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Computer Networks And Internet Applications
I would like to take this opportunity to thank and acknowledge several individuals without whom this project could not have been carried through.
I am thankful to the management of National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) for giving me this wonderful opportunity of working with them for these 8 weeks. It has been the most enriching experience.
I would also like to express my sincere gratitude to all my guides and mentors who made it possible for me to complete this submission. I would like to thank Shri Rajnikanth, DGM IT Communication and my guide Shri Manish Kumar Srivastava, Manager, IT Communication, without whose guidance this submission would not have been possible.
I would also like to acknowledge the teachers, staff and my fellow friends of IGIT (Indira Gandhi Institute of Technology) who encouraged me during the course of the project and helped me make it a success.
Lastly I take this opportunity to thank my co-trainees who have been kind supports throughout.
ABOUT YOUR GUIDE
Mr. Manish Kumar Srivastava, Manager, IT Communication, NTPC has guided us throughout our project on computer networks and internet applications. His vast knowledge about the subject and his experience in the same field over a decade proved to be highly fruitful for us. He not only guided us through every detail of the project but also helped us observe things practically. His qualifications include BE, MS, MBA. He also holds international certification in the following areas: MCP (Microsoft Certified Professional) MCSE (Microsoft Certified System Engineer) CCNA (Cisco Certified Network Associate) CEH (Certified Ethical Hacker) CWNA ( Certified Wireless Network Administrator) DCCA (APC Certified Associate for Data Centre) CPMA (Certified Project Management Associate) PMP ( Project Management Professional) Certified in Carbon Emission & Trading He is also a member of the following Special Interest Group ( SIG ) of TERI-NASSCOM BCSD For Corporate Action Plan on Climate Change: IT as Game Changer
Chapter 3 LAN devices • • Ethernet Hub Switch 4.4 BITS Alumni Association IETE (Institution of Electronic and Telecommunication Engineers) IE (Institution of Engineers) Contents Section 1 1. Chapter 1 Evolution of networking 2. Chapter 2 The 7 layers of OSI model CSMA/CD 3. Chapter 4 Extension of LAN • • Repeater Bridge 5. Chapter 5 .
Chapter 8 Classical examples of Local Area Networks Classical examples showing broadcast domain and collision domain in various networks . Broadcast domain Collision domain VLAN Subnetting Chapter 6 Structured Cabling 7. Chapter 7 Addressing Scheme 8.5 6.
Chapter 1 WAN History E1 & T1 2. Chapter 3 Modem Leased lines VSAT 4. Chapter 4 Router . Chapter 2 Signalling Antenna gain Link budget calculation Antenna Polarisation Line of sight 3.6 Section 2 1.
7 Routing Protocol General terms To begin our project on Computer networks and internet applications. Amplifier An amplifier is an electronic device that increases the voltage. it regenerates the signal. It receives digital signal and regenerates the signal along the next leg of the medium. An amplifier amplifies everything equally fed into it. 2). Repeaters need to be placed rather frequently at 2000 to 6000 meters intervals. Thus we can say that in an amplifier signals are restrengthened which unfortunately also amplifies the noise along with the information. This is because of the fact that digital signals . 1). current or power of the analog signal. there are certain terms and their definitions which we must know. Repeater In contrast to an amplifier a repeater is an electronic device that does not amplify the signal.
Analog signals travel in this media and they can travel over long distances before being attenuated. 3). This allows multiple signals to be sent simultaneously. 4). Each user is allocated the complete channel but only for a fixed interval of time. Baseband channel A channel is defined to be baseband when the entire bandwidth of the cable is consumed by a single signal. Bi-directional transmission is possible in a baseband channel but no frequency division multiplexing can be performed. Digital signals travel in this media and they can travel only for short distances. Broadband channel A channel is defined to be broadband when there are many signals which can be sent on multiple frequencies. TDMA (Time division multiple access) In this each user in the channel owns the channel bandwidth for some time in a round robin fashion. .8 tend to dissipate more quickly than analog signals and need more frequent repeating. Uni-directional transmission is only possible in this channel and also this channel can be multiplexed using frequency division multiplexing technique. 5).
This means that all parties involved in the communication are present at the same time. 6). To establish this type of communication we need to synchronise all the devices present in our network before the communication begins.9 In TDMA users transmit information over the channel in rapid succession one after the other each using his own time slot. Synchronous communication Synchronous communication is direct communication where the communicators are time synchronised. FDMA ( Frequency division multiple access) In this many users are allowed to transmit through the same channel at the same time. All CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access) handsets use FDMA technology. multiple access to the same channel. Example: Equipment Modem SERVER Modem Equipment . All GSM (Global System for Mobile Communication) handsets use TDMA. They use part of the bandwidth. 7). Individual frequencies are allocated for each communication signal within the band. In FDMA users are sharing the same channel.
Asynchronous communication Asynchronous communication on the contrary does not require all parties involved in the communication to be present at the same time. Only once all the devices are synchronised with one another communication can take place. Whenever a device needs to connect to the internet. it dials up to the server and thus we say it is synchronised with the server at that instant to establish a link for communication. . The devices which need to communicate are connected or synchronised only when there is communication. To establish this type of communication we do not need any prior synchronisation between the devices present in the network.10 To establish communication between one equipment at transmitters end and the other equipment at receivers end clock pulses are sent which synchronise all the devices present in the network. Example: the dial up internet. This process of complete synchronisation may take a long time but once synchronised this setup can be used as a very efficient and reliable means of communication. 8).
These floppy disks were very vulnerable to data hacking and thus to find a solution to this problem which could pose a threat to the nation’s security an agency was formed which was named ARPANET (Advanced Research Project Agency Network).11 Chapter 1 EVOLUTION OF NETWORKING: The history of evolution of networking goes way back to 1960’s when there was a cold war going on between USA and USSR. The major problem which erupted in this type of communication was DATA HACKING. After a lot of study and research ARPANET came out with the following recommendations : 1) NIC CARDS : . In such war like conditions prevention of leaking out of information was of prime concern. In those times information was transferred from one computer to another through very large sized floppy disks.
12 The first recommendation by this agency was to design NIC Cards (Network Interface Cards) which would be used to transfer data from one computer to another. Figure 1: NIC card The basic block diagram of a NIC card : .
Thus we need a device that stores the information for some time i.U is much greater than the speed at which data input occurs.13 Figure 2: B lock diagram of NIC card From this block diagram arises a question that why do we need a memory in the NIC card? The answer to this question is the fact that the speed of processing of a C. Thus according to ARPANET two computers should be connected through their NIC cards if they wish to communicate.e act like a buffer.P. But due to this memory device the problem of latency evolved in the NIC cards. 2) The second recommendation was that the communication channel should be baseband as it is immune to hacking. .
14 Figure 3 .
According to the above mentioned recommendations a machine would need a separate NIC card for every other machine with which it needs to communicate. .e n*(n-1)/2 = 100*(99)/2 = 4950 NIC cards.15 But this system of communication failed. Figure 4 For example if a network comprises of 100 computers then we would require nCr i.
And handling and using such a large number of these cards lead to the failure of this agency. called Ethernet. And thus his new . a graduate student worked on the ARAPNET at MIT. Bob Metcalfe. Figure5 Once at a press conference someone asked Bob MetCalfe what is the channel between the terminators where we connect the computers made of? What is flowing in the channel? To this he replied that ether is flowing in the channel. for connecting computers in a local network. In a time span of less than 8 months he came up with a new technology. To solve these problems DARPANET was formed. The U.16 Thus as the number of machines in a network would increase.S government had announced that whoever would provide a solution to the above mentioned problem would be given a PhD degree for the same. the number of NIC cards required would also increase.
