Android Development Tutorial

Development with Android Gingerbread and Eclipse

This tutorial describes how to create Android applications with Eclipse. It is based on Eclipse 3.7 (Indigo), Java 1.6 and Android 2.3.3 (Gingerbread).

1. Android Development

1.1. Android Operation System

Android is an operating system based on Linux with a Java programming interface. It provides tools, e.g. a compiler, debugger and a device emulator as well as its own Java Virtual machine (Dalvik Virtual Machine - DVM). Android is created by the Open Handset Alliance which is lead by Google.

Android uses a special virtual machine, e.g. the Dalvik Virtual Machine. Dalvik uses special bytecode. Therefore you cannot run standard Java bytecode on Android. Android provides a tool "dx" which allows to convert Java Class files into "dex" (Dalvik Executable) files. Android applications are packed into an .apk (Android Package) file by the program "aapt" (Android Asset Packaging Tool) To simplify development Google provides the Android Development

Tools (ADT) for Eclipse . The ADT performs automatically the conversion from class to dex files and creates the apk during deployment.

Android supports 2-D and 3-D graphics using the OpenGL libraries and supports data storage in a SQLitedatabase.

Every Android applications runs in its own process and under its own userid which is generated automatically by the Android system during deployment. Therefore the application is isolated from other running applications and a misbehaving application cannot easily harm other Android applications.

1.2. Important Android components

An Android application consists out of the following parts:

Activity - Represents the presentation layer of an Android application, e.g. a screen which the user sees. An Android application can have several activities and it can be switched between them during runtime of the application.

Views - The User interface of an Activities is build with widgets classes which inherent from "android.view.View". The layout of the views is managed by "android.view.ViewGroups".

Services - perform background tasks without providing an UI. They can notify the user via the notification framework in Android.

Content Provider - provides data to applications, via a content provider your application can share data with other applications. Android contains a SQLite DB which can serve as data provider

Intents are asynchronous messages which allow the application to request functionality from other services or activities. An application can call directly a service or activity (explicit intent) or ask the Android system for registered services and applications for an intent (implicit intents). For example the application could ask via an intent for a contact application. Application register themself to an intent via an IntentFilter. Intents are a powerful concept as they allow to create loosely coupled applications.

Broadcast Receiver - receives system messages and implicit intents, can be used to react to changed conditions in the system. An application can register as a broadcast receiver for certain events and can be started if such an event occurs.

Other Android parts are Android Widgets or Live Folders and Live Wallpapers . Live Folders display any source of data on the homescreen without launching the corresponding application.

1.3. Security and permissions

Android defines certain permissions for certain tasks. For example if the application want to access the Internet it must define in its configuration file that it would like to use the related permission. During the installation of an Android application the user get a screen in which he needs to confirm the required permissions of the application.

1.4. AndroidManifest.xml

An Android application is described the file "AndroidManifest.xml". This file must declare all activities, services, broadcast receivers and content provider of the application. It must also contain the required permissions for the application. For example if the application requires network access it must be specified here. "AndroidManifest.xml" can be thought as the deployment descriptor for an Android application.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <manifest xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android" package="de.vogella.android.temperature" android:versionCode="1" android:versionName="1.0"> <application android:icon="@drawable/icon" android:label="@string/app_name"> <activity android:name=".Convert" android:label="@string/app_name"> <intent-filter> <action android:name="android.intent.action.MAIN" /> <category android:name="android.intent.category.LAUNCHER" /> </intent-filter> </activity>

You typically start with "1" and increase this value by one if you roll-out a new version of your application. "versionCode" must be an integer and the Android Market uses this to determine if you provided a newer version to trigger the update on devices which have your application installed. The category definition (category android:name="android.action. For this class an intent filter is registered which defines that this activity is started once the application starts (action android:name="android.category. "android:versionName" and "android:versionCode" specify the version of your application. It also must be unique as the Android Marketplace only allows application for a specfic package once.temperature. "activity" defines an activity in this example pointing to the class "de.intent. Therefore a good habit is to use your reverse domain name as a package to avoid collisions with other developers.MAIN").</application> <uses-sdk android:minSdkVersion="9" /> </manifest> The "package" attribute defines the base package for the following Java elements.android.LAUNCHER" ) defines that this application is added to .Convert". "versionName" is what the user sees and can be any string.vogella.intent.

