First Indian Scientist to Win Nobel Prize
Sir Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman (C.V. Raman) was the first Indian scientist to win Nobel Prize. C.V. Raman was awarded the 1930 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work on the scattering of light and for the discovery of the Raman effect, which is named after him. Raman effect relates to the inelastic scattering of a photon. When light is scattered from an atom or molecule, most photons are elastically scattered (Rayleigh scattering). The scattered photons have the same energy (frequency) and, therefore, wavelength, as the incident photons. However, a small fraction of scattered light (approximately 1 in 10 million photons) is scattered from excitations with optical frequencies different from, and usually lower than, the frequency of the incident photons. Raman effect is helpful in analyzing the composition of liquids, gases, and solids.

First Nuclear Power Plant in India
Tarapur Atomic Power Station (T.AP.S.) was the first nuclear power plant in India. The construction of the plant was started in 1962 and the plant went operational in 1969. The 320 MW Tarapur nuclear power station housed two 160 MW boiling water reactors (BWRs), the first in Asia. The Tarapur Plant was originally constructed by the American companies Bechtel and GE, under a 1963 123 Agreement between India, the United States, and the IAEA. The Tarapur Atomic Power Station is under the control of Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited. Recently, two 540 MW pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWRs) were operationalised at Tarapur. The new reactors were constructed by L & T and Gammon India. Tarapur Nuclear Power Station is the largest PHWR-based power station in India.

First Satellite Launched by India
Aryabhatta was the first satellite launched by India. It was named after the great Indian astronomer of the same name. Aryabhatta weighed 360kg and was launched by the Soviet Union on April 19, 1975 from Kapustin Yar using a Cosmos-3M launch vehicle. The satellite had following objectives:
• • • •

To indigenously design and fabricate a space-worthy satellite system and evaluate its perfromance in orbit. To evolve the methodology of conducting a series of complex operations on the satellite in its orbital phase. To set up ground-based receiving, transmitting and tracking systems. To establish infrastructure for the fabrication of spacecraft systems.

Aryabhatta carried experiments related to X-Ray Astronomy, Solar Physics and Aeronomy. The satellite re-entered the Earth's atmosphere on 11 February 1992.

India's First Indigenous Satellite Launch Vehicle
SLV-3 was India's first indigenous satellite launch vehicle. The vehicle was launched by Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) on July 18, 1980. President A P J Abdul Kalam was the Project Director of SLV-3 The SLV-3 weighed 17 tonne and had a payload of 40 kg. The SLV-3 put 35 kg Rohini Satellite into the orbit. The launch of SLV-3 was a historic landmark for the Indian space programme. It gave ISRO an insight into the conceptualisation, design, development and management of a technically complex multi-disciplinary project. With the launch of SLV-3, India joined a select band of five nations that had this capability. The other five countries are USSR, USA, France, China and Japan.

India's First Indigenously Built Satellite
Insat 2A was India's first indigenously built satellite. The satellite was launched on 9 July 1992 from Kourou, French Guyana. The satellite had a dry mass of 916kg and it weighed 1906 kg with propellants. The satellite had following payload: Communication Transponders: 12 C-band, 6 ext. C-band (for FSS), 2 S-band (for BSS), 1 Data

relay, 1 search and rescue. Meteorology: Very High Resolution Radiometer (VHRR) with 2 km resolution in visible and 8 km in Infrared band. The Insat 2 program was started in 1983. Its objective was to develop an indigenous multi-purpose Geo spacecraft. In 1985, the basic spacecraft configuration was adopted. The configuration called for an on-station dry mass of 860 kg which later rose to 910 kg. The communications payload was increased with six additional 7/5 GHz transponders for a total of 18, plus two S-band transponders. The Insat 2 series consisted of Insat 2A, 2B, 2C, 2D, and 2E satellites.

India's First Nuclear Reactor
India's First Nuclear Reactor was Apsara. It was also the first nuclear reactor in Asia. Apsara went critical at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay on August 4, 1956. It heralded the arrival of India's nuclear energy programme. Dr. Homi Bhabha himself conceptualised the design of the reactor and the reactor was built entirely by Indian engineers in a record time of about 15 months. Apsara is a swimming-pool-type reactor loaded with enriched uranium as fuel. The fuel core is suspended from a movable trolley in a pool filled with water. The pool water serves as coolant, moderator and reflector, besides providing the shielding.

India's First Supercomputer
India's First Supercomputer was PARAM 8000. PARAM stood for Parallel Machine. The computer was developed by the government run Center for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) in 1991. The PARAM 8000 was introduced in 1991 with a rating of 1 Gigaflop (billion floating point operations per second). All the chips and other elements that were used in making of PARAM were bought from the open domestic market. The various components developed and used in the PARAM series were Sun UltraSPARC II, later IBM POWER 4 processors, Ethernet, and the AIX Operating System. The major applications of PARAM Supercomputer are in long-range weather forecasting, remote sensing, drug design and molecular modelling.

General Knowledge Quiz for Competitive exams 2010
1. Author of hard times ? CHARLE’S DICKEN’S 2. Which is the language spoken by most people ? 3. The study (Art) of communication Ideas or thoughts by finger ? DACTYOLOGY 4. Who is inventor of computer Challes Babbage 5. Branch of science deals with causes of diseases is- etiology 6. Who built Eiffel tower Fedrick Augeste Batholdi 7. The longest inland waterways in the world is ? Mississippi river system 8. which country invented the atom bomb? U.S.A. 9. The software named SEAMONKEY is used in a computer to Browse the internet 10. Which Jonas brother dated Taylor Swift? Jo 11. Who are miley’s best friends in the hit TV series ‘Hannah Montana’? lilly and oliver 12. Which medicine is used for the treatment of cough? Levopromazine 13. which is driest place in world? atcama desert 14. Length of Thar Desert? 2,59,000 kilometers 15. Tagline ‘Empowering people’ is linked with which brand? Acer 16. How do plants stand erect? Cellwalls 17. which Asian team will be out of the next Fifa world cup for the first time after a gap of 20 years Iran 18. who awarded the Indira Gandhi peace prize of the year 2010? PM Sheikh Hasina 19. When does Mahatma Gandhi born? October 2,1869 20. who is called master blaster? sachin Tendulkar 21. which bowler throw a fastest bowl in ODI’s? Shaun Tait 22. When was first movie made in India? 1913 23. Who was the first woman to walk in space? Swetlana savitskaya 24. Who hit a first Double century in One day International Cricket ? Sachin Tendulkar 25. Where is Andrerieu playing next? south africa 26. who is invented Unix? dennis ritchi 27. which women got the Oscar award in 2009 banu athaya 28. when a new galaxy found? jan 30 of2010 29. What is the city code for Colombo ? com 30. who hit 6 sixes in 20-20 cricket world cup ? Yuvraj Singh 31. Sun city in rajasthan? Jodhpur 32. In which year did All India Radio begin broadcasting news? 1927 33. which hokey player is known as magician of hockey? dhiyan chand 34. what is the abbreviation of Wipro western Indian products 35. what is the abbreviation of NCR company? National cash register 36. Who has written God of small thing? Aarundhati rai 37. Who established the “AJAD HIND FAUJ” ? Ras Bihari Bose 38. Who is called as Frontier Gandhi ? Abdul Gaffar khan 39. In which year the division of Bengal is happened? 1905 40. In which year IBBNEBATUTA came in India? 1333 41. In which year “Dandi Yatra’ was done by Mahatma Gandhi? 1930 42. Who was the fourth Prime minister of India? MorarJi Desai 43. Maximum possible no. of seats in Indian Lok sabha is? 552 44. World largest gravity dam is located in India 45. who is the first women IPS officer in India kiran bedi 46. Which is the sugar bowl of world Cuba 47. Who is invented in penicillin ? alexander flemming 48. who invented radium madam curie 49. who invented the wrist watch ? Patek Philippe 50. who is the first women freedom fighter ? Laxmi Bai ( Jhansi ki Rani ) 51. what is the native place of mother Teresa? cecozlovakia 52. the last tale of Shakespeare ? the tempest 53. how many legs did a butterfly had? 6 54. when the twin tower destroyed ? sept. 11,2001 55. what is the capital of china bejjing 56. what is the capital of india? delhi 57. who gave the slogan “YES WE CAN” during his presidential campaign? barak obama 58. In absence of both the president and vice president who serves the office of the president of india?? Chief justice of india

union minister of aviation? praful patel 114. which country is the largest producer of coffee brazil 103. In which state kalahasthi is situated? andhra pradesh 77. who are winners of Icc20-20 world cup 2007? india 96.CHIDAMBARAM 87. presently. in bio reseve whch states forst was take in world bio reserve w. name the capital of iran tehran 92. Which country has won the football world cup five times ? Brazil . what animal can last the longest without water Rats 116. Who is the first cricketer to hit 6 sixes in an over in T20 cricket? Yuvraj Singh 115. National youth day celebrated in the memory of Swami vivekanand 111. which animal sweats on its tongue? dog 106. who wins the world chess championship in 2009 Vishvanathan Anand. What is difference between Indian Standard Time [IST] & Greenwich mean Time {GMT } +5. Who won the first world cup? west indies 74. which is the oldest and no. Salman rushdi 117. India plans a manned mission to the moon by 2020 118.India 68.59. Father of Computer Charles Babbage 91. IN WHICH COUNTRY. who is higest scorer for cricket in ODI cricket match sachin tendulkar 109. INDIA’S HOME MINISTER P. who is the ex-officio chairman of planning commission of india ? Prime Minister of India 62. who is the eighth general secretary of UNO? ban ki moon 110. what is india’s national flower lotus 79. Who is Finance Minister of India in 2010 ? parnab mukhraji 76.1 nationalized bank state bank of india 81. Who Invented Nylon? Wallace Carrothers 100. ISRO is located in Bangalore 99.who is the election commissioner for tamilnadu NARESH GUPTA 86.b 113. who got the booker prize for white tiger ? aravind adiga 89. Which is the land of “white lillies”? Canada 93. who is the supreme commander of indian armed forces ? President of India 66.30 hrs 73. Where is situated in BIRLA PLANITORIUM chennai 82. Peter’s Basilica? Donato Bramante 104. who is the author of ” The mid night childern”. MEXICO 107. which city is known as empire city ? New york 63. what is the capital of kerala thiruvanathapuram 85. WHICH COUNTRY IS THE LARGEST PRODUCER OF ONION. which country is the most important member of the UN? India 88. which country has more names to it? india 95. HIGHEST POPULATION IN WORLD CHINA 84. In which Plant called this potinical name’ HIBISCUS ROSANAS’ CHAMBARAUTHI 80. 72. what is the slogan for dell? yours is here 71. Which Article in Constitution was given more wider meaning? Article 21 97. What is the Specialist of Matribhoomi Train? 21 ladies special trains in the suburban sections of the four major metros. which state of india has largest forest madhya pradesh 112. What is the meant by waseef ? The king 101. who won the T20 world cup in2010 in England? England 70. what is mother name of SATHRAPATHI SIVAJI JEEJI BAI 83. Who discovered penicillin? alexander fleming 90. who is Canadian prime minister? stephen haper 105. which is the only lady to win 2 noble prize for chemistry? marie curie 102. Who are running for Fine Gael in the european elections for Ireland south? Colm Burke and Sean Kelly 94. who was the architect of St. Which national highway is longest in India ? NH-7 65. who is the general-secretary of united nations at present?? Ban ki moon 60. Who is the first cricketer to hit 6 sixes in an over in ODI cricket ? Harslay Gibbs 69. when was French east India company was started? 1664 78. who is the vice president of india ? mohammad hamid ansari 61. Where does the great slave lake is situated ? Canada 64. The Netherlands is also known as? holland 98. What is called the land of the Rising Sun ? JAPAN 67. who took first wicket in IPL-3 chaminda vaas 75. Which is the national aquatic animal of india? Dolphin 108.