3. He later sold his idea to a company 3COM which stands for computers. 1.17 technology was named as ETHERNET. Ethernet is standardized as IEEE 802. Many modifications have been made thereafter. 10Base-T 4. 10Base5 2. Figure 5: ethernet Bob Metcalfe developed a channel by connecting terminators at both the ends and suggested to connect computers through their NIC cards in this channel. 10Base2 3. each one has evolved over the time for their special advantages. The four types of cables are. 10Base-F .3. There are four cabling standards as per 802. communication and compatibility. Bob Metcalfe truly provided a break through and is thus always remembered as the father of Ethernet.
base refers to the baseband channel and the character following it refers to the specific characterstics of . 10Base-T and 10Base-F came into usage only after the invention of hub and switch. The table below compares all four types of cables: Maximum number ent 100 Long cable length of Advantag Nodes/Segm es Technic Cable/Wi al Name re type Max.18 Note: Initially only 10Base5 and 10Base2 were used.000 meters 1024 e noise interferenc The 10 in the technical name refer to data speed of 10Mbits/sec. Segment/wi re Length 10Base5 Thick coaxial RG58 500 meters 10Base2 (thin) coaxial Twisted 10BaseT pair wire) (like telephone 185 meters 30 Low cost 100 meters 1024 Easy maintain to No 10BaseF Fiber-optic 2. These technologies are included here only for the sake of comparison and clear understanding.
19 the channel. For example in 10base5 ‘5’ refers to the length of the channel which is 500 meters. Figure 7 .
the upper layers. and other network software services.20 Chapter 2: The 7 Layers of the OSI Model The International Standards Organization (ISO) developed the OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) model." Each layer takes care of a very specific job. . This layer is basically what the user sees and understands. The specific description for each layer is as follows: Layer 7: Application Layer It defines interface to user processes for communication and data transfer in network. and then passes the data onto the next layer. Everything at this layer is applicationspecific. and mostly concern themselves with moving data around. e-mail. This layer provides application services for file transfers. Layers 5-7. contain applicationlevel data. Telnet and FTP are applications that exist entirely in the application level. It divides network communication into seven layers. Networks operate on one basic principle: "pass it on. Layers 1-4 are considered the lower layers.
Thus we can see that this layer encodes and decodes data or compresses and decompresses data. this layer breaks the packets and this process is called as FRAGMENTATION.e into a language that the computer can understand. Layer 6: Presentation Layer In this layer the data gets converted to low level machine language i. It ensures complete data transfer. Layer 4: Transport Layer This layer manages end-to-end message delivery in network. . Layer 5: Session Layer We can open ‘e’ any number of times.21 For example it includes clicking on the ‘e’ symbol for internet explorer.com the computer does not understand this.rediff. For example when we type in www.The information above this layer travels in packets. That implies that we can have different number of presentation layers but only one session layer. So it is this layer which converts the site that we type in into a language that the machine can understand.
internetworking. Now the packet is known as datagram and is about to move. This layer defines procedures for operating the communication links. congestion control and packet sequencing. addressing. handling. Layer 1: Physical Layer This layer defines physical means of sending data over network devices . Now the data is send as frames. data packets are encoded and decoded into bits.22 Layer 3: Network Layer This layer determines how data are transferred between network devices. It as routes well packets as according to unique network error device addresses. Layer 2: Data Link Layer At this layer. This layer also has a FCS-frame check sequence. Also in this layer footers are also are added along with headers. It is now just about to move to the cables. Routing and forwarding are functions of this layer. This layer tells us how to transfer the data to the main server.
Now we move .As data travels through each layer a header is added to it so as to ensure that the data has successfully travelled through all the layers. Fi gure 6 These layers present in the OSI model show us how packets of data are passed from one machine to another.23 Interfaces between network medium and devices It includes the physical means to send the data like through cables.
more than one Ethernet device can be sensing (listening and waiting to transmit) at a time. Multiple Access means contention i. And if any collisions occur then how to solve the problem.e. in computer networking. CSMA/CD is actually a combination of two things: CSMA – A protocol which helps in preventing any collision and CD – A . it will wait to transmit.24 over to study how these data packets when sent through a channel can travel without any collisions. Collision Detection means that when multiple Ethernet devices accidentally transmit at the same time collision occurs. If the Ethernet device senses that another device is transmitting. The main motive is to establish a proper and error free communication with least latency possible. and this protocol helps each device making use of a random back off scheme. CSMA/CD: Carrier Sense Multiple Access With Collision Detection (CSMA/CD). is a network control protocol in which the terms have the following meaning: Carrier Sense means that every Ethernet device listens to the Ethernet media/channel before it attempts to transmit.
If the medium is busy. transmit immediately 2. If the medium is busy. transmit with probability p.p) (time unit = length idle. CSMA (Carrier Sense Multiple Access) has three types: o o o 1 persistent CSMA P persistent CSMA non-persistent CSMA 1)1-persistent CSMA 1-persistent CSMA Protocol: 1. If the medium is idle. continue to listen until medium becomes idle. If the medium is idle. Thus we now study them separately. continue to listen until medium becomes then . and then transmit immediately Too selfish: there will always be a collision if two stations want to retransmit P=1 2)p-Persistent CSMA p-Persistent CSMA Protocol: 1. and delay for one time unit with probability (1 .25 protocol which helps us when a collision has occurred. of propagation go to delay) Step 1 2.
If the medium is idle. If transmission is delayed by one time unit. Collision detection is used to improve CSMA performance by terminating transmission as soon as a collision is detected.26 3. If the medium is busy. Time : Nth second . and reducing the probability of a second collision on retry. continue with Step 1 Can be a good trade-off between non-persistent and 1persistent CSMA 3) Non-Persistent CSMA Non-Persistent CSMA Protocol: 1. wait a random amount of time and repeat Step 1 Random back-off reduces probability of collisions Wasted idle time if the back-off time is too long May result in long access delays CSMA helps us prevent any collision but if a collision occurs then we move over to CSMA/CD. transmit immediately 2.
CSMA has an inefficiency: o If a collision has occurred. the machine now waits for a pre before sending determined amount of time ( p seconds) Fig no (d) the packet of information is now sent.27 Fig no (a) being transmitted the media is busy and packets of data are Time : N + Qth second Fig no (b) Time : N+Q + p th secon d the media is now free Fig no (c) any packet of information. the channel is unstable until colliding packets have been fully transmitted CSMA/CD overcomes this as follows: .
p-persistent) for o If a collision is detected during transmission. the sender is listening to medium for collisions. cease transmission and transmit a jam signal to notify other stations of collision After sending the jam signal. transmission 1-persistent. Sender stops if collision has occurred Note: o o CSMA: Listen Before Talking CSMA/CD: Listen While Talking Generic CSMA/CD Protocol: o Use one of the CDMA persistence algorithm (nonpersistent.28 o While transmitting. then start to transmit again o . back off for a random amount of time.
1st device was HUB. “A network hub is a device for connecting multiple twisted pair or fiber optic Ethernet devices together and thus making them act as a single network segment. a hub simply receives incoming packets.29 Chapter 3: LAN DEVICES ETHERNET HUB Intel Corporation. &digital Equipment Corporation these companies started to make different networking devices for easy communication. The device is thus a form of multiport repeater . Hp. Hub is a single bus device. The general meaning of hub is “a center of circle”.” Essentially. possibly amplifies the electrical signal. Hub is a device for connecting multiple twisted pairs.including the one that originally sent the packet. and broadcasts these packets out to all devices on the network . All the computers are connected to hub in star topology.