java".yourString" use the method getString(R.string. the Android system provides methods to access the corresponding resource. This makes it easy to provide different resources. menus. For example a resource can be an image or an XML files which defines strings. This will prevent your application being installed on devices with older SDK versions. "R.5. These resources are defined in the "res" directory and can be values. icons. 1. e. icons or pictures or animations. colors. layouts. the corresponding reference is automatically created in "R. Resources and Assets The directory "gen" in an Android project contains generated values. While the directory"res" contains structured values which are known to the Android platform the directory "assets" can be used to store any kind of data.the application directory on the Android device.xml" defines the minimal SDK version your application is valid for. for different devices and makes it easy to translate applications. If you create a new resources. .g. For example to access a String with the reference id "R.yourString)).string. The @ values refer to resource files which contain the actual values.java. Please do not try to modify "R. The references are static int values. The "uses-sdk" part of the "AndroidManifest.java" is a generated class which contains references to resources of the "res" folder in the project. strings. In Java you can access this data via the AssetsManager and the method getAssets(). R.java" manually.

their relationship and their attributes for a specific layout. views. UI elements are based on the class "android. In your Java code you can later access these UI elements via the method findViewById(R. You should not nestle ViewGroups to deeply as this has a negativ impact on performance.view. It also allows to define different layouts for different devices.yourvalue). 1. XML based layouts are defined via a resource file in the folder "/res/layout".1.View".view. You typically uses Java code to generate the layout if you don't know the content until runtime. You can also mix both approaches.id. This file specifies the view groups. ViewGroup is a subclass of View A and a layout can contain UI components (Views) or other layouts (ViewGroups). Activities and Layouts The user interface for Activities is defined via layouts. Layouts are at runtime instances of "android. If a UI element needs to be accessed via Java code you have to give the UI element an unique id via the "android:id" attribute. for example if your layout depends on content which you read from the internet.7.ViewGroups".6. The layout defines the UI elements. Defining layouts via XML is usually the preferred way as this separates the programming logic from the layout definition. their properties and their arragement. To assign a new id to an UI element use "@+id/yourvalue". Activities and Lifecyle . By conversion this will create and assign a new id "yourvalue" to the corresponding UI element. A layout can be defined via Java code or via XML.

xml. The most important methods are:  onSaveInstanceState() . A configuration change for examples happens if the user changes the orientation of the device (vertical or horizontal). The following activity will not be restarted in case of orientation changes or position of the physical keyboard (hidden / visible).The operating system controls the life cycle of your application.called if the activity is stopped. can be used to release ressource or save data  onResume() .ProgressTestActivity" android:label="@string/app_name" .g. Used to save data so that the activity can restore its states if re-started  onPause() . You can avoid a restart of your application for certain configuration changes via the configChanges attribute on your activity definition in your AndroidManifest. layouts for vertical or horizontal mode. <activity android:name=". because of an incoming call. The Android system defines a life cycle for an activities via pre-defined methods. The activity is in this case restarted to enable the Android platform to load different resources for these configuration. can be used to initiaze fields The activity will also be restarted if a so called "configuration change" happens. e. In the emulator you can simulate the change of the orientation via CNTR+F11. e.g. At any time the Android system may stop or destroy your application.called if the Activity is re-started.always called if the Activity ends.

As Activities and Services extend the class "Context" you can directly access the context via "this". the Location Service .1.g. I placed it under "c:\android-sdk-windows". Context The class android. e.content. The download contains a zip file which you can extract to any place in your file system. It is the interface to global information about the application environment. Avoid using spaces in the path name otherwise you may experience problems later.2. e. For details please see Eclipse Tutorial . Context also provides the method which allows to receive Android services. 2. 2. Eclipse .android:configChanges="orientation|keyboardHidden|keyboard"> </activity> 1. Installation The following assume that you have already Eclipse installed. 2.8.Context provides the connections to the Android system. Android SDK Download the Android SDK from the Android homepage under Android SDK download .g.

Configuration In Eclipse open the Preferences dialog via Windows -> Preferences. We are using the Google version as this includes also the Google Maps which we might want to use later at a certain point. Select the Google API 10 (Android 2.3. Select Android and enter the installation path of the Android SDK. Select Window -> Android SDK and AVD Manager from the menu. 2.com/android/eclipse/ .3. .4) version of the SDK.Use the Eclipse update manager to install all available plugins for the Android Development Tools (ADT) from the URL https://dl-ssl. Select "Available packages" and open the "Third Party Add-ons".google.

