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(Australian and North American Terms)
- Symbols and Numbers 2AB-QUAD - Adapted by inventive operators to comply with the current overall length limit of 53.5-metres (175-feet) and exploit tri-axle load limits of up to 23.5tonnes, the 2AB Quad is a four-trailer combination made up of two A-trailers (regular semi-trailers) coupled via a dolly converter and, in turn, hooked up to a B-double set. These combinations are extensively used by fuel giants Shell and BP on long-distance runs between Adelaide and Darwin and can gross approximately 194-tonnes when used in conjunction with a tri-drive tractor unit thereby employing eight tri-axle groups each capable of accommodating 23.5tonnes. There is some debate as to whether the two A-trailers should be at the front end of the combination – ahead of the B-double, at the rear end – behind it, or even at either end with the B-double sandwiched in between. It appears that operators have their own ideas as to which set-up handles best and enjoys the best road manners when running at the supposed legal maximum speed of 90kph or 56-miles per hour. See also, Type 2 Road Train.
Mitchell Fuel Kenworth 2AB Quad
Mighty Atom 2AB Quad
BP Volvo 2AB Quad
2AB-Quads 4-WHEELER - See Four Wheeler. 10-1 - Receiving poorly. 10-2 - Receiving well. 10-3 - Stop transmitting. 10-4 - ¹OK. ²Message received. ³Understood. (Remember that 10-4 only means "message received". If you want to say "yes", use "yes". For "no", use "no")
10-5 - Relay message. 10-6 - Busy, stand by. 10-7 - Out of service, leaving the air (you’re going off the air). 10-8 - In service, subject to call (you’re back on the air). 10-9 - ¹Repeat. ²Repeat message. ³What? 10-10 - Transmission completed, standing by (you’ll be listening). 10-11 - Talking too quickly/rapidly. 10-12 - Visitors present. 10-13 - Advise weather/road conditions. 10-16 - Make pick up at... 10-17 - Urgent business. 10-18 - Anything for us? 10-19 - Nothing for you, return to base. 10-20 - ¹My location is ... ²What’s your location? 10-21 - Call by telephone. 10-22 - Report in person to: ... 10-23 - Stand by. 10-24 - Completed last assignment. 10-25 - Can you contact...? 10-26 - ¹Disregard last information. ²Cancel last message. ³Ignore. 10-27 - I am moving to channel... 10-28 - Identify your station. 10-29 - Time is up for contact.
10-30 - Does not conform to FCC rules. 10-32 - I will give you a radio check. 10-33 - Emergency traffic at this station. (Note: NOT an auto accident like many people think. See 10-42) 10-34 - Trouble at this station, help needed. 10-35 - Confidential information. 10-36 - ¹Correct time is ... ²What time is it? 10-37 - Wrecker needed at... 10-38 - Ambulance needed at... 10-39 - Your message delivered. 10-41 - Please turn to channel... 10-42 - ¹Traffic accident at ... ²Vehicle accident. 10-43 - Traffic tie-up at... 10-44 - I have a message for you. 10-45 - All units within range please report. 10-50 - Break channel. 10-60 - What is next message number? 10-62 - Unable to copy, use phone. 10-63 - Net directed to... 10-64 - Net clear. 10-65 - Awaiting your next message/assignment. 10-67 - All units comply. 10-70 - Fire at... 10-71 - Proceed with transmission in sequence.
¹Need to go to bathroom.. 10-99 . 10-91 . 10-92 .. 18 WHEELER .Reserve room for.Reserve hotel room for. 10-100 . 10-81 . 10-77 .. all units secure...Negative contact. 10-200 .You are causing interference. 10-93 .Check my frequency on this channel... 10-94 .Speed trap at.My address is...Mission completed. 10-82 .Please give me a long count (1 to 10). 4 . 10-85 ..See Eighteen Wheeler..Police needed at.. 10-84 . 10-75 .10-73 .Talk closer to the mike/microphone.My telephone number is. 10-95 .Your transmitter is out of adjustment.Transmit dead carrier for 5 seconds. ²Bathroom break/rest stop.
An ABB-Quad road train ABB-Quad 5 . Type 2 Road Train.A prime mover towing a single semi-trailer and a set of B-triple trailers.5 meters. See also.-AAAB-QUAD . Type 2 Road Train. but not more than 53. An AAB-Quad road train AAB-Quad (tanker) ABB-QUAD . ABB-quads have a maximum length of 53. AAB-Quads and ABB-Quads are innovative Type 2 Road Trains that operate at an overall length of more than 36.5 meters.BAB-Quads. See also.5 meters. connected by a converter dolly. The maximum GCM varies depending on the axle configuration.
ABS . reconsignment. This three-trailer combination is made up of a regular semi-trailer (the A-trailer) coupled via a dolly converter to a twotrailer B-double set.¹Antilock Braking System. Computer. by a converter dolly (with no more than 3 axles).¹A vehicle combination consisting of a prime mover and semi-trailer combination connected. particularly those engaged in bulk haulage. Again maximum overall length is 36. ²An abbreviation for anti-lock brakes. sensors and solenoid valves which together monitor wheel speed and modulate braking force if wheel lockup is sensed during braking. ²A prime mover towing a single semi-trailer and a set of B-double trailers.5-metres. See also. stopping in transit to complete loading or to partially unload. 6 . Axle groups may be tandems or tri-axle and this factor dictates the maximum gross weight of the combination. to two semi-trailers which are connected by a fifth wheel coupling. ³Another configuration that has gained wide acceptance with operators.A service rendered by a carrier secondary to a transportation service. A typical AB-Triple AB-Triple Hubbard Western Star AB Triple Western Star AB Triple AB-Triples ACCESSORIAL SERVICE . AB-TRIPLE . Helps the driver retain control of the vehicle during heavy braking on slippery roads. etc. Examples are storage. AB-triples have a maximum length of 36.5 meters. connected by a converter dolly. Type 1 Road Train. is the AB-triple.
See Intercooler. A-FRAME . ADR 38 covers heavy vehicle braking systems.Drawbar.¹Person authorized to transact business for and in the name of another. These dollies can have one or more axles and are the most common in use.Australian Design Rule. but cannot force you to take a load. It includes the mass of the drawbar as well as the mass on the axles. AGENT . Federal excise tax on new trucks and trailers. A-CONNECTION . AFV (ALTERNATIVE FUELED VEHICLE) . It is normally a given percentage of the price at the retail or manufacturing state and is a common form of sales tax.Actual value of goods required to be shown on bill of lading by shipper. A-DOLLY .Vehicle powered by a fuel other than gasoline or diesel. e. vehicle or other equipment.The summation of the working load limits or restraining capacity of all devices used to secure an article on a vehicle. The good ones realize this and they try to act nice or beg you to take the load. when rate to be applied is dependent on that fact. Dolly.The total mass of a trailer carrying the maximum load as specified by the trailer manufacturer.See Cradle. ²Like a dispatcher. A set of regulations governing vehicle design (e.¹(A variant of a converter dolly) An A-dolly is a trailer which has a single drawbar with a centred coupling.g. AGGREGATED TRAILER MASS . AGGREGATE MASS .The maximum allowable loaded mass of a particular vehicle or combination comprising the GVM or GCM plus the overload tolerance applicable in a given state. AFTERCOOLER . See Converter Dolly.Any non-expendable item of equipment which has been fixed in place or attached to a craft. (See Type 2 Road Train) ACTUAL VALUATION .A charge levied on persons or organizations based on the value of transaction. ADR . but which may be severed or removed without impairing the item removed or affecting the basic function of the object to which it is fastened. AGGREGATE WORKING LOAD LIMIT .g. ²This converter dolly has an "A" shaped drawbar that joins at a single connection point to the trailer ahead of it. 7 .) AD VALOREM TAX .ACCESSORY EQUIPMENT .
Air Suspension.¹An air-operated or air-assisted brake. AIRSPRING SYSTEM .An agricultural implement or agricultural machine. The air brake is operated by use of air lines.A vehicle without its own motive power. valves.An inflatable barrier placed between a section of the load and the vehicle to stop any movement of the load. See also.A suspension which supports the load on air-filled rubber bags rather than steel springs.¹A suspension in which the weight of the vehicle is supported by air bags containing compressed air and the axles are held in position longitudinally and laterally by bushed rods.An air bubble in fuel system. AIR FREIGHT CONTAINER . will both convert a vehicle into a multi-axle unit and provide greater load carrying capacity. It can be disposable or reusable. AIR BRAKE . built to perform agricultural tasks. etc. AIR BAG .Truck body designed and equipped to mix concrete in transit. tanks. AGRICULTURAL IMPLEMENT . See also. Compressed air is supplied by the same engine-driven air compressor and reservoir tanks which provide air to the air brake system. AGRICULTURAL COMBINATION .A smaller and lighter cargo container often made out of fiber glass designed to hold cargos that are shipped in airplanes. ²A brake which is operated by air.A machine with its own motive power.A system whereby the container and plunger are separated by air under pressure. When the container and plunger attempt to squeeze together. AGRICULTURAL VEHICLE .AGITATOR BODY . AIR SUSPENSION . built to perform agricultural tasks.(Slang) Pneumatic tank trailer for transporting solids in bulk. Air Ride 8 .A combination that includes at least one agricultural vehicle.An air-powered axle which. and an air compressor. AIR LIFT AXLE (LIFT AXLE) . AIR LOCK . air compresses and produces a spring effect. AGRICULTURAL MACHINE . when lowered. AIR RIDE SUSPENSION . AIR CAN TRAILER .
Without this storage tank there would not be enough air for braking when needed. because the natural frequency of vibration of an air spring does not vary with loading as it does with metal springs. Air springing results in a smoother ride. ANCHOR IT . 9 . ANGEL GEAR .g. thus maintaining a constant sprint vibration period any load. AIR TANK . APPROVED AIR SUSPENSION SYSTEM . gas. etc. ANTI-SLIP MAT .Old-fashioned hand crank.A reservoir for storing air for use in the air brake system.Slang term for coasting down hills in neutral.Suspension.A tyre recap or tyre part from a blown tyre that is on the road.¹Strong devices for attaching lashings to the mainframe or chassis to restrain the load.See Hydroplaning. ARMSTRONG STARTER . other than a liquid. or aggregate that lacks physical structure (e. means a suspension system in which — (a) vertical movement between each axle and the body of the vehicle is controlled by variations in the pressure of air in an air spring. and (b) the proportion of the vehicle’s mass that is borne by the air spring remains substantially constant despite variations in the pressure of air in the air spring.An air-activated release catch on a tipper tailgate which is operated from the cab. banding. Also called Mexican Overdrive. ²A gauge which registers the output of the alternator or generator.¹An amp gauge. grain.See Load Mat. ²Fitting or attachment on a vehicle or load to secure lashings. an illegal and dangerous practice. Air springs can be made very soft for the lightly loaded condition and the pressure automatically increased to match any increase in load. ANCHOR POINTS . or edge protection device(s).). AQUAPLANING .Apply brakes for an emergency stop. ²A Suspension system using air rather than metal springs to support the vehicle and control ride motions. ALLIGATOR . including articles grouped together so that they can be handled as a single unit or unitized by wrapping.A unit of cargo.In relation to a vehicle. strapping. AIR TRIP . ARTICLE OF CARGO . AMMETER . gravel.
See Direct Restraint. Also called ASR.The process of verifying if transportation charges shown on the carrier’s freight bill are reasonable. ATA (AMERICAN TRUCKING ASSOCIATIONS. INC. Articulated vehicle ARTICULATION . ATTACHED LOAD . Usually applied to a prime mover and semi-trailer as opposed to a truck and trailer which is called a combination vehicle. AUDIT OF FREIGHT BILLS . an acronym sometimes loosely translated from the German as anti-spin regulation. ²A national federation of independent and autonomous truck carrier conferences and state trucking associations. 12 independent conferences (each representing a special class or type truck operation) and the national headquarters.The space between the power unit and trailer that allows the combination to pivot and turn corners. ATC (AUTOMATIC TRACTION CONTROL) . ³(Slang) A truck tractor pulling more than one trailer connected by A-dollies. National Tank Truck Carriers Conference. Includes Regular Common Carrier Conference. A-TRAIN . 10 .¹Usually refers to a prime mover and semi-trailer towing a trailer.ARTICULATED VEHICLE .¹Serves the united interests of the trucking industry through a national federation of 50 independent state trucking associations plus the District of Columbia (each representing all classes and types of trucking operation). ATV (ALL TERRAIN VEHICLE) .Vehicle designed for any type of terrain. it prevents spinning of the drive wheels under power on slippery surfaces by braking individual wheels and/or reducing engine throttle. ²A tractor pulling a semi trailer with a shorter trailer or pup by means of reach or spindle hook.Usually an optional feature based on ABS.) .A vehicle with flexibly connected sections.
AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORTER . ²This cargo body style is typified by the multi-decked auto carrier trailer and/or power unit.See Auto Carrier.A shaft with a broad spiral flange rotating inside a cylindrical casing to carry bulk material from one end of the shaft to the other.A standard approved for publication on behalf of the Standards Association International Limited. an automatic gearbox. Augers are used to unload cargoes such as grain from grain trailers. it uses a torque converter and fluid coupler to change the gear ratio.¹A mechanical transmission which shifts gears automatically in response to speed and/or load. AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORTER BODY . AUTO TRANSPORTER . Auto carrier AUTOMATIC GEARBOX . Without using a clutch. Also called auto transporter.Truck body designed for the transportation of other vehicles.AUGER . rather than requiring the operator to do so manually. ²A mechanism of the drivetrain which takes the power from the engine and transfers it to the driveshaft or wheels. AUSTRALIAN STANDARD . AUTOMATIC TOW COUPLING .These work in much the same manner as in modern automatic cars. It automatically effects gear changes to meet varying road and load conditions. AUTO CARRIER .Any company certified to transport motor vehicles by hauling them on special vehicles or driving them. See Automatic Transmission.¹A cargo body with two decks to carry automobiles.The most common type of heavy trailer hitch in Australia and Europe. The trigger in the coupling automatically releases the spring loaded towing pin when the trailer drawbar eye touches it. Gear changing is done through a series of oil operated clutches and bands. Far easier to couple up than the cheaper American type pintle hook. 11 . AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSON . Commonly referred to as a Ringfeder.
but it does not support them. It does not hold them on nor support them." etc. ²A single axle group. and suspension attach. front axle is usually called the steer axle.¹One or more shafts. See also. (See IVHS) AXLE .Speeding driver. AXLE GROUP . A three-quarter floating axle is used to drive the rear wheels as well as hold them on. on which one or more wheels intended to support the vehicle turn.¹A group of axles (or a single axle) supporting one section of a vehicle. but does not transmit power to the wheels. rear axles may be drive. brakes. IVHS) AVIATOR . ³An axle is a shaft on which the wheels revolve. Drive axles are those with powered wheels. twinsteer axle group. A full-floating axle is used to drive the rear wheels.g. e. AXLE LOAD -The total load transmitted to the road by all the wheels and tyres on that axle. 4 driving. thus. positioned in a line across a vehicle. and support them. A semi-floating or one-quarter floating axle is used to drive the wheels. AVERAGE GROSS REVENUE PER LOADED MILE . A dead axle or beam axle merely holds the wheels. Axle groups in Australia are required to be loadsharing. If mounted behind the main gearbox it is sometimes called a 'joey box'. tandem axle group. tag axles are unpowered and go behind drive axles. A live axle holds the wheels and transmits power to the wheels. ²Structural component to which wheels. 6x4 is 6 wheels total.: the number of wheels followed by the number of wheels driving. Axles.AUXILIARY GEARBOX . hold them on. (See E-ZPass. tri-axle group or quad-axle group." "6x4. tag or pusher types. See also. AXLES .(1) A vehicle component to which wheels. Infrastructure can be land-based radio towers or satellites. AVI . each axle assumed to have one wheel at each end. pusher axles are unpowered and go ahead of drive axles.A secondary gearbox which may be located before or after the main gearbox to provide additional overdrive or reduction ratios. (2) Axle designations such as "4x2. a 3-axle power unit with 2 drive axles.(Automatic Vehicle Identification) System combining an on-board transponder with roadside receivers to automate identification of vehicles. AVL .(Automated Vehicle Location) Class of technologies designed to locate vehicles for fleet management purposes and for stolen vehicle recovery. 12 . Uses include electronic toll collection and stolen vehicle detection. Axle.Average total payment received per mile traveled with a load. brakes and suspension are attached.
AXLE WEIGHT . 13 .¹The weight transmitted to the surface by one axle or a combination of axles in a tandem assembly. ²Amount of weight transmitted to the highway by one axle.
BALL COUPLING . ²Loads that you move back towards your tractor’s base of operation. BALL RACE . BALLOON FREIGHT . 14 . connected by a converter dolly.A type of turntable on which the top section rotates on the bottom through a series of bearings.-BBAB-QUAD . A BAB-Quad road train BAB-Quad BACK DOOR . bulky cargo. (b) traffic moving in direction of light flow when a carrier’s traffic on a route is heavier in one direction than the other. ²The term used when a driver is hauling cargo that is very light in weight compared with the cubic space occupied. ²Walls or partitions inside liquid tanks that inhibit the flow of fluids reducing the slosh effect that liquid tankers experience.A prime mover towing two sets of B-double trailers.See Park-N-View (PNV).¹Light. BAFFLES . See also.¹Barriers fitted crosswise and lengthwise inside tanks to limit surging of fluids (or loads which behave like fluids) during acceleration.¹(a) to haul a shipment back over a part of a route traveled.Behind you or to your rear. BALLARD . Type 2 Road Train.See Bartlett Hitch. BAB-quads have a maximum length of 53.5 meters. BACK-HAUL . braking and cornering.
A solid object. BASING POINT . Type 1 Road Train. BA-TRIPLE . Jacksonville. to a semi-trailer. measured at the narrowest point.Doors on a trailer that open on hinges. BARTLETT HITCH . loads are often separated into two parts.The distance measured across the widest part of the outside of the baselegs. a movable barrier can be used. BASELEG OPENING (BLO) . similar to that of a regular door.See Proportional Rate. often a large piece of timber placed against the load and fixed securely to the vehicle to prevent movement of the load. BASELEG OVERALL WIDTH (OAW) . See also. To restrain the rear part. 15 . A typical BA-Triple BAULKING .The distance between the inside of the baselegs.A structural member of a high-lift truck. See Trailer Hitch.Tractor without its semi-trailer. by a converter dolly. or (b) A B-Double combination connected to dog trailer. Also referred to as outriggers. For example. BARN DOORS . The reverse of an AB-Triple. containing load wheel(s). to the tie rails on both sides.BANDING . The barrier should be chained back near the top and bottom.To maintain axle weight limits. ²A BA-Triple is a vehicle combination consisting of: (a) A B-Double combination connected. Better able to handle the heavy vertical load of a pig trailer than a Ringfeder type coupling.A strip of material that may be used to unitize articles and is tensioned and clamped or crimped back upon itself. KY to a point near Jacksonville.¹A three-trailer combination made up of a B-double coupled to a single A-trailer via a dolly converter. Fl is computed as follows: The rate form Louisville to Jacksonville to the nearby point.A ball coupling usually used for attaching a rigid vehicle to a pig trailer. that extend in front of the mast from both sides. BASING RATE . a rate from Louisville. BASELEG . (Same as “Strapping”) BAREBACK . BARRIERS .A point in which rates to another destination are computed through. in this case. is the basing point.
The lead semi-trailer (“A trailer”) has a turntable at its rear. See also.(Bumper to Back of Cab) Distance from a truck's front bumper to the back of its cab. B- 16 . and the second trailer is a conventional semi-trailer ("B trailer").BBC . ²A BB-Quad is a vehicle combination consisting of a prime mover towing two B-Double semitrailer combinations that have been connected by a converter dolly.A fifth wheel mounted on one or more axles that are permanently attached and extend off the rear of a semi-trailer. In Western Australia companies employ this set-up behind four and five-axle tractor units (prime movers) and by using tri-axle groups throughout – including the tractor unit’s drive axles – can achieve gross weights approaching 150-tonnes.¹An articulated vehicle with a second semi-trailer attached to the rear of the first semi-trailer by means of a turntable. The first trailer is a lead semitrailer ("A trailer"). A typical BB-Quad Giacci BB-Quad Giacci BB-Quad BB-Quads B-CONNECTION . which means that another semi-trailer can connect without the use of a converter dolly.¹This four-trailer combination comprises two B-doubles coupled together via a dolly converter. most commonly used on flatbeds or tank trailers. Called a B-Train in North America. The configuration is used primarily by bulk operators employing tankers or side-tipping trailers. (See Type 2 Road Train) B-DOLLY . Type 2 Road Train.Fifth wheel or turntable. ²A prime-mover towing two semi-trailers. BB-QUAD . B-DOUBLE .
³A combination consisting of a prime mover towing 2 semi-trailers. Lead semi trailer B-Double A typical B-Double B-Doubles B-DOUBLE COMBINATION .A combination consisting of a prime mover towing 2 semi trailers. 17 .triples are variations of this concept where three semi-trailers are connected.
¹A law enforcement officer. or freight car designed to carry loads. Full-Grown. BED . drop-frame semi-trailer designed and used specifically for the transport and delivery of bottled or canned beverages which has side-only access for loading and unloading this commodity. not pulled.A semi trailer that is nominated for use as the lead trailer in a B-double combination. RIG. the floor or bottom of a truck or trailer. BIG HOLE .B-DOUBLE LEAD TRAILER . This means that the nose of the trailer physically rests on the tractor (truck) on what is called the 5th- 18 . BEAR .Refers to hinged ramps on the end of a flatbed trailer enabling vehicles or heavy equipment to drive onto the trailer.State Trooper.¹The part of a truck. BELLY BIN . TRACTOR/TRAILER. SEMI) These are terms for a tractor and semi-trailer. BIG HAT .¹A trailer that discharges its load from the bottom. The trailer is carried. ²(Smokey. BEAR-IN-THE-AIR .A driver who transports fruit and vegetables.(See Big Truck) BIG RIGGER .The "Golden Rule" safe driving book.Pipe whose flanged end is of larger diameter than its barrel. trailer. both empty from underneath via gravity. ²Another name for a hopper bottom trailer.A van-type. Full Grown Bear) A state police car. BEAN HAULER . BIBLE . BIG TRUCK (BIG RIG. 18-WHEELER. sometimes. BEAVERTAIL . These ramps can be powered by a hydraulic mechanism. BIG RIG . ²Transportation: the body or. BELL PIPE CONCRETE . BEVERAGE SEMI-TRAILER .Arrogant driver. but more often for carrying spare parts or dunnage. This is the truck you see on the road with only one trailer.Boxes attached under the floor of a trailer.(The Big Hole) The top (highest) gear in a truck's transmission. or one who will drive only long trailers. BELLY DUMP .Police in a plane or helicopter. can carry cargo.
Brakes. bronze or aluminium.A solid length of raw material normally steel. and weight. It serves as a contract of shipment and a receipt for the goods. Proof of Delivery. side windows or mirrors. where it's going.A law enforcement officer.When special blankets are wrapped around the freight to cushion the shipment. BILLET . BLIND SIDE . B/L . The first two can also be used to describe any commercial vehicle that is large in size. who the trucking company (carrier) is.A device used to tension a tie-down or combination of tie-downs. 19 .Bill of Lading.A container on the front of a trailer to store the BOL if necessary. 6A contract between the shipper and the carrier that includes freight origin and destination.The weight shown in a freight bill.Right side of truck and trailer (left side in Australia). BLANKET WRAPPING . ³A shipping document or shipping paper for a particular shipment. who is to receive it. 4A document that establishes the terms of a contract between a shipper and a transportation company. where it came from. It contains an itemized list of goods in the shipment. what the product weighs.¹An itemized list of goods contained in a shipment. It identifies the freight. POD) Paperwork given to the driver by the shipper that shows what the product is. BLIND SPOTS . a contract of carriage and a receipt for goods. particularly at city level. BLACK & WHITE . BILL OF LADING (BOL) . BINDER .A radar detector. BIRDYBACK . BILLED WEIGHT . BINDERS . named for the black & white color schemes of their cars. it gives terms of the agreement.wheel. BIRD DOG . ²Written transportation contract between shipper and carrier (or their agents).Areas around a commercial vehicle that are not visible to the driver either through the windshield. In addition. and the place of delivery. description. 5(Bills.Intermodal transportation system using highway freight containers carried by aircraft. and a signature authorizing the movement of the freight. BILL BOX . It serves as a document of title.
Often used to tow platforms.Material.¹A prime mover without a semi-trailer attached.To quickly rev the engine then release the accelerator. See ‘Double Declutching or Double Clutching’.A haul unit expressly designed to tow other vehicles by means of a drawbar (rather than using a turntable). ³To drive the truck only. without the trailer. usually timber. 20 . BOAT TRANSPORTERS .Atomic material shipment. placed between the load and the vehicle structure.To set the parking brakes. BLOW-THE-BRAKES . or dog trailers in situations where road trains are required to break up (split) at assembly areas. BLUE LABEL .See Direct Restraint.A burst tyre. Block truck BLOW OUT . Boats may be partially disassembled to facilitate transporting. BOBTAIL (BOBTAILING) . 4(Slang) A tractor with no trailer. BLOCKED LOAD . BLOCKING . Sometimes straight trucks with no trailer are also referred to as bobtails.BLIP . ²A truck or tractor operating without a trailer. BLO .See Baseleg Opening.Any vehicle combination designed and used specifically to transport assembled boats and boat hulls. Also refers to a straight truck. BLOCK TRUCK . to prevent movement of the load.
A very low gear which is not used in normal circumstances. cylindrical container. or stump puller. BOGIE . a 6x4 or if twin steer 8x4 vehicle. See Bogie.A prime mover or truck with two drive axles at the back.and cargo . or platform. 21 . Also called a crawler. Dollies can be used to haul multiple trailers behind a single power unit.(Also spelled bogey) ¹Assembly of two or more axles. BOGEY . BOLL WEEVIL . BOL .¹The passenger . usually a pair in tandem. BOGIE DRIVE . ship. usually in the shape of a box.Back of Cab. BOG COG . or other vehicle. ³The section of a vehicle.A novice truck driver. (Also referred to as a dolly) ³A set of wheels built specifically as rear wheels under a container. BOLLARD .Bobtail truck BOC . ²An auxiliary axle assembly having a fifth wheel used for the purpose of converting a semi-trailer to a full trailer.carrying part of an aircraft. ²The bed or box of a vehicle on or in which the load is placed. BODY . Bogie drive prime movers are the most common type in Australia.Bill of Lading. in or on which passengers or the load is carried. 4Semi-trailer. The drive is usually transmitted from one axle to the other by means of a short drive shaft called a jack-shaft.A two-axle assembly. A bollard is sometimes used to direct traffic.A series of short posts set to prevent vehicular access or to protect property from damage by vehicular encroachment.