30 Hubs works at 1st layer of OSI MODEL i. physical layer which comprises the basic hardware transmission technology. These cables are used because UTP cables are highly sensitive to noise.e. This is a four port hub: Figure 7 . and twisted pairs nullify the noise which is induced over the cables. Computers are connected to Hubs by UTP (unshielded twisted pair) cables.
Figure 8: Block diagram of HUB Ethernet hub uses a single bus to transmit or receive the data. so a finite delay comes out while communication. So each port will have the speed of 1 mbps then it is further connected to other hub of 10 mbps.31 This is a block diagram of Ethernet hub. In which again there are 10 ports. As we connect a 10 mbps hub from 10 ports. then the speed when communication in between local pc’s is of speed 1 mbps and if communication in b/w .
A hub is inexpensive compared to a switch but its disadvantage is that it broadcast all signals i. Some hubs have special (and generally manufacturer specific) stack ports allowing them to be combined in a way that allows more hubs than simple chaining through Ethernet cables.e. There were certain problems associated with the hub which led to the development of a SWITCH. The problems associated with a hub included the following: • Latency • Speed These problems are overcome in a switch effectively.32 Hub 1 1mbps Hub 2 1/9mbps other network it will be of 1/9 mbps. This problem is called latency. data is going to all the .
This causes delays.33 computers one by one which is the reason for the slow speed of the network. This reduces collisions on the network when it is busy and is also much faster. so it passes any transmission straight to the correct port. Thus came the SWITCH : . A network switch is more efficient. It remembers which machines are connected to each port. This is because there is only one transceiver chip and only 1 buffer for each port. This is possible because each port has its separate transceiver chip and a separate buffer. A hub allows all machines to send packets to every machine connected and waits for the required machine to reply in the network.
Therefore a switch is much faster than a hub. As a result of which the speed is not divided. . Also there is a separate buffer for each port.34 A switch i s a multi bus device which has the following block diagram: Figure 9 For each port in a switch there is a separate transceiver chip.
Switches are used to connect the various computers together and provide a network. thereby using less bandwidth at high speed. or a 48 port switch or a 96 port switch etc. it sends the data to the relevant connected system only. Switches can communicate through different methods such as packet switching. Packet switching includes matrix switching which can consist of a 8x8 matrix and each port can thus easily communicate with the other ports. We can have different switch ports depending on our requirement. Because of this uniqueness. Thus we can have a 24 port switch. .35 A switch Switches can figure out the source. the contents of the data. and identify the destination of the packets sent.
36 Rack-mounted 24-port 3Com switch A 48-port switch A switch uses either of the two technologies to broadcast data : store and forward technology or cut through technology. . In cut through technology the switch does not store data. It just receives data and transmits it as it is. In store and forward technology the switch first stores the data in a buffer. performs an error checking operation and then if the information is error free it transmits or in other words forwards it.
37 A rack contains all the switches together which then form the required network. Juniper etc. Out of these the two major companies which manufacture switches are NORTEL and Cisco which dominate 93% of the market share. . Nortel.these include Cisco. Bay Networks. A rack-mounted switch with network cables There are a lot of companies wich manufacture switches .
In repeater data transmissions can only span a limited distance before the quality of the signal degrades.In a repeater only two lan’s can be connected. repeater is a relay one state device that means it is a 1st layer device. REPEATER: repeater is a device which receives data and retransmits it to other network to which it is connected.38 Chapter 4 EXTENTION OF LOCAL AREA NETWORK: If we have to extend the local area network then we use repeater. . so that network can cover longer distance.this distance is about 500m. But repeater has a drawback that it forwards traffic also .
.in making individual forwarding decisions. An Ethernet bridge.including the source and destination MAC addresses. for example. Bridges inspect incoming traffic and decide whether to forward or discard it. and sometimes the frame size . inspects each incoming Ethernet frame .39 BRIDGE A bridge device filters data traffic at a network boundary. Bridges operate at the data link layer (Layer 2) of the OSI model. Bridges reduce the amount of traffic on a LAN by dividing it into two segments.
Switches are sometimes called "multi-port bridges" for this reason. which means the bridge cannot read IP addresses. though. Bridging occurs at the data link layer of the OSI model. support one network boundary. not the IP address. • Bridge is forwarding: once the bridge has learned about all its networks components it now can send the packets of data to the desired destination directly. A bridge reads the outermost section of data on the data packet. In our case the bridge can read the ethernet data which gives the hardware address of the destination address. It reduces the traffic on other network segments. Bridges can be programmed to reject packets from particular networks. . The Bridge when in operation works in two states • Bridge is learning : the bridge studies or learns about the various devices which are present in its networks and makes a table carrying information about the networks and their computers. but only the outermost hardware address of the packet. that also operate at Layer 2. whereas switches usually offer four or more hardware ports. Traditional bridges. Let us explain this with an example. Bridges forward all broadcast messages.40 Bridges serve a similar function as switches. since it does not send all packets. to tell where the message is going.
When the bridge is learning it forms table carrying information about all the networks and the machines in that network. it has a complete idea about the scenario and thus we say that the bridge has learned and is ready to forward.41 In the figure let us name the Corporate LAN Segment as network N 1 and the Manufacturing segment as network N 2. Network 1 ( N1) Machine A Machine B Network 2 ( N2) Machine M Machine N Once the bridge forms this table. .
When we have to transmit data from one pc to another pc in a switch.e. Broadcast domain limitations: Any computer connected to the same Ethernet repeater or switch is a member of the same broadcast domain. There is no need to involve other machines present in the network. . A broadcast domain is a logical part of a network (a network segment) in which any network equipment can transmit data directly to another equipment or device without going through a routing device. This is typical to a switched environment. I. Chapter 5: BROADCAST DOMAIN: A broadcast domain is any logical division of the network in which all devices can reach each other by broadcast on the data-link layer. A broadcast domain can be on the same lan or routed to another broadcast domain. Further. any computer connected to the same set of inter-connected switches/repeaters is a member of the same broadcast domain. So the network segment in which packet gets transferred is called broadcast domain. data is sent from machine A in network N1 to machine N in network N2 directly. While all devices detect the frame transmission on the network. Frames are normally addressed to a specific destination device on the network. Broadcast domains can be started at several protocol layers.42 Thus now when the bridge is forwarding. only the device to which the frame is addressed actually receives it.
via voltage changes on the wire. In a single local area network there is only one broadcast domain.Devices "listen" on the network and detect whether something is already transmitting on the bus. COLLISION DOMAIN A collision domain is one of the logical network segments in which the data packets can collide to each other. A special broadcast address consisting of all 1s is used to send frames to all devices on the network. if others are waiting to transmit. A collision occurs when two or more network devices are trying to transmit packets at the exact same time. Devices attached to a hub are in a collision domain as shown in fig: . When a device is no longer transmitting. they will all try to transmit at the same time.43 therefore the broadcast domain as a whole can be within a single LAN segment but it can be routed over other segments as well. thus creating a collision. . Broadcast address: Broadcast address is the IP address of destination device on the network.