After the installation restart Eclipse. . 2.Press "Install selected" and confirm the license for all package.4. Android Source Code The following step is optional. During Android development it is very useful to have the Android source code available as Android uses a lot of defaults.

googlecode. Each configuration is defined via an "Android Virtual Device" (AVD). This emulator behaves like a real Android device in most cases and allow you to test your application without having a real device. press "New" and enter the following.source.update".eclipse. You can emulate one or several devices with different configurations.ide. More details can be found on the project website . To define an AVD press the device manager button. Create an Android Emulator Device The Android tools include an emulator.com/svn/trunk/source/com.android. . 3. Use the Eclipse update manager to install the Android Source plugin from the following update site: "http://adt-addons.Haris Peco maintains plugins which provides access to the Android Source code code.

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select your device and press "Start". This will make the second start of the virtual device much faster. To test if your setup is correct. At the end press the button "Create AVD".We will select the box "Enabled" for Snapshots. .This will create the device and display it under the "Virtual devices".

. 4. Several users report that get the following errors: 1.java.After (a long time) your device should be started. Project .. Error handling Things are not always working as they should be.. Unable to open class file R. 3. is missing required source folder: 'gen' 2. The project could not be built until build path errors are resolved.

Enter the following. Search for "vogella" for find this example.android.temperature".vogella. . Select File -> New -> Other -> Android -> Android Project and create the Android project "de. Your first Android project 5.To solve this error select from the menu Project -> Clean.1. If you having problems with your own code you can use the LogCat viewer as described in LogCat Viewer . Create Project This app is also available on the Android Marketplace. 5.

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5. This should create the following directory structure.2. Two faces of things . In Java you can access this data via the AssetsManager and the method getAssets(). While "res" contains structured values which are known to the Android platform the directory "assets" can be used to store any kind of data.Press "Finish".

g.g.The Android SDK allows to define certain artifacts. You can switch between both things by clicking on the tab on the lower part of the screen. Create attributes Android allows you to create attributes for resources. strings and UI's. These attributes can be used in your UI definition via XML or in your Java source code. . for strings and / or colors. in two ways. 5. e.xml". via a rich editor and directly via XML.3. e. The following description tries to use the rich UI but for validation lists also the XML. For example in the Package Explorer select "res/layout/main.

Table 1. String attributes allow to translate the application at a later point. Add also the following "String" attributes. String Attributes Name Value myClickHandler myClickHandler celsius to Celsius fahrenheit to Fahrenheit calc Calculate . Select "Color" and enter "myColor" as the name and "#3399CC" as the value.Select the file "res/values/string.xml" and press "Add".

This editor allows you to create the UI via drag and drop or via the XML source code. <?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <resources> <string name="hello">Hello World.4.Switch to the XML representation and validate the values. . Add UI Elements Select "res/layout/main. You can switch between both representations via the tabs at the bottom of the editor.xml" and open the Android editor via a double-click. Convert!</string> <string name="app_name">Temperature Converter</string> <color name="myColor">#3399CC</color> <string name="myClickHandler">myClickHandler</string> <string name="celsius">to Celsius</string> <string name="fahrenheit">to Fahrenheit</string> <string name="calc">Calculate</string> </resources> 5. For changing the postion and grouping elements you can use the outline view.

Please note that the "Palette" view changes frequently so your view might be a bit different. . All object types in the section "Text Fields” derive from the class "EditText". Right-click on the text object “Hello World.The following shows a screenshot of the Palette view from which you can drag and drop new UI elements into your layout. from the “Palette” view. select Text Fields and locate “Plain Text”. Select Delete on the popup menu to remove the text object. Hello!” in the layout. Drag this onto the layout to create a text input field. they just specify via an additional attribute which text type can be used. Then.

The number of radio buttons added to the radio button group depends on your version of Eclipse. Make sure that your code is the same as listed below. drag a Button object onto the layout. <?xml version="1.Now select the Palette section “Form Widgets” and drag a “RadioGroup” object onto the layout.xml" and verify that your XML looks like the following.com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent"> . Make sure there are two radio buttons by deleting or adding radio buttons to the group.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. Switch to "main.android. From the Palette section Form Widgets. The result should look like the following and the corresponding XML is listed below.

Edit UI properties .5.<EditText android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/editText1" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:text="EditText"></EditText> <RadioGroup android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radioGroup1" android:layout_width="match_parent"> <RadioButton android:text="RadioButton" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio0" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:checked="true"></RadioButton> <RadioButton android:text="RadioButton" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio1" android:layout_height="wrap_content"></RadioButton> </RadioGroup> <Button android:text="Button" android:id="@+id/button1" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content"></Button> </LinearLayout> 5.