APJ Abdul Kalam project Director . First Nuclear Power plant in India.1980. which country celebrates its Independence Day on 14 August? pakistan 122. Indias first indigenous satellite launch vehicle SLV-3 .Raman. 146. Indias first Super Computer --. O.119. Who is the author of the book &quotThe Daughter of the East”? Benazir Bhutto 127. what is the currency of bangladesh? taka 121. Operated 1969. The First train ran between which two cities of India Bombay to Thane 123. 9th July 1992. 1962. April 19. Bhabha Atomic Research (BARC). Kourov. Our earth is in which type of galaxy? Spiral 129. Indias first indigenously Built satellite—Insat -2A. French Gayana. Physics 142. Which city in the world has the most amount of theaters? Buenos Aires 141. Trombay. Hume 16) Which former Indian Prime Minister’s birthday is on December 25? Atal Bihari Vajpayee 17) Which state was known as North East Frontier Agency? Arunachal Pradesh 18) Which state or union territory has French as an official language? Pondicherry 19) Which is the official language of Jammu and Kashmir? Urdu 20) Which state became part of India in 1975? Sikkim 21) Which city was the summer capital of India during British Rule? Simla 22) Who was the only Indian Governor General? C. When is the World Population Day? July 11 134. When did michael jackson die? 25 june 2009 125. 320MW 143.1956. First Satellite launched by India. in1991 . Rajagopalachari 23) Which Prime Minister could not prove his majority in Lok Sabha in May 1996? Atal Behari Vajpayee 24) Which of the following religions did not originate in India? Judaism 25) When did Rabindranath Tagore die? 1941 . Where is the world’s tallest building? Dubai 140. what is the capital of norway ? Oslo 131. which river is known as &quotchina’s sorrow” ? hwang ho river 124. 145. producer and exporter of tea? India 128.V. how tall is k2 the second tallest mountain in the world? 8611m 137. How many wives had Henry VIII of England? six 138. Which country is the largest consumer. which is the world’s most fastest snake. on July 18. which country in africa has the shape of a horn? somalia 120. Tarapur Atomic Power Station. by Soviat union. what means “mon amour” in French? my love 139. its also first in asia. Sanjeeva Reddy 7) What was the age of Morarji Desai when he became the Prime Minister? 81 8) How was Tamil Nadu known? Madras 9) Which is the capital of Kerala? Thiruvananthapuram 10) Nagaland was separated from which state? Assam 11) Which is the smallest state in terms of area? Goa 12) Where is the tomb of Akbar? Sikandra 13) Which is the national animal of India? Tiger 14) Which is the national flower of India? Lotus 15) Who founded Indian National Congress? A. by Indian space research organization (ISRO) . Which country has a 13 month in a calendar ethopia 135. 144. Which country in 2009 had numero test player and odi player of the year? India 126. what is the capital of sudan khartoum 136. First Indian Scientist to win Nobel Prize? C. August4. INDIA QUIZ QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 1) What is the number of states in India? 28 2) Which is the first state to be formed on the basis of language? Andhra Pradesh 3) When was Burma was separated from India? 1937 4) When did India become a republic? 1950 5) Which state was divided into Maharashtra and Gujarat in 1960? Bombay 6) Who was the Speaker of the Lok Sabha before he became the President of India? N.Aryabhatta . Indias first nuclear reactor – Apsara. which is the world’s 3 rd most piousness snake dimond rattel 133. who won the ballon do’r in 2008 ronaldo 130. green pit wiper 132. 1930 . 147.PARAM 8000. 1975.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 State Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Chhattisgarh Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu and Kashmir Jharkhand Karnataka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh Uttarakhand West Bengal Capital Hyderabad Itanagar Dispur Patna Raipur Panaji Gandhinagar Chandigarh Shimla Srinagar Ranchi Bengaluru Thiruvananthapuram Bhopal Mumbai Imphal Shillong Aizawl Kohima Bhubaneswar Chandigarh Jaipur Gangtok Chennai Agartala Lucknow Dehradun Kolkata Chief Minister Kiran Kumar Reddy Jarbom Gamlin Tarun Gogoi Nitish Kumar Dr. J. Prem Kumar Dhumal Omar Abdullah Arjun Munda B. S. Yeddyurappa Oommen Chandy Shivraj Singh Chouhan Prithviraj Chavan Okram Ibobi Singh Dr.No. Jayalalithaa Manik Sarkar Ms. Mamata Banerjee . Raman Singh Digambar Kamat Narendra Modi Bhupinder Singh Hooda Prof. Mukul Sangma Pu Lalthanhawla Neiphiu Rio Naveen Patnaik Parkash Singh Badal Ashok Gehlot Pawan Chamling Ms. Mayawati Ramesh Pokhriyal Ms.

Rangasamy List of Lt.List of Chief Ministers of Indian Union Territories No. Public Grievances & Pensions.M. Pranab Mukherjee Sharad Pawar A. Jaipal Reddy Kamal Nath . Small and Medium Enterprises Minister of Science and Technology and Minister of Earth Sciences Minister of Health and Family Welfare Minister of Power Minister of Corporate Affairs Minister of New and Renewable Energy Minister of Petroleum and Natural Gas Minister of Urban Development Name of Minister 1. Governors & Administrators of Indian Union Territories No. Sheila Dikshit N. 9. 11. Antony P. Portfolio Prime Minister and also in-charge of the Ministries/Departments not specifically allocated to the charge of any Minister viz. 3.: Ministry of Personnel. Department of Atomic Energy and Department of Space Minister of Finance Minister of Agriculture and Minister of Food Processing Industries Minister of Defence Minister of Home Affairs Minister of External Affairs Minister of Micro. 10. 8. 14. 7. Manmohan Singh 2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Union Territory Andaman and Nicobar Islands Chandigarh Dadra and Nagar Haveli Daman and Diu Delhi Lakshadweep Puducherry Lt. Veerappa Moily Farooq Abdullah S. Chidambaram S. K.K. Dadoo Iqbal Singh Cabinet Ministers of India No. 12. Governors & Administrators Bhopinder Singh Shivraj V. 13. Krishna Virbhadra Singh Vilasrao Deshmukh Ghulam Nabi Azad Sushilkumar Shinde M. 4. 5. Patil Satya Gopal/td> Satya Gopal Tejendra Khanna J. 6. Ministry of Planning. 1 2 Union Territory Delhi Puducherry (Pondicherry) Chief Minister Mrs.

Vasan Pawan Kumar 24. 8. Minister of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation and Minister of CultureMs. Minister of Tribal Affairs and Minister of Panchayati Raj Deo 31. Chemicals and Fertilizers 6.15. Ministry of Mines 2. Purandeswari K. Minister of Tourism Subodh Kant Sahay 23. Ministry of Consumer Affairs. Joshi 21. Ahamed Mullappally Ramachandran V. Jayanthi Natarajan Paban Singh Ghatowar Gurudas Kamat Name of Minister E. Ministry of Women and Child Development 3.K. Minister of Law and Justice and Minister of Minority Affairs Salman Khursheed V. Minister of Shipping G. No. Public Grievances and Pensions and Prime Minister’s Office Ministry of Commerce and Industry Ministry of Human Resource Development Ministry of Railways . Minister of Commerce and Industry and Minister of Textiles Anand Sharma 20. Patel Mrs. Krishna Tirath Ajay Maken Prof. 4. 3. Minister of Steel Beni Prasad Verma 32.P.V. D. Portfolio 1. Kapil Sibal Communications and Information Technology 19. Thomas Srikant Jena Mrs. Minister of Chemicals and Fertilizers M. Narayanasamy Jyotiraditya Madhavrao Scindia Mrs. Selja 22. Alagiri 27. Minister of Road Transport and Highways C.K. K. Ministry of Youth Affairs and Sports 4.H. Ministry of Environment and Forests Ministry of Development of North Eastern Region Ministry of Drinking Water and Sanitation Name of Minister Dinsha J. 1. Food & Public Distribution Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation and Ministry of 5. 7. Minister of Labour and Employment Mallikarjun Kharge Minister of Human Resource Development and Minister of 18. Minister of Social Justice and Empowerment Mukul Wasnik 26. Minister of Heavy Industries and Public Enterprises Praful Patel 28. Muniappa Ministers of State Portfolio Ministry of External Affairs and Ministry of Human Resource Development Ministry of Home Affairs Ministry of Personnel. 5. Kishore Chandra 30. Minister of Parliamentary Affairs and Minister of Water Resources Bansal 25. Minister of Coal Shriprakash Jaiswal 29. Minister of Rural Development Jairam Ramesh Ministers of State with Independent Charge No. 6. 2. Minister of Information and Broadcasting Mrs. Minister of Railways Dinesh Trivedi 33. Minister of Overseas Indian Affairs and Minister of Civil Aviation Vayalar Ravi 16. Ambika Soni 17.

Khandela Sisir Adhikari Sultan Ahmed Mukul Roy Choudhury Mohan Jatua D. 25. 33. 13. 35. 37. 27. Reservoir is called Gobind Vallabh Pant reservoir. 26.Ht. 226m.C. Palanimanickam Jitin Prasada Mrs. 18.7. Ministry of Textiles Ministry of Finance Ministry of Defence Ministry of Urban Development Ministry of Finance Ministry of Road Transport and Highways Ministry of External Affairs Ministry of Agriculture. 10. World’s Longest Dam: 4801m On Son in Mirzapur. 36. 14. 11. Based on Tennessee Valley Project USA Hirakud Project Rihand Project Kosi Project On Mahanadi in Orrisa. Preneet Kaur Harish Rawat Bharatsinh Solanki Mahadev S. Napoleon S.P. 23. 24. Highest in India. 28. Panabaka Lakshmi Namo Narain Meena M. 16. Venugopal Sudip Bandyopadhyay Charan Das Mahant Jitendra Singh Milind Deora Rajeev Shukla Following are the important river valley projects in India Bhakra Nangal Project Mandi Project Chambal Valley Project On Sutlej in Punjab. Gandhiselvan Tusharbhai Chaudhary Sachin Pilot Pratik Prakashbapu Patil R. 29. 8.Gandhi Sagar Dam. 21. On Beas in HP On Chambal in MP & Rajasthan. Pallam Raju Saugata Ray S. Ministry of Science and Technology and Ministry of Earth Sciences Ministry of Power Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Ministry of Agriculture and Ministry of Food Processing Industries Ministry of Home Affairs Ministry of Communications and Information Technology Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs Mrs.S.Bihar . 20. 22. 34.N.M. 19. Jagathrakshakan S. 17. 32. 31. On Kosi in N. 30. Reservoir is called Gobind Sagar Lake. 3 dams are there:. 12. Ministry of Food Processing Industries and Ministry of Parliamentary Affairs Ministry of Railways Ministry of Tribal Affairs Ministry of Rural Development Ministry of Tourism Ministry of Shipping Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment Ministry of Information and Broadcasting Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Ministry of Road Transport and Highways Ministry of Communications and Information Technology Ministry of Coal Ministry of Petroleum and Natural Gas and Ministry of Corporate Affairs Ministry of Water Resources and Ministry of Minority Affairs Ministry of Rural Development Ministry of Rural Development Ministry of Planning. Agatha Sangma Ashwani Kumar K. Rana Pratap Sagar Dam and Jawahar Sagar Dam Damodar Valley Project On Damodar in Bihar. 9. 15. Singh Vincent Pala Pradeep Jain Ms.

Matsatung Glacier Near Gosain Dham Park Vindhyanchal Amarkantak Near Mansarovar Lake Fall into Bay of Bengal Chenab Arabian Sea Chenab Satluj Chenab Ganga Yamuna Ganga Ganga Yamuna Ganga Bay of Bengal Length (km) 2525 1050 2880 720 470 725 1375 1050 1080 730 480 780 2900 . It is the older river valley project in India. Following are the important rivers of India Name Ganges Satluj Indus Ravi Beas Jhelum Yamuna Chambal Ghagra Kosi Betwa Son Brahmaputra Origin From Combined Sources Mansarovar Rakas Lakes Near Mansarovar Lake Kullu Hills near Rohtang Pass Near Rohtang Pass Verinag in Kashmir Yamunotri M. On Tapti in Gujarat On Mahi in Gujarat On Chenab in J&K Mata Tila Multipurpose On Betwa in Uttar Pradesh and Madhya Pradesh Project Thein Project Pong Dam Tehri Dam Sardar Sarovar Project On Ravi. Tata Hydel Scheme On Bhima in Maharashtra Sharavathi Hydel Project On Jog Falls in Karnataka Kundah & Periyar Project Farakka Project Ukai Project Mahi Project Salal Project In Tamil Nadu On Ganga in WB. Apart from power and irrigation it helps to remove silt for easy navigation. Uttarakhand On Narmada.Mayurkashi Project Kakrapara Project Nizamsagar Project On Mayurkashi in West Bengal On Tapi in Gujrat On Manjra in Andhra Pradesh Nagarjuna Sagar Project On Krishna in Andhra Pradesh Tugabhadra Project On Tugabhadra in Andhra Pradesh & Karnataka Shivasamudram Project On Cauvery in Karnataka. Gujarat/MP.P. On Beas. Punjab On Bhgirathi. Punjab.

Africa) City of Golden Gate : : : San Francisco (USA) City of Magnificient Buildings : : : Washington (USA) City of Quiet thoroughfares : : : Venice City of Seven Hills : : : Rome (Italy) City of Skyscrapers : : : New York (USA) Cockpit of Europe : : : Belgium Dark Continent : : : Africa Emerald Isle : : : Ireland Empire City : : : New York Eternal City of Hopes : : : Rome. Of MP Gulf of Khambat Mahanadi Raipur Distt. In Maharashtra Bay of Bengal Cauvery Brahmagir Range of Western Ghats Bay of Bengal Tungabhadra Western Ghats Krishna River 1057 724 858 450 494 416 1327 1465 805 640 Britain of the South : : : New Zealand China’s Sorrow : : : River Hwang Ho City of Dreaming Spires : : : Oxford (England) City of Eternal Springs : : : Quito (S. In Chattisgarh Bay of Bengal Luni Aravallis Rann of kuchchh Ghaggar Himalayas Near Fatehabad Sabarmati Aravallis Gulf of Khambat Krishna Western ghats Bay of Bengal Godavari Nasik distt.Narmada Amarkantak Gulf of Khambat Tapti Betul Distt.America) City of Flowers : : : Cape Town (S. Italy Forbidden City : : : Lhasa (Tibet) Garden City : : : Chicago Garden in the desert : : : Ethiopia Garden of England : : : Kent (England) Gate of tears : : : Strait of bab-el-Mandeb Golden City : : : Johannesburg Gibraltar of Indian : : : Ocean Aden Gift of Nile : : : Egypt Granite City : : : Aberdeen Hanging Valleys : : : Valley of Switzerland Hermit Kingdom : : : Korea Herring Pond : : : Atlantic Ocean Holy Land : : : Palestine Human Equator of the Earth : : : Himalayas Island Continent : : : Australia Island of Cloves : : : Zanzibar Island of Pearls : : : Bahrain (Persian Gulf) Islands of Sunshine : : : West Indies Kashmir of Europe : : : Switzerland Key to Mediterranean : : : Gibraltar Land of Five Seas : : : South West Asia Land of Lakes : : : Scotland .

