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Unit 14 William Shakespeare (1564 – 1616)
BIOGRAPHY `The Bard of Avon' apart from the famous 154 sonnets wrote not less than 37 brilliant plays, which are often quoted even today. The exact date of Shakespeare’s birth is not known, but the church record says that the baby William was baptized on April 26, 1564. That is why Shakespeare’s birthday is celebrated on April 23, the day of Saint George, England’s Holy Patron. He was the first of the four sons born to John Shakespeare (c1530-1601) and Mary Arden (c1540-1608), who also had four daughters. They lived in Stratford-uponAvon, a small market town in Warwickshire in the central part of England, 35 km south-east of Birmingham. John Shakespeare was a local merchant also involved in municipal affairs.
Right: Shakespeare’s house in Stratford-upon-Avon

In his younger years Shakespeare attended the Christian Holy Trinity church studying the Book of Common Prayer and the English Bible. In 1582 William, being 18 years old, married Anne Hathaway, who was 25. They gave birth to three children: two daughters (Susanna and Judith), and the son Hamnet, who died when he was only 11. It is not exactly clear what Shakespeare was doing in the first few years after the marriage, but it is known that he went to London and worked at The Globe theatre, possibly as one of the Queen's Men (one of the leading theatrical groups), then he joined the Lord Chamberlain's Men, another group which later was called the King’s Men. They performed in a number of theatres in London and traveled around the country. It is said that Shakespeare himself acted in a number of roles such as, for example, the ghost in Hamlet. Within a few years he had become one of the best-known authors in England. He wrote most of his known sonnets and plays between 1589 and 1613. The last several years of his life he spent in Stratford, visiting London only occasionally, before he died on April 23, 1616. Shakespeare is buried in the Holy Trinity Church in Stratford upon Avon. Anne Hathaway outlived her husband by seven years, dying in 1623 and is buried beside him.
Left: Scene from Midsummer Night’s Dream

WORKS Shakespeare’s literary activities may be divided into four periods from the point of view of the development of his talent and changing ideals.

57 (1) The first or early period lasted from probably 1592 to 1595 full of youthful love and imagination. Among the plays that are typical of these years are such brilliant comedies as The Comedy of Errors, A Midsummer Night's Dream, The Taming of the Shrew, Two Gentlemen of Verona .He also wrote his famous tragedy Romeo and Juliet, and historical plays Richard II and Richard III.
Right: David Garrick as Richard III, by William Hogarth, 1745

(2) The second period, from 1595 to 1601, shows tremendous progress in Shakespeare’s dramatic art. There is less exaggeration, more realism, and a deeper insight into human nature. Among the plays of this period are comedies The Merchant of Venice, Much Ado About Nothing, As You Like It and Merry Wives of Windsor; and some historical plays, Henry IV and Henry V among others. (3) The third period, from 1601 to 1608, may be characterized as one in which he felt that the time was out of joint, that life was a painful fever. His only son and heir had been dead by the time when his father died in 1601, after his career was ruined. His best friends suffered what he calls, in Hamlet, "the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune." In 1601 Elizabeth executed the Earl of Essex for treason, and on the same charge threw the Earl of Southampton into the Tower. Even Shakespeare himself might have been suspected. The great plays of this period are such powerful tragedies as Julius Caesar, Antony and Cleopatra, Hamlet, Othello, Coriolanus, Macbeth and King Lear.
Right: Scene from Othello, a modern ballet.

(4) The plays of his fourth period, 1608-1613, are marked with calm strength and sweetness. The fierceness and violence of Othello and Macbeth are forgotten. In 1608 Shakespeare's mother died. Her death and the vivid recollection of her kindness and love may have been strong factors in causing him to look on life with kindlier eyes. The greatest plays of this period are such comedies as Cymbeline, The Winter's Tale, and The Tempest, and a historical play King Henry VIII.
VOCABULARY NOTES baptize – охрестити tremendous - величезний; приголомшливий exaggeration – перебільшення insight - прозорливість; проникливість outrageous - жорстокий; несамовитий; шалений execute – страчувати treason – зрада