Select the EditText field. select Properties-> Text and delete the content. right mouse click on it.If you select a UI element you can change its properties via the properties view. This means no text will be initially shown in the text field. . Most of the properties can also be changed via the right mouse menu.

.Assign the "celsius" string attribute to your "text" property of the first radio button and "fahrenheit" to the second.

. Set the property "Checked" to true for the first RadioButton. Set the "Input type" property to "numberSigned" and "numberDecimal" on your EditText. . Assign "calc" to the text property of your button and assign "myClickHandler" to the "onClick" property. Select “Color” and then “myColor” in the list.” from the popup menu. Right-click on the view in Graphical Layout mode. then select “Properties”/”Background.From now on I assume you are able to use the properties menu on the UI elements..

Switch to the "main.xml" tab and verify that the XML is correctly maintained.

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:background="@color/myColor"> <EditText android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/editText1" android:layout_width="match_parent" android:inputType="numberDecimal|numberSigned"></EditText> <RadioGroup android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radioGroup1" android:layout_width="match_parent"> <RadioButton android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio0" android:layout_height="wrap_content"

android:text="@string/celsius" android:checked="true"></RadioButton> <RadioButton android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/radio1" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/fahrenheit"></RadioButton> </RadioGroup> <Button android:id="@+id/button1" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="@string/calc" android:onClick="myClickHandler"></Button> </LinearLayout>

5.6. Code your application

Change your code in "Convert.java" to the following. Note that the "myClickHandler" will be called based on the "On Click" property of your button.

package de.vogella.android.temperature;

import android.app.Activity; import android.os.Bundle;

import android.view.View; import android.widget.EditText; import android.widget.RadioButton; import android.widget.Toast;

public class Convert extends Activity { private EditText text;

@Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.onCreate(savedInstanceState); setContentView(R.layout.main); text = (EditText) findViewById(R.id.editText1);

}

// This method is called at button click because we assigned the name to the // "On Click property" of the button public void myClickHandler(View view) { switch (view.getId()) {

case R.id.button1: RadioButton celsiusButton = (RadioButton) findViewById(R.id.radio0); RadioButton fahrenheitButton = (RadioButton) findViewById(R.id.radio1); if (text.getText().length() == 0) { Toast.makeText(this, "Please enter a valid number", Toast.LENGTH_LONG).show(); return; }

float inputValue = Float.parseFloat(text.getText().toString()); if (celsiusButton.isChecked()) { text.setText(String

.valueOf(convertFahrenheitToCelsius(inputValue))); celsiusButton.setChecked(false); fahrenheitButton.setChecked(true); } else { text.setText(String

.valueOf(convertCelsiusToFahrenheit(inputValue)));

setChecked(true). Start Project . } // Converts to fahrenheit private float convertCelsiusToFahrenheit(float celsius) { return ((celsius * 9) / 5) + 32.setChecked(false). } break. } } 5.32) * 5 / 9). celsiusButton.fahrenheitButton.7. } } // Converts to celsius private float convertFahrenheitToCelsius(float fahrenheit) { return ((fahrenheit .

Type in a number. the emulator starts up very slow. right click on it.To start the Android Application. You should get the following result. Using the home menu . 5. select your conversion and press the button. Run-As-> Android Application Be patient. select your project. The result should be displayed and the other option should get selected.8.

.If you press the Home button you can also select your application.

You can register here a menu via your code or use a XML menu resources which . The option menu of your activity is filled in the method onCreateOptionsMenu() of your activity. First is the option menu which can be opened via the menu button. Menus 6.6.1. Menus To use menus Android provides two ways.

etc.com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" . A context menu for a view is registered via the method registerForContextMenu(view). You get a MenuInflator via your activity with the method getMenuInflator(). e.g. how to define preferences and how to navigate between activities via an intent . If you want to influence the menu later you have to use the method onPrepareOptionsMenu(). A context menu is activated if the user "long presses" the view. The second option to display a menu is to use the context menu for a UI widget (view).preferences" with the activity "HelloPreferences". 6.xml" to the following: <?xml version="1. The method onCreateContextMenu() is called every time a context menu is activated as the context menu is discarded after its usage.android. Project This chapter will demonstrate how to create and evaluate a option menu. "EditText" provides context options to select text. Change the UI in the file "/res/layout/main.you inflate via a "MenuInflator".vogella. Create a project "de. The Android platform may also add options to your view.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.android. onCreateContextMenu() is only called once.2.

enter as File "menu. Select the option "Menu". right click on it and select New -> Other -> Android -> "Android XML File".3.android:layout_height="fill_parent"> <Button android:id="@+id/Button01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Show Preferences"></Button> <Button android:id="@+id/Button02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Change Preferences"></Button> </LinearLayout> 6.xml" and press the button "Finish". Add a menu XML resource Menus can be defined via XML files. . Select your project.