Goa freed in 1961 3. Hegel called India as the ‘land of desires’. Until 15th Century there were three trade routes only.1498 and Zamorin King welcomed him.1661 Bombay given Royal dowry toCharles II for marrying Catherine. China INDIAN HISTORY FOR APPSC EXAMS ADVENT OF THE EUROPEANS 1. Capital transferred from Cochin to Goa in 1530 by by Nino. 4. First Governor was Fransiscl Almedia. in 1633 at Musulipattam. Hawkins was given 400 manasabs by Jahangir. George was constructed in 1640 and a factory was opened at Bangalore in 1642. In 1615 James I sent his Ambassador Sir Thomas Roe to the Court of Jahangir. They established a few trading depots at Surat. In 1509 Alfonso d’ Albuyquerque came to India as Portuguese Governor and captured Goa from Bijapur in 1510.5. First they started factory at Surat. Second to Mediterranean Sea through Syria.East India Company – It was originally known as Governor and Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies and Queen Elizabeth I granted royal charter on 31. Lost Hoogli in 1631 to Shajahan. Ahmedabad. This new Sea route via ‘Cape of Good Hope’ and discovery of America were termed as two greatest by Adam Smith.da cuncha. 2.1600.Portugese: Vasco da Gama reached Calicut on 20.Dutch – In 1595 Dutch merchants started going to India They formed Dutch East India Company(VOC) in 1602. Cambay. a) Got madras in 1639 from Raja of Chandagiri and Fort St George .Land of Golden Pagoda : : : Myanmar Land of Kangaroo : : : Australia Land of Golden Fleece : : : Australia Land of Lilies : : : Canada Land of Maple : : : Canada Land of Midnight Sun : : : Norway Land of Morning Calm : : : Korea Land of Rising Sun : : : Japan Land of Setting Sun : : : United Kingdom Land of Thousand Elephants : : : Laos Land of Thousand Lakes : : : Finland Land of Thunderbolt : : : Bhutan Land of White Elephant : : : Thailand Loneliest Island : : : Tristan De Gumha Manchester of Japan : : : Osaka (Japan) Pillars of Hercules : : : Straits of Gibraltar Play Ground of Europe : : : Switzerland Quaker City : : : Philadelphia Queen of the Adriatic : : : Venice Roof of the World : : : The pamirs (Tibet) River in the Sea : : : Gulf Stream Sickman of Europe : : : Turkey Sugar Bowl of the world : : : Cuba Venice of the East : : : Bangkok Venice of the North : : : Stockholm White City : : : Belgrade Windy City : : : Chicago Workshop of Europe : : : Belgium World’s Loneliest Island : : : Tristan Da Cunha Yellow River : : : River Hwang Ho. But they could not continue in India due to religious intolerance and piracy.Shakespeare termed India as a land of ‘great opportunities’.12. The first Governor was Thomas Smith and Groups were known as ‘Merchant Adventurers’. Fort St. First route to Caspian and Black Seas through Central Asia. He again came in 1502..Lost to British in 1759 in the battle of Bedara 1759. But in 1453 with the conquest of Constantinople by Turkish all the routes were closed. Third route to Egypt via Red Sea. They taught us tobacco cultivation.

Turani from Central Asia. VII. c. British won and became defacto rulers of Bengal.First governor wasFrancois Martin.Red Fort to Village. Even though they own Hydrabad in 1760. Fought at St. vi.Third – 1817-1818. 10. Kalikota and Govindpur got by Hamiltongained firman in 1717 called magna carta of the company. 7. They were Irani from Iran. Saiyid brothers were Hindustani. II. He joint hands with Nadir Shah and later committed to suicide. Purdha (both muslims and higher caste Hindus wore it) and Devadasi system in Orissa and Tamil Nadu.After Ahahuji Raja Ram came to throne. He honoured Rana Jai Singh of Amer as ‘Sawai’. Second Peshwa was Baji Rao and third was Balaji Baji Rao and last was Baji Rao II. Disintegration of Mughal Empire. b.Shahuji appointed Balaji Vishwanath as first Peshwa which was hereditary.Second – 1803-1805c. During his period Ahmad Shah Abdali raided India several times. 4. Who were known as ‘king makers’. Afgan and Hindustani. VIII. 3.Disintegration of the Mughal Empire I.Bengal in 1700 – Murshid Quli Khan became Diwan of Bengtal.First 1775-1782 – defeated of Britain. 6) French: 1664 company. b. Chanda Sahib executed. Infanticide. Akbar Shah II 1806-1837 and Bahadur Shah II 1837-1857. c) In 1715 three villages Sutanati. Third son was Kam Bakhas who was favourites to his father and was called ‘Deen Panah’ (Saviour of the religion) III. two princes Rafi-ud-Darajat and Daula came to throneand finally Muhammad Shah rulled Delhi from 1719-1748.Sold all settlements to British in 1845.After death of Siyar.Civil War between Shahuji and Tara Bai widow of Rajaram.Three sons of Aurangzeb fought a. V.Tarangampadi.After death of Muhammad Shah his son Ahmad Shah ruled for six years from 1748-1754.First war 1745 to 1748 – due to capture of French ship by Barmett and Duplleix opposed it .Awadh – Saadat Khan established. However end of war of Austria also ended this war and Madras was given to English. They own many baters but lost the crucial third batter of Panipat. Child marriage. His successors were Shah Alam II 1759-1806. II. In 1661 Bombay was received as royal dowry from Portuguese for marrying their Princess Catherine Braganza with Charles II. He was called Shah-I-Bekhabar b. The Company got it from the King in 1668 for an annual rent of 10pounds.Third War – Outbreak of seven years war in Europe and Capture of Chandra Nagoor by Clive led to the War. a. Thome and French won. French lost and Arcot was captured by Clive. Their seat of power was Poona. III.Battle of Buxar 1764 – Between Munro and Mir Quasim. He was also called Burhan-ulMulk.Carnatic War French were the last to come – a. b. During Shah Alam II its boundary shrink from ‘Alam to Palam’ . Growth of Marathas and Peshwas and rise of autonomous states and foreign invasions were the salient future. INDIA IN THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY(SPK) 1.Maratha Power I. Shuja-ud-daula and Shah Alam II.Battle of Plassey 1757 – Between Siraj-ud-daula and British – British won and it paved a way for British Monarchy of Bengal – marked beginning of drain of wealth from India to Britain.Political and other Conditions Generally it was fluid and past deteriorating.Anglo Maratha War. HENCE DURING 1719 THERE WERE FOUR MULSIMS RULERS.Dupliex powerful and Carnatic Wars. 9.Hence Aziz-ud-din came to throne and was called Alamgir II. If Saiyid brothers continued they would have succeeded in establishing frank and powerful Government.Muhammad Muazzam was first son called Bahadur Shan I – captured power and prevented demolitions of temples. Women were treated badly and were victims of Saty. Safdarjand and Shuja-ud-Daula were prominent rulers.There were many manasabs in the Mughal Court.Second war 1749-54. French supported Muzaffar Jung and Chanda Sahib. 2. He did away Jaziya tax.Second son was Muhammad Azam and was killed c. Saiyid brothers were Abdulla Khan and Hussain Ali Khan. IV.It started with death of Aurangzeb in 1707.Rice of Autonomous Statesa.b).Shahiji was released by Bahadur Shah I.Serambore capital. 5) Danes: Came in 1616 Coy.First factory at Suratr and machilipattinam. IV.In 1712 Jahandar Shah came to throne with the support of Zulfikar Khan.He was killed by Farrukh Siyar with the help of Saiyid brothers and he rulled from 1713-1719. . 8.

d. He sent Ambassador to Foreign Country e. the issue of women franchise was taken up in relation to the elections for the Provincial Councils. The Sadar Diwani and Sadar Nizamat Adalats (Criminal) operated on the basis of Indian laws. which was fifth invasions in which he defeated Marathas in 1761 under Baji Rao I. Ranjit Singh was Ch8ief of Misls.Hydrabad Nisamk-ul-Mulk Asaf Jah found it in 1724 and found Asafjahi dynasty. He took seventy crore rupees and also peacock throne built by Shah Jahan and famous Kohinoor diamond. In 1846 the minimum marriageable age for a girls was only 10 years. The Company established in 1806 its own training College in England in the name of East India College at Hailsbury.` The College established by Lord Wellesley. during his second term as Governor. First war (1767-1769) – He conquered Malabar and Coorg. g. Guru Gobind Singh was the 10th and last Guru and he formed Sikh Khalsa with 12 Sikh confederations (misls). Third Anglo Mysore war 1790-1792 and jktreaty of Seringapattam and he paid three crore rupees. In 1917. at Fort Williams in 1800 which integrated training in history. In 1930.P. The Ryotwari settlement was introduced mainly in Madras. Bombay and Assam. . In 1857 the three Universities were established on the basis of Wood’s recommendation. Equal rights were given to men and women only after independence through the 1956 Right to Hindu Inheritance of Property Act to own property. Bombay and Madras.Mysore – I. .Tipu Sultan – Ruled from 1782-1799. this was raised to 12 years. promotion of western education in English and Indian languages and the pattern of grants in aid to encourage private participation in the field of education were recommended.Foreign Invasions – a. His significant win was third battle of Panipat.c. Municipalities and other local self-governing bodies. established Diarchy in Bengal and this system was continued for 7 years. It entered with subsidiary alliance of Britian. a member of the Governor General’s Council tabled a bill supporting widow remarriage was passed on 13 July 1856 and came to be called the Widow Remarriage Act 1856. f. He defeated Nadir Shah.Kerala – Started by King Martanda Verma. Cornwallis first Governor General established a regular police force on the British pattern in India.In 1747 Nadir Shah was assassinated. In 1738 he conquered Kandhar. the limit was raised to 15 and 18 years. Warren Hastings established a Board of Revenue to improve the system of revenue administration. and also organized the Harijan Sevak Sangh. His attempt to remove commander of Bednur was vital. The first Law Commission constituted to codify and improve rules and regulations was framed Indian Penal Code (IPC) which came into effect in 1860. Sir Charles Wood sent a comprehensive dispatch on education to the Government of India in which the issues regarding the establishment of departments of public instructions in five provinces of the Company.Sikhs – He started with Guru Nanak Dev. In 1739 he invaded India and fight at Karnal. customary laws and languages did not find the favour of the Court of Directors and it was continued only language training School till 1854. Trignometry and Sanskrit. the East India Company was basically a trading concern. After independence. During his period treaty of Mangalore find after second war and he withdrew from Carnatic. Berar. II. The Supreme Court held its proceedings on the basis of English laws. on the Model of the London University. the Harijan. In 1787 he proclaimed himself as kPadshah. The Government of India Act of 1935 granted limited franchise to the Indian women. Nadir Shah – Persian ruler whose father was Shepherd. Prominent women leaders of this time like Sarojini Naidu.Grant. b. Even to day there is a memorial at Panipat in honour of Marathas soldiers who were killed.Haider Ali associated with first two An glo Mysore Wars and killed in second war. THE BRITISH ADMINISTRATIVE STRUCTURE AND ORGANISATION OF GOVERNMENT IN INDIA (1757-1857) -Until 1765. He was expert in Geometry.Assam – It was also known as Kamrup and Pragjyotishpur. through the Sharda Act. through the enactment of the Age of Consent Act.Rajput – Sawai Jai Singh built Jaipur. In 1854. They resisted all foreign invasions. • • • Lord Clive. First he was appointed as Faujdar of Dindigul. h. Second Anglo war 1780-1784 and he died in 1782. In July 1856. Masturba Gandhi and Rajkumari Amrit Kaur played significant roles in this regard. the minimum age was raised to 14 years. J. Ahmad Shah Abdali became ruler and invaded seven times India and looted many properties. In 1891. respectively in 1948 and 1978. Mahatma Gandhi brought out a paper. 5. In 1805 Travancore joind subsidiary alliance with Britain. Despatch recommended the establishment of one University each in Calcutta. Fourth war 1799 and Tipu was killed. Meera Behn.

Individual Reasons a) Grievance of Native Rulers – Doctrine of Lapse – Annexation of Awadh abolition of titles. Kolhapur.Try divide and rule by provoking Muslims. c)Centres. 2. Widow Re-marriage d) Administrative Cause: Corruption 6) Immediate cause – Introduction of New Enfield Rifle in January 1867 with Greased Cartridge with fat of Cows and Pigs – Sepoys of 19th N. • • In 1769. Had it succeeded. Conclusion: It was not successful due to factors mentioned above – yet it was starting point. 47th Regiment 1824 and 34th.La Chapple. political and administrative Reasons 4. Sepoy at Merut started – British tried to control by declaring Bahadur Shah as Emperor of India – No effect – Massacre of British Civil Military Officers. protection of converts from Hinduism 1856 d)Grievance of crafts man. at Barakpur started it.In 1833.1745-48-Austrian War cause. The first railway line was developed between Bombay to Thane. Economic Causes – Heavy Taxation Borrowed from Money lenders – drain of wealth – Destruction ofvillage industries and crafts manship and permanent settlement b) Political Cause – Subsidiary Allowance. the first steam engine was invented. Tanjore and British supported him and Capture ofArcot by Clive. It was a land mark in Indian history. Reasons for the Revolt. Reasons for failure : a) Only Central region participated b) Un Sympathetic attitude and Hostility of many native rulers seek non participation by Bengal. 1850 and 1852.I.1957. First Telegraph Line 1852 between Calcutta and Agra. the Indian handicraft industry had begun to decline by the beginning of the 18th century.Despite enjoying fame in the world. Any way it was starting point against British Rule.abolition of Sati. and Nasir Jung joined and defeated Md Ali in the battle of AMBUR.Chanda Sahib. 7. b) Grievance of Sepoys – Para 2 above c)Grievance of Orthodox and conservative people – Domination of Christian missionary. there would has been a different chapter in the History of India. widow remarriage act.Treaty of Aix. Tantiatope – Killed at Gwaliar III Lucknow – Begum of Awadh – defeated Bihar . Its inauguration was done on 16 April 1853. Above all company’s rules ended. Vellore 1806. 22nd. Comet Napoleon used the first steamer in 1812 in an expedition to Russia. peasants and Zamindars Village and crap destroy. 1857 REVOLT(SPK) 1. Agra. Gorkhpur.Victory forFrench.1957 and Mangal Pandey of 34 N. Previous Mutinies – Bengal 1764.Madras given back-Proved superiority of foreign army over Large local Army 2) Second Carnatic War-1749-54-Originally Dupleix.difference between Dupleix andLa Bourdaunaris.05. b) Spread – to various Places as detailed below. Madras c) Hostility of Money lenders and Merchants e) Weakness of Revolters f)Strong British 9) Hindu Muslim unity factor – First time Witnessewd –Accepted Bahadur Shah – Sentiment of Both respected – Ban on Cow slaughter ordered – Both Hindu and Muslim were included in main positions .I.It can be divided into individual Reasons and social.02. the Central Provinces and parts of north western provinces (Present UP) . IMPORTANT WARS 1) First Carnatic War. Satara. doctrine of lapse c) Social Cause – Conversion. Zamindars affected by permanent settlement and strict collection of Revenue 5.. Economic. 66 and 37 native infantry in 1844. But ridiculed as Sepoy Mutiny by British as only a part of central India participated in it. 3. Sati. Courses of Revolt a) Beginning 10. Punjab. the Mahalwari settlement was introduced in the Punjab. Successor of Bahadur Shah would be known as princes. Bombay. Chittor and Palaghat had earned a reputation for their glass industries. .French influence restricted toHyderabad. leaders and suppression I.Mutiny – Due to these there was major transformation in British policy. Postal 1854. 1849. at Berhampur disobey on 26. It was more than Sepoy. Sind and Punjab were known for manufacturing arms.Kunwar Singh IV Jansi – Rani Lakshmi Bai – She Captured Gwaliar – Lost later 8.Nawab ofCarnatic supported British but lost. Delhi – Bahadur Shah II – Arrested and deported to Rangoon II Kanpur – Nana sahib.later Marathas. It was termed as first war of Independence by Savarkar. Kutch.