A lifting mechanism.The miles the load pays. propane. BOTTLE .000 lbs. Boom truck BOOSTER DOLLY . BOOMERS . They are also usually cheaper and lighter than a cabover with the same powertrain. BOOK MILES .This trailer is equipped with a small knuckle boom for selfunloading of units up to 6. BOOM TRUCK .Refers to the cargo tank of a truck or trailer designed to carry liquefied or compressed gases.Usually at the rear of a truck or LCV and employs hydraulics to shift some of the load weight onto the rear dolly axles. ²Dry bulk bodies which empty by means of gravity alone through the bottom.Binder devices used to tighten chains around cargo on flatbed trailers. (Not real miles) BOOM . BOOM IT DOWN . but not as maneuverable. BOTTOM DUMPS .Truck or trailer body designed primarily for the transportation of cased bottled beverages.Tighten chains around freight. Bonnetted heavy trucks are aerodynamically superior to cabovers because of their wedge shape.A warehouse controlled by customs.BOLSTER . May be mounted on or as part of the cargo body of a truck. BONDED WAREHOUSE . Sometimes referred to as hopper-bottoms or belly dumps. BOTTLERS BODY . and butane. Booms are common on utility trucks or flatbeds. BONNETTED VEHICLE . This unit can load and unload on job sites or where unloading equipment is not available. ²Rigid support base commonly used to support logs.¹A piece of steel or heavy timber firmly attached to the vehicle (often bolted to the chassis) to support the load and/or prevent it moving.¹Trailers that unload through bottom gates.A vehicle where the driver sits behind the engine which is covered by a bonnet (the Americans call it a hood). Examples include bottled gas. 22 .
At a certain point.As you apply brakes. you will get to the point where the brakes have faded so badly. Brakes will get hotter faster by applying and releasing. Dry Van Trailer. brakes cannot normally catch fire. they will start to smoke. BOX .e.¹Trailer or semi-trailer. The most common type of trailer that can haul almost anything that can fit inside. If they start getting too hot. If this continues to worsen. and about 20 seconds 23 . that you cannot apply enough pressure to get them to do anything – this is when you lose your brakes. i. ³The transmission of a motor vehicle. BRAKE FADE (SMOKING BRAKES. BRACING . See also. meaning that you need to apply more pressure to get the same result. Also called a van trailer. they start to fade. drum. At speed. or is rough if it has been quarried. the trailer.A sudden slow down in traffic where you have to hit the brakes.A structure. LOST BRAKES. BRAKE FIRE) . Dry Van. A brake fire normally occurs when the vehicle is stopped with badly smoking brakes – suddenly the grease and oil around the shoe. they generate heat. ²Any container that can haul freight. the brakes will start to fade. Enclosed Box Trailer (aka Dry Van) Van (Box) trailer BOXCAR .BOULDER . device. and then as they fade and you apply more pressure to get the same braking power.A closed rail freight car. or another substantial article placed against an article to prevent it from tipping that may also prevent it from shifting. and wheel will catch fire.A large piece of natural rock that may be rounded if it has been exposed to weather and water. when the brake shoe and drum get hot enough. than by applying and holding a steady pressure. BRAKE CHECK .
A suspension in which there is a transfer of vertical loading from one axle to another in the same axle group when the brakes are applied.Of a vehicle. BROKER .Authority granted by Interstate Commerce Commission to persons engaged in the business of arranging for motor vehicle transportation of persons or property in interstate commerce. BREAK TORQUE .later the tyre will catch on fire. (See Horsepower) BRAKE REACTIVE SUSPENSION . BROKERAGE LICENSE . BREAK BULK . being an institution established under royal charter in the United Kingdom. means all the brakes of the vehicle and all the components of the mechanisms by which they are operated. BREAK THE UNIT . the flames go out.A bridge surface protection formula used by Federal and State governments to regulate the amount of weight that can be put on each of a vehicle’s axles.Auxiliary transmission. 24 .Federal regulations (in the United States) specifying maximum weight based on the distance in feet between axles.Releasing engine power or load from the transmission and drivetrain by releasing throttle or depressing clutch pedal. A single fire extinguisher will almost never put out a brake fire – you use it. BRAKE HORSEPOWER (BHP) .Engine horsepower rating as determined by brake dynamometer testing. BRIDGE FORMULA . BRAKING SYSTEM . At that point the trailer or truck has a very good chance of burning to the ground. and how far apart the axles (or group of axles) must be to safely and legally carry a given weight over a bridge. BROWNIE .A standard approved for publication on behalf of the British Standards Institution. BRIDGE LAW . the flames are back.Uncouple the tractor from the trailer. The front axle of the group tends to lock up.A person who arranges for transportation of loads for a percentage of the revenue from the load. 10 seconds later. as well as catching the asphalt on fire too. and so on. especially on tri-axle trailers. BRITISH STANDARD .To separate a composite load into individual shipments and route to different destinations.
B-TRAIN - ¹A tractor pulling two semi-trailers. The lead unit having a fifth wheel at the back to attach the second semi-trailer or pup. Called a B-Double in Australia. See B-Double. ²(Slang) A truck tractor pulling two semi-trailers where the second trailer sits on a fifth wheel that is permanently attached and extends off the rear of the lead trailer. Most commonly used on flatbeds or tank trailers. The B-train is considered a more stable double trailers configuration. B-TRIPLE - ¹A vehicle combination consisting of a prime mover towing three semi-trailers connected by fifth wheel couplings. ²A B-double with an additional trailer at the front. By using standard-sized “modular” trailers, the combination can be broken down as a B-double or hooked-up as a multi-combination for operation on approved road train routes. A standard B-triple is less than 35 meters long and weighs up to 82.5 tonnes gross weight. B-triples up to 36.5 meters long are allowed to operate in some States and Territories. ³A prime mover towing 3 semi-trailers connected by turntable couplings. B-triples have a maximum length of 36.5 meters. 4The B-triple marks the obvious and most natural evolution of the B-double and is – as the name suggests – three trailers coupled to one another via fifth wheels. This configuration is now widely used by parcel carriers utilising high volume curtain-sider trailers and is popular with companies operating on the 1,700-km Adelaide to Perth route. B-triple trailer sets have also been developed for livestock, tankers and for bulk materials. B-triples may operate at lengths up to 36.5-metres (120-feet) overall and at weights of up to 86-tonnes, the same as a two-trailer road train featuring tri-axle groups throughout. See also, Type 1 Road Train.
Argosy B-triple Neils Transport
Air Road Kenworth B-Triple
Bunker Freightlines Volvo FH BTriple
Hahn Kenworth B-Triple tanks
Kenworth B-Triple operated by Nascatrans
Argosy B-Triple in colours of 1st Express
B-Triples B-TRIPLE COMBINATION - A combination consisting of a prime mover towing 3 semi trailers. B-TRIPLE LEAD TRAILER - A semi trailer that is nominated for use as the lead trailer in a B-triple combination. B-TRIPLE MIDDLE TRAILER - A semi trailer that is nominated for use as the second trailer in a B-triple combination. BTS - (Bureau of Transportation Statistics) BUCKET-MOUTH (RATCHET-JAW) - Someone who ties up the channel on the CB and doesn't let others talk. BUG IT - To carry freight from the front to the back of a truck. BUILDING MATERIALS - This cargo category is for bricks, blocks, cement in bags, wallboard, insulation, and mixed cargoes of these in addition to drywall, lumber, paint, hardware, and other materials are included. BULK CARGO - Loose and unpackaged, sometimes referred to as aggregate cargo.
BULKER - A container that is fitted with loading hatches on the roof and discharge hatches on the doors or front wall. Used for any loose bulk commodity (e.g. sugar, salt, coal). BULK FREIGHT - ¹Unpackaged freight such as wheat, petroleum products, etc. ²Freight that is not in packages or containers. It is normally hauled in tanks or grain trailers. BULKHEAD - ¹A term sometimes applied to the gate at the front of a tray body or flat top trailer which is built heavier than side gates. Also called a Loading Rack. ²Firewall; front of trailer wall, or any dividing wall within a trailer. See also, Gates. ³A partition separating one part of a ship, freight car, aircraft or truck from another part. 4Wall-like structure used at the front of a flatbed or back of the power unit to protect against damage from shifting cargo, or a wall inside any trailer that partitions the load. BULK TRUCK/TRAILER - A vehicle that can carry loose cargos in bulk. It usually refers to solids in bulk. BULL HAULER - One who hauls livestock. BUMBLE BEE - A two-cycle engine. BUMP THE DOCK - To deliver a load. BUNDLE - A group of articles of that has been unitized for securement as a single article. BUNK - ¹A horizontal bolster fitted with a stake at each end that together support and contains a stack of logs, and is installed transversely. ²Cradle-like metal upright brackets mounted on a log truck or trailer to hold the logs. Sometimes referred to as bolsters. ³A sleeping compartment mounted behind a truck cab, sometimes attached to the cab or even designed to be an integral part of it. Also called a Sleeper. 4The bed in a sleeper on a truck. BUNK-BUDDY - A female that rides along with a male truck driver – for sex, company, housekeeping, paperwork, etc. – in return for food, shelter, and adventure. When the driver gets bored he drops her off at a truck stop and she finds another driver to ride with. (This is not a girlfriend or a wife) BUSINESS CHANNEL - Channel 19 on the CB. Note: When on the I-5 (Interstate 5 – in California, Oregon or Washington) the business channel is 17. BUTTON HER UP - Tie down the load on a truck or trailer.
To make a right hand turn from the curb lane of one street to the curb lane of the new street. you must use the space in the intersection to do so.BUTTON HOOK . 28 .
5 Normally the enclosed compartment in a vehicle in which the driver sits.¹Driver’s compartment of a truck or tractor-trailer. 4Portion of truck where the driver sits.¹(of the engine) The engine is directly behind the cab.A truck where the driver's cab sits to one side of the engine as seen on refuse trucks and some construction equipment. Also known as snubnose. CABOTAGE . as opposed to the conventional cab located behind the engine. See Cab-to-Axle Dimension. Most commonly seen on refuse trucks and some construction equipment. CABOVER .Hauling freight within one country by a foreigner. The cabover is identified by the windshield being located directly over the front bumper and driver more or less 29 . ³The seating and bunk area of a tractor.(Rear of Cab to rear Axle) measurement. CAB BESIDE ENGINE . CAB CHASSIS . Allows shorter overall vehicle length for better maneuverability and has better all around view for the driver. or Cab-over-engine. CAB BEHIND ENGINE (CB.Conventional. Does not include load carrying or attaching components (e. COE trucks are dominant in Europe because they allow longer trailers within an overall length limit. The cabover is identified by the windshield being located directly over the front bumper and the driver is directly over the steering axle. ³A style of tractor with a flat front due to the cab over the engine. CAB FORWARD . has a hood and an engine in front of the cab. CAB GUARD . ²Truck or tractor design in which the cab sits over the engine on the chassis.(Cab Over Engine or COE) ¹A truck with the cab mounted directly above the engine and front axle. 4A vehicle with a substantial part of its engine located under the cab.A steel structure fitted behind the cab on a prime mover to stop parts of the load striking the cab. ²Similar to a cabover in that the cab is positioned ahead of the engine. ²Motor truck or truck tractor with the driver’s compartment and controls located beside the engine. Also called flatfaced. CAB ASIDE ENGINE (CAE) . 7Power unit. The passenger compartment of a vehicle.¹The cab is located to left or right side of the engine.-CCA . tractor. CBE) . ²The control room on a truck where the driver sits. butt-nosed.A truck with only the cab fitted. body or turntable). 5A truck or tractor design in which the cab sits over the engine on the chassis. CAB .g. 6Motor truck or truck tractor with a substantial part of its engine located under the cab.
A tarpaulin fitted over the top of load and about halfway down the gates. CARGO .Truck that hauls live poultry.Truck body with floor curving downward at the rear. CAR CARRYING TRAILER . Used in conjunction with Side Curtains." Cabover truck CAB SHIELD . Sometimes referred to as "flat-faced" or "buttnosed. CAB-TO-AXLE DIMENSION (CA) . (May also be identified as CF or LP) CACKLE CRATE . CAE .The distance from the back of a truck cab to the center line of the rear axle. Also called a Cab Guard. 30 . usually new cars from the manufacturer. For trucks with tandem rear axles.All articles or material carried by a vehicle. semi-trailer.directly over the steering axle.A support frame used under an object shaped like a cylinder. gear and supplies on a vehicle. CAP TARPAULIN or CAP TARP .See Cab Aside Engine.Any portion of a commercial motor vehicle (CMV) combination (other than a truck tractor) used for the carrying of cargo.Carries multiple cars. including those used in operation of the vehicle. or the cargo-carrying section of a single-unit truck. CARGO WEIGHT .Combined weight of all loads. CANTLING . the CA dimension is given midway between the two rear axles.A vertical barrier placed directly behind the cab of a tractor to protect the cab in the event cargo should shift forward. including a trailer. CARGO-CARRYING UNIT . CAB TO END (CE) .Distance from back of a truck's cab to the end of its frame. CAMEL BACK BODY .