This defines the entries in your menu. We will have only one entry.Press Add and select "Item". Maintain the following value. .

The OnCreateOptionsMenu method is used to create the menu. import android. import android.android.preferences. The behavior in "onOptionsItemSelected" is currently hard-coded to show a Toast and will soon call the preference settings. .os.vogella.Activity.Bundle. In case you want to disable or hide menu items you can use the method "onPrepareOptionsMenu" which is called every time the menu is called.Change your class "HelloPreferences" to the following. package de.app.

layout.Toast. } @Override public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) { MenuInflater inflater = getMenuInflater(). . inflater. import android.view. menu).onCreate(savedInstanceState). import android.inflate(R. */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.menu.MenuItem.widget. import android.MenuInflater.menu. setContentView(R. public class HelloPreferences extends Activity { /** Called when the activity is first created.main).view.import android.Menu.view. return true.

Your menu should be displayed. Toast.makeText(this.show(). "Just a test".LENGTH_SHORT). If you select the menu entry you should see a small info message. } } Run your application and press "Menu" on the emulator. return true. .} @Override public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) { Toast.

. 7. Intents allow you to start Activities from other Activities. Preferences are stored as key values. Preferences and Intents 7.The two "Preference" buttons are not yet active. We will use them in the next chapter. Overview Preferences allow you to save data for your application.1.

xml" this time of type "Preference".preferences" from the last chapter.vogella.android.2. .7. Using preferences We will continue using the example project "de. Preference values can also be stored as a XML resource. Create another Android XML File "preferences.

add a category and add two preferences "EditTextPreferences" to this category : "User" and "Password".Press Add. .

To allow the user to enter the preference value you can define a Activity with extends PreferenceActivity. This activity can load a preference definition resources via the method .

addPreferencesFromResource().preference.os. public class Preferences extends PreferenceActivity { /** Called when the activity is first created. import android.xml". Create the class "Preferences" which will load the "preference. package de.android. } .preferences).vogella. import android.onCreate(savedInstanceState).Bundle.xml.preferences.PreferenceActivity. addPreferencesFromResource(R. */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.

.} To make this class available as an activity for Android you need to register it in your "AndroidManifest. Add the activity "Preferences". Select "AndroidManifest.xml" and the tab "Application".xml" file.

.The first button will show the current values of the preferences via a Toast and the second button will revert the maintained user name to demonstrate how you could change the preferences via code.

view.PreferenceManager.Toast. import android.MenuInflater. import android.view. import android.os.content. import android.android.MenuItem. import android. .preference.Bundle.Activity.package de.Menu.content.preferences.View.view. import android. import android.widget. import android. import android. import android.view.view.SharedPreferences.content.OnClickListener. import android. import android.app. public class HelloPreferences extends Activity { SharedPreferences preferences.widget.Intent. import android.Editor.View.vogella.SharedPreferences.Button.

*/ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. "n/a").id.onCreate(savedInstanceState).layout.setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() { public void onClick(View v) { String username = preferences.getDefaultSharedPreferences(this)./** Called when the activity is first created. .makeText( HelloPreferences. String password = preferences. Toast.Button01).main). "n/a"). setContentView(R.LENGTH_LONG).getString("password". Toast. "You entered user: " + username + " and password: " + password. button.getString("username". // Initialize preferences preferences = PreferenceManager.show(). Button button = (Button) findViewById(R.this.

setOnClickListener(new OnClickListener() { public void onClick(View v) { Editor edit = preferences. edit. buffer. // We will just revert the current user name and save again StringBuffer buffer = new StringBuffer().putString("username". "n/a").commit(). String username = preferences.Button02). . i >= 0.charAt(i)).1.id. buttonChangePreferences. // A toast is a view containing a quick little message for the // user. } edit. Button buttonChangePreferences = (Button) findViewById(R.this.toString()).getString("username".length() .} }). i--) { buffer.edit(). We give a little feedback Toast. for (int i = username.append(username.makeText(HelloPreferences.

show(). return true. @Override public boolean onCreateOptionsMenu(Menu menu) { MenuInflater inflater = getMenuInflater(). Even though we currently have only one option in our menu we use a switch to be ready for several new menu entries. inflater.LENGTH_LONG).inflate(R.menu. menu)."Reverted string sequence of user name. To see the current values of the preferences we define a button and use the class "PreferenceManager" to get the sharedPreferences. } .menu. } } We will update the method onOptionsItemSelected() to open the activity "Preferences" once you select the option menu. Toast.". } }).