58 ROMEO AND JULIET The play, set in Verona, begins with a street brawl between Montague and Capulet supporters. The two noble families have been adversaries for years. Romeo of the Montague family secretly attends the ball at the Capulet house where he meets and falls in love with Juliet, a thirteen-year old Capulet’s daughter. After the ball Romeo sneaks into the Capulet orchard and overhears Juliet at her window vowing her love to him in spite of her family's hatred of the Montagues. Romeo shows himself and they agree to be married. With the help of Friar Laurence, who hopes to reconcile the two families through their children's union, they are secretly married the next day. Juliet's cousin Tybalt, learning that Romeo sneaked into the Capulet ball, challenges him to a duel. Romeo, now considering Tybalt his kinsman, refuses to fight. Romeo’s friend Mercutio decides to fight on Romeo's behalf. Mercutio is fatally wounded when Romeo attempts to break up the fight. Grief-stricken and wracked with guilt, Romeo confronts and kills Tybalt. The Prince exiles Romeo from Verona and declares that if Romeo returns, "that hour is his last." Romeo secretly spends the night in Juliet's chamber. Capulet, misinterpreting Juliet's grief, agrees to marry her to Count Paris, who has already made his proposal, and threatens to disown her when she refuses to become Paris's "joyful bride." Juliet visits Friar Laurence for help, and he offers her a drug that will put her into a death-like coma for "two and forty hours." The Friar promises to send a messenger to inform Romeo of the plan, so that he can rejoin her when she awakens. On the night before the wedding, she takes the drug and, when discovered apparently dead, she is laid in the family crypt. The messenger, however, does not reach Romeo and, instead, Romeo learns of Juliet's death. Heartbroken, Romeo buys poison and goes to the Capulet crypt. He encounters Paris who has come to mourn Juliet privately. Believing Romeo to be a vandal, Paris confronts him and, in the battle that follows, Romeo kills Paris. Still believing Juliet to be dead, he drinks the poison. Juliet then awakens and, finding Romeo dead, stabs herself with his dagger. The feuding families and the Prince meet at the tomb to find all three dead. Friar Laurence tells the story of the two "starcross'd lovers". The families are reconciled by their children's deaths and agree to end their violent feud. The play ends with the Prince's elegy for the lovers: "For never was a story of more woe / Than this of Juliet and her Romeo." The plot of this story of true and tragic love is well known in all parts of the civilized world. The deaths of Romeo and Juliet are necessary since their families are enemies, and death is the only way out of their hopeless situation.
VOCABULARY NOTES brawl - галаслива сварка; вуличний скандал adversaries – вороги, суперники reconcile – примиряти, залагоджувати kinsman – родич crypt – склеп feud – ворожнеча elegy – елегія; скорботні вірші, або пісня

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HAMLET The story opens on a chilly night at Elsinore, the Danish royal castle. Hamlet, Prince of Denmark, is informed that a ghost that looks like the dead King Hamlet appears in the castle every night. Hamlet decides to see the Ghost himself. That night, the Ghost appears again. It tells Hamlet that he—the elder Hamlet—was murdered by his brother Claudius by pouring poison in his ear. The Ghost demands that Hamlet avenge him; Hamlet agrees. He decides to investigate his father’s death first. In order not to be suspected by the murderer he behaves as if he is not completely sane. The point is that after King Hamlet’s death Claudius became the king and married widowed Queen Gertrude, Hamlet’s mother. Claudius tells Polonius, his trusted chief counselor, to keep an eye on Hamlet. Polonius has two children: Laertes and Ophelia. Ophelia is courted by Hamlet. Both Polonius and Laertes warn Ophelia that Hamlet is surely not serious about her. Shortly afterward, Ophelia is alarmed by Hamlet's strange behavior, reporting to her father that Hamlet rushed into her room, stared at her, and said nothing (see the picture on the right). Polonius assumes that the "ecstasy of love" is responsible for Hamlet's "mad" behavior, and he informs Claudius and Gertrude. Alerted by Hamlet's continuing deep mourning for his father and his increasingly strange behavior, Claudius sends for two of Hamlet's acquaintances—Rosencrantz and Guildenstern— to find out the cause of that. Hamlet greets his friends warmly but quickly finds out that they have been sent to spy on him. Hamlet remains uncertain whether the Ghost has told him the truth, but the arrival of a troupe of actors at Elsinore presents him with a solution. He will have them stage a play, The Murder of Gonzago, re-enacting his father's murder. He wants to see Claudius’s reaction to seeing the scene of the murder. The whole Royal Court watches the performance. When the murder scene is presented, Claudius abruptly rises and leaves the room, which Hamlet sees as proof of his uncle's guilt. Gertrude summons Hamlet to her room to demand an explanation. On his way, Hamlet sees Claudius in prayer, but hesitates to kill him, reasoning that death in prayer would send him to heaven (see the picture on the right). An argument erupts between Hamlet and Gertrude. Polonius is spying on the scene from behind the curtain. Hamlet notices that and, believing it is Claudius hiding behind the curtain, stabs wildly through the cloth, killing Polonius. The Ghost appears, urging Hamlet to treat Gertrude gently, but reminding him to kill Claudius. Unable to see or hear the Ghost herself, Gertrude takes Hamlet's conversation with it as further evidence of madness.