Instead of propagating collision signals between Ethernet segments. Since only repeater connections are used between segments in this network. all of the segments and computers are in the same collision domain. Switches creates separate collision domains as shown fig: In this figure. A vlan is a group of hosts on a switch which can communicate to each other but they cannot communicate to other hosts which are connected to that switch but not in same vlan.i. packet switches interrupt the collision domain and allow the Ethernets they link to operate independently.e vlans are created to . VLAN A Virtual LAN is commonly known as Vlan.44 The figure shows two repeater hubs connecting three computers.
its creation and configuration all is done in software. Without additional configuration. these devices can all communicate because they are on the same VLAN. By default all ports of a switch are in a VLAN1. The hosts connected to a VLAN can communicate with each other locally but they can’t communicate with the host of other VLAN. We can say that Vlan is a local area network that extends to a group of LAN segments. Broadcasts between these devices will not be seen on any other port in any other VLAN. a switch can create the broadcast domain.” Normally. In other words “ A VLAN is a virtual LAN. some ports on switch A can be in VLAN 10 and other ports on switch B can be in VLAN 10. it is a router creating that broadcast domain.45 provide segmentation services. even if the computers are not physically connected to each other. This is very useful when administrating large networks where there's the need for better network management and control. The VLAN (Virtual Local Area Network) technology can also create a so-called "virtual" broadcast domain. a VLAN is a broadcast domain created by switches. . A network built with switching devices could see each network devices as an independent system. In technical terms. they would not be able to communicate with any other devices. other than 10. VLAN is a logical entity so. not in their VLAN. With VLAN’s. Because switches can talk to each other. These groups of independent systems can be joined into one broadcast domain. However.
VLAN ID: A unique number between 1 and 4094 that identifies a particular VLAN, is called VLAN id. In Ethernet networks VLANs are used with frame tagging. In which when a packet is transferred to any port, the frame is tagged by an individual VLAN ID. Range of vLAN id: For 4-port, 8-port, and 12-port Fast Ethernet PICs, and for management and internal Ethernet interfaces, 1 through 1023.
For 48-port Fast Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet PICs, 1 through 4094. VLAN ID 0 is reserved for tagging the priority of frames.
Why use VLAN's? VLAN's offer a number of advantages over traditional LAN's. Local Area Networks are defined as a single broadcast domain. This means that if a user broadcasts information on his/her LAN, the broadcast will be received by every other user on the LAN. Broadcasts are prevented from leaving a LAN by using a router. The disadvantage of this method is routers usually take more time to process incoming data compared to a bridge or a switch. More importantly, the formation of broadcast domains depends on the physical connection of the devices in the network. Virtual Local Area Networks (VLAN's) were developed as an alternative solution to using routers to contain broadcast traffic.
Performance In networks where traffic consists of a high percentage of broadcasts and multicasts, VLAN's can reduce the need to send such traffic to unnecessary destinations. For example, in a broadcast domain consisting of 10 users, if the broadcast traffic
is intended only for 5 of the users, then placing those 5 users on a separate VLAN can reduce traffic .. Reduced Cost VLAN's can be used to create broadcast domains which eliminate the need for expensive routers.
Security Periodically, sensitive data may be broadcast on a network. In such cases, placing only those users who can have access to that data on a VLAN can reduce the chances of an outsider gaining access to the data. VLAN's can also be used to control broadcast domains, set up firewalls, restrict access, and inform the network manager of an intrusion USAGE you don’t have to configure a VLAN until your network gets so large and has so much traffic that you need one. VLAN’s are enabled by default and ALL devices are already in a VLAN. The VLAN that all devices are already in is VLAN 1. So, by default, you can just use all the ports on a switch and all devices will be able to talk to one another.
49 When there is a link between two switches or a router and a switch that carries the traffic of more than one VLAN. This means all users attached to the port should be members of the same VLAN. Trunk Link All the devices connected to a trunk link. must be VLAN-aware. All frames on a trunk link must have a special header attached. . including workstations. These special frames are called tagged frames Port-based VLANs With port-based VLAN membership. The network administrator typically performs the VLAN assignment. that port is a trunk port. the port is assigned to a specific VLAN independent of the user or system attached to the port. The port configuration is static and cannot be automatically changed to another VLAN without manual reconfiguration.
the packets forwarded using this method do not leak into other VLAN domains on the network. . ports 9 through 18 might be assigned to sales. The switch is responsible for identifying that the information came from a specific VLAN and for ensuring that the information gets to all other members of the VLAN. a switch determines VLAN membership by taking note of the port used by a particular packet. Using this method. Port-based VLANs require that specific ports on a network switch be assigned to a VLAN. the port cannot send to or receive from devices in another VLAN without the intervention of a Layer 3 device. The device that is attached to the port likely has no understanding that a VLAN exists.50 As with other VLAN approaches. After a port has been assigned to a VLAN. The switch is further responsible for ensuring that ports in a different VLAN do not receive the information. The device simply knows that it is a member of a subnet and that the device should be able to talk to all other members of the subnet by simply sending information to the cable segment. and so on. ports 1 through 8 might be assigned to marketing. For example.
connected a Lan pumping IPX traffic to the port 20 of the switch and connected a router pumping IP traffic on port 30. For example. Essentially user tries to segregate or forward a particular protocol traffic from a port using the protocol based VLANs. but ARP traffic will not . The IP numbers are used only to determine the membership in a particular VLAN not to determine routing.51 Protocol based vlan: With protocol-based VLAN membership. if you have connected a host. traffic from any other protocol is not forwarded on the port. pumping ARP traffic on the switch at port 10. then if you define a protocol based VLAN supporting IP and including all the three ports 10. 20 and 30 then IP packets can be forwarded to the ports 10 and 20 also . traffic is forwarded through ports based on protocol. computers are assigned to VLANs by using the protocol that is in use and the Layer 3 address It is important to note that although VLAN membership might be based on Layer 3 information. this has nothing to do with routing or routing functions. a protocol based VLAN enabled switch.
Example: 140. SUBNETTING AN IP (Internet Protocol) address is a unique identifier for a node or host connection on an IP network.179. This is known as "dotted decimal" notation.179 . An IP address is a 32 bit binary number usually represented as 4 decimal values.11001000 Every IP address consists of two parts. each representing 8 bits. 140 . one identifying the network and one identifying the node.11011100.200 10001100.220 .10110011.200 It is sometimes useful to view the values in their binary form. The Class of the address and the subnet mask determine which part belongs to the network address and which part belongs to the node address. in the range 0 to 255 (known as octets) separated by decimal points. similarly IPX traffic will not get forwarded to ports 10 and 30.220. Address Classes .52 get forwarded to the ports 20 and 30.
140.nnnnnnnn Class B -. which points to the pc itself]. Class D addresses are reserved for multicasting. Note that this is true regardless of the length of the node section. 140. in blue) and which part belongs to the node (n.0.0. • • • Class A -.0 specifies the network address for 140. Now we can see how the Class determines. are reserved for loopback and for internal testing on a local machine.220. which part of the IP address belongs to the network (N.nnnnnnnn In the example.nnnnnnnn.179.nnnnnnnn.NNNNNNNN. Class D addresses begin with 1110.1. or 1 to 126 decimal.200 is a Class B address so by default the Network part of the address (also known as the Network Address) is defined by the first two octets (140.220.220. When the node section is set to all "1"s.200).NNNNNNNN. by default. or 128 to 191 decimal.nnnnnnnn.nnnnnnnn Class C -.179. in red).x. 140. Class B addresses begin with 10xx. or 127 decimal. In order to specify the network address for a given IP address.x) and the node part is defined by the last 2 octets (x. They should not be used for host addresses. Addresses beginning with 01111111.255.179. Class E addresses begin with 1111.NNNNNNNN. You can determine which class any IP address is in by examining the first 4 bits of the IP address.NNNNNNNN. .179.200. or 224 to 239 decimal. the node section is set to all "0"s.NNNNNNNN. • • • • • Class A addresses begin with 0xxx. In our example.NNNNNNNN. Class E addresses are reserved for future use.255 specifies the example broadcast address. [pinging 127.179. or 240 to 254 decimal.53 There are 5 different address classes.x.0. it specifies a broadcast that is sent to all hosts on the network. or 192 to 223 decimal. Class C addresses begin with 110x.
