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# FO RC E S

Forces in everyday situations these may refer to a push or a pull an interaction between two bodies or between a body and its environment, meaning a force is something that a body exerts on a second body. a vector quantity a push or a pull can be in different directions It can be classified according to Contact force the force involves the direct contact between the two interacting bodies Tension(T) pulling force exerted by a string, rope or chain attached to an object Normal () force exerted on an object perpendicular to the surface which it is in contact, no matter what the inclination of the surface Friction () force parallel to the surface exerted on an object sliding across it which opposes motion This is related to the normal force exerted by the surface by where is the coefficient of friction. Long range force the force act even when bodies are separated by empty space Weight force on an object due to gravity, directed towards the center of the earth or downward, it is related to the mass by where g is the acceleration due to gravity. Electromagnetic force electric magnetic interactions UNITS OF FORCE (mks) newton (N), 1 N = 1 kg m/s2 (cgs) dyne (dyn), 1 dyn = 1 g cm/s2 (British) pound (lb), 1 lb = 1 slug ft/s2 Also 1 lb = 4.4 N or 1 N = 0.22 lb TRIVIA: A body with a mass of 1 kg has a weight of 2.2 lb at the earths surface (thus the conversion of mass to weight at 1kg =2.2 b). NEWTONS LAWS OF MOTION 1. LAW OF INERTIA In the absence of an applied force, a body will move with constant velocity or will be at rest. Inertia tendency of things to resist changes in motion

Equilibrium state of no change Mechanical equilibrium at rest or moving with constant velocity; in both cases acceleration is zero Net force the sum of all forces acting on a body Newtons first law means that when the net force on an object is zero, then it is in mechanical equilibrium. In symbol: 2. LAW OF ACCELERATION The acceleration of a body is inversely proportional to its mass and directly proportional to the new force acting on it. In symbol

or

The 2nd law considers the case when the net force on a body is no longer zero, therefore the object does not have mechanical equilibrium. The nonzero net force causes the body to accelerate in the same direction as the net force. The magnitude of the acceleration is directly proportional to the magnitude of the net force. The ratio of the net force on the object and the acceleration of the object due to the net force is constant. It is equal to the mass of the object. Mass is a quantitative measure of inertia the greater the mass of an object the more the body resists changes in its motion or resists being accelerated. 3. LAW OF ACTION-REACTION To every action there is always an opposed equal reaction. In symbol This means, if a object 1 exerts a force on object 2 (action), then object 2 exerts a force on object 1 (reaction). The force exerted by object 1 to object 2 is equal in magnitude to the force exerted by object 2 to object 1 but opposite in direction. Note that the two forces act on different bodies, never on the same body. The two forces are also exerted at the same time. The pairs of forces are called actionreaction pair.

AP P LIC AT IO N
1. Determining acceleration from force A worker applies a constant horizontal force with magnitude 35 N to a 70 kg box on a level frictionless floor. What is the acceleration of the box?

3. Net Force And Acceleration In Free Fall Suppose a ball is dropped from rest from the top of a tall building. How does the net force vary as it falls? The only thing varying as the ball falls is its velocity. Recall from free fall, its velocity increases as it goes down. But it does not mean that if the velocity increases the net force increases. The acceleration of the ball is constant and is it equal to g (acceleration due to gravity). Thus, the net force is equal to mg or the weight of the ball. Therefore, the net force does not vary or remains constant as it falls.

The net external force on the box is the horizontal (along +x) force. Start from 2. Determining force from acceleration from A 0.45 kg soft drink bottle is pushed by a boy on a level table with an initial velocity of 2.8 m/s and stops 1 meter away from the boy due to friction. How much is the friction on the bottle?

4. Mass and weight A car with a weight of 2.50 x 104 N car travels in the +x direction stops suddenly. The net force acting on it is -1.85x104 N. What is its acceleration? To determine the acceleration, refer to Newtons 2nd law,

But, the mass of the car will have to be determined first from the weight (w=mg).

The acceleration of the bottle has to be determined first by utilizing one of the four equations from motion with constant acceleration: This equation is chosen because the time interval in which the bottle stops is unknown.

5. Action-Reaction After your car breaks down, you start pushing it to the nearest repair shop. While the car is starting to move, how does the force you exert on the car compare to the force the car exerts on you? How do these forces compare when you are pushing the car along at constant speed? In both cases, the force you exert on the car is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the force exerted by the car on. It is true you will have to exert a greater force so that the car will start to move than to keep the car moving. But no matter how hard you push, the car pushes just as hard on you. Newtons 3rd law gives the same result whether the two bodies are at rest, moving with constant velocity or accelerating.

The acceleration is negative because it is opposite the motion of the bottle. The net force acting on the bottle along the horizontal (x-axis) is friction:

## A SSI G N M EN T Write answers in a one whole sheet of paper.

1. Which of the following statements is most correct and why? a. It is possible for an object to have motion in the absence of forces on the object. b. It is possible to have forces on an object in the absence of motion of the object. c. Neither (a) nor (b) is correct. d. Both (a) and (b) are correct.

6. Suppose an astronaut landed on a planet where g=19.6m/s2. Assume that the astronauts space suit does not affect how she moves: a. Compared to the earth, would it be easier, harder or just as easy for her to walk around? b. Would it be easier, harder or just as easy to catch a ball that is moving horizontally at 12 m/s? 7. Suppose you are talking by interplanetary telephone to your friend, who lives on the Moon. He tells you that he has just won a newton of gold in a contest. Excitedly, you tell him that you entered the Earth version of the same contest and also won a newton of gold! Who is richer? (a) You (b) Your friend (c) You are equally rich. Why? 8. While travelling towards Kibawe, you notice a mosquito as it hits the windshield. Which has the greater magnitude, the force exerted on the mosquito by the car, or the force exerted by the mosquito on the car? Or are the magnitudes the same? If they are different, how can you reconcile this fact with Newtons 3rd Law? If they are equal, why is the mosquito splattered while the car is undamaged? 9. If a net horizontal force of 132 N is applied to a 60 kg person resting on the edge of the swimming pool, what horizontal acceleration is produced? 10. Superman throws a 2,400 N boulder at his arch enemy. What horizontal force must Superman apply to the boulder to give it a horizontal acceleration of 12 m/s2?

2. In which of the following situations is there zero net force on the body? Why? a. An airplane flying due north at a steady 120 m/s and at a constant altitude b. A car driving straight up a hill with a 3slope at a constant 90 km/h c. A hawk circling at a constant 20 km/h at a constant height of 15 m above an open field. d. A box with smooth, frictionless surfaces in the back of the truck as the truck accelerates forward on a level road at 5 m/s2 3. You push an object, initially at rest, across a frictionless floor with a constant force for a time interval t, resulting in a final speed of v for the object. You repeat the experiment, but with a force that is twice as large. What time interval is now required to reach the same final speed v? a. 4t b. 2t c. t d. t/2 e. t/4.

4. A baseball of mass m is thrown upward with some initial speed. A gravitational force is exerted on the ball (a) at all points in its motion (b) at all points in its motion except at the highest point (c) at no points in its motion. Why? 5. Rank the following situations in order of the magnitude of the objects acceleration, from highest to lowest. Are there any cases that have the same magnitude of acceleration? a. A 2.0 kg object acted on by a 2.0 N force b. A 2.0 kg object acted on by an 8.0 N force c. An 8.0 kg object acted on by a 2.0 N force d. An 8.0 kg object acted on by an 8.0 N force