60 Claudius, now fearing for his life, finds a legitimate excuse to get rid of the prince: he sends Hamlet to England on a diplomatic mission, accompanied (and closely watched) by Rosencrantz and Guildenstern. Alone, Claudius discloses that he is actually sending Hamlet to his death. At Elsinore, overwhelmed by grief at her father Polonius's death, Ophelia runs mad. Her brother, Laertes, returns from France, horrified by his father's death and his sister's madness. Claudius convinces Laertes that Hamlet is responsible; then news arrives that Hamlet is still alive—the story is spread that his ship was attacked by pirates on the way to England, and he has returned to Denmark. Claudius wants to kill his nephew. He suggests a fencing match between Laertes and Hamlet. The tip of Laertes’s sword is poisoned so that a mere scratch would mean certain death. Claudius, unsure that capable Hamlet could receive even a scratch, plans to offer Hamlet poisoned wine if that fails. Ophelia commits suicide drowning. In the Elsinore churchyard, two gravediggers enter to prepare Ophelia's grave. Hamlet arrives with his friend Horatio and finds there the skull of a jester whom Hamlet once knew, Yorick ("Alas, Poor Yorick; I knew him, Horatio."). When Ophelia's funeral procession approaches, her mournful brother Laertes curses Hamlet as the case of her death. Hamlet tells him about his own love and grief for Ophelia. Later that day, Hamlet tells Horatio how he escaped death on his journey, disclosing that Rosencrantz and Guildenstern have been sent to their deaths instead. Horatio suspects the plot to kill Hamlet during the fencing match. Despite Horatio's warnings, Hamlet accepts the challenge and the match begins. After several rounds, Gertrude toasts Hamlet— against the urgent warning of Claudius— accidentally drinking the wine he poisoned. Laertes attacks and pierces Hamlet with his poisoned blade. Hamlet manages to use Laertes's own poisoned sword against him. Gertrude falls and, in her dying breath, announces that she has been poisoned. In his dying moments, Laertes makes peace with Hamlet and reveals Claudius's murderous plot. Hamlet stabs Claudius with the poisoned sword, and then forces him to drink from his own poisoned cup to make sure he dies. In his final moments, Hamlet names Prince Fortinbras of Norway as the probable heir to the throne. Horatio attempts to kill himself with the same poisoned wine but is stopped by Hamlet, as he will be the only one left alive who can give a full account of the story.

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Hamlet’s tragic weakness is hesitation, inability to act when action is needed. He is too much of a thinker to survive in the cruel world of intrigue, treason, jealousy and murder.
VOCABULARY NOTES аvenge - мстити(ся) sane - нормальний, при своєму розумі court (v) – залицятися acquaintance – знайомий re-enact – відтворювати (подію) stab – заколоти, встромити, завдати удару гострою зброєю overwhelm - приголомшувати, вражати fencing – фехтування heir – спадкоємець

TASK: Compare the original text of famous Hamlet’s monologue with the translation. Which do you like best?
To be, or not to be, that is the question: Whether 'tis Nobler in the mind to suffer The Slings and Arrows of outrageous Fortune, Or to take Arms against a Sea of troubles, And by opposing end them: to die, to sleep No more; and by a sleep, to say we end The heart-ache, and the thousand Natural shocks That Flesh is heir to? 'Tis a consummation Devoutly to be wished. To die to sleep, To sleep, perchance to Dream; Ay, there's the rub, For in that sleep of death, what dreams may come, When we have shuffled off this mortal coil, Must give us pause. There's the respect That makes Calamity of so long life: For who would bear the Whips and Scorns of time, The Oppressor's wrong, the proud man's Contumely, The pangs of despised Love, the Law’s delay, The insolence of Office, and the Spurns That patient merit of the unworthy takes, When he himself might his Quietus make With a bare Bodkin? Who would Fardels bear, To grunt and sweat under a weary life, But that the dread of something after death, The undiscovered Country, from whose bourn No Traveller returns, Puzzles the will, And makes us rather bear those ills we have, Than fly to others that we know not of. Thus Conscience does make Cowards of us all, And thus the Native hue of Resolution Is sicklied o'er, with the pale cast of Thought, And enterprises of great pitch and moment, With this regard their Currents turn awry, And lose the name of Action. Soft you now, The fair Ophelia? Nymph, in thy Orisons Be all my sins remember

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Hamlet and the Ghost Ofelia’s madness Быть или не быть, вот в чем вопрос. Достойно ль Смиряться под ударами судьбы, Иль надо оказать сопротивленье И в смертной схватке с целым морем бед Покончить с ними? Умереть. Забыться. И знать, что этим обрываешь цепь Сердечных мук и тысячи лишений, Присущих телу. Это ли не цель Желанная? Скончаться. Сном забыться. Уснуть... и видеть сны? Вот и ответ. Какие сны в том смертном сне приснятся, Когда покров земного чувства снят? Вот в чем разгадка. Вот что удлиняет Несчастьям нашим жизнь на столько лет. А то кто снес бы униженья века, Неправду угнетателей, вельмож Заносчивость, отринутое чувство, Нескорый суд и более всего Насмешки недостойных над достойным, Когда так просто сводит все концы Удар кинжала! Кто бы согласился, Кряхтя, под ношей жизненной плестись, Когда бы неизвестность после смерти, Боязнь страны, откуда ни один Не возвращался, не склоняла воли Мириться лучше со знакомым злом, Чем бегством к незнакомому стремиться! Так всех нас в трусов превращает мысль, И вянет, как цветок, решимость наша В бесплодье умственного тупика, Так погибают замыслы с размахом, В начале обещавшие успех, От долгих отлагательств. Но довольно! Офелия! О радость! Помяни Мои грехи в своих молитвах, нимфа.