For example.11001000 Class B IP Address 11111111.54 Private Subnets There are three IP network addresses reserved for private networks. Performance can be adversely affected under heavy traffic loads.0.00000000. The addresses are 10.0/8. and security.0.0.0.10110011. etc. using our test IP address and the default Class B subnet mask.0. Performing a bitwise logical AND operation between the IP address and the subnet mask results in the Network Address or Number. These addresses are also notated 10. and the node bits are represented by the 0s.0. use of different physical media (such as Ethernet.0. WAN. preservation of address space.0. Subnet Mask 255.11111111.200 255. we get: 10001100. Subnet Masking Applying a subnet mask to an IP address allows you to identify the network and node parts of the address. Subnet Mask 255.0.0.240.255. These addresses are defined in RFC 1918. including organization. Subnetting an IP Network can be done for a variety of reasons. Subnet Mask 255.0.00000000 Default Class B Subnet Mask 140. They can be used by anyone setting up internal IP networks. and 192. FDDI.0/12. such as a lab or home LAN behind a NAT or proxy server or a router. due to collisions and the resulting retransmissions. 172.0.0. It is always safe to use these because routers on the Internet by default will never forward packets coming from these addresses.255.000. A router is used to connect IP networks to minimize the amount of traffic each segment must receive.22.214.171.124. and 192.168.). The most common reason is to control network traffic.0. In an Ethernet network. all nodes on a segment see all the packets transmitted by all the other nodes on that segment.16.240. 172.179.000 . The network bits are represented by the 1s in the mask.0/16.0.11110000.0.
0. If you are operating in a controlled environment.11111111.255.255. such as a lab. This also applies to subnets.00000 000 Additional bits can be added to the default subnet mask for a given Class to further subnet.0 . use the formula (2n-2) where n = number of bits in either field.255. or break down.0.11111111.00000000 Network Address Default subnet masks: • • 140.000 • Class A .0 . When a bitwise logical AND operation is performed between the subnet mask and IP address.00000000.0. Recent standards that allow use of these subnets have superseded these standards.00000000.00000000. This restriction is required because older standards enforced this restriction.11111111.0 .00000000 Class B .255.255. and 2n represents 2 raised to the nth power.55 -------------------------------------------------------10001100.10110011.255. This also implies that a 1 bit subnet mask is not allowed.00000000.000. Multiplying the number of subnets by the number of nodes available per subnet gives you the total number of nodes available for your class and . Node addresses of all "0"s and all "1"s are reserved for specifying the local network (when a host does not know its network address) and all hosts on the network (broadcast address). A subnet address cannot be all "0"s or all "1"s. but many "legacy" devices do not support the newer standards. you can safely use these restricted subnets.11111111. There are some restrictions on the subnet address. respectively.179.11111111. a network.11111111.0000000 0 Class C . To calculate the number of subnets or nodes. the result defines the Subnet Address (also called the Network Address or Network Number).
they are not recommended. you can create a hefty 2. Next we will need to determine how many hosts are required. A class C network allows for many networks to be created. Review the diagram below for a visual example. Also. Example of Class C IP Address Subnetting Subnetting varies in difficulty. you will need to create a subnet for a class C network. Both of these values can be calculated with the following equations: Two Important Equations to Remember: • • 1. but not as many hosts.56 subnet mask. First we calculate how many usable subnets we need. We need 5 separate networks that have 30 computers on each subnet.097. .152 networks. Usable Hosts = (2^n) – 2 . where N = power of bits remaining Let’s start with usable subnets. depending on which class you are subnetting. In fact. More often than not. where N = power of bits assigned 2. Usable Subnets = (2^n) – 2 . Let’s say we are subnetting a school’s network.but only 254 hosts per network are allowed. note that although subnet masks with noncontiguous mask bits are allowed.
this is how we account for the two addresses in each subnet we can’t use. be sure to keep the network portions in mind. For now. When subnetting other classes. Example: . the first three octets will always be 255.57 If you are wondering what the “-2” part of the equation is for. and add them up. Also note that since we are using a class C network. Look at the diagram below for a visual guide. Simply take all of your network bits. We will review what these addresses are for more specifically later on. let’s find out what our usable hosts are! Whats my subnet mask? Getting your subnet mask at this point is incredibly easy. Keep in mind that every computer must have the subnet mask set in order for them to be on the same network.
255.140 nodes for the entire class B address subnetted this way. Chapter 6: STRUCTURED CABLE UTP(unshielded twisted pair) cable is used to connect networking devices.these are twisted because in twisted pairs noise is in opposite direction to each other so it nulify the noise. then setting all the host bits to 1s.179. That is how these numbers are derived in the example above.10110011.220.223.192. This gives a total of 49.179.11011111. Each subnet can have nodes assigned to any address between the Subnet address and the Broadcast address. Similarly.10110011.00000000 Subnet Mask -------------------------------------------------------10001100.000 140. Subnetting always reduces the number of possible nodes for a given network.11011100. No more than 1/2" of the Ethernet cable should be .224.11111111 Broadcast Address 140.179. Notice that this is less than the 65. then setting all the host bits to 0s.000 140.UTP cables are highly sensitive to noise. you can calculate the Broadcast Address for a subnet by performing the same logical AND between the IP address and the subnet mask. You can calculate the Subnet Address by performing a bitwise logical AND operation between the IP address and the subnet mask. There are 6 (23-2) subnets available with this size mask (remember that subnets with all 0's and all 1's are not allowed).11111111.00000000 Subnet Address 10001100. Each subnet has 8190 (213-2) nodes.534 nodes an unsubnetted class B address would have.11000000.255 In this example a 3 bit subnet mask was used. UTP cable has four twisted pairs.11001000 IP Address 11111111.58 10001100.10110011.11100000.200 255.
do not staple. Colour coading for Straight-Through Ethernet Cable is shown in dis fig:1. UTP cables are of two types: • Straight-Through Ethernet Cable • Crossover Ethernet Cable Straight-Through Ethernet Cable: Straight cable is used to connect two dissimilar devices as switch to pc.hub to pc etc.59 untwisted otherwise it will be susceptible to crosstalk.1 . and do not run Ethernet cables near noise inducing components. do not run parallel with power cables. Do not deform. A straight-thru cable has identical ends. do not bend. do not stretch. Both the T-568A and the T-568B standard Straight-Through cables are used most often as patch cords for your Ethernet connections.
Colour coading for crossover Ethernet cable is shown in fig 1. we will need to use a Crossover cable . Crossover Ethernet Cable: Crossover Ethernet cable is usedto connect similar devices as computer to computer and switch to switch etc.60 The TIA/EIA 568-A standard which was ratified in 1995. was replaced by the TIA/EIA 568-B standard in 2002 and has been updated since. A crossover cable has different ends.2 below: . If we require a cable to connect two Ethernet devices directly together without a hub or when you connect two hubs together. Both standards define the T-568A and T-568B pin-outs for using Unshielded Twisted Pair cable and RJ-45 connectors for Ethernet connectivity.