TipuVsEnglish-Nizam and Marathas. Betterment of Woman a) Abolition of Sati – Raja Ram Mohan Roy.1852 c) 1885. Poetry and press spread their use. 18) Anglo-Nepalese War (1814-1816) over Nepal’s southward and Britain’s northward expansion in India.To suppress revolt of Mulraj. Although the British defeated Nepal. Boredom with religious movements social conditions. Impact of British Rule.Shah alam became puppet.Annexation of Punjab in 1849. Authority in religion was given up and truth in religion was searched.Treatyof Pondichery 3) Thir CarnaticWar.1817-1818Lasr PeshwaNanaSahib dethroned and sent to Kanpur.Tipu lost. Originally upper caste followed. Pradhana Samaj.Treaty of Salabi-20 yearspeace 11) SecondAnglo Maratha War: 1803-05. Social base –Emergence of Middle Class and Western Educational intellectual – through renaissance. c) Widpw Remarriage But Eswar Chandra Vidhaya Sagar (1822-1891) Principal of Sanskrit College at Calcutta was instrumental in passing Act of 1856.DuleepSingh pensioned off to England 15) First Afghan War. Re-formation and enlightenment b) Ideological base – Nationalism. they were so impressed by the Gurkha fighters that they enticed them to enter the British (and subsequently. 1804 declared infanticide has equivalent to Murder and Act 1870 made compulsory Registration of Birth.Wanted to overthrow. Humanism and secularism.coin-Foreign embassy 9) Fourth War: 1799-Tipu. Universal theism of Raja Ram Mohan Roy and Social Reform movements played important role.Sawai Madhava Rao vs English with Ragnath Rao.Vs English.Vs English. Movements like Brahma Samaj. Religious superstition. 19th Century witnessed New vision – Also called renaissance. Vishnurajagiri Pandit founded Widow remarriage . Broadly Social Reform had 2 point Agenda (i) Betterment status of Woman in Society (ii) Removing caste inequalities 4.Temple.1839-42.Treaty of Bassein 12) Third War. later lower strata of society also followed.Lytton’s Forwardpolicy led to the war 17) Burmese Wars a) First.Treaty of Bhairowal. Deoband which were revivalist played important role 3.Battle of Wandiwasi1760 and defeat of Lallyat Eyre Coteled. RELEGIOUS AND SOCIAL REFORMS MOVEMENTS 1.Treaty ofMangalore8) Third War: 1790-92.Treatyof Seerangapattinam-Tipu helped Hindus.Treaty of Paris.Clive entered and defeated 5) Battle of Buxar-1764 Mir Kasim shifted his capital from Murshidabad to MonghyerVansitrat andMir Kasim-Lost.Forward Policy of Lord Auckland 16) Second War 1878-1880. 2.1758-63-Capture of Chandernagore by Clive and more British army at Bengal. 4)Battle of Plassey: 1757-Why Bengal-Siraj ud dowla and Mir jafar and Mir Kasim. Originally it was integral part of Religious Reform.Tipu killed 10) First Anglo maratha War: 1775-1782. known for carrying razor-sharp curved knives called kukris.Lord dufferin. But later on adopted secular approach.Duleep singh made King by British 14) Second Anglo sikh War: 1848-49.1843-46-4 battles ended with Treaty of Lahore and Sikhs ceded Jullundur to British. Universalism.1829 Bengal Presidency abolished and from 1830 Madras and Bombay presidency b) Female Infanticide – Prevalent among upper class Bengalis and Rajputs. 6) Anglo Mysore War1 : 1767-69: Haider Ali+Nizam+French. Caste factor raising of nationalism and democracy LED TO REFORMS. The Gurkhas.1824-26 b) Second. Aligarh movements which were reformed and Arya Samaj.ended French ambitionin India. Indian) army. Widow Remarriage Brahmo Samaj had the issue in its agenda.Hyder wonTreaty of madras 7) Anglo Mysore –1780-84War2:Hyder+ Nizam+Marathas Hyder killed.Baji Rao II. Various organisation and individuals also played important role. Languages played important rule and Drama. Bengal regularisation 1795. Religiosm .satara captured by British 13)First Anglo Sikh War. Social Reform a) Social equality and equal worth of individuals which were humanistic and idealist had major impact.

Rammohun became convinced of the futility of idol worship and to that effect wrote a treatise. marriage age was raised to 12. he had founded the Tattvabodhini Sabha. Karreys Indian Woman University 1916 – Laid Harding Medical College in Delhi.. In 1866 the Brahmo Samaj was split into the Brahmo Samaj of India headed by Keshav Chandra Sen and the Adi Brahmo Samaj. b)Maharishi Debendranath Tagore – Father of Tagore – Succeeded Roy – He also found Tattvabodhini Sabha in 1839. Rammohun was the first Hindu of his time to go abroad. d) Child marriage First prohibited in 1872through Native Marriage Act. xi)Jyotiba Phule and Ambedkar who opened All India Schedule Caste Federation in 1942 xii) Other self respect movement.. which was meged with Brahmo Samaj in 1842. In 1815.through age of Consent act 1891. In 1839.association in 1850. Trained Nurses and Midwife. so that the drain of Indian wealth could be stopped. ix) Gandhiji founded All India Harijan Sangh in 1932 x)Government of India act 1935 which clear representation. g) Various legislative measures in India after Independence to be analysed. the leadership of Brahmo Samaj was passed on to the hands of Maharishi Devendranath Tagore (1817-1905). Set up Indian woman university at Bombay in 1916. Practice against Sati. He called upon the British to make India their permanent home. On 20 August 1828. xiii) New Constitution and Directive Principles. ownership. He knew more than 12 languages. which remained under the guidance of Devendranath Tagore Brahmo Samaj aimed at 5 principles . the grandfather of Rabindranath Tagore. Later elected to legislative/ Local bodies. He strongly denounced idol worship and called upon the Hindus to abandon it. he founded the Atmiya Sabha. He was a linked between east and west culture. He wrote Precepts of Jesus in 1820. a) Various Castes –Chaturvarnashrama – Caste determined who could get education. He supported David Hare to found Hindu College in 1815 in 1825. Bandulu made in Madras. 6) Various Organisations Brahmo Samaj – Raja Ram Mohan Ray founded – called father of Indian Renaissance – • • • • • • At the age of sixteen. f) Participation in the Swadeshi and acted participation and human rule moments were new openings and woman faced lathis and Bullets and imprisonment – later they took part in Trade union. i) It denouonced polytheism and idol worship ii)It discarded faith in divine avataras (incarnation) . According to the eminent writer Satyendra Nath Majumdar. Sarojini Naidu became president of Indian National Congress 1925 and First Governor of United Provinces of India Woman Conference 1927. Iin 1914 Woman Medical Service. But limited as not applicable to Hindus and Muslims. profession. Karve marriage a widow in 1893 and became Secretary of Widow remarriage association and opened a home in Pune. dress. b) Factors which reduced caste Regidities. He established a Vedanta College. • • After the demise of Raja Rammohun Roy in 1833. food etc. e) Education of Woman Christian Missionary in 1819. 5) Struggle against Caste-Based Exploitation. Vidhyasagar was associated with 35 Girls School in Bengal-. he founded the Brahmo Samaj. Other acts to be noted. i) Creation of Private property in land ii) New Industries and Opening of New Economy iii) Equality before law Iv) Judicial functions of caste Panchayats taken away v)Education and Recruitment open to all vi) Social Reform Movements (vii)National Movement viii) Congress Government did work for upliftment of the depressed Classes like free education for Harijans etc. V. He Translated Vedas and Upanishads and he set up Atmiya Sabha in Calcutta in 1814. Tuhfat-ul-Muwahhidin (Gift to Monotheists) in Persian.

He was against Orthodoxy. . Sen found in Bombay – Paramhansa Sabha founded in 1849. he started the publication of a monthly magazine under the title Banga Darshan from Behrampur.K. (Mutt) founded by Ramakrishna. k)Dayananda Saraswathi – Dayananda founded the Arya Samaj inm Bombay on 10 April 1875 based on a set of 28 principles of Lahore. Malabari. swabhasha and swarajya. Introduced western thought in Sanskrit College. mediation and Bakthi. He also founded All India Trade Union Congress in 1920.C. the famous Theosophist regarded Dayananda as first person. Started Movement in support of Widow remarriage. e) I. His famous wok was Sathiyach Prakash. f)B.C.C. emphasizing the superiority of Indian culture.iii)It denied that any scripture could enjoy the status of ultimate authority transcending human reason and conscience iv) It took no definite stand on the doctrine of karma and transmigration of soul and left it to individual Brahmos to believe either way v) It criticised the caste system C) PRARTHANA SAMAJ K. Annie Besant. d) Young Bengal Movement – Radical. In 1915 Srinivasa Sasthri took over as President. He gave the slogan back to Veda – Revival of Vedic learning. It took care of women and their welfare. Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay (1838-1894) aroused a new consciousness in the 19th century Bengali society. remarriage. l) Seva Sadhan . He taught salvation by renunciation.Started by Parsi Chromji. • Ishwar Chandra Vidyasagar (1820-1891) occupied a prominent place among the social reformers and educationists of the 19th century. He was considered as spiritual father of the Modern National Movement. • • For the cause of national liberation Swami Dayananda stressed on Swadeshi. In 1872. He gave ten principles. j) Vivekananda (1862-1902) – Known as Narendira Nath Datta – Found Ramakrishna Mission in 1897 with Headquarters at Belur. He supported Cheturvarma . In 1849. Untouchablity and Polytheism. i) Ramakrishna Movement – Started to propagate Bakthi – Yoga by Ramakrishna Pramahamsa (1834-86) – Vocation Priest of Kali Temple in Dakshineshwar. Caste. His famous speech at Chicago in 1893 is world famous. Vivekananda used technology at modern type in the service of mankind. He started Dayanand Anglo Vedic (DAV) School first at Lahore in 1886. Tagore ‘He is genius of creation. He got inspiration from French Revolution. h) Social Service Leaque – Narayana Malhoth Joshi founded in Bombay. swadharma. Secretary of Bethune School 1849.His novel is Anand Math g) SERVANTS INDIA SOCIETY: G.Man not born in any caste but according to occupations he followed. Gokule founded in 1905.Subhas Chandra Bose regarded him as the founder of modern India who possessed the heart of Buddha and the intellect of Shankaracharya. The main aim of this school was to encourage female education. He was called first nationalist poet of modern India. He never gave any political message. TO TRAIN National Machinery and to promote interest of Indian people. who gave slogan of Indian nationhood. Chatterjee: The eminent Bengali novelist as well as the composer of the famous national song Bande Mataram. he founded the Bethune School at Calcutta. He said all Gods are same though names are different.Vidyasagar. It prescribes marriageable age as 25 and 16. intellectual trend among the youth under Henry Derozio started. He was Principal of Sanskrit College 1850 and open it to admit non brahmins.