Hamlet, Claudius and Gertrude

Translated by B.Pasternak

Чи бути, чи не бути, от питання! Що благородніше в душі: терпіти Пращі і стріли злющої фортуни, Чи збунтуватися против моря туч І бунтуванням їм кінець зробити? Умерти, се заснути, більш нічого, І сном своїм сказати: ми кінчаєм Всі муки серця й тисячу природніх Тортур, що ми внаслідували тілом. Сього кінця жадати нам – побожно. Умерти, се заснуть; заснуть! А може, Сни бачити?.. Отут-то й є перепин. У сні чи в смерті що то буде снитись, Як струснемо земні тривоги з себе? От що нас зупиняє. От увага, Що робить довгими нещастя жизні. Бо хто б схотів весь вік терпіти муки І насміхи, гніт сильних і знущання Гордині, біль одіпхнутого серця, Загарливість закону, підлість суддів І ту зневагу, що заслуга мовчки Приймає від нікчемних, Коли б міг сам, одним штихом кинджала

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Від усього цього спастися? Хто би Ніс той тягар, стогнав і прів під тиском Життя, якби не страх чогось по смерті? Якби не той нещасний край, з котрого Ще не вертав ніхто, мутив нам волю? То й радше зносим біди ті, що маєм, Аніж тікать до інших, нам незнаних. От так-то совість трусами нас робить, І так природний рум’янець відваги Вкриваєсь блідним покостом задуми, І замисли могутні та важкі Від погляду сего звертають набік І тратять назву діл. То гаді! Бач, Офелія вродлива! Німфо, пом’яни В твоїх молитвах всі гріхи мої. Translated by P.Kulish

KING LEAR Aging King Lear wants to retire from power. He decides to divide his realm among his three daughters, and offers the largest share to the one who loves him best. His daughters Goneril and Regan both proclaim that they love him more than anything in the world, which pleases him. For his younger daughter Cordelia, there is nothing to compare her love to, nor words to properly express it; she speaks honestly which infuriates him. In his anger he disinherits her, and divides the kingdom between Regan and Goneril. The Duke of Kent, King Lear’s counselor, objects to this unfair treatment. Lear is further enraged by Kent's protests, and banishes him from the country. Cordelia leaves and marries the King of France. Lear announces he will live alternately with Goneril and Regan, and their husbands, the Dukes of Albany and Cornwall respectively. Goneril and Regan soon show their ingratitude. They deprive King Lear of his servants and shelter. In the key scene Lear is spending a stormy night outdoors accompanied only by his jester. Unable to sustain the hardships Lear enters the state of insanity but regains his lost humanity and sees his mistakes. Later, he is joined by Kent who comes to protect the poor old man. Meanwhile Cordelia brings the French army to her dear father’s rescue. Lear is taken to her, recognizes his daughter and restores his sanity. Goneril, Regan and the Duke of Cornwall lead the British army into battle. The French are defeated, Cordelia and Lear captured. The Duke of Gloucester’s illegitimate son Edmund enjoys his power, being the lover of both Regan and Goneril, and orders to kill Lear and Cordelia. Lear’s youngest daughter is executed, and her father dies of broken heart. Goneril poisons Regan for jealousy to Edmund, and later commits suicide because her plan to kill her husband and to marry Edmund is revealed. Edmund is put for a trial by combat and is killed by his brother Edgar who was banished from home after Edmund’s faked evidence of him being guilty of attempting a murder of his father.

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Right: The Globe theatre in Shakespeare’s times.

In the end England receives a new king. There are two versions of the final part: either Edgar or Duke of Albany (former Goneril’s husband) is crowned. Shakespeare skillfully embeds a subplot into the main story. Lear’s tragedy is paralleled by that of Duke of Gloucester, who trusts the wrong son, Edmund, and rejects the faithful one, Edgar. It is Edgar who guides his blinded father around, and later avenges him by slaying Edmund. The two tragedies are interwoven throughout the play. The most memorable scene is the meeting of the insane Lear and the blind Gloucester on the road near Dover.
Right: Cordelia, by William Yeames

Another subplot tells about Goneril and Regan competing in adultery, seeking attention of the same lover – Edmund. Their end is sad: their unfaithfulness leads them to death. First performed in 1605, this is considered to be the greatest of Shakespeare’s tragedies reaching into the deepest places of the human spirit. Lear’s biggest weakness is his openness to flattery, which makes him an easy target for conspiracy and manipulation. Its intricate plot containing several subplots makes it extremely difficult to retell, and next to impossible to stage.
Right: The stage of the Globe theatre in Shakespeare’s times. VOCABULARY NOTES realm - володіння banish – виганяти (в заслання) ingratitude – невдячність illegitimate – незаконний faked – підроблений, сфальшований flattery – лестощі conspiracy – заколот, змова