3: By looking at a T-568A UTP Ethernet straight-thru cable and an Ethernet crossover cable with a T-568B end. Ethernet Cable Instructions: . we see that the TX (transmitter) pins are connected to the corresponding RX (receiver) pins.61 we can more easily understand the colour coading of both the UTP cables the dig. Shown below in fig1. plus to plus and minus to minus.
• Hold the RJ-45 plug with the clip facing down or away. . If even one of these are incorrect. Check that the jacket is fitted right against the stop of the plug. • Spread. and arrange the wires in the order of the desired cable end. Check the order of the wires. otherwise you will need to start over. untwist the pairs. Flatten the end between the thumb and forefinger. • Start on one end and strip the cable jacket off (about 1") using a stripper or a knife.62 These are some instruction for cabling the network: • Pull the cable off the reel to the desired length and cut. leaving only 1/2" in wire length. check that the crimped connection is not about to come apart. its easier to attach the RJ-45 plugs after the cable is pulled. If it is longer than 1/2" it will be out-of-spec and susceptible to crosstalk. Carefully hold the wire and firmly crimp the RJ-45 with the crimper. Trim the ends of the wires so they are even with one another. • Check the colours orientation. you will have to start over. Inspect each wire is flat even at the front of the plug. Double check again. and check to see if the wires are flat against the front of the plug. Flatten and insure there are no spaces between wires. If you are pulling cables through holes. Test the Ethernet cable. Be extra careful not to nick the wires. The total length of wire segments between a PC and a hub or between two PC's cannot exceed 100 Meters (328 feet) for 100BASE-TX and 300 Meters for 10BASE-T. Push the wires firmly into the plug.
. I/O port is connected by UTP cable to patch panel and patch panel is connected to switch. thus a computer is connected to a network.63 Comprehensive diagram In this diagram there is a computer which is first connected to a I/O port by a patch cable.
64 Patch panel switch rack Chapter7 : TCP / IP Transmission Control Protocol .
destination sends an acknowledgment. UDP is not used in voice transfer. UDP is a user data gram protocol. Either TCP/IP or UDP/IP is used. After layer 4th packets are loaded on IP layer. TCP is just like a transporter which transports the packet to a certain address that is IP address. UDP is reliable protocol because it gives acknowledgment when a packet is reached to the destination. In UDP when one packet is reached. This limit is called window size which is considered by k½/7. Layer 5 puts the destination address & source address on each frame. On the destination it is not compulsory that all packets will reach in sequence.65 TCP UDP IP TCP is a transmission control protocol. Ack2 . Ack1. When these packets reach to destination. In the OSI model when data is transferred and it comes to layer 4 then it decides the protocol. these are arranged and then displayed. On this layer packet is fragmented and each fragment is labelled by a sequence number. P2 source destination When one packet is delivered source starts to send more packets at a time. P1.
The value in each octet ranges from 0 to 255 decimal. 0 1000001 0 64 0 0 0 0 0 1 (0+64+0+0+0+0+0+1=65) . an IP address is said to be expressed in dotted decimal format (for example.100). of an octet holds a value of 20. the decimal equivalent would be 255 as shown here: 1 1 1 11111 128 64 32 16 8 4 2 1 (128+64+32+16+8+4+2+1=255) Here is a sample octet conversion when not all of the bits are set to 1.16. The bit just to the left of that holds a value of 21. This continues until the left-most bit.81. or least significant bit.66 ADDRESSING SCHEME : IP Address An IP address is an address used to uniquely identify a device on an IP network. or most significant bit. or 00000000 . Here is how binary octets convert to decimal: The right most bit.11111111 binary. The 32 binary bits are broken into four octets (1 octet = 8 bits). which holds a value of 27. So if all binary bits are a one. Each octet is converted to decimal and separated by a period (dot). For this reason. The address is made up of 32 binary bits which can be divisible into a network portion and host portion with the help of a subnet mask. 172.
00010011 (binary) These octets are broken down to provide an addressing scheme that can accommodate large and small networks. the first octet is the network portion.00000001. In a Class A address. so the Class A example in Figure 1 has a major network address of . 1.00010111. There are five different classes of networks. 23. A to E.67 And this is sample shows an IP address represented in both binary and decimal. 19 (decimal) 00001010. 10. We focus on addressing classes A to C.
0 In IP Addresses there is a defined range of address which are private and the rest of the IP Addresses are public and are free for use. so the Class B example in Figure 1 has a major network address of 128. Octet 4 (8 bits) is for local subnets and hosts .536 hosts (actually.233. and 4 (the next 24 bits) are for the network manager to divide into subnets and hosts as he/she sees fit.0 .255. and C networks have default masks. Class B addresses are used for networks that have between 256 and 65534 hosts.255.0 Class C: 255. The Class C example in Figure 1 has a major network address of 192. the first three octets are the network portion. Class A addresses are used for networks that have more than 65.0 . In a Class C address.0.255. Octets 2.0.0 Class B: 255. Octets 3 and 4 (16 bits) are for local subnets and hosts.perfect for networks with less than 254 hosts. 3.0 .0.255.127. the first two octets are the network portion. up to 16777214 hosts!).255.0. also known as natural masks. In a Class B address.255. as shown here: Class A: 255.0. Class A.255. Network Masks A network mask helps you know which portion of the address identifies the network and which portion of the address identifies the node.0.255.191.255.0.0.255.255.255. B.0. .68 1.
department & servers.255 192.30 pc’s in E.0 through Chapter 8: Classical examples of LAN Networks: 1.254.S.255.0 through 10.255.255.0. There is an engineering college.168.C.255 172.16.168. Draw the network diagram .255 126.96.36.199. They have to computerize their system.0.0.69 The private range of IP Addresses is 10.Department &15 pc are in biotech department.255 169.0 through 172.31. There are 70 pc’s in C.0. But 50% pc are stand alone type.254.12 pc’s in me department.0 through 192.
70 Solution .
administration and finance department there are 102 users and 1st floor is reception and production department there are 12 users.A building has 22 floors. on this floor there are 23 users. 7th floor is marketing department there are 40 users. . Solution: 2.6th floor is IT. Draw the network diagram and write down used inventory also. its 21 floor is for chairman and director.71 There is a company of colored papers .
72 Classical examples showing the broadcast domain and collision domain of various LAN devices The question here is How many broadcast domain and collision domains do these networks contain? Q.2 Q.3 .1 Q.
5 .73 Q.4 Q.
History Going back into history one of the first media for transferring information were low grade UTP cable.WANs are used to connect LANs and other types of networks together. But instead of changing the entire set up of these cables which were spread all over the world. . Thus there was a need to develop a new technology. In wide area network routers are used to connect different networks which are in different locations so broadcast domain is devided. In a wide area network communication depends on IP address. The only limitation with these cables was that they could transmit data only up to a frequency of 4000 Hz. These cables could very well support voice transmission and thus even today telephones are brought to our homes through these cables. convertors were used. so that users and computers in one location can communicate with users and computers in other locations. With the evolution of INTERNET these cables no longer could be used as they did not have sufficient properties to help transmit data along with voice.75 Section2: Chapter1 WAN: Wide Area Network (WAN) is a computer network that covers a broad area . AT & T had just used these cables for communication.
Mathematical derivation To send any continuous signal over a channel we have to do its slicing which in technical terms is known as Sampling. This process of sampling has to be done in such a way that all the information is retained. Thus the same UTP cables used along with A/D convertor modems helped us achieve greater levels of communication. The number of samples required so as to retain all the information sent across a channel of 4000 Hz is given by N N = 2* f (max) = 2 * 4000 .76 Diagram: computer D/A converter A/D converter Modems were used at transmitting and receiving end to convert digital to analog signal and analog to digital signal respectively.