LENGTH_LONG). "Here you can enter your user credentials.show().makeText(HelloPreferences. break.class).".this. Preferences. Toast.getItemId()) { // We have only one menu option case R.this. } return true. } .preferences: // Launch Preference activity Intent i = new Intent(HelloPreferences.id.// This method is called once the menu is selected @Override public boolean onOptionsItemSelected(MenuItem item) { switch (item. startActivity(i). // Some feedback to the user Toast.

You should be able to enter your user settings then press the back hardware button to return to your main activity.7. .3. Press the "menu" hardware button and then select your menu item "Preferences". If you press the second button the username should be reversed. The saved values should be displayed in a small message windows (Toast) if you press your first button. Run Run your application.

Maintain the following layout for "main.8. Create a new Android project "de. In this chapter we will use the class "AlertDialog".vogella.alertdialog" with the activity "ShowMyDialog". This modal dialog gets the focus until the user closes it.android. Dialogs via the AlertDialog We have already used a "Toast" which is a small message window which does not take the focus.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. This method is automatically called by Android if you call showDialog(int). you can chain your method calls. <?xml version="1.android.com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent"> <Button android:id="@+id/Button01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" .g. AlertDialog is used to open a dialog from our activity.xml". An instance of this class can be created by the builder pattern. e. You should always open a dialog from the class onCreateDialog(int) as the Android system manages the dialog in this case for you.

Activity.app.app.Builder. package de.content. import android.Dialog.app. import android.app.widget. import android. import android.DialogInterface.Bundle. import android.AlertDialog.View.alertdialog.android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Show Simple Dialog" android:onClick="openMyDialog"></Button> </LinearLayout> Change the code of your activity to the following. import android.AlertDialog.view.os. import android. import android.Toast.vogella.android. public class ShowMyDialog extends Activity { .

onCreate(savedInstanceState). builder. } public void openMyDialog(View view) { showDialog(10).layout. .setMessage("This will end the activity"). */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super./** Called when the activity is first created.Builder(this). setContentView(R. } @Override protected Dialog onCreateDialog(int id) { switch (id) { case 10: // Create out AlterDialog Builder builder = new AlertDialog.main).

"Activity will continue".create(). new DialogInterface. } } .setPositiveButton("I agree". } }).makeText(getApplicationContext(). AlertDialog dialog = builder.onCreateDialog(id).Toast.builder.setCancelable(true). new DialogInterface.OnClickListener() { public void onClick(DialogInterface dialog. } }). } return super.show(). int which) { ShowMyDialog.show().setNegativeButton("No. dialog.LENGTH_LONG).finish().OnClickListener() { public void onClick(DialogInterface dialog. builder.this. int which) { Toast. no". builder.

More on dialogs can be found on Android Dialogs standard documentation.If you run your application and click your button you should see your dialog. Overview . 9. TableLayout 9.1.

which will try to word-wrap the content of the specified widgets and the attribute "android:collapseColums" to define initially hidden columns. Similar you can use the attribute "android:shrinkColumn". On the "TableLayout" you can define which column should take additional space via the "android:stretchColumns" attribute. You specify via the view group "TableRow" rows for your table.In earlier chapter we have used the LinearLayout which allows you to stack widgets vertical or horizontal. 9. Columns will be automatically created based on the maximum number of widgets in one row.2. If several columns should take the available space you can specify them as a comma-separated list. Example . This layout allows you to organize a view into a table format. LinearLayout can be nested to achieve nice effects. Per default each widgets creates a new column in the row. This way you can for example add dividers between your columns. You can also put non TableRows in a table. Via Java you can display / hide these columns via the method setColumnVisible(). You can specific via "android:layout_column" the column a widget should go and via "android:layout_span" how many columns a widget should take. This chapter will demonstrate the usage of "TableLayout". Afterwards you put widgets into the individual rows.

layout.vogella.table" with the activity "DemoTableLayout". Change "main.android.Create the project "de.android.com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent"> <TableLayout android:layout_width="match_parent" android:id="@+id/tableLayout1" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:stretchColumns="1"> <TableRow android:layout_width="match_parent" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/tableRow1"> <EditText android:text="Field1" android:id="@+id/editText1" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content"></EditText> <EditText android:text="Field2" android:id="@+id/editText2" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_column="2"></EditText> </TableRow> .0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas.xml" to the following. <?xml version="1.