CONCLUSION Shakespeare created a new epoch in world literature. The ideas of the Renaissance, the struggle for happiness and freedom are expressed in his works in a most realistic way. Quite often the Bard of Avon shows the darkest side of things in his tragedies. Yet in the same tragedies we can feel his firm belief in a better future for mankind. Peace is finally established between the Montague and Capulet families: bloodshed is over. Adultery and blind lust pay Gertrude back with death; the evil murderer Claudius receives capital punishment. The Kingdom of Denmark is ruled by a noble and powerful monarch (Fortinbras of Norway). Horatio is alive to tell us the tragic story of Hamlet, Prince of Denmark. England receives a trustworthy king (Edgar or Albany) after every last villain is wiped off the scene. The development of Shakespeare’s universal and realistic characters makes him different from his predecessors whose characters remain mostly static and do not change all through their

65 plays. They speak the realistic language that has developed into modern English being very close to it even at that time. William Shakespeare died about four hundred years ago but scholars still research his works making new discoveries; his plays are staged all over the world where you can hardly find a theatre where they have never been performed. Every actor and actress dreams about playing a Shakespeare’s character, and for those lucky ones whose dream came true it was the peak of their artistic careers. His native Stratford-upon-Avon has become a place of pilgrimage and a centre of tourism.
VOCABULARY NOTES adultery – перелюбство capital punishment – смертна кара villain – негідник predecessor – попередник

Below: The restored Globe theatre today.

COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Why is Shakespeare’s birthday celebrated on April 23? Why Shakespeare is called the “Bard of Avon”? Give a brief characteristic of each period of Shakespeare’s literary activities. Why Romeo and Juliet’s death was inevitable? Why Hamlet could not survive? What destroyed King Lear’s life? Why do people read Shakespeare today?

MODULE 5

The Enlightenment Period

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The period that followed the Restoration of the British monarchy made merchants and other middle-class representatives quite active and important from the social point of view. Journalism was born, as political struggle involved broad masses of English population. Newspapers appeared, publishing pamphlets which not only reported the events but explained them to the readers. From the point of view of philosophy it was a pragmatic and rational age. Literature reflected the ideas of middle class and prose became more popular than poetry. The study of man and the origin of his good and evil qualities was the central problem for the writers of the time. Some intellectuals, known as enlighteners, believed that an individual was virtuous by nature and vice was due to ignorance only. They wanted to bring knowledge (‘light’) to people through education, which was supposed to do away with all the evil and establish harmony in the society.

Unit 15
Daniel Defoe (1660 – 1731)
This Unit is based on Oksana MARYNENKO’s project work of 2011

Right: Daniel Defoe by Michael Van der Gucht, 1706

EARLY YEARS Born Daniel Foe, he was an English writer, journalist, and pamphleteer, who gained fame for his novel Robinson Crusoe. Defoe is notable for being one of the earliest proponents of the novel, as he helped to popularize the form in Britain and is among the founders of the English novel. A prolific and versatile writer, he wrote more than 500 books, pamphlets and journals on various topics (including politics, crime, religion, marriage, psychology and the supernatural). He was also a pioneer of economic journalism. Little is known about the birth and early childhood of Daniel Defoe, as no baptism record exists for him. It is likely that he was born in London, England, in 1660. James Foe, his father, was a butcher by trade and also a Protestant Presbyterian, which means that he did not belong to the Church of England. He wanted his son to be a minister (Presbyterian priest), but Daniel chose commerce. Daniel Defoe added the De to his original last name Foe when he was forty. In 1684 Defoe married Mary Tuffley, who made him 3,700 pounds richer. They had seven children. Defoe participated briefly in the Monmouth Rebellion of 1685, a Protestant uprising, but escaped capture and punishment. From 1685 through 1692 he engaged in trade in London as a wholesale agent, an importer of wine and tobacco, and part owner and insurer of ships. However, he was not a successful businessman and went bankrupt several times. He was much more successful as a pamphleteer, a career which he had started in about 1682.
VOCABULARY NOTES enlightenment - просвітництво

proponent – той, що пропонує

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Presbyterian - Пресвитеріанський go bankrupt – збанкрутіти prolific - плідний, продуктивний versatile – багатогранний

JOURNALIST AND SECRET AGENT In 1702 Defoe wrote a highly ironic pamphlet The Shortest Way with the Dissenters in which he ridiculed the church authorities. It took them a year to understand that Defoe had not praised them. The author was arrested and sentenced to seven years in prison and being put into pillory (see the picture on the left). Somehow he managed to write his famous Hymn of the Pillory, which had never been published but, instead, was put into circulation by his friends. It had immediate public success, and when Defoe was put in stocks the crowd cheerfully greeted him singing his Hymn. He was released five months later in exchange for becoming a government agent. Defoe continued to serve the government as journalist, pamphleteer, and secret agent for the remainder of his life. As far as we can judge now he was allowed to freely express his thoughts in his pamphlets thus establishing contacts with different groups opposing the government, and report about these contacts to the government.
VOCABULARY NOTES ridicule – висміювати praise – вихваляти

pillory - ганебний стовп in stocks – в колодках

ROBINSON CRUSOE At the age of fifty-nine, after a full career as businessman, government servant, political pamphleteer, and journalist, Defoe began a career as a novelist. Within six years he produced six novels, all of which gave him his greatest fame. In 1719 Defoe published his most lasting work, The Life and Strange Surprizing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe. Full title Although commonly referred to as simply Robinson Crusoe the book’s complete, original title as it appears on the title page of the first edition (see the picture below) is The Life and Strange Surprizing Adventures of Robinson Crusoe, of York, Mariner: Who lived Eight and Twenty Years, all alone in an un‐inhabited Island on the Coast of America, near the Mouth of the Great River of Oroonoque; Having been cast on Shore by Shipwreck, wherein all the Men perished but himself. With An Account how he was at last as strangely deliver’d by Pyrates.