RADIO) . which in turn is different from a carriage. ²A transport company. or corporation engaged in the business of transporting goods or persons. CBE . CAST SPOKE WHEEL . CB is still used by truckers and motorists for everything from traffic condition reports to emergency calls to idle chatter.(Local) ¹Hauling between locations in the same town or city or contiguous municipalities. is bolted to a multiple-piece steel rim (see Demountable Rim. THE TWO-WAY. Cases are mainly used for transit and storage purposes. The legal power maximum is 4 watts. Disc Wheel).A vehicle or device designed for transport.Large boxes made of cardboard that are used as containers for packages. city or municipality) pick-up and delivery.000 pounds 31 . water buffalo or donkeys. Long beyond its heyday in the '70s. CB (CITIZENS BAND RADIO.Carrier’s claim on property it has transported as security for charges. CC or C&C . ²Usually refers to intra-city hauling on drays or trucks. or even smaller animals such as goats or large dogs.Drilling service. CART . using two wheels and normally pulled by one or a pair of draught animals. CASES .Cab & Chassis. The spoked portion. partnership. CARTAGE .Wheel with five or six spokes originating from a centre hub. CDL (COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE) . which is a heavy transport vehicle with four wheels and normally at least two horses. CARRIER . CARTAGE COMPANY – A company that provides local (within a town.CARLOAD . The draught animals used for carts may be horses or ponies. CB .Shipment of freight required to fill a rail car. CARRIER’S LIEN .¹An individual.See Cab Behind Engine. oxen.See Cab Behind Engine. ³A Citizen's Band radio typically with 40 channels.¹License which authorizes an individual to operate commercial motor vehicles and buses over 26. CASING SERVICE . from drill casings.¹Two-way radio for which no license is required by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC). ²Twoway radio used for communication between drivers. It is different from a dray or wagon. which is used exclusively for transporting humans. A handcart is pulled or pushed by a person. usually made of cast steel.
Truck with a noisy engine or transmission. a line located midway between those axles.gross vehicle weight.¹(A variant of a converter dolly) A C-dolly is a trailer which has two separate couplings side-by-side. For operators of freight-hauling trucks. Dolly. For twin steer axle groups . C-DOLLY .a line located between the extreme axles of the group. See Converter Dolly. CENTRE OF AN AXLE . one of which is fitted with twice as many tyres as the other — a line one-third of the way from the centre of the axle with more tyres to the centre of the axle with fewer tyres. CE . For tri-axle groups . For tandem axles where one axle is fitted with dual and one with single tyres. a line located ⅓ of the way from the dual tyred axle. If the axle consists of 2 shafts — a line in the vertical plane passing through the centre of both shafts and through the centers of the wheels on those shafts. For tandem axles with equal numbers of tyres. CEMENT MIXER . the centre-line of that axle. as it prevents articulation between the dolly wheels and the axles of the truck or trailer in front of the dolly.(CF. ²A license that authorizes an individual to operate a specific class of commercial motor vehicles. Note: The C-dolly design is not allowed in Australia.a line located midway between the two axles in the group.000 pounds gross vehicle weight). the maximum size which may be driven without a CDL is Class 6 (maximum 26. See also.If the axle consists of one shaft — a line parallel to the length of the axle and passing through its centre. CENTRE OF AN AXLE GROUP . ²This converter dolly has two drawbars and attaches at two connection points to the trailer ahead of it. If the axle group consists of 2 axles. Cab to End. LP) Distance from back of a truck's cab to the end of its frame. Australian rules require articulation between axle groups.¹A line midway between the centers of the outermost axles of the group. ²For single axles. These dollies can have one or more axles and are considered more stable than the common A-dolly. Centre of an axle group 32 .
Calculated to help determine optimum placement of truck bodies on chassis. 33 .Centres of various axle groups CENTRE OF GRAVITY (CG) . Centre of Mass.Weight centre or balance point of an object. CENTROID . CERTIFICATE OF PUBLIC CONVENIENCE AND NECESSITY . See also. CENTRE OF MASS .The centre of balance of a load (also called ‘Centre of Gravity’).Authority of certificate granted by the ICC or state regulatory agencies and required of certain for-hire carriers.The centre point of the cross-section of the tank. such as a truck body.
Also CE or LP are used for the same distance. 7. en route. CHAIN .Chlorofluorocarbon. (The use of these extensions is not approved by any manufacturer and can be dangerous). CHEATER BAR . Tare Mass. when lowered.A telephone call made to the company to inform them of the tractor/driver’s location and status (loaded. or to describe type of semi-trailer for transporting lift-off containers. The chain commonly used is 8 mm high tensile ‘transport’ chain with a typical lashing capacity of 3800 to 4000 kg. ²A frame with wheels and container locking devices in order to secure a container for movement.Weight of the empty truck.¹An incomplete vehicle consisting of a cab on a bare frame rail chassis. ²Most trucks are sold as a frame (chassis) with a cab. CHICKEN COUP .A Department of Transportation weight check station. Cab to End. CFS .Usually a length of pipe placed over the operating lever of a dog so as to extend its length. CHECK CALL . ³Refers to the frame of any vehicle.Acronym for the distance from the back of a truck's cab to the end of its frame. etc). It is understood through the lease that these costs will be charged back to the independent contractor at a later date. commonly called ‘dogs and chains’. All transport chain is marked at least every 500 mm with its lashing capacity (LC)." CHASSIS WEIGHT (CURB WEIGHT.Let brake air flow into semi-trailer lines. Tare Weight) CHEATER AXLE .Those costs assumed by the carrier for independent contractors.Container Freight Station.Chains are usually fitted with hooks on each end and tensioned with ‘over-centre’ lever tensioners.(Slang) For a lift axle or an air-powered axle which.See Centre of Gravity. The cargo body or fifth wheel is added by the purchaser or a "body builder. CHASSIS CAB . unloaded. CFC . needing a body or load platform in order to become complete. 34 . will both convert a vehicle into a multi-axle unit and provide greater load carrying capacity.¹A vehicle frame. 13 and 16 mm. CHARGE IT . Other sizes are 6. See also. CG (CENTER OF GRAVITY) .3. CHASSIS . without occupants or load. 10.CF . TARE WEIGHT) . CHARGE BACKS . (See also.
(Class 2 vehicles include B-doubles.An indirect route. low trailer with high bow tarp. CLAIM . CHOCKS .Garage superintendent. road trains. It is not a road train.Low sided trailer with high bow tarp. a controlled access bus not more than 14. and agricultural machinery) CLASS 2 VEHICLE . cranes).Differential housing on powered axles.6m and/or its length exceeds 19m. and livestock carriers) CLASS 3 VEHICLE . (b) A demand upon a transportation company for refund of an over charge.CHIEF HOOD LIFTER .In Australia. or a vehicle that exceeds 4. CITY FLYER ." CL .6m in height and is built to carry cattle.In Australia. an agricultural machine or agricultural implement.g." "pickup.3m. 35 ." "whoopee. sheep." and "shags. a restricted access vehicle that complies with the mass and dimension limits prescribed. but does not exceed 4. or designed to carry. CHUNK .(a) A demand made upon a transportation line for payment on account of loss or damage alleged to have occurred while shipment was in possession of the carrier.5m long.Suitable blocks used primarily to restrain loads which could move during transit. a restricted access vehicle that is a special purpose vehicle. meets one or both of the following criteria: its height exceeds 4. CIRCUS WAGON . a road train. CITYLINER .A local police car. CITY-KITTY . and is a B-double. CIRCUITOUS ROUTE . car carriers. (Class 1 vehicles include low loaders.) Chocks may also be used ahead of and behind road wheels to prevent movement of the vehicle. pigs or horses.Carload or containerload.Truck used in the city for pickup and delivery. together with its load. special purpose vehicles (e. Also called "cub. a restricted access vehicle other than a class 1 vehicle or a class 2 vehicle. or is carrying. B-double.3m but does not exceed 4. a combination carrying vehicles on more than one deck that.In Australia. a large indivisible item. Scotches or Gluts. (Also known as Cleats.Short. or carrying a freight container designed for multi-modal transport. CLASS 1 VEHICLE .
CLAW .CLASSIFICATION (FREIGHT) .A chain hook in the shape of a claw. This turns off ALL the engine’s power to the wheels and the engine might as well not be there. See the following diagram for an illustration of how the clutch works: 36 . to allow the vehicle to change gears. Chocks. apparent) and which does not bear such notion as "shipper’s load and count.¹An electrically operated coupling device that connects or disconnects the compressor pulley and compressor shaft. When the pedal is ‘up’ (engaged).Close rear doors of trailer.A publication containing a list of articles and the classes to which they are assigned for the purpose of applying class rates. whenever we want.. nailed to the deck to reinforce blocking. CLEARING HOUSE . ³The clutch is a device that lets us turn the engine’s power to the vehicle’s wheels on and off. together with governing rules and regulations. CLEATS . ²A device that disconnects the engine from the transmission. CLUTCH . and then allows the engine and transmission to resume contact and turn together at a new speed.An organization set up to process and collect bills for participation trucking companies.A single tank without compartments inside. usually wood. etc.A two door truck cab with a back seat behind the front seats. CLOSE THE GATES .The lights that are on top of the front and are of the semi-trailer. loss. CLAW HOOK .A bill of lading signed by the carrier for receipt of merchandise in good condition (no damage. the full power of the engine is connected to the wheels and the clutch might as well not be there." CLEAN BORE . CLUB CAB .Short pieces of material. See also. CLEAN BILL OF LADING . When we press the pedal down (disengage) we separate the two (clutch) plates so that the second one cannot spin.A device with springs for grappling or holding. CLEARANCE LIGHTS .
It is a disc-type brake incorporated into the clutch and transmission drive gear assemblies. CMV (COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLE) . COAL TRAILER . When applied the brake slows down and can stop the transmission front box gearing. It is used with nonsynchronized gearboxes to pick up first or reverse gears when stationary.The clutch brake is applied by fully depressing the clutch pedal to the floor board.¹A device actuated by the last inch of clutch pedal travel which brakes the spinning gears in the transmission.How the clutch works CLUTCH BRAKE . or a coal hopper bottom. ²(Used with pull-type clutches) .Usually refers to a dump trailer. COAL BUCKET . CNG .A motor vehicle or combination of motor vehicles used in commerce to transport passengers or property if the motor vehicle: 1) Has a gross combination weight rating greater than or equal to 26.Usually refers to a dump truck used to haul coal.001 lb. Coal Truck. Compare with Countershaft Brake. 37 . Never use the Clutch Brake when upshifting or downshifting. including a towed unit with a gross vehicle weight rating of at least 10.000 lb. Use only for initial gear engagement when the vehicle is standing still. or 4) A motor vehicle of any size that transports hazardous materials of any kind. AKA coal bucket.. or 2) Has a gross vehicle weight rating of at least 26. COAL TRUCK .Compressed natural gas.000 lb. or 3) Is designed to transport 16 or more passengers including the driver. AKA coal bucket..See Coal Trailer. It can also be used for shifting while going uphill.
A gear or gear ratio.¹A rigid truck (or bus) towing one or more trailers. COMBINATION . divided by the force that presses them together. ²An equipment configuration which includes a tractor combined with a trailer. COG . including accessorial services rendered at the request of the Consignee.The coefficient of friction is a measure of the friction between two surfaces in contact. CO-DRIVER . ³An equipment configuration which includes a separate power unit (tractor) and at least one trailer. COMBINATION VEHICLE .A cafeteria.A device that keeps timbers supporting a metal coil in place. 4A vehicle made up of two or more separate units hooked 38 .A trailer used to handle freight in the transportation of goods for others.¹A shipment where the delivering carrier collects freight charges and advances.A group of vehicles consisting of a motor vehicle connected to one or more vehicles.¹The side rail of a tray. ²A frame border around the outside of a vehicle’s loading deck. ²A collect shipment is one which the charges for transportation service. COEFFICIENT OF FRICTION (µ) . COE . or requested by the Consignor for the Consignee. COLLECT SHIPMENT .Sleeper compartment independent of truck cab. light farm trailers and car trailers. COFFIN-BOX .¹Method of moving shipping containers which involves transporting them on railroad flat cars.(Cab Over Engine) See Cabover.COAMING . are to be paid for by the Consignee.The person you drive with when Team Driving. COFC (CONTAINER ON FLAT CAR) . A form of intermodal movement of freight (rail and ocean). ²Container without chassis on a railflat car.Consists of a power unit (a truck tractor) and one or more trailing units (a semi-trailer or trailer).A container fitted with fold down front and back bulkheads. COMBINATION TRAILER . usually slightly raised. Swapping Cogs is shifting gears. COIL BUNK . excludes house trailers. It is equal to the amount of force required to make one surface slide relative to the other. COFFEE SHOP . The most frequently used combination is popularly referred to as a "tractor-semi-trailer" or "tractor trailer". COLLAPSIBLES . COMBINATION TRUCK .
COMBINED TIE-DOWN and DIRECT RESTRAINT . such as a tractor-semi-trailer combination.Combined tie-down and direct restraint uses both friction and direct restraint. plus friction force from the downward force from the lashings. light farm trailers and car trailers. Also called an articulated vehicle since units pivot at the coupling point. and the load is prevented from moving upwards by the lashings. plus direct restraint from lashings that are attached to the load. COMMERCIAL TRAILER .A slang term for log book.A trailer used to handle freight in the transportation of goods for others. Friction + Blocking The following diagram illustrates load restraint provided by friction force from the weight of the load. plus friction force from tie-down lashings.together. The load is prevented from moving rearwards and sideways only by friction. Friction + Direct Restraint COMIC BOOK . plus blocking (the front part of the load is blocked by the headboard and the rear part of the load is then blocked by the front part). and also blocking against the headboard. The load is prevented from moving forwards by a combination of friction force from the weight of the load and the lashing tension. excludes house trailers. The following diagram illustrates load restraint provided by friction force from the weight of the load. 39 .