<View android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/view1" android:layout_height="4px" android:background="#FF0000"></View> <TableRow android:id="@+id/tableRow2" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content"> <EditText android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Field3" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:id="@+id/editText3"></EditText> <EditText android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:text="Field4" android:id="@+id/editText4"></EditText> </TableRow> </TableLayout> <Button android:text="Hide second column" android:id="@+id/collapse" android:onClick="toogleHiddenRows" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content"></Button> </LinearLayout> .

TableLayout. */ @Override .vogella.Change the activity "DemoTableLayout" to the following to use the button to hide the second column in the table. private Button button.View.view.Activity. public class DemoTableLayout extends Activity { private TableLayout layout. import android.os.widget.layout. import android. package de.widget. import android. import android.Button.android.table. /** Called when the activity is first created.Bundle.app. import android.

main).setColumnCollapsed(1.isColumnCollapsed(1)). setContentView(R.tableLayout1).id.isColumnCollapsed(1)) { button.setText("Hide second column").id. layout = (TableLayout) findViewById(R. button = (Button) findViewById(R.onCreate(savedInstanceState). if (layout.setText("Show second column").public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super. } } } .layout. } public void toogleHiddenRows(View view) { // Second row has index 1 layout. } else { button.collapse). !layout.

Overview ContentProvider are used to provide data from an application to another. 10.1. ContentProvider 10. . Create contacts on your emulator For this example we need a few maintained contacts. The following example will use an existing context provider from "Contacts".10. ContentProvider do not store the data but provide the interface for other applications to access the data.2. Select the home menu and then the menu entry "Contacts" to create contacts.

Press Menu and select "New Contact". .

As a result you should have a few new contacts. .

android. Delete the default text.contentprovider" with the activity "ContactsView".3. Rename the id of the existing TextView from the example wizard to "contactview". The resulting main. Using the Contact Content Provider Create a new Android project "de.xml should look like the following.vogella. . Also change the layout_height to "fill_parent".10.

From the drop-down list select the entry "android.Cursor. .android. import android.vogella. and select the Permissions tab.<?xml version="1.database.permission.Activity.0" encoding="utf-8"?> <LinearLayout xmlns:android="http://schemas. Change the coding of the activity. package de. import android.READ_CONTACTS". On that tab click the "Add" button.contentprovider.com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent"> <TextView android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:id="@+id/contactview" /> </LinearLayout> Access to the contact content provider require a certain permission as not all applications should have access to the contact information.xml. Open the AndroidManifest.app.android. and select "Uses Permission".

import android. public class ContactsView extends Activity { /** Called when the activity is first created. */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.layout.getString(cursor .net. import android.Bundle.main).TextView.Uri.contactview).ContactsContract.id. import android. setContentView(R.moveToNext()) { String displayName = cursor.onCreate(savedInstanceState).os.provider. import android. while (cursor. TextView contactView = (TextView) findViewById(R. Cursor cursor = getContacts().widget.

String sortOrder = ContactsContract. selectionArgs.Contacts.DISPLAY_NAME)).Data. contactView. } } private Cursor getContacts() { // Run query Uri uri = ContactsContract.append("\n").CONTENT_URI.append("Name: ").Contacts. projection. String selection = ContactsContract.getColumnIndex(ContactsContract. selection. return managedQuery(uri.IN_VISIBLE_GROUP + " = '" + ("1") + "'". contactView.. .append(displayName). String[] selectionArgs = null. String[] projection = new String[] { ContactsContract.DISPLAY_NAME + " COLLATE LOCALIZED ASC".Contacts. sortOrder).Contacts.Contacts.DISPLAY_NAME }. ContactsContract. contactView._ID.

android.vogella. <?xml version="1.} } Typically you would display such data in a ListView . Of course this view can be a layout which can then contain other elements. Please see the ListView Tutorial for details.android. Create an android project "de. 11.scrollview" with the activity "ScrollView". Create the following layout and class. ScrollView ScrollViews can be used to contain one view that might be to big to fit on one screen. If the view is to big the ScrollView will display a scroll bar to scroll the context.com/apk/res/android" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:fillViewport="true"> .0" encoding="utf-8"?> <ScrollView xmlns:android="http://schemas.

