This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

BooksAudiobooksComicsSheet Music### Categories

### Categories

### Categories

Editors' Picks Books

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Audiobooks

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Comics

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Editors' Picks Sheet Music

Hand-picked favorites from

our editors

our editors

Top Books

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Audiobooks

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Comics

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Top Sheet Music

What's trending, bestsellers,

award-winners & more

award-winners & more

Welcome to Scribd! Start your free trial and access books, documents and more.Find out more

**Algebra and Functions
**

Law of Indices

Examples

Surds

Surds: an expression involving a root, squared or cubed etc.

Some basic rules when dealing with surds:

Also:

ifference of Two Squares

%he diIIerence oI two squares:

Rationalising Surds

When you have a Iraction where both the nominator and denominator are surds,

rationalising the surd is the process oI getting rid oI the surd on the denominator.

%o rationalise a surd you multiply top and bottom by Iraction that equals one. %ake

the example shown below

%o rationalise this multiply by eIIectively 1

Can you see why was chosen? %his is because so the

denominator becomes surd Iree.

For a more complex term

First oI all, we need to get rid oI the surd expression on the bottom, you should

remember the diIIerence oI two squares Iormula.

suppose a ÷ 1 and b ÷

So to get rid oI the denominator surd we multiply by like so.

In general

O Fractions in the Iorm multiply top and bottom by

O Fractions in the Iorm multiply the top and bottom by

O Fractions in the Iorm multiply the top and bottom by

Sequences and Series

Sequences and Series

ust a short revision summary Ior this one - there are more than enough questions in

the Heinemann books!

Proof of sum of arithmetic series

(where L

is the last term oI the series)

Add these two:

Since L is the last term, we know it equals , where n is the number

oI terms oI the series in the sum.

Proof of sum of geometric series

(we have no need Ior L this time)

%ake the Iirst Irom the second:

Sum oI convergent geometric series to inIinity. %his only happens when -1 · r · 1,

because iI r is any larger than one (or minus one), r

n

will tend to inIinity rather than

zero as n tends to inIinity (as it does when you continue the series to inIinity!), which

will mean there is no sum to inIinity.

So we have:

As n tends to inIinity, r

n

tends to zero, so (1 - r

n

) tends to one, so:

tends to

And this is the sum to inIinity oI a convergent geometric series.

Integration

Surds

A simple explanation is that a surd is the square root oI a number which is not a

perIect square. II you look in your textbook (why?) it will say that surds are roots that

cannot be expressed as rational numbers. %his means that most roots are surds: ,

, , the list goes on. You can try and work them out on a calculator, but that

will only give you an estimate, accurate to ten decimal places or so - it's not exact.

Surds are all "irrational" numbers - that means they can't be expressed as Iractions, so

their decimal expansions go on Iorever with no real pattern. (Fractions like or go

on Iorever too, but they start repeating themselves aIter a while.)

Manipulations of surds

%here are two basic identities you need to know.

O . For example, .

O . For example,

IMPORTANT: %here are no simple identities Ior adding and subtracting surds - in

most cases, something like can't be simpliIied!

Simplifying surds

For example:

%o simpliIy a surd , you have to Iind the largest perIect square that divides .

Above, that was 36. You then separate the two to get something oI the Iorm .

Sometimes this isn't easy - think oI something like ! II you can't immediately

Iind the largest Iactor, then, it's a good idea to get rid oI smaller Iactors to simpliIy the

problem. For example:

In extreme cases, just Iactorise the whole number (like in GCSE) and look Ior

repeated Iactors:

Hooray Ior calculators!

Rationalising the denominator

%his is the tricky bit. When you're dealing with Iractions, Edexcel hates it when you

leave surds on the bottom - you have to "rationalise the denominator". For example:

See what we did there? We wanted to get rid oI the surd Irom the denominator, so we

multiplied top and bottom by the surd. %hat's basically it. Another example:

%here are some Iractions where this method won't work, though, because the

denominator has more than one term in it. In that case, we have to use the /ifference

of two squares. %ake a look:

%he irrational bit cancels, making liIe easier Ior us all!

Inequalities

%he basics oI inequalities:

O - means a is less than b (so b is greater than a)

O - means a is less than or equal to b (so b is greater than or equal to a)

O - means a is greater than or equal to b etc

O - means a is greater than b etc

Solving Inequalities

II you have an inequality, you can add or subtract numbers Irom each side oI the

inequality, as with an equation. You can also multiply or divide by a constant. %his is

all done the same way as with equations. %here is one diIIerence however - iI you

multiply or divide by a negative number, the inequality sign is reversed.

Example

Solve: .

(note: sign reversed because we divided by -2)

Ranges of Values

Inequalities can be used to describe what range oI values a variable can be. E.g.

,

means is greater than or equal to 4 but less than 10.

II was limited to whole numbers, then it could be either 4, 5, 6, 7, 8 or 9, but not 10.

Graphs of Inequalities

Inequalities are represented on graphs using shading. For example, iI , the

graph oI would be drawn. %hen we shade a region oI the graph depending on

what we are asked to do. II we need to shade the points the inequality represents, then

we'd shade the points here is larger than (i.e. above the line). II we shade the

region not represented by the inequality, we'd shade the area where is less than

(i.e. the region below the line).

Example

and

(NB: this is the same as the two inequalities and )

Represent these inequalities on a graph by leaving unshaded the required regions (i.e.

do not shade the points which satisIy the inequalities, but shade everywhere else).