COMMODITY - ¹Any article of commerce; goods shipped. ²Anything bought and sold. COMMODITY TARIFF - A tariff containing only commodity rates. COMMON CARRIER - ¹A freight transportation company which serves the general public. May be regular route service (over designated highways on a regular basis) or irregular route (between various points on an unscheduled basis). ²A transportation business that offers service to the general public. Interstate common carriers must hold a certificate issued by the Interstate Commerce Commission which limits service to a specific geographical area. COMPACTOR - A device used to compact things, particularly garbage. COMPENSATED INTRACORPORATE HAULING - Freight transportation service provided by one company for a sister company. COMPRESSION RATIO - The volume of the combustion chamber and cylinder when the piston is at the bottom of its stroke, divided by the volume of the combustion chamber when the piston is at the top of its stroke. COMPUTER SIMULATION - Some truck dealers can program different combinations of specifications into a computer in order to judge fuel economy and performance. Mechanics also hook up vehicles to computers to discover malfunctioning parts. CONCEALED DAMAGE - Damage to the contents of a package which is apparently in good condition externally. CONCEALED LOSS - Loss or damage that cannot be determined until the package is opened. CONCRETE MIXER - Truck body designed to mix and agitate concrete. CONSIGNEE - ¹The person or firm to whom articles are shipped. ²The receiver. The company taking in your freight. The place you deliver your load to. ³The customer to whom a load is shipped to (also known as a receiver). 4A person or company to whom commodities are shipped. Officially, the legal owner of the cargo. 5(Delivery, Receiver) Where you take the load to. 6The person or firm designated to receive freight that has been shipped. CONSIGNMENT - A shipment, e.g. the freight on a trailer. CONSIGNOR - ¹The person or firm by whom articles are shipped. ²The shipper (person who ships the freight to another customer). ³A person or company shown
on the bill of lading as the shipper. 4The person or firm responsible for shipping a particular freight item. CONSTANT MESH TRANSMISSION - ¹A transmission in which all gears remain in mesh at all times. Ratio changes are effected by means of dog clutches which lock the required gear to its shaft. The driver shifts the dog clutch between two gears compared with a crash box where he actually shifts the gears. Constant mesh gearboxes are non-synchronized and rely on driver skill in controlling engine revs and good timing to shift properly. Roadrangers are the most common constant mesh boxes in Australia followed by Spicers. ²A crash or constant mesh gearbox requires the operator to use the revs of the engine whilst the gearbox is in neutral and the clutch is out to aid in the changing of gears hence the term double declutching, (i.e. clutch in - neutral - clutch out - select revs - clutch in select gear - clutch out). This style of gearbox is slowly losing popularity and will more than likely be fazed out completely in the future for more driver friendly gearboxes as has happened in Europe. The trend can be seen here (in Australia) in European and Japanese trucks like Volvo, Mack, Scania, Misubishi and Izusu. See also, Crash Box, ‘Double De-clutching or Double Clutching’. CONTAINED - Cargo is contained if it fills a sided vehicle, and every article is in contact with or sufficiently close to a wall or other articles so that it cannot shift or tip if those other articles are also unable to shift or tip. CONTAINED LOAD - A load prevented from dislodging from the vehicle by the vehicle structure, gates, sides, racks, headboards, stanchions or other parts of the load. See Direct Restraint. CONTAINER - (Shipping Container) ¹A box used for the transporting of goods in bulk. Usually fitted with receptacles for twist locks in each corner and provision on the base for forklift handling. Standard lengths are 20 and 40 feet. ²Standardsized rectangular box used to transport freight by ship, rail and highway (also known as a CAN). International shipping containers are 20 or 40 feet long, conform to International Standards Organization (ISO) standards and are designed to fit in ships' holds. Containers are transported on public roads atop a container chassis towed by a tractor. Domestic containers, up to 53 feet long and of lighter construction, are designed for rail and highway use only. CONTAINER CHASSIS - ¹Single-purpose semi-trailer designed to carry a shipping container. ²A truck or trailer chassis consisting of a frame (no floor, sides or roof) with locking devices for securing and transporting a container. CONTAINER CHASSIS VEHICLE - A vehicle specially built and fitted with locking devices for the transport of intermodal containers. CONTAINERIZATION - ¹Shipping system based upon large cargo-carrying containers that easily can be interchanged between trucks, trains, and ships
without rehandling the contents. ²Stowage of general or special cargoes in a container for transport in the various modes. CONTAINER LOAD - A load sufficient in size to fill a container either by cubic measurement or by weight. CONTAINER TERMINAL - An area designated for the stowage of cargoes in container; usually accessible by truck, railroad and marine transportation. Here containers are picked up, dropped off, maintained and housed. CONTRABAND - Goods legally prohibited in trade (also known as smuggled goods). CONTRACT CARRIER - ¹Company that transports freight under contract with one or a limited number of shippers. ²For Hire interstate operators [which] offer transportation services to certain shippers under contracts. ³A company that engages in for-hire transportation of property under individual contract or agreement with one or a limited number of shippers. CONVENTIONAL - ¹A style of truck with the engine compartment located in front of the cab or driver’s compartment. ²Engine forward of cab in power unit. Snub nosed, short hooded cabs are conventional. Step vans are conventional. CONVENTIONAL CAB - A cab design in which the engine is located ahead, or mostly ahead, of the cowl. CONVENTIONAL SPRING SYSTEM - A system which uses the conventional front and rear suspension springs. CONVERTER - Auxiliary axle assembly equipped with a fifth wheel. Used to connect multiple trailers together to haul behind one tractor. See Converter Dolly. CONVERTER DOLLY (DOLLY) - ¹A unit designed to convert a semi-trailer to a dog trailer. It includes a turntable, a draw bar and an axle group. A dolly can also be a device for spreading the weight of over-dimensional loads over more wheels. ²Auxiliary axle assembly equipped with a fifth wheel (coupling device), towed by a semi-trailer and supporting the front of, and towing, another semitrailer. ³A trailer with one axle group or single axle, and a fifth wheel coupling, designed to convert a semi-trailer into a dog trailer. See also, Dolly. 4An undercarriage assembly with one or more axles, a fifth wheel, and a tongue, used to convert a semi-trailer to a full trailer.
CONVOY . and shift into LO or reverse.Converter dolly CONVERTER GEAR .A truck or trailer that can be used either as a flatbed or open top by means of removing side panels. equipped with a self-loading bed and is designed and used exclusively to transport field-manufactured cotton modules to a cotton gin. Never use the Countershaft 43 . To operate. CORNER PROTECTORS .(Slang) Synonymous with converter dolly.Material used to protect lashings and the exposed edges of loads and vehicles. and to allow lashings to slide freely when being tensioned. press down the control button. is legally defined as a motor truck. A cotton module is shaped to the proportions of a module mover’s trailer and is loaded as a unit directly into the vehicle. semi-trailer.A module mover. A cotton module mover/truck COUNTERSHAFT BRAKE .The control button is mounted on the shift lever just below the shift knob.Two or more vehicles traveling together.5 × 9 × 14. This is an air operated mechanical brake which slows down the transmission gearing by forcing a piston against the countershaft PTO gear.(Used with push-type clutches) . or a truck tractor in combination with a semi-trailer. COTTON MODULE MOVER/TRUCK .5'. CONVERTIBLE . disengage the clutch. measuring 48.
¹A frame shaped to support a rounded object. CRAWLER GEAR . CRADLE . Misubishi and Izusu. COWL . with alternate layers at 90 degrees to one another. COUNTY-MOUNTIE . Mack.See Fifth Wheel Coupling.clutch out).A four door truck cab with front and back seats. This style of gearbox is slowly losing popularity and will more than likely be fazed out completely in the future for more driver friendly gearboxes as has happened in Europe. clutch in .Lowest gear or combination of gears used for extra power. ²A device or structure that holds a circular article to prevent it from rolling.neutral . CREEPER GEAR . CRASH BOX . This type of transmission must be double-clutched to reduce wear. between fire wall and instrument panel.A very low gear which is not used under normal circumstances.The front part of a cab or body directly below the base of the windshield.¹See Crawler Gear. The trend can be seen here (in Australia) in European and Japanese trucks like Volvo. CREW CAB . See also. CRIBBING .select revs . COUPLING .Reckless driver.¹An older type transmission in which the ratios were changed by sliding the various gears into and out of mesh with each other. (i.clutch in . Also called a Bog Cog or Stump Puller. ³A crash or constant mesh gearbox requires the operator to use the revs of the engine whilst the gearbox is in neutral and the clutch is out to aid in the changing of gears hence the term double declutching. Compare with Clutch brake. Use only for initial gear engagement when the vehicle is standing still. Constant Mesh Transmission.A support placed transversely across the loading platform. ²An off-road vehicle utilizing track propulsion instead of wheels. ²A transmission that has no synchromesh.select gear . ‘Double De-clutching or Double Clutching’.e. CROSSBEARER . COWBOY . They were harder to shift properly than a constant mesh box and are no longer made for trucks. Also known as Grandma.clutch out .Brake when upshifting or downshifting. stacked in pairs. and usually including the hood.A county sheriff.A method of supporting a load on a stable column of packing of uniform thickness. 44 . Scania. CRAWLER .
¹(Cubic Capacity) Interior volume of a truck body.CROSSDOCK . One of the axles on a C-dolly is self-steerable to prevent tyre scrubbing.The transfer of freight from one trailer to another.A common measure of the capacity of a truck. CROSS-MEMBER .A device which makes the vehicle maintain a pre-set speed and turns off when the driver touches the brakes or accelerator. 1 (cubic foot) = 1728 cubic inches. One cubic meter equals 35. CROSSWISE .See Chassis Weight. The C-dolly is connected to the tractor or another trailer in front of it with two drawbars. The 45 .A support placed crosswise below the loading deck. CUBIC METER .¹A C-train is a semi-trailer attached to a fifth-wheel on a C-dolly.The rounded profile of the top of a stack of logs. Tare Weight. thus eliminating the drawbar connection as an articulation point. C-TRAIN . CUBIC INCH DISPLACEMENT (CID) . They are increasingly popular because they can be loaded or unloaded from the sides unlike a normal van and they have faster turnaround times than vans or flat tops which require tarping. CURB WEIGHT . refers to cubic cargo area space.3 cubic yards.A measure of the physical size of the engine. CUBE . ²As in "cube out before grossing out". Most curtain-siders in Australia are Tautliners. Can also be used to refer to a pallet of concrete blocks. Tare Mass.3 cubic feet or 1.¹A van type body with curtain sides that are held down along the sides by straps attached to the tie rail and pulled tight lengthwise by a ratchet.(Same as “Lateral”) CROWN .Typically a straight truck with a van style cargo body where the width and height of the cargo body exceed that of the truck cab. CRUISE CONTROL . when viewed from the ends of the stack. One cubic meter also equals 1000 liters or one million cubic centimeters. semi-trailer or trailer. CUBIC FOOT . ²A curtain sider is similar to a box trailer except that the sides are movable curtains made of reinforced fabric coated with a waterproof coating.A common measure of the capacity of a truck. CURTAIN-SIDER . ²(Slang) A truck tractor pulling more than one trailer connected by C-dollies. CUBE VAN . measured in cubic feet or cubic meters.
See Shortwood. 46 .An agent that acts on behalf of a customer to clear a load crossing the Canadian/USA border. CUSTOMS BROKER .Commercial Vehicle Safety Alliance inspections. CVSA INSPECTIONS . CUT-TO-LENGTH LOGS .purpose of a curtain sider is to allow the security and weather resistance of a box trailer with the ease of loading of a flatbed.
D/H) .A sticker. DEADHEAD (DEADHEADING. Typically used for day trips or local routes. DAY CAB . typically without getting paid to do so. ²A truck or tractor without a sleeper berth.Non-powered rear axle on tandem truck or tractor. The transport of hazardous materials is strictly regulated. or intermodal container. DECK LOAD . DECK . trailer.The grated or solid plate on the frame behind the cab or sleeper of the tractor that the driver can stand on. a typical deck load is a three-way (one truck pulling two others).¹The load carrying platform. 6A trip where the tractor pulls an empty trailer or a trailer loaded with cargo that generates no revenue.¹Operating a truck without cargo.¹A short cab without a bunk or sleeping compartment. 5To drive the rig (tractor and trailer) from point A to point B without a load. typically in a piggyback fashion. usually used for city work. ³Operating a truck without cargo in the trailer (also known as an empty move). 47 . DECAL . Deck loads are the most efficient means of transportation for three or more trucks traveling a long distance.-DDANGEROUS GOODS . DBA (DOING BUSINESS AS) .Common usage for a business license. ²Traveling without a load. Two-ways and four-ways can also be done when appropriate. A deck load DECK PLATE . Due to DOT length and height regulations.Hazardous materials.A deck load is the transportation of two to four trucks. 4Running empty. DEAD AXLE . ²The load carrying area of a truck.
D/H .See Demurrage. you usually have to wait awhile before it's offered/available to you. Demountable rims are still in use. ²A scheduled run.Multi-piece steel wheel rim assembly which is bolted to a spoke hub. (See Cast Spoke Wheel) DEMURRAGE . DEVANNING . etc. on nearly the same schedule. unloading. structural steel. DEMOUNTABLE RIM . Deck Load.See Shift Button. Piggyback/Towaway.The place to which a shipment is to be delivered. DEFICIT WEIGHT . D&H .Detention of a vehicle beyond the time allowed for loading. As a result. or machinery. DETACHABLE TRAILER . DEEP REDUCTION BUTTON . The Detachable Trailer can handle equipment up to 55 tons and air ride is also available in this type of trailer.See Shift Button.¹A run that typically always goes to the same place.(Slang) For piggyback hauled trucks. DEDICATED RUN . DEEP REDUCTION BUTTON SHIFT . though they have been replaced in many applications by the simpler disc wheel. DESTINATION . Detachable trailer DETENTION .DECK SET .Dangerous and Hazardous.(See Deadhead) 48 . Also the payment mode for such a delay. See also. Most of the time you will see this type of trailer hauling construction equipment. Many drivers would love to get a dedicated run.This trailer detaches from the front to allow a piece of equipment to be driven on and off the trailer.The unloading of a container or cargo van.The amount by which an article is under the minimum weight required. but this trailer can also be used for the movement of heavy or oversized pieces of precast concrete.
A load can be directly restrained by containing. Direct drive transmissions have a 1:1 top or high gear. For example. or where a wheel lifts off the ground. braced loading rack.Locks the differential so that each drive wheel receives the same amount of torque which prevents loss of traction through one wheel spinning. ³An amount added or deducted from base rate to make a rate to or from some other point or via another route. ²(Standard Type) The gear assembly on the drive axle that permits the wheels to turn at different speeds. The load in 49 .The amount added to or subtracted from a through (basing) rate to make a rate. DIFFERENTIAL RATE .e. Direct restraint by containing or blocking is the best method for securing loads that are difficult to tie down. ¹Contained loads can be directly restrained without any securing devices. Must be used only in slippery conditions. DIRECT DRIVE . a ratio of 1:1).DIFFERENTIAL . These include liquids in tanks. These structures include headboards.A transmission ratio in which the output shaft of the transmission turns at exactly the same speed as the input shaft (i.¹A device which allows drive to be transmitted to each wheel on an axle even when the wheels are turning at different speeds. no-slip or limited-slip type: a gear assembly on the drive axle that will not permit one wheel to spin while the other is motionless. DIFFERENTIAL LOCK . drop-sides and bulkheads. blocking or attaching without any assistance from friction. the rate Chicago to Philadelphia is made up of the basis rate (Chicago to New York) less the differential basis (or rate) to Philadelphia. such as during cornering. Load contained in tipper ²Blocked loads can be directly restrained by blocking against vehicle structures or other items of load or packing in contact with the structures. bulk solids in tanks or rigid sided bodies and mixed loads of various items in rigid sided bodies or containers. Specially constructed bodies and equipment can reduce the amount of time needed to restrain loads. DIRECT RESTRAINT .
Attached loads can be directly restrained by lashings that provide all the necessary restraint. Load blocked against headboard ³Direct restraint by attaching can use lashings or mechanical locking devices. Load attached using direct lashings Attached loads can be directly restrained by mechanical locking devices that provide all the necessary restraint.the following diagram is blocked from moving forwards by the headboard. The twist locks do not rely on friction between the load and the deck. The following diagram shows a shipping container restrained by twist locks. Load attached using twist locks 50 . rearward and vertical restraint. but requires additional sideways.
often used as one component of a freight rate.An established point where driver ends trip.Park truck at dock. DIVISION .Brand name of a machine which digs trenches. ²Truck driver supervisor who plans and dispatches loads. where to deliver. DIVIDED HIGHWAY .A loading or unloading platform at an industrial location or carrier terminal. DISPATCHING . DISPLACEMENT (PISTON DISPLACEMENT) . DISTANCE RATE .A tie-down that is intended to provide direct resistance to potential shift of an article.Compare with Tie-Down. when the driver can be sick.Single-piece rim/wheel assembly of stamped and welded steel or forged aluminium. See also. how to get there. when the driver can go home. DITCH LIGHT . Expressed in liters or cubic inches.The scheduling and control of intercity traffic and intracity pickup and delivery. A "Budd wheel" is a tenhole. anchored by 8 or 10 nuts to a hub.¹In a transportation organization.Sum of the volumes swept by an engine's pistons as they travel up and down in their cylinders. DOCK WALLOPER . DITCH WITCH .Charge made on basis of miles traveled. and when the driver can go to the bathroom. Dispatchers are universally disliked by most (if not all) truck drivers. a person who controls the movements of vehicles. a design originated by the Budd Corporation. ‘Combined Tie-down and Direct Restraint’. DISC WHEEL . stud-piloted disc wheel. ³A person who tells a (company) truck driver where to go. Based upon bore (diameter of cylinder) and stroke (distance travelled by piston). DISPATCHER .Road way with 2 directions of travel separated by a curb or grassy area. DOCK . Most dispatchers have never been in a truck and have no empathy for drivers. DOCK IT . DIRECT TIE-DOWN .One who loads and unloads vehicles and handles freight on the dock.Spotlight aimed at right side of road. 51 .
It levels or sections the load.¹An auxiliary axle assembly having a fifth wheel used for the purpose of converting a semi-trailer to a full trailer. Over-centre Tensioners. DOG TRACKS .¹A trailer with two axle groups.The legs located towards the front of the trailer for standing free from a tractor (also referred to as landing gear). ²A trailer (including a trailer consisting of a semi-trailer and converter dolly) with — (a) one axle group or single axle at the front that is steered by connection to the towing vehicle by a drawbar.Packing placed between the base of the load and the surface of the load platform. On some units the turntable can be locked to simplify reversing. It may also be placed between parts of the load to keep it steady. DOLLY (TRAILER) . Dog trailer Triple road train with 2 dog trailers DOLLIES . (Also referred to as a bogie) ²A dolly that can be coupled to a truck or trailer so as to support a semi-trailer. giving the whole unit 3-5 articulation points and very little roll stiffness. DOG TIGHTENER . ²A device used to tension chains when securing loads.Unit or straight truck that runs out of line. The 52 . DOG TRAILER (PUP TRAILER) .¹A chain tensioner incorporating an over-centre locking action with a fixed or pivoting lever. Dollies can be used to haul multiple trailers behind a single power unit. ³Truck with little power. DOG BOX . and (b) one axle group or single axle at the rear. See also. the front group being steered by the drawbar coupled to the towing vehicle. ³A dog-trailer (also called a pup) is a trailer that has a convertor dolly hooked in front of it.See Sleeper Box.DOG . with a single A-frame drawbar that fits in the ringfeder on the rear of the trailer in front.
dolly is equipped with a fifth wheel to which the semi-trailer is coupled. This dolly needs its own rear lights and a registration plate. A tow dolly is little more than two wheels, an axle and a tow-hitch, used to tow a front-drive suspension car behind an RV (or motor home) or other larger vehicle. There are two basic types of dolly: (1) Convertor dolly, equipped with between one and three axles and designed to connect to a towbar on the rear of the truck or trailer in front. There are two variants of this: (a) An a-dolly has a single drawbar with a centred coupling. (b) A c-dolly has two separate couplings side-by-side. (2) Low Loader dolly, equipped with a gooseneck type drawbar that attaches to the fifth-wheel coupling on the rear of a prime mover to distribute the mass on the fifth wheel on the dolly between the prime mover and the wheels of the dolly. Predominantly fitted with two axles.
Major Types of Converter Dollies DOMESTIC INTERCITY TRUCKING - Trucking operations within the territory of the United States, including intra-Hawaiian and intra-Alaskan, which carry freight beyond the local areas and commercial zones. DONALDSON - A brand of paper element air filter which, in different sizes, is fitted to most Australian trucks. DONUTS - Truck tyres. DOODLE BUG - Small tractor used to pull two axle dollies in a warehouse. DOT - Department of Transportation.
DOUBLE - A combination of two trailers pulled by a power unit. Usually refers to a power unit pulling two 28' trailers. See also, ‘Doubles (Twins, Twin Trailers)’, ‘Rocky Mountain Double’, ‘Turnpike Double’. DOUBLE BOTTOM - ¹Combination of a prime mover, semi-trailer and trailer. A two trailer roadtrain. ²Combination consisting of a truck tractor, a semi-trailer, and a full trailer coupled together. ³Unit consisting of tractor, semi-trailer and full trailer. Also called "twin trailers", "doubles." 4(Slang) A combination vehicle consisting of a tractor pulling a semi-trailer and a full trailer. DOUBLE-BOTTOM COMBINATION - (Doubles) A combination of a power unit pulling two (2) semi-trailers or a semi-trailer and a full trailer. DOUBLE CLUTCHING or DOUBLE DE-CLUTCHING - ¹A shifting technique used on non-synchronized gearboxes. It involves letting the clutch pedal out briefly while the gearstick passes through neutral and helps ensure that the gears are spinning at the same speed when they come together. Also called a double shuffle. ²Double-declutching means to change gear, by moving the gear lever first into neutral and then into the desired gear, releasing the clutch pedal between each movement. Double-declutching is not recommended for synchromesh gearboxes as it may cause long term damage. ³Done quickly, double de-clutching is: (1) When changing into a higher gear – clutch in, pull out of gear into neutral, clutch out, clutch in, push into higher gear, clutch out and rev; (2) When changing into a lower gear – clutch in, pull out of gear into neutral, clutch out, "blip" throttle to increase engine RPM, clutch in while holding engine RPM, push into lower gear, clutch out and rev. 4The shifting technique used when moving the shift lever to the next lever position. Procedures: Depress clutch pedal, move lever to neutral, let up clutch pedal, accelerate or decelerate engine to obtain synchronous, depress clutch pedal again, and move lever into gear. 5Shifting the gears of a truck transmission without clashing them. DOUBLE DECKER - Double deckers or deckers are trailers with either a fixed, hinged or moveable second floor to enable them to carry more palletized goods. In general, a double decker can carry 40 pallets as opposed to 26 for a standard trailer. Double deck trailers are generally a stepped box or curtain siders, with box trailers having either a fixed or movable (floating) deck and curtain sides having either a fixed or hinged second deck. This hinged second deck generally swings into a position down the length of the trailer and can be divided into 2 or 3 sections to allow greater load flexibility. DOUBLE DROP - See Double-drop Deck. DOUBLE DROP DECK - ¹A flatbed trailer (stepdeck) whose deck drops at the rear, ahead of the tyres as well as at the front of the trailer, but deeper than a single drop. This puts the deck closer to the ground than a single drop as the deck drops below the top of the tyres. ²A double drop is a 3 level trailer; freight is
mainly transported on the middle deck, which is the longest and lowest to the ground. ³A trailer, usually a flatbed, with a floor set at three different heights, it steps down towards the middle and then steps back up at the rear. Sometimes referred to as a stepdeck.
DOUBLE DROP TRAILER - See Double-drop Deck. DOUBLES - (Set of Doubles, Twins, Twin Trailers) ¹Combination of a tractor and two semi-trailers connected in tandem by a converter dolly. ²A two trailer roadtrain. ³A tractor with two trailers. Typically a tractor (two axle) with one drive axle and two 27 foot trailers. Each trailer usually only has one axle as well. (See Converter Dolly, Pintle Hook) DOUBLES A-TRAIN - (Slang) A truck tractor pulling more than one trailer connected by A-dollies. DOUBLES B-TRAIN - (Slang) A truck tractor pulling two semi-trailers where the second trailer sits on a fifth wheel that is permanently attached and extends off the rear of the lead trailer. Most commonly used on flatbeds or tank trailers. The B-train is considered a more stable double trailers configuration. DOUBLES C-TRAIN - (Slang) A truck tractor pulling more than one trailer connected by C-dollies. DOUBLE TRAILER COMBINATION - A vehicle consisting of a prime mover, semi-trailer and a trailer. A two trailer roadtrain. DOWN IN THE CORNER - "Creeper" gear.
drays or trucks. Sometimes referred to as the tongue of the trailer.5m.DOZER . heavy cart without sides.¹A part of a trailer (except a semi-trailer) connecting the trailer body to a coupling for towing purposes.The distance from the line of the towing pivot. and it may be tracked or wheeled. used for haulage. DRAY BODY .¹The charge made for hauling freight on carts. DRAWBAR TRAILER . and under 3m.A blade used to move material by pushing. DRAWBAR . ²The axle or dual axle to the rear of the tractor that carries the power of the 56 .¹The axle. The distance between the coupling pivot point on a drawbar. DRAY .See Dog Trailer.A leg that holds a trailer drawbar at coupling height to make hooking up easier. if the trailer is used in a road train over 19m long. and the centre of the axle group or single axle on a trailer with only one axle group or single axle (except a semi-trailer). and the centre of the front axle group or of the front single axle of the trailer. DRAWBAR STAND . to the centre-line of the leading axle group of the trailer.Shift too slowly to lower gears. must not be over 8. DRAG DOWN . ³Typically a metal bar that connects a truck and trailer.(See Camel Back Body) DRIVE AXLE . DRAYAGE . ²Charge made for local hauling by dray or truck. Drawbar DRAWBAR LENGTH . differential and wheels that transmit torque to the road. The vehicle itself is often called a dozer. ²Can be either a single rigid bar or an A-frame which is part of a trailer (except a semi-trailer) connecting the trailer body to a coupling for towing purposes.A low. must not be over 5m. The distance between the coupling pivot point on the drawbar of a dog trailer.