<LinearLayout android:id="@+id/LinearLayout01" android:orientation="vertical" android:layout_width="fill_parent" android:layout_height="wrap_content"> <TextView android:id="@+id/TextView01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="This is a header" android:textAppearance="?android:attr/textAppearanceLarge" android:paddingLeft="8dip" android:paddingRight="8dip" android:paddingTop="8dip"></TextView> <TextView android:text="@+id/TextView02" android:id="@+id/TextView02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="fill_parent" android:layout_weight="1.0"></Button> <Button android:id="@+id/Button02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Cancel" android:layout_weight="1.0"></Button> </LinearLayout> </LinearLayout> </ScrollView> .0"></TextView> <LinearLayout android:id="@+id/LinearLayout02" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content"> <Button android:id="@+id/Button01" android:layout_width="wrap_content" android:layout_height="wrap_content" android:text="Submit" android:layout_weight="1.

Activity. import android.os.TextView.layout.vogella.package de.app. } (TextView) findViewById(R. i < 100. for (int i=0. public class ScrollView extends Activity { /** Called when the activity is first created. import android.main). .widget.view. TextView view = String s="".View. */ @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.de ".Bundle.android.id. setContentView(R.scrollview.onCreate(savedInstanceState). import android. i++) { s += "vogella.TextView02). import android.

} } The attribute "android:fillViewport="true"" ensures that the the scrollview is set to the full screen even if the elements are smaller then one screen and the "layout_weight" tell the android system that these elements should be extended. .view.setText(s).

1. This perspective includes the following views which can also be used independently and allows to place calls and send SMS to the device. File explorer The file explorer allows to see the files on the android simulator. 12.3.out.Dalvik Debug Monitor Server Eclipse provides a perspective for interacting with your device and program. DDMS . DDMS perspective and important views 12. . 12.2.12. LogCat View You can see the log (including System. It also allow to set the current geo position and to perform a performance trace of your application. Open it to see the possible options.print() statements) via the LogCat view.

Shell 13. Android Debugging Bridge .Shell You can access your Android emulator also via the console.1. switch to your "android-sdk" installation directory into the folder "tools".13. adb shell . Open a shell. Start the shell via the following command "adb shell".

// Assume the gesture file exists on your Android device adb pull /sdcard/gestures ~/test // Now copy it back adb push ~/test/gesture /sdcard/gestures2 This will connect you to your device and give you Linux command line access to the underlying file system. The application data is stored in the directory "/data/data/package_of_your_app". rm. mkdir. # Lists all devices adb devices #Result List of devices attached emulator-5554 attached emulator-5555 attached . If you have several devices running you can issue commands to one individuel device.You can also copy file from and to your device via the following commands.g. ls. etc. e.

etc. To exit the console session. change the network "stability". This allows you to simulate certain things. incoming call. Emulator Console via telnet Alternatively to adb you can also use telnet to connect to the device. e.2. 13. Use "telnet localhost 5554" to conntect to your simulated device. Switch the the data/app directory (cd /data/app) and simply delete your android application.g.# Issue a command to a specific device adb -s emulator-5554 shell 13. Uninstall an application via adb You can uninstall an android application via the shell. set your current geocodes. use the command "quit" or "exit". # connects to device telnet localhost 5554 # set the power level . to receive an sms and to get an incoming call make the following. For example to change the power settings of your phone.3.

Please note that the Android version you are developing for must be the installed version on your phone. . To select your phone. Select in the settings Applications > Development. For details please seeDeveloping on a Device . then enable USB debugging. select "Manual" selection and select your device. select the "Run Configurations". Deploy your application on a real device Turn on "USB Debugging" on your device in the settings. You also need to install the driver for your mobile phone.power status full power status charging # make a call to the device gsm call 012041293123 # send a sms to the device sms send 12345 Will be home soon # set the geo location geo fix 48 51 For more information on the emulator console please see Emulator Console manual 14.

Thank you Please help me to support this article: 16.15. Questions and Discussion .

please see the vogella FAQ . 1.de Google Group .Before posting questions. Source Code Source Code of Examples 1.1. If you have questions or find an error in this article please use the www. Android Resources Android 2 (German Book) Android ListView and ListActivity Android Location API and Google Maps Android Intents Android and Networking Android Homepage Android Developer Homepage Android Issues / Bugs . Links and Literature 1.2.vogella. I have created a short list how to create good questions which might also help you.

Android Google Groups Android Assets Studio 1. vogella Resources Eclipse RCP Training (German) Eclipse RCP Training with Lars Vogel Android Tutorial Introduction to Android Programming GWT Tutorial Program in Java and compile to JavaScript and HTML Eclipse RCP Tutorial Create native applications in Java JUnit Tutorial Test your application Git Tutorial Put everything you have under distributed version control system .

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