* The word “Congress” Or INC was taken from the history of USA which means group of people. Indian leaders tried to use it as ‘lightening conductor. It became Banaras Hindu University in 1916.L.N. Appointment. T.1863. * During its 1932 and 1933 session government had declared it an illegal organization. * First Indian Women President – Sarojini Naidu. INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS * Founded by 1885 by A. Hume. * During Karachi Session (1931) Fundamentals Rights and Economic Policy Proposals Passed. In 1917 Madras Presidency Association was found. Assess to temple and Political representations. * The first session of congress (Bomaby 1885) was attended by 72 representatives. In 1882 Shifted Headquarters to Adyar. Believed special relationship could be established between God and Soul by prayer revelation et v)Annie Besant became President in 1907 after the death of Alcot. * 1938 session of congress held in a village Haripura. * First split of congress – 1907 (Surat). p) Justice Movement – D. q) Self Respect Movement started by E.Madhavan – in 1924 Vaikom Sathya Giraha of Kesava wanted opening Hindu Temple to untouchables – Jothas in Punjab. Nehru explained socialism for the first time.Das and Motilal Nehru organized Swaraj Party in 1922. * First President – W. * During its Delhi session (1923) INC decided to establish All India Khadi Borad.(1925. in 1920. * Venue of 1st Session – Gokul Tejpal Sanskrit School of Bombay.m)Dharma Sabha.During the fourth session of INC (1888.C. * Calcutta session of 1906. * During Fazipur Session (1937) congress decided to take part in election of 1937. * Word Swaraj was first used from congress platform (1906) Calcutta. * During Gaya Session (1922 ) differences arose over the issue of council entry. * First Session to hold in village – 1937 (Fazipur).1906). Mudaliar. Lahore. * First Women President – Annie Besant (1917 Calcutta). C. Gandhi decide to set up ‘All India Charkha Association declared 1926’ as year of keeping silent. s)Temple Entry Movement – Narayana Guru – Kumaran and T.B. Vande Mataram * For the first time National Anthem (Jana Gana Mana ) Was sung in Calcutta session (1911) of INC. J. J. * Complete Independence was demand for the first time (1929). * Nagpur Session (1891) the word ‘National’ was added to Congress. * In Lucknow Session of Congress (1916) the two factions of congress (extremists and Moderates) reunited. Das was elected its President but Azamal Khan presided over the session because C.G.Nair and Sri Thiyakaraja to secure jobs and representations for non-Brahmin. * During this session knowledge of weaving was fixed as minimum qualification for its members. * During Ahmedabad Session of INC (1921) . representatives second time discussed on the formation of its constitution. * While Britishers tried to use congress as a safety valve. * During Madras session of INC 91927). * During Lucknow Session (1936).R. 1936.Netaji elected unopposed. u) Theosophical Movement – Madam Blagalsky and Thomas Alcott founded in 1875 at USA. * Only session presided over by Gandhi – Belgaon (1924). * First – Joint Session of Congress and Muslim League Lucknow (1916). C.R. t) Indian National Conference founded by M. its president for the first time used ‘ Swaraj’ in his speech. separate peoples and increased communal consciousness. Banerjee. 1937). Radha Khan Beg founded in 1830. o) Vokkaliga Sangam – Launched in1905 in Mysore.. Sarojini Naidu (1925) and Nalin Sengupta. * During Guwahati session of Inc (1926) wearing Khadi was made compulsory for its workers. Gandhi did not participate.e. Das was in prison.”* During Tripuri Session Of INC (1939) Subhash Chandra Bose Defeated Pattabhi Sitaramaya(Gandhi’s candidate in presidential election) but later resigned and Rajendra Prasad . i. Allahabad) emphasized was given on formation of its constitution. * Maulana Abul Kalam Azad was the youngest president of Inc.O. Kanpur) * First English President – George Yule * First Muslim President – Badaruddin Tayabji* Women President – Annie Besant (1917). r)Aravippuram Movement in 1988 on the occasion of Sivarathiri by Narayana Guru to install ideal of Shiva. Ranadate in 1887 at Madras.K. * In Ramgarh Session (1904) decisions on Individual Satyagarha. * Thrice President (Maximum times) – Dadabhi Naoroji (1886. * Poona session(1895).R.M. v) Historical process of evolution of composite culture arrested to some extent. R.Admission. proposals for independence and to boycott Simon commission were passed. * Gandhi presided over only Belgaon session (1924) of INC. n) Sri Narayana Guru Dharma Paribalana – Ezahavas of Kerala – 1902 . * For the first time National Song was sung in the Calcutta Session (1896) of INC. She came to India in 1893 and laid foundation of Central Hindu College in Banaras in 1898.L. Nehru (1929.

In 1905.* During Calcutta Session (1928) first All India Youth congress was established. Lala Lajpat Rai and Bipin Chandra Pal (who are known in Indian History as the revolutionary trio) filled in the Indian people the ideas of self-respect. 10. IMPORTANT SESSIONS OF INDIAN NATIONAL CONGRESS YEARS PRESIDENTS PLACES 1885 Womesh Chandra Banerjee Bombay 1886 Dadabhai Naoroji Calcutta 1887 Badaruddin Tayabji Madras 1888 George Yule Allahabad 1889 Sir William Wederburn Bombay 1905 Gopal Krishna Gokhale Vanaras 1906 Dadabhai Naoroji Calcutta 1907 Rashbehari Ghosh Surat 1908 Rashbehari Ghosh Madras 1916 Ambika Charan Majumdar Lucknow 1917 Smt. Tyabi. self-confidence. Naoroi. In 1901 a demand for industrial expansion also began. Under the leadership of William Digby.From 1916 Extremists got upper hand. the Maratha (English) and Kesari (Marathi).Nehru Lahore 1931 Vallabhbhai Patel Karachi 1933 Smt. He participated in the Bombay session in 1889 for the first time and for the next thirty years he remained its main leader. Banerjee many liberals resigned from INC. Abdullah Seth. Gokhale had established the Servants of India Society.. Nalini Sengupta Calcutta 1934 Rajendra Prasad Bombay 1938 Subash Chandra Bose Haripura 1939 Subash Chandra Bose Tripura 1946 J. but in its fourth session they asked for a reduction and subsequent fixation of the land revenue.Gandhi Belgaon 1925 Sarojini Naidu Kanpur 1928 Motilal Nehru Calcutta 1929 J. to attend the world Parliament of Religion. Dutta. In 1893 Swami Vivekananda (1863-1902) arrived in hey city of Chicago in America with great difficulty. In 1881. The moderate leaders of the Congress belonged to the educated middle class. The moderates laid great emphasis on the question of appointing Indians to high governmental posts.L. 11. They held the belief that the English were basically truthful and just.N. he was given two minutes to speak on the very first day. Before Mahatma Gandhi no other leader matched his stature.Kriplani. Gokale were known as moderates 3. 6. SN banerjee. 9. Annie Besant Calcutta 1920 Lala Lajpat Rai Calcutta 1922 Chittaranjan Das Gaya 1924 M. In the conference. the Congress opened a branch in England in1888 and started publishing a magazine called ’India’. 4.On Independence Meerut 1947 Rajendra Prasad Delhi 1948 Pattabhi Sita Ramaiya Jaipur INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENTS ( 1885 -1905) 1. Mehta.K.* During Delhi session (1918) along with S. In the beginning. 5. This was the year when he went to South Africa in connection with the trial of a Merchant. By introducing the celebration of Ganesh Chaturthi . In reality he was the chief propagator of a new national consciousness in the country. Lokmanya Tilak. The year 1893 was also important year in the life of Mahatma Gandhi (1869-1948). 7. He had also rejected the title of knighthood and refused to accept a position in the Council of the Secretary of State for India. It was in this year on November 16 that Annie Besant (1847-1933) arrived in India.e. In its very first session the moderates asked for reform in the Indian Council. the Congress paid no attention to agricultural matters. He was born on 23 July 1856 at Ratnagiri in Maharastra. They also asked for the abolition of the post of Secretary of State for India and India Council. Bal Gangadhar Tilak (1856-1920) was popularly known as a ‘Lokamanya Tilak’.B. he began his drive for new awakening by among the Indians publishing two newspapers i. patriotism and courage and inspired the work for India’s independence. 2.The above three and Aurobind Ghosh wereknown as Extremists. Commonly the period between 1885-1905 is known as the period of moderates or of moderate nationalism.(Moderate Extremist split in sural Session 1907 and reunited in 1916 Session due to efforts of Annie Besant.Banerjee.became its president. 8.

Particularly his contribution to the movement against the partition of Bengal was unparalleled. The third member of the trio was Bipin Chandra Pal (1858-1932). In 1907 he was tried for treason and was sent to jail. He brought out an Urdu Paper with the title of ‘Tahaib-al-Akhlaq. He published a few newspapers like ‘The Punjabi’. Highways were not safe. There was a problem of communication. Sir Aurobindo’s Ghosh (18721950) played a prominent parting the nationalist movement of India. which later grew into the Aligarh Muslim University in 1920. The period of Lord Curzon witnessed another terrible famine during 1899-1900. Sir Aurobindo’s second revolutionary contribution was the editing of the Bande Mataram paper. He began his practice of Law in Hissar but soon he shifted to Lahore. Reason: Curzon’s imperialist policy of ‘divide and rule’ manifested itself most glaringly in the partition pf Bengal. b) Wahabi Movement started by Shah Walliullah. He was born in village Dhoondke in Ferozepur district in Punjab on 28 January 1965. 3. ‘Doctrine of Passive Resistance’ in Bande Mataram became very popular. He was born on 7 November 1858. On 19 July 1905 the Government of India formally proposed the partition of Bengal. But actually the cause behind the partition was much more political than administrative. People took holy dip in the Ganga and kept vows. Since 16 October 1905. PARTITION OF BENGAL 1. between 11 and 23 April 1907 under the heading. Purdah. He also founded the ‘Patritotic Association’ with the assistance of Raja Shivprasad of Banaras. But he never paid any head to it and held a Royal Durbar in Delhi in 1903 in order to commemorate the coronation of Edward VII which was an expensive affair. While demonstrating against the Simon Commission he was hit by a baton on the head and after a short while died on 17 November 1928. Muslim League: The meeting of a Muslim delegation under the leadership of Aga Khan with Viceroys of India. The reasons given were --The area and population of the Provinces of Bengal was too large. 13. Bengal was becoming the nerve centre of nationalist activities in India. He started English weekly called ‘New India’. Found the ‘Dar-ul-Ullema’ madarsa at Deoband. The Britishers called him the ‘Father of Indian disaffection’ and the ‘biggest traitor’. A series of seven articles published by Sir Aurobindo’s. represented by Mohammad Qasim Nanautavi (1832-1880) and Rashid Ahamd Gangohi (1828-1916). In 1908 and was sentenced to six years of imprisonment. The proposed area of the new province was fixed at 1 lakh 6 thousand 5 hundred 40 square miles and its population was 3 crore 10 lakh out of which the Muslims accounted for 1 crore 80 lakh and Hindus 1 crore 20 lakh. The National College in Calcutta had been established on 14 August 1906. He also inspired the Muslims to adopt the Western education and the Western mode of scientific thinking. 3. the reactions against the partition of Bengal started taking shape. Sayid Ahmad Khan found Aligarh Movement Ahmadia movement by Mirza gulamAhmad . He opposed Polygamy. This day was observed as a ‘Black Day’. Sir Sayyid was born in 1817 in Delhi. 4. Another organization by the name Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental Defence Association too was set up by him. Lord Minot at Shimla in October 1906 was very significant.(Partition of Bengal was annulled in 1911 by Lord Hardine. William Graham wrote in the biography of Sir Sayyid Ahmad Khan. They also tied Rakhi in each other’s hand as symbol of unity. 2. Later he also published ‘The Pupil ‘in English. The Partition of Bengal infused a sense of nationalism among the Indians and also gave birth to the swadeshi movement which galvanized the masses against the partition of Bengal. He felt that the relations of the Muslims with the British should be improved and therefore he brought out a paper with the title of the ‘Loyal Muhammadans of India. Deoband Movement was founded by Maulanna Hussan Ahmad and Moulana Abul kalam Azad was associated with it. Lord Minto wrote that the Congress was very loyal but Lala Lajpat Rai was a very dangerous man.14. Curzon announced the partition of Bengal on 16 October 1905. In 1906 he introduced two slogans ‘Swaraj is my birth right’ and ‘Our life and religion are useless without the attainment of Swaraj’.Arhar movement by Mula Mohammad Ali in 19110. 12. His father was an officer in the court of Muguals. The second great leader in this category was Lala Lajpat Rai (1865-1928). 5. In 1875 he found the Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College at Aligarh.and Shivaji festivals he tried to bring the Indian society together and inspired patriotic feelings among the people. He encouraged the use of Hindi language in daily life. According to this proposal Chittagong. He opposed it by calling it a Hindu organization. 2. Rajshahi and Dacca were merged with Assam to form the new province. Demands were for a . He was impressed by the ideas of Arya Samaj. Sir Aurobindo left Baroda to work in the National College in Calcutta with a view to make education compatible to the national needs. He was also known as Sher-e-Punjab. The peasants of this province were a harassed lot. He had come into contact with the Brahmo Samaj and had went to Central Europe and America as its spokesman.) MUSLIM NATIONALIST MOVEMENT 1.

around 500 branches of the league had come up in the country. During her visit to Ireland in 1913. In 1915 the prominent leaders of the Congress viz. The Famine Commissioner of the Pune. The All Indian Muslim League was the result of this conference. Swaraj. Savarkar was linked to the assacination of Jackson at Aurangabad. The 1912 Bankipur session was the shortest in duration during the entire history of the Congress. yet consented to assist in their implementation. Two Brothers. Rand and Lt. Not only it revived the nationalist movement but also it made the Indian conscious of their rights. The Home Rule Movement left a deep impact on Indian politics. the Home Rule League there had suggested Annie Besant to launch a similar movement in India. On 8 July 1910. more representations in the Legislative Assembly and government services the establishment of a Muslim University and provisions for Muslims representation in the Viceroy’s Council. 2. The aim of the Home Rule Movement was to obtain for India a status equivalent to other colonies of the British Empire. Sarojini Naidu and Madan Mohan Malaviya . It was Lokmanya Tilak who had set up a Home Rule League at Pune in April 1916. Vinayak Damodar Savarkar and Narayana Savakar). Ayrst was killed by them 3. (The Indian House had been founded by Shyamji Krishna Verma). which had familiar relations with that of Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan. 1906 . The Constitution of the League was prepared in 1907 at Karachi. Barindra Kumar Ghose and Bhupendranath Dutta had started the paper Yugantar in 1906. Annie Besant herself was its President.separate electorate. Mahatma Gandhi.P.During firstworld war moved to Germany and set up Indian Independence committee.e. A Home Rule League had been established by Annie Besant at Madras in September 1916. Khudiram Bose had been entrusted with the task of throwing the bomb at Kingsford District Judge of Muzzafarbur.Damodar and Balkrishna Chapekar began the process of revolutionary activities in India. In 1896-97 the Chapekar brothers had set up a gymnasium in Pune.1917 Four major resolutions i. To bring the Muslims closer the 1913 session of the Congress was held at Karachi under the president ship of Nawab Sayyid Muhammad Bahadur. Swadesh. Prior to the establishment of the Home Rule League by Annie Besant. he was arrested and then sent to India. The Congress had also passed a resolution in its 1915 Bombay session demanding Home Rule for India. Every effort was made in 1911 to make Aga Kahn preside over the incoming Congress Session at Bankipur. He was sentenced to imprisonment in Andaman between 1911-1924. Lala Hardayal (1884-1938) had played an important role in the Gadar Movement and Basant Kumar Biwas were hanged whereas Ram Bihari Bose succeeded in feeling to Japan. P. ‘Morley-Minto Reforms’ (Act of 1909) were announced. Boycott of foreign goods and National education were passed in this session. Bahadur belonged to a lineage. 207 representatives had taken part in this session but not a single representative had come from the Muslim majority province of Punjab.. Both Annie Besant and Tilak had agreed to conduct this movement in cooperation with each other. In total.Savarkar was qualified as a barrister but for his patriotic stance he was neither decorated with its degree not was he given the degree of Bachelor Arts. Aga Khan became the President of the Muslim League. The Savakar brothers (Ganesh. Therefore the moderates decided to support the British with men and material. vehicle. REVOLUTIONARY MOVEMENTS 1. Muslims leaders gathered at a meeting presided over by Nawab Wakar-ul-Mulk on 30 December 1906 at the invitation of the Nawab Salim Ullah Khan of Dacca.Nawab Salimullah of Dacca and Nawab Moshin ul Mulk were others who were involved in formation of League. by a ship. A 15 year old youth. Both these papers had been used to demand Home Rule for India. Ghadar party: Started by HarDayal and Sohar Singh Bhakna in 1913 at San Fransisco in North America and brought out a Urdu and Gurumukshi weekly viz Ghadar. Though the moderates did not welcome the reform. League also supported the partition of Bengal. Wadia. Book (The Indian War of Independence) had been seiged by the British government before being published. The moderates thought that Britain was fighting the War in the interest of democracy and after the war she will do something in this direction in India. They formed the ‘Hindu Dharma Sangrakshini Sabha’ in 1893 and started celebrating the birthday of Shivaji and Ganesh Utsavs. to represent the aspirations and sentiments of the Muslims interest and to appoint Sir Aga Kahn as the permanent President of the League. Ramaswamy Iyer and V.C.He was perhaps the first individual who had set fire to foreign clothes. The other prominent member of the League was Arundale. On August 11.-first session at Amristar. to safeguards the political and other rights of the Muslims. On her return to India she had brought out a weekly paper by the name of ‘Common Will’ followed by a daily called ‘New India’. There he organized the New Indian Association. 1908 Khudiram inspite of being a minor was hanged to death while his associate Prafulla Chaki shot himself. In Bengal an organization by the name of Anushilan Samiti was founded. In short the Home Rule Movement was neither entirely moderate nor was thoroughly revolutionary. like the Chapekar brothers had been infused with a sense of patriotism since their very childhood. The objectives behind the formation of the Muslim League were to create a sense of loyalty among the Muslims towards the British Government.. By October 1916.