(diagram oI this graph is needed here)

Number Lines

Inequalities can also be represented on number lines. Draw a number line and above

the line draw a line Ior each inequality, over the numbers Ior which it is true. At the

end oI these lines, draw a circle. %he circle should be Iilled in iI the inequality can

equal that number and leIt unIilled iI it cannot.

Example

On the number line below show the solution to these inequalities.

%his can be split into the two inequalities:

and

And so:

and

thereIore:

and .

%he circle is Iilled in at 2 because the Iirst inequality speciIies that x can equal 2,

whereas x is less than (and not equal to) 3 and so the circle is not Iilled in at 3.

(diagram needed illustrating this example.)

%he solution to the pair oI inequalities occurs where the two lines overlap on the

number line, i.e. Ior .

943070-49903423.:80 /03423.947 %47.9478:7/02:95 - 084 8490 .34:800 ..947.9.943.943.7081472:.83908:7/890574.708 #.8.906:.041%4$6:.42088:7/1700 47.2470.3//03423.0.0419486:.943.80982:95-0110.8:7/4:2:95945.42509072 78941. 0300/94097/41908:7/057088434390-49942 4:84:/ 70202-0790/110703.0 900.0884109937/41908:7/4390/03423.4803%88-0. 8:55480..0 .8430%.947-0.250843-04 %47.17..0419486:.9439..83$:7/8 034:.947.708 %0/110703.943..3/- $494097/4190/03423.80.110703.3/-49942-17.708:7/8 7.

80708 0.714798430 9070.7024709.94383901472 2:95945.94383901472 7.0890.8438:22..847970..3/$0708 $06:03.3/-49942- 2:9590945.899072419080708 //908094 $3.80708 070 890..034300/14798920 .3/-49942- 2:9590945.8 41907284190807083908:2 07038903:2-07 !7441418:241042097.79209.899072 034906:. O O O 7.. 30307.3034:6:0894383 900302.3/$0708 :89.33-448 !7441418:241.94383901472 7.08.3/-49942- $06:03.08.

5.0 83903/8943139 73903/894074 84 73 903/894430 84 903/894 3/988908:294313941..77.2.9438 84 907/0.9 43..920.90 .98:7/8.397.5503803 7 -0..94389.9248974498.08.8349.3..83903/8943139 .9 $:7/8.797050.943.3:2-078%820.943.70.1907.084784 9 83490.9079..:7..986:.07039042097.384384431470.87.090178917429080.89/408034:.7014:4434:7909-44 98.3 074.30892.8:7/89086:.817. 20.0 .05.43/ $:241.947 -:99.3:2-078 9.94380 47 4 431470.3890.43.. 50710.708:7/8 9089408434:...9094903/0..390708348:2943139 $40.07944 -:99089.3 9-00570880/.3430 4723:8430 73903/9431397.0793470.7079.04:.9 .4393:09080708943139 .9.07039042097.99073 7...2..43.80708 3907.70744941..80708943139%843.943 $:7/8 825005.9390280.3:2-07.:80178.5..:.3.3349-00570880/.70744989.389.9.3/479024:943. %.

947 903 9 8...3 9220/..808 8420930 .947470.35:.147.709.947 %889097..8 93418420930 13/90.909094940984209341901472 14:.-9034: 70/0./08 -4.0 9.9/.9478 447.7094-.0.:.84:903805.8.3917.943.44//0.250 .9478090403:2-07 03$ .250 ! #%%%070.9089034: 0.3 9-082510/ $25138:7/8 470..09413/90.943.9438418:7/8 %070..3/44147 7050.9438 /0.947894825190 574-02470...708950710.938:7/8 3 2489..986:..250 470..0947.90/1../0399084:300/9434 O O 470.8090/03423.70891.90 $42092089883 90.9478 #.3/8:-97.8390/03423.9..071...8:7/ 4:.808 :891.250 3097020.//3.94097/4182..08:7/84390-49942 4:.70348250/039908147.7.250 %48251.

094:8090/110703.9438070982094/43 947 94: -0.38.947 840 2:950/945. 306:.3306:.20.4389.34706:.34706:..3...30.8906:.824709.8.80 0.708%.3100.94- 84-870.38./430908../0-.983870.9079..3-09..040. $00.03:2-07 90306:.3306:.94-09.841306:.38.9 4:. O 20./0-.807147:8.80889. O 20.80889.908 14:.9 8-.89.34706:.908 %0-..343090723939.9438%0708430/110703.9 .90//90700.9079.9..9.306:.38.0780/ .8/04190 306:.39%88 .870.9079.3.44 %077.9079.0.3.3/-49942-908:7/%.94.3.08 2.8.. $4.07 14: 2:9547/.70842017.870.9349070.908 O 20.842:9547/..3- 84-870..947.:8090 /03423.390/94097/41908:7/174290/03423.0 419486:.0.250 %070.93:2-07817420.. O 20..//478:-97.943.-9.9434:.

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

070.0834910/3.9.250 %084:94394905.3349 .1089.7..03/419080308 /7.908 %8.94 .3/ 3/84 .3/8490.250 3903:2-0730-04849084:943949080306:.0%0.54390 3:2-0730 0147 .7.9.9084.93:2-07.2300/0/:897..9 -0.3/34906:.3/019:310/19.9850...9 /.07.741306:.3 .3/ %0.:80901789306:..908 .9.7..3/ 90701470 .084:/-010/3190306:.0810/3.880889..306:.7.3 06:.:7807090943084.7.93980..3-08593949094306:.

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd