to our complete line of mounting hardware. SOLKIT 2 includes: Pump station with SOM 6 Controller Because every installation is different. pump stations. clean energy reaches our planet. controllers. allowing life to bloom. And we’ve been doing so since 1976.

email smasia @ solartoday.system accomplished system accomplished is a new SOLAR TODAY feature. making custom coins.org. Osborne Coinage: Ballasted System Resolves Issues with Historic Roof Osborne Coinage of Cincinnati. and roof loading totals just 4 pounds per square foot. cincinnati . we want to hear about it. The aerodynamic orientation minimizes wind-induced torque. All rights reserved. focusing on unique design or installation problems and how they were solved. and Osborne is considering additional systems. The system produces more power than promised.org Copyright © 2011 by the American Solar Energy Society Inc. and are sized to make the best use of available space while taking maximum advantage of state incentives. medallions and tokens for mass transit and casino use. Project Developer John Fanselow of Third Sun Solar (third-sun. john fanselow. with no roof penetrations. The historic Osborne structure has a complex roof with many obstructions and some shading challenges. Osborne began by installing a 45-kilowatt array at its sister company. and then followed up with a larger array for Osborne Coinage. thirD sun solar. After enacting a number of energy-saving strategies. ST 62 March 2011 SOLAR TODAY solartoday. founded in 1835.com) chose high-efficiency SunPower modules in an aerodynamic “tiled” orientation for both installations to maximize the amount of power produced per square foot. the company wanted a solar array to offset a large portion of its electrical usage. if you have solved a difficult installation problem. Both arrays are ballasted. is the oldest private mint in America. Doran Manufacturing.

trinasolar. As solar accelerates on the track to grid parity. it’s because of this shared passion for innovation that we’ve teamed up with the Renault F1 Team. we think it’s time to bring solar to an even larger audience – the world.com O cial Sponsor of . At Trina Solar.Solar has never been more popular As the world’s most prestigious sport. For more information. F1 embodies the pursuit of excellence through technological expertise and innovation. visit us at www. one of Formula One’s most advanced teams.