Mahatma Gandhi announced his plan to begin non-cooperation with the Government as a sequel to the Rowlat Act. * As per Government Report – 179 people were killed in the accident . he whole country had observed the Khilafat day – Committee had been formed in September 1919.m on the same day a public meeting was called – Jallianwala Bagh was not a garden – rather it was an open space near the Golden Temple in Amristar. establishment of panhayattis. Jallianwala Bagh massacre and the Khilafat movement. * Gandhi began his experiments with Satyagraha – Champaran in Bihar in 1917 – Indigo Planters. in a communication to the governor General. who became one of the most active and dedicated followers of Mahatma Gandhi from Kheda. Dr. foreign clothes. * An enquiry committee under the Chairmanship of Hunter was setup on 19 October 1919. *Gandhi announced the suspension of the movement. thus they left the Congress. . Vallabhbhai Patel. Annie Besant and Bipin Chandra Pal were not in agreement with the congress declaration of non-cooperation and. * British Government – signed Treaty of Tibers on 10 August 1920 – Turkey was partitioned – Sultan was made a prisoner and sent to Constantinople. as the decision could not reach everywhere in the country. This session of the Muslim League was presided over by Muhammad Ali Jinnah. * In 1893 he went to South Africa – for a year – spent twenty two years in that country. * Jallianwala Bagh .13 April – day of Baisakhi – Punjab as a special day to celebrate the harvesting season – Government proclaimed a ban.* At 4. But.Some * Called him as the ‘the defender of the British Empire’ and honored him with sword and an amount of 2. Dr.R. * The Committee of Enquiry recommended some measures to alleviate the miseries of the Indigo cultivators thereby bringing the Satyagraha to an end.according to the Congress Committee the number of people who died could around one thousand. * On 30th March 1919 it was decided to launch first nationwide hartal against Rowlatt Act which was called Black Law and which empowered arrest without reasons. * He returned to India on January 9 – NRI Day.00 p. the date was postponed to 6 April * Satyagarha Sabha – organized at Bombay – Hindu Muslim unity was seen.. * On 5 February an agitated crowd gheraoed the police station at Chauri chaura in the Gorakhpur district of Uttar Pradesh and set fire it. * On April 1919 Gandhi – arrested. – March 1920 committee under the leadership of Maulanan Shaukat Ali and Mohammad Ali was also sent to England. * Mohammed Ali Jinnah.took part in the Muslim League Session. * In 1918 the mill workers of Ahmedabad got into dispute – 35 Percent increases.00. August 1920. Gandhi went to England for higher education and returned to India in 1892 after becoming a Barrister. * General Dyre – when speakers reciting the poem ‘Fariyad’ –ordered troops to shoot at the crowd from the exit point. * Gandhi’s four preconditions – a) perfect chastity b) adopt poverty c) follow truth and d) cultivate fearless. The Lucknow Pact was signed on the basis of an agreement in 1916.A. * Maulana Abul Kalam Azad. Saifuddin Kitchlew.Prince of Walesboycotted in Nov 1921 during his visit. M.000 pound – Gandhi after this event the British lost the moral authority to rule over India – Rabindranath Tagore renounced knight hood titles as a mark of protest. promotion of Khadi. Maulvi Abdulbari (Lucknown). * Gopal Krishna Gokhale as his political Guru (mentor). * In Delhi – hartal – organized on 30 March 1919. Features of Non Cooperation: Boycott of Law Courts. * Gandhi’s plan was approved by the Indian national congress in a special session at Calcutta in December 1920. Hakin Ajmal Khan and the Ali brothers were the prominent leaders of this movement.Das opposed it. * On 1. * Gandhi recorded his initial thoughts in 1909 in Hind Swaraj. MAHATMA GANDHI. * On October 1919.At one point of time it was a personal property of a person named Jalli. * Khilafat – Sultan of Turkey was regarded as the Caliph or the religious head of the Muslims all over the worlds – a movement to express the Muslim support for the Caliph of Turkey against the allied powers. The committee submitted its report after about a year on 26 May 1920. * The Khilafat meeting in Malabar incited so much of communal feelings among the Muslims peasants (The Moplahs) that it took an anti-Hindu turn in July 1921 – Moplah rebellion.C. Ansari. Twenty two policemen including the station officer died in the incident. * The movement launched by the peasants at Kheda(1917) in Gujarat was another instance – Peasants not able to pay rent. particularly Britain. NATIONAL MOVEMENT * In 1887.Committee of enquiry of which Mahatma Gandhi himself was made a member. The session gave emphasis on Hindu-Muslim unity.

on the charges of conspiracy. August 1925 when the money sent by the government from Saharnpur to Lucknow by train was looted at the Kakori railway station. . Sir John Simon – all its seven members were Englishmen. * There were no Indian member in it. * With the sole exception of a few members of the Muslim League. Prominent among the no-changers were C. Sardar Kharak Singh also rejected it – Maulana Abul Kalam Azad. Ram Prasad bismil. such a review was due in 1929. assistant superintendent of Police of Lahore. thereafter convened an All Indian conference of the Muslims where he drew up a list of fourteen point demand. * Simon commission after the name of its chairman. Prominent among such leaders were Deshbandhu Chittranjan Das and Motilal Nehru.Rajagopalachari and Dr. an ultimatum was served on the British government to accept the Report by 31 December 1929. * Simon Commission – the act of 1919 included a provision for its review after a lapse of ten years. * Poorna Swaraj-The annual session of the congress was held at Lahore in December 1929. * The other groups consisted of those members who supported the non-cooperation movement and retained full faith in the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi. Lord Birkenhead.Revolutionary movements : Kakori Robbery: * Pandit Ram Prasad Bismil occupies a special place. * Elections – in November 1923 – Motilal Nehru became the leader of the party whereas in Bengal the party was headed by Chittranjan Das. As a result of which he passed away after one month – His last words. the Commission was also called the ‘White men Commission’.LalaLajpat Rai was seriously injured in the police lathi charge ordered by Saunders. This group came to be known as ‘no-changers’. Rajendra Lahiri. the rulers of the Princely States and zamindars. Sardar Bhagat Singh born in Banga in Layalpur district – found the Punjab Naujawan Bharat Sabha in 1926.Pro and No Changers: * The leaders of the congress were spilt into two groups. He had also participated in the congress Session at Calcutta in 1928 – he chose the Central legislative Assembly at Delhi as his targets * The throwing of the bomb in the Assembly on 8 April 1929 by Bhagat Singhand Batukeshwar Dutt shook up the whole country into a new enthusiasm – Bhagat Singh. June 1931 Harishen was hanged on the grievous charges of murder. Roshan singh and Ashfaquallah Kahn were hanged. In December 1927. Rajguru and Sukhdev were hanged. CIVIL DISOBEDIENCE MOVEMENT Swaraj party. Ansari and Hakim Ajmal Kahn supported it. “Every blow on my body will prove a nail in the coffin of the British Empire. The place where this session was held was named as the Lajpat Rai Nagar. * Ashfaqualah Khan was the first Muslim revolutionary of India to be hanged for the sake of the country’s freedom. * The Report published by this Committee in July 1928 came to be known as the ‘Nehru Report’. the Hindu Mahasabha and the Muslim League decided to oppose the Commission tooth and nail – 3 February 1928 when the Commission reached Bombay. Ansari. Chittaranjan Das along with Motilal Nehru formed the Swaraj Party at Allahabad to take parting November 1923 council elections. who were called ‘pro-changers’. * At Lahore the student took out a large anti-Simon commission .A. * Indians rejected the Simon commission report out of Hand as it did not mention anything in regard to conferring the Dominion Status – Simon Commission’s report became the basis for enacting the Government of India Act 1935. The first group comprised of those who wanted a change in the programme of the Congress and in reality did not approve the Non-Cooperation Movement. Saunder’s Murder and Central hall Bomb throwing: * On 9. the Commission faced a lot of criticism – all the political parties including the Congress. * Lala Lajpat Rai owing to a police lathi charged led by Saunders was taken as a national humiliation and the later was assassinated on 17 December 1928. * Nehru Report was approved by a majority vote in the annual session of the Congress held in Calcutta on 2 December 1928. Dr. * The Conservative Party appointed the review commission two years ahead of its schedule. * Jinnah. while delivering a speech on the floor of the British Parliament challenged the Indians to produce a Constitution.A. all political parties and the sections of the Indian people opposed the Simon Commission – report published in May 1930 – Dyarchy was unsuccessful – recommended special powers to Governor General at the centre and Governors at the Provinces. * Bhagat Singh in the mean time had left Lahore in disguise.] * Secretary of State. in 1927. He published book with the title ‘How did America get Freedom’ and a pamphlet with the heading ‘A Message for the countrymen’ * On 9. * Muslim League – Central Sikh League. M. * Dandi March – Gandhi reached the coast of Dandi on 5 April 1930 after marching a distance of 200 miles with 78 handpicked followers and on 6 April formally launched the Civil Disobedience Movement by breaking the salt laws. M. Thus. * In March 1923.

failed to resolve he communcal question as it was boycotted it by the Congress.* On 9 April. under the Government of India Act of 1935 only 13 percent of India’s population became eligible voters. * The khudai Khidmatgars accepted the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi and participated in the movement in full measures. Bihar. * The government had to send a detachment of the 18 th Royal Garhwal Rigles to suppress this movement. * Gandhi protested against the Award and went on a fast unto death in the Yeravada jail on 20 September 1932. the United Provinces and Madras. * Round table conference – first such conference held on 12 November 1930 at London. opium and foreign clothes. Orissa. Ambedkar. the Congress decided to launch an Individual Civil Disobedience in place of Mass Civil Disobedience. THE SECOND WORLD WAR AND THE INDIAN NATIONAL MOVEMENT * Congress Ministeries were formed in seven states of India. because of which they came to be known as the Red Shirts. Gandhi joined the Conference on 12 September but returned o India disappointed as no agreement could be reached on the demand of complete independence on the communal question. the government pressed the air force into action. (Dr Ambedkar: * In July 1924 Ambedkar had organized a Bahishkrit hitkar Sabha (the Depressed Classes Institute) with the objective of raising the moral and material status of the untouchables. But as the Garhwali soldiers refused to open fire on the unarmed people. * According to this award the depressed classes were considered as a separate community and as such provisions were made for separate electorates for them. * Special provision for representation of the depressed people in local bodies and civil service were also made. Bombay. fighting untouchability. * On 8 March 1931 the Gandhi-Irwin Pact was singed. British Prime Minister Ramsay Macdonald made an announcement. * Congress – virtually swept the polls – Muslim League – faced miserable defeat – out of the 482 Muslim seat it could register victory only in 81 seats.First civil disobedience movement –Gandhi put 11 demands including cut in military expenses. spinning clothes by using charkha. * The Third Round table conference was held from 17 November to 24 December 1932. * 148 seats in different Provincial legislatiures were reserved for the Depressed Classes in place of 71 as provided in the Communal Award. * Many Muslims kept themselves aloof from this movement – northwest Frontier Province an organization of Khudai Khidmatgar (Servants of God) was formed under the leadership of Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan. Rajendra Prasad. Most of the volunteers donned red clothes. * On 16 August 1932. organizing the bonfires of foreign clothes. A Common electorate of all Hindu. which came to be as the ‘communcal Award’. * Dr. * On 3 January 1932. As per this pact Gandhi agreed to suspend the Civil Disobedience Movement and participate in the Second Round Table conference but most of the leaders did not like this pact. 1935.release of political prisoners etc.In two provinces namely Sindh and Assam.. and under the Montague Chelmsford Reforms of 1919 two and half percent of Indian got voting rights. * In March 1933. Ghanshyam and Das Birla. ministries were formed with the Congress support whereas in . the Second round Table conference was held at London. The government responded to it by arresting Gandhi and Sardar Patel and by reimposing the ban of the Congress Party. boycotting of schools and colleges by students and resigning from government jobs by the people. * On 7 July 1937. The Congress once more did not take part in it. picketing by women before the shops selling liquor. Mahatma Gandhi laid out the programme of the movement which included making of salt in every village in violation of the existing salt laws.) * Fist Round Table Conference he had demanded separate electorates for depressed. total prohibition. the Central Provinces. Rajagopalachari and Dr. including the Depressed Classes was agreed upon. C. * In accordance with the provinces of the government of Indian Act of 1935 elections to the Provincial Legislatures were held in February 1937. which became the basis for the enactment of the Government of India Act. * On 7 September 1931. the British Government issued a White Paper. This agreement came to be called as the ‘Poona Pact’ British Government also approved of it. * In July 1933. * Under the Morely-Minto Reforms of 1909 only one percent . Ambedkar gathered at Pun and hammered out an agreement with the consent of Gandhi and Dr. Pandit Madan Mohan Malaviya. after the Viceroy Lord Linlithgow assured the Congress of his cooperation the party formed its Ministery in 7 Provinces. These states were the North West Frontier Province. the civil disobedience Movement was resumed.