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Plot summary The story is based squarely on the true experience of Alexander Selkirk, the sailor who spent five years (1704 – 1709) on a desert island in the Pacific. Robinson Crusoe sets sail from the Queen's Dock in Hull on a sea voyage in August 1651, against the wishes of his parents. He suffers a number of misfortunes such as, for example, in the hands of Barbary pirates. Finally Crusoe is shipwrecked off the South America’s coast and finds himself marooned on an uninhabited island. The reader witness Robinson’s resourcefulness in making tools, equipment, clothes and a shelter. After years of loneliness one day Robinson is terrified to see a man’s footprint on the beach. Following the trail he comes across cannibals’ feast. Using his firearms he makes the savages retreat and rescues a young native man who was about to be eaten by them. Robinson names the native Friday after the day of his rescue, and trains him as his servant and friend. Together they rescue an English captain from his mutinous crew. The mutineers are overcome; the captain restores his authority and takes Robinson accompanied by Friday to England.

69 The most attractive Robinson’s feature is his optimism. His principles are formulated by the author as ‘never say die’ and ‘to be in trouble troubled is to have your trouble doubled’. Sometimes he panics, but never for long. Another quality that helped him to overcome all the hardships he faces is that he puts his whole heart into everything he does. His strongest belief is that a man is capable of achieving any goal, with God’s help. The novel glorifies labor and energy, and shows man’s triumph over nature. As a true writer of the Enlightenment Defoe teaches his readers many lessons about how to live a decent life, what is good, and what is bad. The author contributed to the treasury of the world literature such characters as resourceful and optimistic Robinson Crusoe who symbolizes the expanding British Empire and Friday, an icon of the Noble Savage, who, according to Robinson, becomes a better Christian than his master. OTHER MAJOR FICTION Defoe published comparatively little in 1721, because he was hard at work on the three major books that were to appear the following year. In January 1722 he published The Fortunes and Misfortunes of the Famous Moll Flanders, probably the most successful of his novels. A Journal of the Plague Year, issued in March 1722, presented a picture of life in London during the Great Plague of 1665; it was thought to be history rather than fiction for more than a hundred years. His third novel, The History and Remarkable Life of the Truly Honourable Col. Jacque, was published in December 1722. In 1724 and 1725 Defoe published four successful books. The Fortunate Mistress or Roxana was the first of three in 1724. The second, A Tour Thro' the Whole Island of Great Britain was one of the most thorough guidebooks of the period, and the third, The History of the Remarkable Life of John Sheppard was one of his finest criminal biographies. The True and Genuine Account of the Life and Actions of the Late Jonathan Wild was the fourth book, published in 1725. Daniel Defoe died at the age of seventy-one on April 24, 1731, outside of London, England.

VOCABULARY NOTES squarely – безпосередньо set sail – підіймати вітрила

misfortune – нещастя, невдача shipwreck – корабельна аварія resourcefulness – винахідливість

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marooned – опинятися в безвихідному становищі trail – слід mutiny – бунт проти влади decent – гідний savage – дикун Right : Robinson recovers whatever he can from the shipwreck

COMPREHENSION QUESTIONS 1. What made pamphlets in the newspapers popular? 2. Why Defoe was put in stocks? 3. What happened to Robinson Crusoe? 4. What are the most prominent features of Robinson’s character? 5. How do you understand Robinson’s motto: BE IN TROUBLE TROUBLED IS TO HAVE YOUR TROUBLE DOUBLED? 6. What makes Defoe a true writer of the Enlightenment? so

TO

Jonathan Swift (1667 – 1745)
Jonathan Swift’s Biography
Jonathan Swift was an Anglo-Irish satirist, essayist, political pamphleteer and cleric who became Dean of St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin. He probably is the most outstanding prose satirist in the English language. Jonathan Swift was born on 30 November 1667 in Dublin, Ireland. His father died early, and not much is known about the life of young Jonathan. His relatives took care of him and he was sent to Kilkenny College. In 1682 he attended Dublin University (Trinity College, Dublin), receiving his B.A. (Bachelor of Arts’ degree) in 1686. Political troubles in Ireland forced him to leave for England. In 1688, he received a position as secretary and personal assistant of Sir William Temple, a prominent English diplomat in his estate at Moor Park, Farnham. Swift received his M.A. from Hertford College, Oxford in 1692. With Temple’s death in 1699 Swift’s career in England came to the end. He went back to Ireland and soon became a priest in St. Patrick’s Cathedral, Dublin (see the picture on the right).

