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# Grade VIII Semester 1 2011/2012 Tyas Ajeng Puspitasari, S.

## Pd Junior High School 1 Malang

To define the meaning of particles of matter (atom, ion and molecule) To explain the difference of isotope, isotones and isobar To explain the difference between the element molecule and the compound molecule To mention some examples of simple molecules in daily life To give examples of substances that consist of ions

On grade VII youve learned that all matters around us are made up of fundamental matter called ELEMENT. Element is a simple substance which cannot be broken down into simpler substance
Look at the figure !

A piece of iron

Iron atom

Fe

Fe

Fe Fe Fe Fe Fe

## Daltons Concept (1808)

John Dalton, an English schoolteacher in the early nineteenth century, combined the idea of elements with the earlier theory of the atom. He proposed the following ideas about matter: (1) Matter is made up of atoms, (2)Atoms cannot be divided into smaller pieces, (3)All the atoms of an element are exactly alike (4)Different elements are made of different kinds of atoms.

## Thomsons model 1903

English Physicist, Joseph John THOMSON describes atoms as like a plum pudding or raisin cake. The atom was a heavy positive pudding with the light negatively charged electrons emmbedded in it

## Rutherfords model 1911

New Zealand Physicist, Ernest RUTHERFORD describes the nuclear atom His model of the atom had a tiny, very dense, positively charged nucleus about 1 /10,000 the diameter of the atom The very tiny negative electrons orbited around the nucleus like tiny planets

## Bohrs model 1913

Danish physicist, Niels BOHR, applies his own ideas to the electrons of the Rutherford atom. His new model has the electrons in orbit where they are only able to exist at very definite positions with a very definite energy (quantised). This uses quantum theory, which implies that particles have set amount of energy

## THE STRUCTURE OF ATOMS

Atoms are made up of three subatomic particles Protons carry positive charge Neutrons having no charge Electrons carry negative charge The protons and neutrons are tightly bound together to form the central portion of an atom called the nucleus. The electrons are located outside of the nucleus and thought to move very rapidly throughout a relatively large volume of space surrounding the small but very heavy nucleus.

## particles Proton Neutron electron

charge +1 No charge -1

Position in atom Atom nucleus Atom nucleus Moving around atom nucleus

ISOTOPES
Isotopes are atoms with the same atomic numbers but different mass numbers.

EXAMPLES Hydrogen

Chlorine Carbon

ISOBAR
Atoms of different elements might have the same mass number.
EXAMPLES

ISOTONES
Atoms of different elements might have the same number of neutron EXAMPLES

According to Bohr, electrons move around the nucleus in fixed orbit or shells The electron in each shell have different energy level. The shells closes to the nucleus have lower energy levels than those farther away The biggest atoms can have up to 7 electron shells, However, each shell can contain only a limited number of electrons. This number depends on their size:
1st shell maximum filled with 2 electrons. 2nd shell maximum filled with 8 electrons. 3rd shell can hold up to 18 electrons, but normally only holds up to 8 to make atom more stable. 4th shell can hold up to 32 electrons but, like the third shell, normally holds only up to 8 to make atom more stable

Sodium

## p=11 e=11 n=12

Electronic Configuration: 2, 8, 1
1st shell 2nd shell 3rd shell

Electronic Structure
The electron in the outermost shell of an atom are called the outer electron or valency electrons Sodium has 1 valency electron

Ion is an atom having electric charge When atoms lose or gain electrons, they become ions
Loses electrons + Positive ion

atom _

Gains electrons

Negative ion

## An atom may gain or lose electrons

cation ion with a positive charge If a neutral atom loses one or more electrons it becomes a cation.

Na

11 protons 11 electrons

Na+

11 protons 10 electrons

anion ion with a negative charge If a neutral atom gains one or more electrons it becomes an anion.

Cl

17 protons 17 electrons

Cl-

17 protons 18 electrons

## Predicting Ionic Charge

Metals tend to form cations (group 1 and 2) Non-metals tend to form anions.(group 5, 6, 7 )

Be2+

A monatomic ion contains only one atom Na+, Cl-, Ca2+, O2-, Al3+, N3-

A polyatomic ion contains more than one atom OH-, CN-, NH4+, NO3-

## A molecule is made up of two or more atoms chemically combined together.

H2

H2O

NH3

CH4

A diatomic molecule contains only two atoms H2, N2, O2, Br2, HCl, CO A polyatomic molecule contains more than two atoms O3, H2O, NH3, CH4

Kinds of Molecules
Molecules are made up of the same kinds of atoms

## The using of ions and molecules in chemical product in daily life

Composer Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC) Polyetilene Product Water pipe, tile Carpet, laboratory apparatus

Isoprene (C5H8) and polystyrene Sucrose (C12H22O11) Ionic compound NaCl Ion-ion (Cl-, Na+,Mg 3+, Ca2+)