Achyuta Patwardhan. municipality buildings. * He went to Germany and met Hilter. The Congress vehemently opposed it – also resigned from Ministries in all Provinces. Bombs were thrown at many places in Bombay and the United Provinces * February 1943 to 9 May 1944 was the fourth stage of the movement when Gandhi was released from jail. Government structures. At this juncture. * Muslim League raised the slogan ‘Islam is in danger’. * Mahatma Gandhi was kept in prison a Poona. Students’ peasants and workers took active part in it. protection of minorities and setting up of Constituent Assembly. * Cripps proposals included Dominion Status to India.British Removed the ban on the Communist Party of India in July 1942 in return for the latter’s promise to extend full cooperation to the British in its war efforts. Muslim league. The British government which declared the organization illegal in 1934. Communists. and Anglo-Indian Community under the leadership of Anthony opposed the movement. The Muslims by and large. political parities. Liberals opposed the movement. Jinnah also presented the ‘twonation theory’ – inflamed communal feelings by saying that now Hindi would become the national language of India and Bande Mataram would be its national song. * Lord Linlithgow described it most dangerous since the 1857 revolt. the third Satyagrahi was Brahma Dutt . The All India Congress Committee further considered it at Bombay in its meeting on 7-8 August 1942. * In May 1939. Indian National Army goes to Captain Mohan Singh. . * Hindu Mahasabha established in 1915 on the occasion of the Kumbh Mela at Haridwar by Madan Mohan Malaviya. Ramananda Mishra and S. He passed the Civil Services Examination in 1920 but not joined to serve the nationalist cause instead of serving the British Empire. * Quit India Movement had passed through four stages. * Participation – lower middle class. remained indifferent. Vinoba Bhave was the first to offer Satyagraha and he was sentenced to three months imprisonment. August 1940 which came to be known as the ‘August Offer’. demonstrations and public meeting wee organized in various towns and cities. * The Muslim League was also dissatisfied as its demand for Pakistan had not been conceded – 26 April 1942. The major political parities of the country rejected the Cripps proposals.continued for nearly 15 months – British sent Sir Stafford Cripps to India on 23 March 1942. July 1940 subhas was arrested under the Defence of India Rules. The first stage was from 9 to 11 August 1942 when strikes. This ban continued in 1942. During this stage the Government adopted a policy of repression. The British Government without consulting the people of India involved the country in the war. * Second World War broke out. October 1940. * In the third stage from 23 September 1942 to February 1943 there were armed attacks on government buildings in Madras and Bengal. * Working Committee of the Congress Socialist Party was in session. many demonstrations were held. the Congress Executive Committee passed the Quit India Resolution at Wardha. he asked the British to quit India. He was first addressed as Netaji in Germany. the day on which the Congress Ministries from office as the ‘Deliverance Day’ – accepting two-nation theory in its annual session at Lahore – Jimait-ulUlema-e-Hind opposing the demand for Pakistan – Khudai Khidmatgar and the Majlis-e-Ahrar-e-hind too opposed the idea.M. railways stations. * Chittaranjan Das was instrumental in inspiring him top join the national freedom struggle – unanimously elected President of the Congress at its Haripura session. who set up the first division of the INA on 1 September 1942. * On 8. * In July. Among its prominent leaders who took this decision were Ram Manohar Lohia. * Subash Chandra Bose was born on 23 January 1897 at Cuttack in Orissa. Mahatma Gandhi decided to launch individual Staygraha – limited symbolic and non-violent in nature – On 17. police stations. anniversaries of national leaders celebrated and national weeks observed. * Pirpur Report and the Sharif Report also inflamed the communal passions. where it was decided to carry forward the movement from under ground. * Jawaharlal Nehru was the second Satyagrahaist . During this period. * Muslim League celebrated 12 December 1939. In the guise of a Pathan left the country on 16 February 1941 and reached Kabul along with his friend Bhagat Ram. * The Communist Party of India had come into being by 1925. Joshi. Subash Chandra Bose formed a new group which came to be called the Forward Bloc.Punjab the Unionist Party and the Muslim League formed the coalition ministry of Krishak Praja Party and the Muslim League came to power. processions taken out. * In its second stage from 12 August to 22 September the movement reached the rural areas.It said Indians would set up to frame the new Constitution. post offices and trains came under public ire. Savakar criticized the Government and directed his followers not to take part in the movement.

The Congress secured 205 out of 214 General seats. Three members of the British Cabinet – Pethick Lawrence Sir Stafford Cripps and A. They also had the support of 4 Sikh members. Conference was held from 25 June to 14 July and was attended by 21 leaders. On 6 August 1945. Jinnah became greatly disturbed by the elections results. obtain Indian cooperation against the surging military tide of Japan and build up public opinion for the conservative party in the forthcoming general elections in Britain. Subhas Chandra Bose reached Singapore and gave the rousing war cry of ‘Dilli Chalo’. Nataji named these islands as ‘Shaheed Island’ and ‘Swaraj Island’ respectively. The trial of the soldiers of INA was held at Red Fort in Delhi. this agitation came to end. * Lord Mountbatten armed with vast powers became India’s Viceroy on 24 March 1947. * On 13 October 1946. Bhulabhai Desai and Tej Bahadur Sapru fought the case on behalf of the soliders. * Wavell invited the prominent Leaders of all political parties in the country to a conference in Shimla on June 1945. Mahatma Gandhi reached Noakhali on 29 October. Put forth the plan of partition of India on 3 June 1947. * Clement Atlee took over as the Prime Minister and the Sir Pethick Lawrence was appointed as the new Secretary of State for India. Gandhi Brigade. * On 20 January 1946. * Formation of the Azad Hind Government and proclaimed ‘Give me blood and I will give you freedom’. * The Muslim League got 73 out of 79 Muslim seats. Alexander were sent to India. They also demanded equal treatment. * Lord Wavell came to India on October 1943. nothing spectacular happened. Shimla Conference and Cabinet Mission Plan were the results of these efforts. * On 8 November 1943. some soliders of the Air force staged a hartal against the British Government in Karachi. * The conference began on a hopeful note but ultimately broke down due to the insistence of Jinnah that the Muslim League alone represents Indian Muslims and hence no non-League member could be nominated to the Viceroy’s Council.barring Mahatma Gandhi’s release from prison on 6 May 1944. INDIA TOWARDS PARTITION * The British. * About this time. * End of July they resolved to withdraw its acceptance of the Cabinet Mission Plan and went on to pass the ‘Direct Action’ resolution. with an aggravating war situation were expecting increased cooperation from the Indians. Burma (Brahma Desh) and Philippines. Lahore and Delhi. Germany. Italy. some Indians serving in the Royal Indian Navy also ined mutiny. who would not settle for anything less than a separate State. Elections were held in July 1946 for the formation of a Constituent Assembly. communal riots also broke out in Noakhali. Ireland. * Lord Wavell also put forth on 14 June 1945. which came to be popularly known as the Wavell Plan. China. .* On 2 July 1943. * the name of the INA’s three Brigades were the Subhas Brigade. they began a process of diplomatic engagement with the Indian leaders by opening negotiations on contentious issues. atom bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Atlee decided to sent Lord Mountbatten as viceroy to India in place of Lord Wavell. and Nehru Brigade – women’s detacgnebt after the name of Rani Laximibai – was recognized by Japan. Interim government was formed under the leadership of Jawaharlal Nehru on 2 September 1946. Interim Government. The civilian population of Bombay also joined hands with them by striking work – due to the efforts of Sardar Patel. Lord Atlee’s government made a historic announcement in which the Indian’s right to self-determination and framing of a constitution were conceded. But it was shooting down by Jinnah. Germany accepted defeat on 7 May 1945. . “We would not have had one Pakistan but several”. on 19 February 1946. The hartal soon spread to Bombay. * League joined the Interim Government on 26 October 1946. * Features – formation of union of India. Constituent Assembly. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. Japan headed over Andaman and Nicobar Islands to Subhas Chandra. not to work it but to wreck it from within. He organized the Indian National Army and gave the country the slogan of ‘Jai Hind’.B. In turn. *Cripps Mission: On 15 March 1946. 16 August 1946 was fixed as the ‘Direct Action Day’ – communal riots broke out. * Sardar Patel also felt that if the plan of India’s partition had not been accepted them. * The Principal objectives behind the plan were to assuage the widespread public ire in India. Thus. The Wavell Plan. * After crossing the Formosa Island on his way to Tokyo died on 18 August 1945 as his plane suddenly caught fire. * Rajapolachari evolved a formula in March 1944. * On 6 June the Muslim League and on 25 June 1946 the Congress accepted the plan.

Government of India announced operation ’Vijay’ for the liberation of Goa.--Nand Kumar episode (1775) First English translation Gita by Charles Wilkins --Foundation of the Asiatic Society of Bengal by Hastings and Sir William Jones (1784). The Nawab of Junagarh therefore left for Pakistan. Battle of Plassey was in 1764 and Governor was Pensitrat Warren Hastings (1772-85) First Governor-General of Bengal.Regulating Act of 1773 The Act of 1781 (it made a clear demarcation between the jurisdiction of the Governor General-inCouncil and that of then Supreme Court at Calcutta). * The Portuguese had established their control over Goa.First Treaty of Allahbad in 1765 with Shuja ud Doula and second with Shah Alam II. Lord Cornwalls (1786-93) Third Mysore War (1790-92) and the Treaty of Seringapatam (1792). all the five French enclaves came under Indian control though the legal transfer of territories took place only in 1962. Dadra and Nagar Haveli came under the control of the liberators.---First Maratha war (1775-82) and the Treaty of Salbai (1782).Sabarmati besides killing a fisherman. * In November 1961. * In 1946 the French Indian National congress and the French Indian Students Congress had been established with this objective. After his return to England (1785). * Only Hyderabad. Daman and Diu. the Portuguese injured crew members of the ship S.. but in August 1947. Rajendra Prasad proposed the introduction of responsible governments in the Princely states – Patel – with a hurricane tour of 40 days – to join the Indian Union by the 5th of August.First Governor of Bengal. the Pakistan in the guise of Qubailis began intruding into Jammu and Kashmir. The Satyagraha of June 18. * Pakistan got a share of the country’s 40% of cotton production. with the signed papers of merger to India. which were accepted. All these organization expressed their wish to liberate Pondicherry from French control and merge with the Indian Union. This led to a shortage of raw materials in India which in turn led to shortage of food grains and textiles. * Even today about a third of Kashmir territory remains illegally occupied by Pakistan which it calls as Azad Kashmir. 1546 and 1559 respectively. * But in the meantime. in the wake of announcing an economic policy.--Second Mysore war (1780-84) (First one was fought in 1766-69). After a prolonged trial (seven years). Including Dara and Nagar Haveli this whole area used to be referred to as Goa. he was finally acquitted. Maharaja Hari Singh of Kashmir sent his Prime Minister. GOVERNOR-GENERALS AND VICEROYS ROBERT CLIVE 1757-60 AND 1765-67: Battle of Buxar.S. * On 22 July. Sir John Shore (1793-98) In the introduction of the permanent settlement (1793) he played an important role as the President of the Board of Revenue. 85% of jute production and 40% of wheat production whereas all the related mills and factories came under India’s share. MAKING OF THE INDIAN CONSITUTION AND LIBERATION OF GOA AND PONDICHERY * Before Independence the number if native states in India was 562. * Mahatma Gandhi also met the king of Kashmir. Diu and Daman since 1510. * a Goa Liberation Army constituting all political parties was formed to liberate Goa. -Pitt’s India Act of 1784. the Indian Army freed Goa.--The Rohila war (1774) and annexation of Rohilkhand by the Nawab of Oudh with help of the British. on 21-22 October 1947. Permanent revenue settlement. impeachment proceedings were started against him. . * On October 26. In this way. In February 1948.Siraj Ud doula.Dual Govt in Bengal. * In 1934 Dr. through a referendum the people of this state decided to join India. * Chandernagore had acceded to India on the basis of a plebiscite. Creation of the post of Collector. Junagarh and Kashmir did not take a decision by the aforesaid date about their joining the Union. India Independence Act on 18 July 1947. with the help of the Pathan Qubailis Pakistan invaded Kashmir and these intruders advanced up o Srinagar. the first scheme known as the Sarvodaya scheme was presented by Jaiprasksah Narain. Ultimately the. This military operation was carried out under the command of general J. 1954 was particularly significant as several satyagrahis were arrested in it for unfurling the national flag. * The ruler of Junagarh was a Muslim whereas most of its people were Hindus.Creation OF district Judge (1793) – Code – Europeonisation of Civil Service.Reform of the judiciary. which accounted for 48% of the country’s total area and 20% of its total population. but his Governor-Generalship was very uneventful. namely the Union Of India and Pakistan and both would be granted freedom on 15 August 1947 instead on June 1948.M. Choudhary on 17-18 December 1961 and was completed by 19 December. * In 1948. Meharchand Mahajan.* India would be divided in two parts. * Within two years.