71 In February 1702, Swift received his Doctor of Divinity degree from Trinity College, Dublin. During his visits to England in 1702 – 1713 Swift published A Tale of a Tub and The Battle of the Books (1704) and began to gain a reputation as a writer. Also in these years Swift became increasingly active politically. From 1707 to 1709 and again in 1710, Swift was in London, representing the interests of the Irish clergy. In 1713 he returned to Ireland and received the position of a dean in St. Patrick’s Cathedral. Once in Ireland, Swift began writing pamphlets in support of Irish causes. Such his works as Proposal for Universal Use of Irish Manufacture (1720), Drapier's Letters (1724), and A Modest Proposal (1729), earned him the status of an Irish patriot. Also during these years, he began writing his masterpiece, Travels into Several Remote Nations of the World, in Four Parts, by Lemuel Gulliver, first a surgeon, and then a captain of several ships, better known as Gulliver's Travels. His health declined in the last decade of his life, and his mind failed. Swift died on October 19, 1745, leaving the money to start a hospital for mentally disabled. He is buried in St. Patrick’s Cathedral in Dublin where he had served as a dean for so many years.
VOCABULARY NOTES estate – помістя dean – декан, інспекторська посада при церкві masterpiece – шедевр surgeon – хірург, (корабельний) лікар

Swift’s Works
A Tale of a Tub, (see the illustration on the right) the first Swift’s major work, published in 1704, is probably his best satire. The Tale is a prose allegory telling about the life of three brothers each representing one of the main branches of western Christianity (the Roman Catholic Church, various Protestant churches and the Church of England). The brothers have inherited three wonderful coats (representing religious practice) by their father (representing God), and they have his will (representing the Bible) to guide them. The will says that the brothers cannot make any changes to their coats, but they start to alter their coats from the very beginning. The Battle of the Books is a short allegoric satire published together with A Tale of a Tub in 1704. It depicts a literal battle between books in the King's Library as ideas and authors struggle for supremacy (see the illustration on the right). In 1729, Swift published A Modest Proposal for Preventing the Children of Poor People in Ireland Being Burden to Their Parents or Country, and for Making Them Beneficial to the Public, a satire in which the

a

72 narrator, with intentionally grotesque logic, recommends that Ireland's poor escape their poverty by selling their children as food to the rich: ”I have been assured by a very knowing American of my acquaintance in London, that a young healthy child well nursed is at a year old a most delicious, nourishing, and wholesome food...”
VOCABULARY NOTES

inherit – успадкувати literal – буквальний supremacy – вищість intentionally – навмисне

Gulliver’s Travels
Gulliver's Travels was written in 1726 and amended in 1735. It is a four-part satire on human nature. Part I: A Voyage to Lilliput On his first voyage, Gulliver is washed ashore after a shipwreck and awakes to find himself a prisoner of a race of people one-twelfth the size of normal human beings, less than 6 inches (15 cm) high, who are inhabitants of the neighbouring and rival countries of Lilliput and Blefuscu. After he promises to behave himself well, he is given a residence in Lilliput and becomes a favourite of the court. From there, the book follows Gulliver's observations on the Court of Lilliput. Gulliver helps the Lilliputians in the war with their neighbours the Blefuscudians by stealing their fleet (see the picture on the right). However, he refuses to attack Blefuscu, displeasing the King and the court. Gulliver is charged with treason and sentenced to be blinded. With the assistance of a kind friend, Gulliver escapes to Blefuscu, where he finds an abandoned boat and sails away. He is picked up by a ship and rescued. Part II: A Voyage to Brobdingnag Gulliver’s ship loses its way in storms and forced to go in to land for want of fresh water. The land is inhabited by giants. Gulliver is abandoned by his companions and found by a farmer who is 72 feet (22 m) tall. He brings Gulliver home and his daughter cares for Gulliver. The farmer treats him as a curiosity and exhibits him for money. The word gets out and the Queen of Brobdingnag wants to see the show. She loves Gulliver and he is then bought by her and kept as a favourite at court. The queen orders to build a small house for Gulliver so that he can be carried around in it. He calls it his "travelling box." In between small adventures such as fighting giant wasps and being carried to the roof by a monkey, he discusses the state of Europe with the King.

73 The King is not impressed with Gulliver's accounts of Europe, especially upon learning of the usage of guns and cannons. On a trip to the seaside, his travelling box is seized by a giant eagle which drops Gulliver and his box right into the sea where he is picked up by some sailors, who return him to England. Part III: A Voyage to Laputa, Balnibarbi, Luggnagg, Glubbdubdrib, and Japan After Gulliver's ship is attacked by pirates, he is marooned on a small island. Fortunately he is rescued by the flying island of Laputa, a kingdom devoted to the arts of music and mathematics but unable to use them for practical purposes. While on Laputa, he tours the country as a guest and sees the ruin brought about by blind pursuit of science without practical results. This part is considered to be a satire on the Royal Society (English Academy of Sciences) and its experiments. However, Swift’s description of scientific achievements on Laputa presents some surprising and mysterious details. Mystery # 1 Laputa looks and performs just like a UFO propelled by a magnetic engine, which the author describes in detail. Some experts say that such engine can be built and the only problem is the size of the energy source. Laputa's technique of throwing rocks at rebellious surface cities also seems the first time that aerial bombardment was mentioned as a method of warfare. Mystery #2 Laputan astronomers were reported by Swift to have discovered two moons of Mars. In reality Phobos and Deimos (on the right) were discovered 150 years later. Mystery #3 Laputa has a “word machine” that is nothing less than a giant mechanical computer used for making sentences and books. Compare its illustration (on the left) with the 1971 Intel 4004 Microprocessor (on the right).