048 Mbit/s (full duplex. The timeslots are numbered from 0 to 31. This is ideal for voice telephone calls where the voice is sampled into an 8 bit number at that data rate and reconstructed at the other end.S has different standards. These standards also have limitations. The line data rate is 2. i. 2. usually twisted pair cable. Thus we can show that 1 sample needs 8 bits 8000 samples need 8000 * 8 = 64000 or 64 Kbps This 64 Kbps channel is called the basic channel (DSO) – 0 channel and similarly DS1 channel would be a 128 Kbps channel.K has different standards and U. U. to control call setup and teardown according to one of several standard telecommunications protocols .048.048 Mbit/s upstream) which is split into 32 timeslots. Thus each timeslot sends and receives an 8-bit sample 8000 times per second (8 x 8000 x 32 = 2.000). In U. each being allocated 8 bits in turn.K we have E1 standard and in U.77 = 8000 samples The number of bits required to represent a signal is 7 or 8.S we have T1 standard. E1 An E1 link operates over two separate sets of wires.e.048 Mbit/s downstream and 2. One timeslot (TS16) is often reserved for signaling purposes. A nominal 3 Volt peak signal is encoded with pulses using a method that avoids long periods without polarity changes.
78 T1 Digital signal 1 (DS1. Chapter2: SIGNALING Signaling is the sending of a signal from the transmitting end of a circuit to inform a ANTENNA GAIN Antenna Gain relates the intensity of an antenna in a given direction to the intensity that would be produced by a . But to send information simultaneously on these channels we would need a controlling channel (D) along with the basic channel (B). A T1 circuit is made up of twenty-four 8-bit channels (also known as timeslots or DS0s). which means the circuit transmits and receives 1. In general. if we have to transmit 128 Kbps we would need two channels. A DS1 is also a full-duplex circuit. sometimes "DS-1") is a T-carrier signalling scheme devised by Bell Labs.544 Mbit/s concurrently. In general the 15/16th channel is only for controlling. This can also be explained by the formula 2B+D. also known as T1. each channel being a 64 kbit/s DS0 multiplexed carrier circuit. It carries no information.536 Mbit/s of bandwidth is achieved by sampling each of the twenty-four 8-bit DS0s 8000 times per second. A total of 1.
a perfect point source. .e isotropic antenna) and has no losses. microwave and fiber optic networks as a convenient measure of absolute power because of its capability to express both very large and very small values in a short form. -3dBi =(power) / 2. Antenna gain is usually expressed in dBi. dbI means "Isotropic". The unit of antenna gain is dBi. +10dBi = (power) * 10 and -10dBi = (power) / 10. Now a +3dBi antenna means the power at the transmitting end of the antenna would be multiplied by 2 before signal’s transmission in the freznel zone and similalry -3dBi means the transmitting transmission. Antennas angles are specified by their half power point (3 dbi less than the specified max output). Basic dBi values using which all the calcuations are needed to be performed are: +3dBi = (power) * 2. power would be divided by 2 before the dBm (sometimes dBmW) is an abbreviation for the power ratio in decibels (dB) of the measured power referenced to one milliwatt (mW).79 hypothetical ideal antenna that radiates equally in all directions (i. It is used in radio.
through the medium (free space. where P is the power in W and x is the power ratio in dBm. cable. To express an arbitrary power P as x dBm. the power is reduced by about one half. For a 3 dB decrease. LINK BUDGET CALCULATION: A link budget is the accounting of all of the gains and losses from the transmitter. It accounts for the attenuation of the transmitted signal due to propagation. etc. and P= 10(x/10)/1000.) to the receiver in a telecommunication system. feedline and miscellaneous losses. or go in the other direction.80 CONVERSION OF POWER(mW) to power(dBm) Zero dBm equals one milliwatt. the following equations may be used: x=10 log10(1000P) = 10 log10P + 30. which means that 3 dBm equals roughly 2 mW. making −3 dBm equal to about 0. A 3 dB increase represents roughly doubling the power. waveguide.5 milliwatt. . as well as the antenna gains. fiber.
000mW – 90 dB . The receiving antenna is having 20dBi gain.000mW Path loss Therefore Receiver power = 90 dB = 10. We want to estimate the feasibility of a 5km link. Solution: Transmitting power = 100mW is 100mW (or 20dBm) and its sensitivity is 0. The transmitting power budget when path loss is 60dB. with one transmitting and one receiving antenna. Calculate the link Power after the intentional point = 100 mW + 20dBi = 100mW + 10dBi + 10dBi = 100*10*10 = 10.81 Let us consider an example for calculatio n of link budget.001mW.
000-10dB-10dB10dB-10dB-10dB-10dB =0. SOM = receiver signal level .82 = 10.e. as the receiver power is 0. Wireless communication systems operate in environments that present a multitude of RF . hence signal will be received without any deterioration. the polarization of the antenna.receiver sensitivity Antenna Polarization: The energy radiated by any antenna is contained in a transverse electromagnetic wave that is comprised of an electric and a magnetic field. receiver sensitivity).01mW which is greater than the receibver sensitivity. System Operating Margin(SOM) System Operating Margin is the difference between the signal a radio is actually receiving vs. These fields are always orthogonal to one another and orthogonal to the direction of propagation. The electric field of the electromagnetic wave is used to describe its polarization and hence. what it needs for good data recovery (i.01mW Now.
Any misalignment between antennas will result in a polarization mismatch and hence. 3.0 POLARIZATION MISMATCH LOSS . in these systems. mobile or portable applications. Again. In typical point to multi-point communication systems. some level of reduction in system efficiency. In many instances. linearly polarized antennas will be used at the base station and at the end user site. The total signal received at the antenna will therefore be the vector summation of all of the multipath signals. and electric field also should be parallel to antenna element.If the transmit and receive sites are not in direct line-of-sight (LOS) contact and the majority of the signals arriving at the receive site are the multipath signals. these antennas may be oriented such that they are no longer physically aligned or parallel with the antenna at the base station. receivediversity techniques are used to enhance system gain and improve signal reception.83 propagation problems. The antennas at the end user site may be used in fixed. Mostly in wireless communication receiver antenna and transmitting antenna should be in direct line-of-sight (LOS) contact .
physical antenna misalignment will result in a polarization mismatch loss which can be determined using the following formula: Polarization Mismatch Loss (dB) = 20 log (cos q) where q is the misalignment angle between the two antennas. Table 1. Table 1 illustrates some typical mismatch loss values for various misalignment angles. both antennas must have the same spatial orientation. When the transmit and receive antennas are both linearly polarized. Orientation Angle Polarization (dB) Mismatch . Polarization Mismatch Between Two Linearly Polarized Waves as a Function of Angular Orientation.84 In order to transfer maximum energy or power between a transmit and a receive antenna. there will be a reduction in energy or power transfer between the two antennas. This reduction in power transfer will reduce the overall system efficiency and performance. the same polarization sense and the same axial ratio. When the antennas are not aligned or do not have the same polarization.
0 6.0 0. In fact.25 45.0 (aligned) 15.02 75.3 30.0 3.01 60.0 0. It is generally assumed that a 3 dB system loss will result because of the polarization difference between the two antennas.74 90.0 1.0 11.85 0.0 (orthogonal) infinite One of the common misconceptions regarding polarization relates to the circumstance where one antenna in a transmit to receive circuit is circularly polarized and the other is linearly polarized. the polarization between these two antennas mismatch loss .