Santhal uprising (1855-56) Lord Canning (1856-57) . Annexation of Oudh (1856). etc. Application of the Doctrine of Lapse and annexation of Satara (1848). Pindari wars (1817-1818). he was made Marquis of Hastings (1816).Subsidiary Treaty of Bassein (1802) and Second Maratha War (1803-05). and creation of the Bombay Presidency (1818). Lord Hardinge (1844-48) First Sikh war (1845-46) and treaty of Lahore (1846) Prohibition of female infanticide and suppression of the practice of human sacrifice among the Gonds of central India. Lord Minto I (1807-13)Before Minto. Lord Amherst (1823-28)First Burmese War (1824-26)Capture of Bharatpur (1826) Lord William Bentinck (1828-35). Treaty of Amritsar with Ramjit Singh (1809). Lord Ellenborough (1842-44).Lord Wellesley (1798-1805) Introduction of the system of Subsidiary Alliance (1798).--Charter Act of 1813 Lord Hastings (1813-23) War with Nepal or the Gorkha War (1814-16). Jhansi (1853) Nagpur (1854). Fort Williams. Termination of the first Afghan war (1842).-Charter Act of 1833. • • • • • • • • • Second Burmesewar (1852) and annexation of Lower Burma.Training College. and the first Subsidiary Treaty with the Nizam of Hyderabad (1798)-Fourth Mysore War (1799) and the annexation of many parts of Mysore. due to his success in this war. Main event was the Vellore Mutiny (1806). Introduction of the Railways (First train-Bombay to Thana). Lord Dalhousie (1848-56) Second Sikh war (1848-49) and annexation of the Punjab. Widow/Remarriage Act (1856) Establishment of a separate Public Works Department in every province. Charter Act of 1853. Deposition of the Raja of Mysore and annexation of his territories (1831). Thomas Munro (1820). Sir George Barlow was the governor-general for two years (180507). • • • Third Maratha War (1817-1818) – abolition of Peshwaship and annexation of all his territories.First Governor General of India. Macaulay’s Minutes and introduction of English as the medium of instruction (1833) Visit of Rammohan Roy to England (1830) and his death there (1833). Prohibition of sati (1829).-Death of Ranjit Singh (1839). Telegraph (First line-Calcutta to Agra) and the Postal System in 1853. • • Formation of the Madras Presidency after the annexation of the kingdoms of Tanjore and Carnatic. Charles Metcafle 1835-36. Wood’s (President of the Board of Control) Education Despatch of 1854 and British assumption of the responsibility of educating the masses. Introduction of the ryotwari settlement in Madras Presidency by governor. Sambalpur (1849). • • • • Suppression of thuggee (1829-35).Famous Press law and Liberator of Press in India Lord Auckland (1835-42) First Afghan War (1836-42) – disaster of the British in the war and recall of Auckland. • Conquest and annexation of Sind (1843)-War with Gwalior (1843).

• • • Vernacular Press Act and the Arms Act of 1878.His assassination by a convict in the Andamans in 1872. Introduction of Local Self-Government in 1882. Indian Councils Act of 1892. • • • Division of the Civil Services into Imperial. • His resignation over the Afghan question. Withdrawl of Doctrine of Lapse Lord Elgin I (1862) His sudden death in 1862. Coming into existence of the Famine Code in 1883.Beginning of the system of State Railways. • • • • • • • First Census taken in India (1881)-254 millions. Lord Mayo (1869-72) Establishment of two colleges for the education and political training of the Indian Princes-the Rajkot College in Kathiawar and the Mayo college at Ajmer in Rajasthan. Repeal of the Vernacular Press Act in 1882. Lord Ripon (1880-84) First Factory Act of 1881. Provincial and Subordinate. administration carried on by Sir Napier and Sir Denison from 1862 to 1864. Appointment of the Durand Commission and its definition of the Durand Line between British India and Afghanistan (now between Pakistan and Afghanistan) in 1893. Bombay and Madras in 1865. • Revolt of 1857. Lord John Lawrence (1864-69) War with Bhutan in 1865. Establishment of the High Courts at Calcutta. Lord Elgin II (1894-99) .Establishment of three universities (at Calcutta. Second Afghan War of (1878-80) Appointment of the first Famine Commission under Sir Richard Strachey in 1878. VICEROYS (1858-62) Lord Canning (1858-62)-First Viceroy Queen Victoria’s Proclamation and the India Act of 1858. Lord North Brook (1872-76) Visit of the Prince of Wales (later Edward VII) to India in 1875. Appointment of an Educational Commission under Sir William Hunter in 1882. Lord Dufferin (1884-88)Third Burmese war (1885-86)Foundation of the Indian National Congress (Lord Cross was the Secretary of State at that time). the Delhi-Durbar in January 1877.-Organisation of Statistical Survey of India. Lord Lansdowne (1888-94) Second Factory Act of 1891. Lord Lytton (1876-80) Royal Titles Act of 1876 and the assumption of the title of ‘Empress of India’ by Queen Victoria.First Census Establishment of a Department of Agriculture and Commerce. • ‘White Mutiny’ by the European troops of the EICO in 1859. The libert Bill Controversy (1883). • First step in the direction of separation of central and provincial finances in 1870. Division of the finances of the center in 1882. Madras and Bombay) in 1857. Portfolio system. India Councils Act of 1861.

1922) and the withdrawal of the Non-cooperation Movement by Gandhi.T. Death of G. (Tilak played an important role in this). • • • • Transfer of the Imperial capital from Calcutta to “Delhi (1911). Lord Reading (1921-26) Chauri Chaura incident (February 5. Champaran satyagraha (the first time Gandhi experimented his new technique in India-1917). Lord Chelmsford (1916-21) Foundation of two Home Rule League – one by Tilak in April. • Formation of the Swaraj Party by C. 1920. Das (Deshbandu) and Motilal Nehru in December 1922. <!--[if !supportLists]-->• <!--[endif]-->Col. Banerji from the Congress. • • • • • • • • • • • • Lucknow session and the reunion of the Congress (1916) (Mrs. 1911). 1916. <!--[if !supportLists]-->• <!--[endif]-->Establishment of an Agricultural Research Institute at Pusa in Delhi. (Lieutenant Governorship for Bihar and Orissa.Division of Bengal repealed Foundation of the Hindu Mahasabha in 1915 by Madan Mohan Malviya and some Punjabi leaders. Foundation of the Women’s University at Poona (1916) Appointment of Sir S. <!--[if !supportLists]-->• <!--[endif]-->Partition of Bengal in 1905. and Chief Commissionership for Assam). LORD CURZON (1899-1905) Appointment of a commission under Sir Thomas Raleigh in 1902 to suggest reforms regarding universities. 1920-kchanges in the constitution of the Congress.Besant played an important role in the reunion). I. Coronation Durbar of King George V and Queen Mary at Delhi (December. Annie Besant in September.Gokhale in 1915. Lord Minto II (1905-10) Anti-Partition and Swadeshi Movements. and their foundation of the Indian Liberal Federation (1918). Lucknow Pact between the Congress and the Muslim League in 1916. Return of Gandhi to India (1915).Assassination of two British officials by the Chapekar brothers of Poona in 1897.R. foundation of the Sabarmati ashram (1916). satyagraha at Ahmadabad (1918). Formation of the Khilafat Committee and the launching of the Khilafat Movement (1919-20). and Montford reforms or the Government of India Act of 1919. the then Secretary of State. Nagpur session of the Congress (Dec. Rowlatt Act (March. Khaira satyagraha (1918). in 1906. Lord Hardinge II (1910-16) Annulment of the partition of Bengal and creation of a Governorship for Bengal like Bombay and Madras in 1911. Resignation of some veteran leaders led by S. 1916 and another by Mrs. Foundation of the Muslim League by the Aga Khan.Younghusband’s Expedition to Tibet in 1904. etc. • • • Surat Session and split in the Congress (1907) Minto-Morley Reforms or the Indian Councils Act of 1909. the first being Dadabhai Naoroji). the Nawab of Dacca.S. 1919)and the Jallianwalla Bagh Massacre (13th April. 1919) Death of Tilak on Ist August.P. Launching of the Non-cooperation Movement (1920-22). August Declaration (1917) by Montague. .N. <!--[if !supportLists]-->• <!--[endif]-->Ancient Monuments Preservation Act of 1904. and the passing of the Indian Universities Act of 1904 on the basis of its recommendations.K. Sinha as Lieutenant Governor of Bihar (Sir Sinha was the first Indian to become a Governor and the second Indian to become a member of the British Parliament.

-Cabinet Mission (Three members-Lawrence. 1942). 1931) and the failure of the conference.M. Lord Wellingdon (1931-36) Participation of Gandhi in the second session of the Round Table Conference (Sep. 1930). August Offer’ by Linlithgow (1940).R. Launching of the Civil Disobedience Movement by Gandhi with his Dandi March (12th March. formation of the Forward Block by Bose and his followers (1939). Escape of S. Celebration of the Congress Ministries’ resignation as ‘Deliverance Day’ by the Muslim League (1939). and its rejection by the Congress. Cripps Mission (March. -INA Trials and the Naval Mutiny (1946). Gandhi’s fast unto death in the Yeravadi prison and the Poona Pact between Gandhi and Ambedkar (Sept. Resignation of Subhas Chandra Bose from the Presidentship of the Congress as well as from its membership in 1939. and its Lahore Resolution (23rd March. (1932). Repeal of the Rowlatt Act. • • • • Appointment of the Harcourt Butler Indian States Commission in Nov. Lord Irwin (1926-31)(Popularly known as the ‘Christian Viceroy’) Appointment of the Simon Commission (Nov. demanding separate state for the Muslims. Gandhi-Irwin pact and the suspension of the movement (March 1931). Gandhi’s imprisonment. 1940). Beginning of Indianisation of the officer’s cadre of the Indian army. -Launching of ‘Direct Action Day’ by the League (17th Aug.Formula evolved by C. Holding of simultaneous examinations for the ICS in England and India with effect from 1923. 1946). 1929) and the Poorna Swaraj resolution.B.). Announcement of the ‘Communal Award’ by Ramsay Macdonald. return of Gandhi to India (Dec. 1934. 1930 as the first Independence Day. Resignation of the Congress Ministries after the out break of the World War II (1939). Lord Wavell (1943-47) C. 1927) and the boycott of the Commission by the Congress.• • • • • Foundation of the Rashtriya Swayam Sevak Sangha (RSS) by K. British P. its failure. ‘Deepavali Declaration’ by Lord Irwin (on 31st.1931) and resumption of the movement. 1946) but it also joined the Interim Govt. 1946. Foundation of the Communist Party of India in 1925. 1929) that India would be granted dominion status in due course. arrest of all the Congress leaders and the outbreak of the ‘August Revolution’ or Revolt of 1942. in Oct. 1927 by the states’ people in response.1927 (to recommend measures for the establishment of better relations between the Indian states and the Central Govt. Separation of Burma from India (1935). (It was at this session that Jinnah propounded his Two-Nation Theory). Bose from India in 1941. final suspension of the movement in May. Fixing 26 th Jan. Cripps and Alexander) and acceptance of its plan by both the Congress and the League (1946) -Formation of Interim Government by the Congress (Sep. . 1942) offering Dominion Status to India. its rejection by the Congress and the starting of individual satyagraha by Gandhi.Rajagopala Chari in 1944 and the Gandhi-Jinnah Talks (1944) based on it: failure of the talks.Hedgewar at Nagpur in 1925. Lahore session of the Congress (Deg. Foundation of the Congress/Socialist Party by Acharya Narendra Dev and Jai Prakash Narayan (1934).Famine in Bengal -Wavell Plan and the Simla Conference (1945) to discuss it.1932). • • • • • • Third session of the Round Table Conference in London (1932) without the representation of the Congress. Lord Linlithgow (1936-43) Formation of Congress Ministries in majority of the provinces (1937).C. boycott of the first session of the Round Table Conference by the Congress (1930). though it abstained from the Constituent Assembly. Passing of the ‘Quit India’ Resolution by the Congress at Bombay (8 th August. and the convening of the All India Civil Services Coaching Centre States People’s Conference in Dec. Formation of the All-India Kisan Sabha in 1936. Government of India Act of 1935.

partition of India and achievement of freedom.Home Government – Viceroy – abolition of the Board of Control and Court of Directors 8.Regulating Act – Governor General of Bengal – SC at Calcutta – Executive Council with 4 members – Dual Government abolished voting 10.C. Also First governor General of Free India –Gandhi murder-Kashmir annexation C. GOI Act 1919 – Dyarchy in Provinces – Central bicameral – two lists – towards responsible Government – Local Govt – UPSC – High Commissioner of India 12.Minto Morley Reforms 1909 – Direct Elections – Separate electorate for Muslims 11. Charter Act 1813 – Monopoly ended – China Opium and Tea for 20 years – Education Advance – Christian Missionary to India 5. Question .1793 Charter Act –Trade Monopoly extended for 20 years – Local Government – Higher Post for Europeans 4. 4 to 3 – Bombay and Madras subordinate to Bengal 3.Rajajai :Second and Last GG of Independent IndiaCONSTITUTIONAL DEVELOPMENT POINTS 1. Governor for Bengal – Competitive Exam – Legislative Council with 12 members 7.Budget Discussion. Indian Councils Act 1892 – Indirect Election. Charter Act 1833 – Governor General of India – Law Member Macaulay – Trade Monopoly in China Ended– Governor General can frame Law – Patronage system abolished 6. 1947) Mountbatten plan. Legislative Councils in Madras. Bombay and Bengal – Rigid Centralisation – Ordinance making Power of GG 9. Government of India Act 1935 – Provincial Autonomy – Dyarchy – Abolition in Province – introduced at Centre – Three lists – Indian Council abolished – communal representation extended – Federal Court . Charter Act 1853 – Lt.Lord Mountbatten (March-August. Indian Councils Act 1861 – Portfolio System. Government of India Act 1858 – Power Transfer-Secretary of State – India Council . Pitts India Act – Board of Control – E.

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