See Team. DRIVER PAY . They can be new or recap (recapped) tyres.engine to the road (drives the tractor). ³Normally you load your trailer at a shipper. These consist of at least one driveshaft (propeller shaft) with a universal joint at each end. DRIVER ASSIST . DRIVESHAFT .¹This means that you take your empty trailer into a shipper's facility and drop it. transmission.A vehicle which combines features of a truck and truck tractor. THE DRIVES) . excluding engine.When the truck driver assists with loading and/or unloading the freight. ²All the components which together transmit power from the transmission to the drive axle(s). diff(s) and axle(s).What the driver is paid to drive the truck. Also called propeller shaft. and some get paid a percentage of the truck gross. It is found primarily on rear-drive vehicles. ²The driver drops off a loaded trailer and hooks onto another loaded trailer for a different destination. most get paid by the mile. It saves an enormous amount of time and most drivers find a company that has a high percentage of drop and hook to be a big advantage (less dock time).System that automatically turns on a vehicle's low beam headlights when the parking brake is released and the ignition is on.Drive wheels. Some drivers get paid by the hour (not many).¹As for the driveline but usually doesn’t include the engine. DRIVER TEAM . ³Any axle that carries power from the engine to the wheels that propel a truck or tractor. DRIVELINE . PRELOADED) . But if the shipper has a trailer 57 . See also. (See Powertrain) DRIVE TYRES (DRIVES. There is usually a universal joint on either end.The tyres on the second and/or third axle of the tractor.The shaft connecting the transmission output shaft to the differential pinion shaft. gearbox. driveline and drive axle(s). Tailshaft. It transmits power from the transmission to the differential. clutch. DRIVERS . DROP and HOOK (TRAILER POOL. which transmit the engine's power to the rear wheels: clutch. DRL (DAYTIME RUNNING LIGHTS) . and unload your trailer at the consignee. See Axle.¹The motor. It has a van body at the rear of the cab and a fifth wheel to the rear of the body. ²All the components. DRIVETRAIN (POWERTRAIN) . DROMEDARY . You then pick up a trailer that has already been loaded. drive shafts.
A normal. DRY FREIGHT CONTAINER . they can have me drop my empty trailer in their yard and hook up to the preloaded (loaded before I got there) trailer and go. The wheel suspension may be raised or lowered by rotation of the wheel suspension about the axle allowing the rear of the trailer frame to be raised or lowered. The front of the trailer frame is connected to a cable controlled by a winch which will permit the lowering or raising of the front part of the trailer frame. Locking pins are employed to lock the suspension and the front portion of the trailer frame in place during travel.Cargo that does not require temperature control. 58 . DROP A TRAILER . Used in conjunction with a tilt chassis or platform.Uncoupling a tractor from a semi-trailer without lowering the landing gear to support the trailer's front end. DROPPING TRAILERS (FOR LOADING OR UNLOADING) – When trailers are left for several hours and up to several days to be loaded/unloaded at a client’s leisure. It's good for me (no waiting). DROP IT ON THE NOSE . powder and other free-flowing solids in bulk.pool (extra empty trailers in their yard).A type of semi-trailer that resembles a big tanker.A trailer on which the floor drops down a level once clear of the tractor unit. The most common types of drop-deck trailer are flatbeds and curtain siders. fully enclosed container with doors at the back and occasionally on one side. DRY-BULK CONTAINER . DROP-DECK TRAILER . The trailer frame is attached to a U-shaped axle which in turn is connected to a wheel suspension support. DRY BULK .To unhook a trailer from the tractor and leave it in the company’s or customer’s yard.Unhook and drive a tractor away from a parked semi. DROP FRAME TRAILER . The downside is that the shipper needs to have room for extra trailers plus the need for a yard goat to move them around. flour and other dry powder materials.This utility trailer has a frame which may be lowered to ground level at both the front and rear portions of the trailer to permit easy access and to facilitate loading and unloading of heavy vehicles or other items. DROP THE BODY .A container constructed to carry grain. DRY CARGO . but is used for sugar. and it's good for the shipper (he can load a trailer whenever he wants).
walking dumps.¹A van that doesn't have a reefer unit.A heavy-duty truck having a bed that tilts backward to dump loose material.A large metal container for garbage. or distribution. See also. DRY VAN TRAILER . Dump includes side dumps. ²Two tyre and wheel assemblies. Tipper. it is not used for cold goods. DUMP BODY . ³A pair of tyres mounted together.Truck or trailer body of any type which can be tilted to discharge its load by gravity. 2) Tag axle: forward unit of tandem is driving type while rear unit is free rolling. DUALS . See also. ²A box-shaped trailer or semitrailer used to carry goods. It is used to carry most goods. and dump trucks with snow plows or blades.(The Duals) ¹Two tyres that are on each side of an axle. Box. 1) Pusher tandem: only the rearmost axle is driving type and the forward unit is free rolling. Off-Road Dump Truck. Reefer. 59 . Dumpsters are different from roll-off containers. The term is sometimes used to describe refuse trucks. also called "dead axle". See also.A type of trailer: freight is transported in an enclosed trailer (dry van) to limit exposure to the elements. ²Four wheels per axle rather than two. unloading. Dry Van Trailer. DUMPSTER . See also. DUMP TRUCK .(See also Tandem) Box axles have drive mechanisms and are connected to engine power output.¹A matched pair of wheels attached to each end of an axle. mounted on one side of an axle. Some refuse trucks carry dumpsters short distances for loading. A dumpster is usually kept at a garbage collection point and not carried on a refuse truck. on the drives or the trailers. or mechanical lifting mechanism that tilts to unload cargo. DUAL WHEELS . DUMP .A cargo body with a hydraulic. Duals. electric. DUAL DRIVE . Van. flatbed dumps.DRY VAN .
or between articles of cargo and the wall of the vehicle.Driving with wheels on road shoulder. DVIR . pieces of timber.An inflatable bag intended to fill otherwise empty space between articles of cargo. 4Loose materials (like padding) used around cargo to prevent damage.The placement of the power vehicle on a device which indicates horsepower delivered to the ground. plywood.DUNNAGE . thereby causing a cloud of dust. DUSTING . ³Empty return skids.Daily Vehicle Inspection Report. mats) placed between the cargo and the truck platform or between items of cargo to level the load and/or increase friction so load is less likely to move during journey. DYNAMITE THE BRAKES .The Mack equivalent of a Jake brake. plywood and other shipping materials. DUNNAGE BAG .Emergency stop using every brake on the unit. An inspection report that must be completed before driving the commercial vehicle each and every time a new trailer is picked up and must also be completed prior to operating the commercial vehicle every new day. DYNO CHECK . See Engine Brake.¹Packing material (e. 60 . ²The material used to protect or support freight in trucks. The weight of dunnage is shown separately on the bill of lading since it is material used around a cargo to prevent damage. DYNATARD . It is also used to leave a gap between load and deck or different parts of the load so forklifts can get under to lift.g.
ELECTRIC RETARDER . 61 . EDI (ELECTRONIC DATA INTERCHANGE) . EDGE PROTECTOR . ELASTIC STRAPS . and to allow the tie-down to slide freely when being tensioned. a State Emergency Service (SES) vehicle. from bills of lading to build tickets at auto plants. engine efficiency. ED . ELECTRONIC TRIP RECORDER . originally designed for monitoring and optimizing engine performance. EMERGENCY VEHICLE . an ambulance.Electronic Control Module.(Slang) Most commonly a combination vehicle consisting of a three axle tractor pulling a two axle semi-trailer or a two axle tractor pulling a three axle semi-trailer. eliminating the need for driver maintained logbooks. EGT GAUGE .Effective Diameter. EMERGENCY BRAKE .-EECM . to protect the tie-down and/or cargo from damage.A brake designed to be used if a service brake fails.A device for recording data on a vehicle's performance. See Pyrometer.The business-to-business interconnection of computers for the rapid exchange of a wide variety of documents. a bush fire brigade.¹Material used to protect the exposed edges of soft sheet and similar materials from the lashings used.See EV.A vehicle operated by the police force and ordinarily used by police officers in the course of carrying out their duties.Exhaust Gas Temperature gauge. a vehicle operated by a fire brigade. commonly used for restraining lightweight equipment. Device allowing companies to track fuel. in recent years GPS systems have been added to enable dispatchers to geo-locate their trucks and many trip recorders maintain HOS data.An electric auxiliary brake that works on the drivetrain (also known as a Telmar brake). EIGHTEEN WHEELER .Hydraulic end-gate.Elastic straps (octopus straps) are low strength lashings fitted with end hooks. ELECTRIC VEHICLE . and govern the speed of the truck. ELEVATOR . ²A device placed on the exposed edge of an article to distribute tie-down forces over a larger area of cargo than the tie-down itself.
EV (ELECTRIC VEHICLE) . EOBR (ELECTRIC ON-BOARD RECORDER) . C-brake.EMPTY WEIGHT . ETA . EQUIPMENT LOADER . ²Trucks hauling certain commodities which are exempt form ICC economic regulation. By far the largest portion of exempt carriers transport agricultural commodities or seafood.What the tractor.¹An auxiliary brake fitted to an engine (also known as Jake brake.000 lbs.Refers to equipment hauling flatbeds. Speed Retarder. Typically around 34. EQUIPMENT DUMP . and (b) to warn other road users of the presence of an oversize vehicle.Refers to equipment hauling flatbeds. idle time and other information useful to trucking management. usually through mechanisms that retard the escape of exhaust (also known as Jake Brake). fuel.A motor vehicle that is being used — (a) to transport a police officer. ESCORT VEHICLE . EXEMPT .Free from ICC rules regulating other cargos transported by interstate for-hire carriers. EXEMPT CARRIER . EN ROUTE . or other person authorized to direct traffic. See also. ENGINE RETARDER . ²Various devices that use characteristics of the engine to slow the tractor. Most common source of electricity is chemical storage batteries. ESCAPE RAMP .Electronic equipment which governs engine speed control.Cab-mounted device which electronically records data such as truck speed. engine rpm.Vehicle powered by electric motor(s) rather than by an internal combustion engine. and all the other stuff weighs without a load on.On the way. trailer. 62 .¹Company which transports commodities exempted from Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) economic regulation. Dynatard. Retarder. EXCLUSIVE USE OF TRUCK . Cummins brake) that uses the valves to increase engine retardation.Estimated Time of Arrival.A request made by a shipper on the bill of lading for the complete use of a vehicle.See Runaway Truck Ramp. ENGINE BRAKE or MOTOR BRAKE .
EXHAUST BRAKE . Used mainly for oversized loads.³A for hire interstate operator [which] transports commodities or provides types of services that are exempt from federal regulation. could also operate within exempt commercial zones. E-ZPASS .A commodity that may be transported in both interstate and intrastate commerce without operating authority or published rates. EXEMPT COMMODITY .¹An auxiliary brake that works on the drivetrain by restricting the exhaust gases with a slide or butterfly valve.Flatbed or pole trailers that can be expanded beyond their regular length to carry larger shipments. EXPRESS BODY . The electronic card is read by a receiving antenna at participating toll plazas and the toll is electronically deducted from the prepaid toll account. EXTENDABLE (FLATBED) TRAILER .An electronic toll collection device working on AVI Technology. ²A moveable flap in the exhaust system that creates backpressure to retard the engine and create more engine braking to assist when driving downhill. EXPANDABLE .A flatbed trailer whose length may be readily increased or decreased within prescribed limits and with prescribed variations in load carrying capability. Extendable trailer EYE (OF A CYLINDRICAL OBJECT) .The hole through the centre of the article. 63 .Open box truck body.
FAN CLUTCH . 6Load supporting plate mounted to frame of vehicle. See LTL. around which the trailer and tractor or dolly pivot in turns. 1991. FARM PRODUCTS . Pivot mounted.Full Container Load.A fully enclosed dry container fitted with a fan and mainly used for transporting onions. as described in 23 USC 103b in effect at that time.A device which disconnects the drive to the fan when it is not needed for cooling which saves engine power and reduces noise. 4The circular steel member with a slot lying flat above the drive axles of the trailer that secures the tractor to the trailer.Federal Highway Administration.g.¹The term favored in the US and Britain for what Australians generally call a turntable which is a device for coupling a prime mover and a semi-trailer. nursery. it contains provisions for accepting and holding the kingpin of a semi-trailer. FIFTH WHEEL . The fifth wheel's centre is designed to accept a trailer's kingpin.(Fatality Analysis Reporting System) Operated by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA). See Turntable.This category is for unprocessed items which were grown in or produced from agricultural activity on a farm or in a garden. FANTAINER . converter dolly) which interfaces with and couples to the upper coupler assembly of a semi-trailer. ³A device used to connect a semi-trailer and tractor. FHA . FARS . ²Coupling device attached to a tractor or dolly which supports the front of a semi-trailer and locks it to the tractor or dolly.-FFAK . or orchard. FCL . 5A device mounted on a truck tractor or similar towing vehicle (e.The Federal-Aid Highway System of rural arterials and their extensions into or through urban areas in existence on June 1.(Freight of All Kinds) An acronym for mixed general freight in the back of a truck or trailer. 64 . providing a flexible connection between the tractor and the trailer. FEDERAL-AID PRIMARY HIGHWAY SYSTEM . Articles manufactured or processed from these commodities are not included in this category.
the lower fifth wheel has a locking jaw mechanism that lock around the kingpin to join the trailer-tractor together. and a U-shaped plate coupling gimmick called a fifth wheel on the rear of the towing vehicle. situated on the tractor. ensuring they cannot become disconnected during travel. which is named the lower fifth wheel. in second gear. semitrailer. if an RV is set in a Fifth Wheel configuration. that is installed to the front of the semi-trailer. and another on the trailer named the upper fifth wheel.Turntable/Fifth Wheel FIFTH WHEEL COUPLING .foot almost off the clutch. Usually. The fifth wheel coupling consists of a kingpin.¹A device. (4) Release "Parking Brake" and do a tug test . in which the entire build of the fifth wheel coupling was partially based off of. (8) Release "Parking Brake" and "Trailer Air Supply" and drive away. or converter dolly. or pulling the locking handle outward. The upper fifth wheel is accommodated with a kingpin. or any other form of towing vehicles that may supply secure travel along the road. used with a prime mover. the Fifth Wheel Coupling must be placed in the truck bed of the certain towing vehicle in order to be used to tow. except the upper rotating element and the kingpin (which are parts of a semi-trailer). (5) Apply "Parking Brake" and raise landing gear all the way up (return steel bar to its proper place). to allow quick coupling and uncoupling and to provide for articulation. The fifth wheel consists of two metal plates. With the upper and lower Fifth Wheel makes a resilient coupling which forms a rotational and vertical motion with both the tractor. All parts must be firm and fit well to assure all things go well when you’re out towing the trailer on the road. and apply "Parking Brake". (3) Raise up landing gear to about an inch off the ground. (2) Do a visual inspection of coupling to ensure kingpin is locked securely into place on turntable. (6) Connect the hoses correctly. (7) Turn the trailer's lights on and check that are working. also known as a coupling pin. ²This provides a secure link between a semi-trailer and a towing truck. 65 . while it has been installed with a fifth wheel coupling atop the truck bed. The locking jaws are operated by a hand lever that will extend to the side of the lower fifth wheel and can be released by either pulling the locking handle forward. Four-wheel horse drawn carriages and wagons were equipped with a coupling that was alike to the fifth wheel. ³The fifth wheel coupling procedure is as follows: (1) Line up tractor with semi-trailer and reverse tractor till you hear the big click as trailer's kingpin locks into tractor's turntable jaws. and the trailer. The coupling can join a tractor and a trailer together.