Vertical polarization is produced by a vertical dipole antenna. At an instant the top is positive voltage and the bottom is negative voltage . The actual mismatch loss between a circularly polarized antenna and a linearly polarized antenna will vary depending upon the axial ratio of the circularly polarized antenna. . then antenna is vertically polarized.86 will only be 3 dB when the circularly polarized antenna has an axial ratio of 0 dB.so the electric field produced is vertical. Polarization are of two types: Vertical polarization: Polarization when electric field is vertical is called vertical polarization.
Line Of Sight: Line of sight is the region of space between transmitting and receiving antenna. the most important prerequisite is the presence of free space. fig: Horizontal polarisation adjusted by -13 deg anticlockwise. So there must be a clear LOS for transmission of signals without deterioration. As transmission occurs by sending and receiving signals.87 fig:this is verticaly polarized antenna Horizontal polarization: Polarization when electric field is horizontal is called horizontal polarization. Now consider a case wherein the free space available for transmission is occupied by a tree or building or any other . while facing the satellite.
In such a case. the object will hamper the transmission and distort the signal.88 object.e a suitable receiver sensitivity so that no such distortion occurs. Chapter3 Modems: . To avoid such a condition we use a suitable margin i.
a leased line is always active. Modems can be used over any means of transmitting analog signals. Typically. leased lines are used by businesses to connect geographically distant offices.544 Mbps. You can divide the connection into different lines for data and voice communication or use the channel for one high speed data circuit. from driven diodes to radio.89 Modem (from an modulator-demodulator) analog carrier signal is to a device that digital modulates encode information. Unlike normal dial-up connections. and also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. . LEASED LINES: A permanent telephone connection between two points set up by a telecommunications common carrier. For example. The goal is to produce a signal that can be transmitted easily and decoded to reproduce the original digital data. a T-1 channel is a type of leased line that provides a maximum transmission speed of 1.
and video signals. with system a one-stop (one hop in technical terms) connection to the main data routes of the Internet can be established. A VSAT end user needs a box that interfaces between the user's computer and an outside antenna with a transceiver. Depending on which satellite is used. For one end user to communicate with another. The satellite sends and receives signals from an earth station computer that acts as a hub for the system. How does a VSAT work? A VSAT is a small fixed or mobile earth station which provides a communication link to a satellite which can handle data traffic. . This means that even in countries which have no direct access to these backbones (like many Asian countries). Each end user is interconnected with the hub station via the satellite in a star topology. VSAT handles data. each transmission has to first go to the hub station which retransmits it via the satellite to the other end user's VSAT. And for multiplexing MUX is used. VSAT VSAT (Very Small Aperture Terminal) is a satellite communications system that serves home and business users. the signal will be transmitted to a particular earth station with a direct link to an Internet backbone.90 Dividing the connection is called multiplexing. voice. The transceiver receives or sends a signal to a satellite transponder in the sky.
This topology does not cost so much in maintaining the network while also lessening the amount of data that needs to be relayed through one or more central uplink sites in the network. which also minimizes the need for an uplink site Star + Mesh topology: This combination can be achieved (as some VSAT networks do) by having multiple centralized uplink sites connected together in a multi-star topology which is in a bigger mesh topology. private and public network communications solutions.91 VSAT systems offer and value-added can provide satellite-based powerful. voice/fax communications. data. VSAT Configurations Most of the current VSAT networks use a topology: • Star topology: This topology uses a central uplink site (eg. A VSAT has certain clear advantages over leased lines and other wireless communications media. services capable of supporting the Internet. as it is less sensitive to physical damages like cable breakages etc. dependable. each VSAT terminal will relay data over to another terminal through the satellite. • • . acting as a hub. Network operations center (NOC)). which transports the data to and from each of the VSAT terminals using satellites Mesh topology: In this configuration. LAN.
92 Advantages and Disadvantages of VSAT networks Advantages • Availability: VSAT services can be deployed anywhere having a clear view of the sight Diversity: VSAT provides a wireless link completely • independent of the local terrestrial/wireline infrastructure especially important for backup or disaster recovery services • Deployability: VSAT services can be deployed in hours or even minutes (with auto-acquisition antennas) Homogeneity: VSAT enables customers to get the same speeds and service level agreements at all locations across their entire network regardless of location • .
the effect is typically far less than that experienced by one-way TV systems (such as DirecTV. but is still a function of antenna size and transmitter power and frequency band Installation: VSAT services require an outdoor antenna installation with a clear view of the sky (southern sky if the location is in the northern hemisphere or northern sky if the location is in the southern hemisphere) • • • . VSAT links are subject to a minimum latency of approximately 500 milliseconds round-trip. packets encrypted via VPN defeat this acceleration and perform slower than other network traffic Environmental concerns: VSATs are subject to signal attenuation due to weather ("Rain Fade").93 • Security: Corporate-grade VSAT networks are private layer-2 networks over the air Disadvantages • Latency: Since they relay signals off a satellite in geosynchronous orbit 22. This makes them a poor choice for "chatty" protocols or applications such as online gaming Encryption: The acceleration schemes used by most VSAT systems rely upon the ability to see a packet's source/destination and contents. DISH Network or British Sky Broadcasting) that use smaller dishes.300 miles above the Earth.
chapter 4:connectivity devices ROUTER A router is used to route data packets between two networks. It reads the information in each packet to tell where it is going. If it is destined for an immediate network it has access to, it will strip the outer packet, readdress the packet to the proper ethernet address, and transmit it on that network. If it is destined for another network and must be sent to another router, it will re-package the outer packet to be received by the next router and send it to the next router. Routing occurs at the network layer of the OSI model. They can connect networks with different architectures such as Token Ring and Ethernet. Although they can transform information at the data link level,
routers cannot transform information from one data format such as TCP/IP to another such as IPX/SPX. Routers do not send broadcast packets or corrupted packets. If the routing table does not indicate the proper address of a packet, the packet is discarded. Router acts like a gate and ultimately should be connected to LAN. The router thus forms a part of the LAN’s broadcast domain. Thus all the computers which are part of the LAN can communicate which each other locally but if a computer wants to communicate to any other computer which is not in the LAN then it goes to the router and is then transmitted further, A router has two ports: one port connected to the LAN and the other is a sync port. The sync port in the router is connected to the media for transmitting the information. A router can have many sync ports. The sync port is connected to the media through a V.35 cable. The routers communicate with each other through protocols that are 1) Encapsulation point to point protocol : to connect two routers. Once we give this protocol the routers start communicating. 2) Routing protocol: this is to find out where to send our packet of information. It basically finds the route from the source to the destination. 3) Routed protocol: once we know the route the final step is to send the packet of information.
Now with an example we study how a data packet is sent from one machine to another through a router. NETWORK ROUTING:
Diagram (Machine A machine B router a Ra n router B Rb ) Step 1: The machine A which is a source machine will send a request A (my MAC address is ________ I want the MAC address of the router which has IP address _________) This request is sent to Address Resolution Protocol ARP. Thus we find the MAC address of the router A. Step 2: Destination address is MAC address of router and
source address is MAC address of machine A. Till now we are dealing with network 1 only. Step 3: Now the router A requests the other router B to tell its MAC address. This request is sent to ARP and thus we find the MAC address of the router B. Step 4: The router B has the address of the destination machine but it still does not broadcast the information. The router B will ask the destination machine its IP Address. This is a way of cross checking the destination machine. Thus router B sends the request (what is the IP Address of the machine whose MAC address is _________)
This is done in IP layer. .97 This request is sent to RARP (Reverse address resolution protocol). Step 5: The final step is delivery of the packet of information to machine B.
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