Part IV: A Voyage to the Country of the Houyhnhnms

74 Gulliver returns to sea as the captain of a ship. While at sea he faces a mutiny on board and is marooned in the land where he comes first upon a race of ugly creatures called “Yahoos“. Soon afterwards he meets a horse and understands that the horses (in their language “Houyhnhnm “or "the perfection of nature") are the rulers and the “Yahoos“ are human beings in their most primitive form. Gulliver becomes a member of the horse's household. He admires the Houyhnhnms and their lifestyle, rejecting Yahoos even though he himself looks like them. However, an Assembly of the Houyhnhnms rules that Gulliver, a “Yahoo with some semblance of reason”, is a danger to their civilization and he is expelled. He is rescued by a Portuguese ship, and is surprised to see that Captain Pedro de Mendez, a Yahoo, is a wise, courteous and generous person. He returns to his home in England, but he is unable to live among Yahoos and remains most of the time in his house, avoiding his family, and spending several hours a day speaking with the horses in his stables.

The book has three major themes:
• a satirical view of European system of government; • a satirical view of unimportant differences between religions; • an inquiry into whether men are naturally corrupt or whether they become corrupted. The story follows a pattern: Gulliver's misadventures go from bad to worse - he is first shipwrecked, then abandoned, then attacked by strangers pirates), then attacked by his own crew. Gulliver's attitude hardens as the book progresses — first he is sincerely surprised by the viciousness and politicking of the Lilliputians; but in the end he thinks that the disgusting behavior of the Yahoos reflects the behavior of people in general. Part 1: Lilliput Part 2: Brobdingnag Part 3: Laputa Part 4: Country of the Houyhnhnms INTELLIGENT (but is not understood) NATURAL BETTER

Gulliver BIG SMALL (as compared /feels superior/ /feels inferior/ to local people) Country COMPLEX SIMPLE BETTER

IGNORANT (does not understand) SCIENTIFIC WORSE

Government WORSE (as compared to England’s)

The book contains some distinct messages such as:
• No form of government is ideal. In Brobdingnag they enjoy public executions and have streets infested with beggars. The honest and noble Houyhnhnms who have no word for lying are ready to kill a filthy Yahoo and don’t see how Gulliver differs from a Yahoo.

75 • Specific individuals may be good even where the race is bad — Gulliver finds a friend in each of his travels.

Despite the depth of the book, it is often classified as a children's story because of the popularity of the Lilliput section. It is still possible to buy books entitled Gulliver's Travels which contain only parts of the Lilliput voyage.
VOCABULARY NOTES observation – спостереження abandon – кидати, залишати curiosity – дивина pursuit – прагнення, пошуки, переслідування propel – приводити в дію, надавати руху household – домашнє господарство expel – виганяти politicking – політиканство filthy – брудний

Jonathan Swift and His Works Check-up Task 1: Fill in the blanks with one word
1. Jonathan Swift was born on 30 November 1667 in___________, Ireland. 2. In 1688, he received a position as ___________and personal assistant of Sir William Temple. 3. Sir William Temple was a prominent English ___________. 4. Swift received his M.A. from Hertford College, ____________. 5. His works earned him the status of an Irish ____________. 6. He received the position of a dean in St. Patrick’s ______________. 7. The Lilliputians are _____ cm high. 8. Gulliver helps the Lilliputians in the war with their neighbours by stealing their _________. 9. Gulliver’s visit to Brobdingnag ends when his travelling box is seized by a giant _________. 10.The third part of Gulliver’s Travels is considered to be a satire on the ___________Society. 11. “Houyhnhnm “means “the perfection of ___________" in the local horses’ language. 12. In each of his travels Gulliver finds a _______________.

Task 2: Mark the statements “True” or “False”
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. A lot is known about the life of young Jonathan. Swift’s career in England came to the end because of Temple’s death. Swift returned to Ireland and never visited England since then. The three brothers in the Tale of a Tub represent main branches of western Christianity. The Battle of the Books is set in the King’s Library.

76 6. In his Modest Proposal Swift suggests that poor Irish people sell their children as slaves to America’s plantations. 7. Gulliver is sentenced to be blinded because he refuses to attack Blefuscu. 8. The King of Brobdingnag is greatly impressed with Gulliver's accounts of European affairs. 9. Gulliver is rescued by the flying island of Laputa after being attacked by pirates. 10.In the third part of Gulliver’s Travels Swift describes a computer. 11. In the end of the fourth part Gulliver thinks that all the people are similar to the Yahoos. 12. Specific individuals are no better than the rest of the race.

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