Assembly of two axles and suspension that is attached to the chassis in one place. or width. Includes angle beds. ²A truck with a flat deck made of wood or metal for carrying cargo. Not a terribly popular option to most drivers. length. 4Truck or trailer without sides and top. which can be loaded from the side. 5A truck with a flat deck (and no sides or top) so that any size or shape item can be loaded (within reason) regardless of height. length.See Over-centre Tensioners. An accounting classification.See Turntable. and cannot be moved fore and aft. it means he/she must unload it themselves. Tarps and straps are used to secure the load. open-deck trailer. FLATBED (FLATDECK) . which are flatbeds that tilt down to the ground so vehicles can be driven onto the bed. (See Sliding Tandem) FIXED TURNTABLE . ²A trailer with a flat deck (and no sides or top) so that any size or shape item can be loaded (within reason) regardless of height. ³Consists of just a load floor and removable side rails. Flatbed truck FLATBED TRAILER (FLATDECK TRAILER) . rollback beds.¹A semi-trailer with no sides.FINGERPRINT (A LOAD) . 4A type of trailer: freight is transported on a flat.¹A trailer consisting of a completely open platform with no sides or railings. ²Manually unload a trailer. FIXED LEVER DOG . See Flatbed Trailer. FIXED CHARGES . sometimes called fixed operation costs. Flatbed trailer 66 .Carrier costs that do not vary with an increase or decrease in traffic. or width. 6This cargo body style is typified by a flat cargo area. ³A trailer that is not enclosed.¹If the driver must "fingerprint" a load. Can haul almost anything that can be stacked on and strapped down. and ramp hoists. and a bulkhead in front to protect the tractor in the event of a load shift. FIXED TANDEM .
FLAT RACK . trailer or semi-trailer that has a flat goods carrying area without sides. See Stake Body. loaders. See Flatbed. FLATBED WITH SIDES . FLAT CAR .Cab over engine. FLATDECK .See Flatbed Trailer.This cargo body style is typified by flatbeds with permanent cranes. FLAT FACE .See Flatbed. Weather protection is usually provided by tarpaulins.A rail car without a roof and walls.A steel base for supporting loads fitted with receptacles for twist locks and provision for forklift operation. FLATBED WITH EQUIPMENT . or other significantly heavy and large appurtenances.See Flatbed.A truck. FLATDECK TRAILER . (A large steel pallet) FLAT TOP .Flatbed trailers FLATBED VEHICLE . The 67 . winches. Flatbed Trailer.A vehicle with a deck but no permanent sides. FLAT BOTTOM . pumps.A cargo body style typified by flatbeds with sides to hold and protect cargo.
FOR HIRE (MOTOR) CARRIER .traditional trailer type for general use but losing favor because tarps take too long and are too much trouble. FORCE . an object with constant mass will accelerate in proportion to the net force acting upon it and in inverse proportion to its mass. 68 . FLOATING THE GEARS . FLUSH DECK . (Force is normally measured in Newtons (N) or kilo Newtons (kN). An equivalent formulation is that the net force on an object is equal to the rate of change of momentum it experiences. or result in a change in pressure.An off-road vehicle with 'forks' for lifting and moving crates. leaves it there and immediately pulls another trailer back to his home terminal.¹Force is applied to a mass to move it. instead of dual tyres. FOG LIGHT . AKA hi-lo. a force is whatever that can cause an object with mass to accelerate. Deformation and pressure are the result of stress forces within an object. The tendency of a force to cause angular acceleration about an axis is termed torque.Trip instructions issued to a driver by his dispatcher.A run in which the driver takes a trailer to a distant terminal. FOR HIRE . Rear Fog Light. Capable of lifting heavy pallets to low heights for towing by hand. FLYING ORDERS .See Flatbed.Company in the business of transporting freight belonging to others (see Private Carrier). According to Newton's second law. FLOATER .A motorized or non-motorized forklift mechanism. FLOAT .Shifting gears without using the clutch.Freight that has been loaded on the floor of the trailer without pallets or slip sheets.See Front Fog Light.Refers to a vehicle operated on behalf of or by a company that provides transport services to its customers. ²In physics. Forces acting on three-dimensional objects may also cause them to rotate or deform.Large single. making it a vector quantity.A flat loading deck without a raised coaming. Force has both magnitude and direction.Driver without a steady job. FLOATS . FORKLIFT . FLYER . FLOOR JACK . There are warehouse and rough-terrain forklifts. FLOOR LOADED .
Most buses and all cabover or COE trucks are forward control. ²Not a nice term for a passenger vehicle.¹A car driver. the controls are stationary mounted as opposed to the special mountings of tilt cabs. Forward control moves the driver forward of his traditional position behind the motor. rather than borne by the sides of the trailer.A type of trailer construction in which the weight of the load is transmitted through the cross members and outriggers directly into the main frame.Four speed transmission and 4 speed auxiliary transmission.A vehicle with skeletal structure fitted with one or more bunk units for transporting logs. Also. For example. ²The amount of time that a carrier's equipment may be used without incurring additional charges. gusseted." FREE ON BOARD (FOB) .Vehicle with driver controls (pedals. a van or a pickup. Supplied with or without body. FRAME VEHICLE . a car.A shipment miscarried or unloaded at the wrong terminal is billed and forwarded to the correct terminal free of charge because it is astray. FREIGHT . That allows a shorter overall vehicle length or leaves more of the length for cargo. FOUR WHEELER . Hence the term "free-astray. A bunk unit consists of a front bunk and a rear bunk that together cradle logs. FREE-ASTRAY . This term is not always used precisely and it’s best to qualify it to show exactly what is meant. instruments) located as far forward as possible. FRAME CONSTRUCTION . FREE TIME .Usually indicates place where responsibility for expenses and risk for goods is passed from seller to buyer. FOB motor carrier would usually mean that a price quoted for goods would include loading on a truck at the seller’s building.¹Product that is hauled in the trailer. or otherwise firmly fastened to the vehicle’s main beams.A truck with the cab mounted over the engine.¹The period freight will be held before storage charges are applied. FORWARD CONTROL VEHICLE . A nonprofessional vehicle driver.Four cylinder engine. FOUR BANGER .FORWARD CONTROL . ²Any commodity being transported. 69 . steering wheel. and are an integral part of the vehicle. FOUR BY FOUR . The bunks are welded.
amount of charges. Typical Friction Levels Load Wet or greasy steel on steel Smooth steel on smooth steel Smooth steel on rusty steel Smooth steel on timber Smooth steel on conveyor belt Rusty steel on rusty steel Friction VERY LOW LOW LOW TO MEDIUM MEDIUM MEDIUM MEDIUM TO HIGH 70 .FREIGHT BILL . FREIGHT FORWARDER . FRICTION .¹Document for a common carrier shipment. FREIGHT OF ALL KINDS . A simple method of testing friction is by tipping the surfaces until sliding occurs. If the charges are paid in advance or are to be collected at the origin. Bills collected at destination are called collect. Designated as a common carrier under the Interstate Commerce Act. and whether it is collect or prepaid. Gives description of the freight. FREIGHT CONTAINER . rubber is used to cover a slippery metal brake pedal so as to increase friction and stop the driver’s foot slipping off. Friction comparison The following table shows a comparison of the amount of friction present with some typical loads.See FAK. the rate of charges. taxes. FREIGHT CHARGES . its weight. it is called a destination or collect freight bill.See Container. amount of charges. ²Document for a carrier shipment giving a description of the freight. Slippery surfaces slide at low angles and rough surfaces slide at higher angles. For example. it is called a prepaid freight bill. If the charges are to be collected at the destination. Bills paid in advance are called prepaid freight bills.Payment due for freight transportation. taxes.An individual or company that accepts less-thantruckload (LTL) or less-than-carload (LCL) shipments from shippers and combines them into carload and truckload lots. its weight. and whether collect or prepaid.The resistance to movement caused by the ‘roughness’ of two surfaces in contact with each other.
Load Mat. Similarly. FRONT AXLE . there is no difference between the friction from a ‘checker plate’ or a flat plate that are made from the same metal. Friction can also be greatly reduced if there is dust. with the body often now made of fiber reinforced plastic (FRP) and usually having a diesel powered refrigeration unit at the front. For example. snowfall. with a forked loading device in front. Extra contact area – no effect Friction between smooth surfaces can be increased using timber or anti-slip rubber matting. FRICTION COEFFICIENT .A refrigerated pantechnicon or van. Friction force is independent of the amount of surface area in contact. adding extra timber dunnage under a load will not increase the friction force.A light used to improve the illumination of the road in case of fog. sand or other particles between the surfaces. FRONT END LOADER . See also.Usually has a single wheel on either side of the truck that steers the vehicle. FRONT DOOR . a horizontal force of 4 tonnes will just move the 10 tonne load regardless of whether there are two.Rusty steel on timber Smooth steel on rubber load mat HIGH HIGH Friction depends only on the type of surfaces and the force between them. As shown in the following diagram. 71 .An off-road vehicle.See Coefficient of Friction. four or more pieces of dunnage underneath. FRICTION MAT . intended to provide greater friction than exists naturally between these surfaces. FRONT FOG LIGHT . FRIG PAN .A device placed between the deck of a vehicle and cargo or between articles of cargo.A term used for a truck in front of other trucks keeping an eye out for bears and keeping the lead pace. heavy rain or a dust storm. Oil or water between metal surfaces act as lubricants and reduce the friction.
72 . FULLMOUNT .A refuse truck that is loaded at the front usually has hydraulic arms that lift dumpsters over the cab dumping their contents into a bin with some kind of compacting mechanism.Truck body designed primarily for transportation of furniture or household goods.FRONT-LOADER .Full Truck Load. It can stand without support. Full trailers are seldom used alone with tractors. ³A trailer with axles in the front as well as the rear.A service station that is set up to fuel tractors. The quantity of freight required to fill a trailer. ²A truck-trailer with front and rear axles. Furniture van trailers are usually of drop frame construction. FTL . FUEL STOP . Full trailers are coupled to straight trucks and to the rear of semi or full trailers by a tongue or drawbar.A smaller vehicle mounted completely on the frame of either the first or last vehicle in a saddlemount combination. The load weight is distributed over both the front axle(s) and rear axle(s).¹Truck trailer with wheels on both ends (as compared to a semi-trailer in which the front rests on the rear of the power unit). FURNITURE VAN BODY . FULL TRAILER . Arms must be included in truck length.
Roll-offs have rails or a flatbed and a hoist for loading and unloading the refuse container.Blown-out truck tyre pieces that are on left on the road. The front gate is also known as a loading rack. Included are roll-offs. g-load) is a measurement of an object's acceleration expressed in gs. ‘Automatic Gearbox’.Driver who grinds gears when shifting. bulkhead or headboard and must be strong enough to resist load shifting in accidents or under severe braking.A cargo body style typified by Garbage trucks that often have hydraulic packing mechanisms or hydraulic arms for lifting dumpsters. and are not otherwise containerized. (Called a “Transmission” in North America. ‘Synchromesh Gearbox’.See Gross Combination Mass.) See ‘Non-synchromesh Gearbox (Constant Mesh)’. and propane.An automotive assembly of gears and associated parts by which power is transmitted from the engine to a driving axle.See Gross Combination Weight Rating. GATOR . GAWR (GROSS AXLE WEIGHT RATING) .-Gg .Government Bill of Lading. GARBAGE/REFUSE . sides and rear of the load carrying platform to contain the load. nitrogen. vehicles used for transporting refuse containers.See Gross Combination Weight. GCM . GASES IN BULK . Includes both the weight of the axle and the portion of a vehicle's weight carried by the axle.81 meters per second every second) or 32.g or g-force (also G-force. more correctly.Maximum weight an axle is rated to carry by the manufacturer.2 feet per second every second). Examples: Aerosol propellant. It is equal to 9. GCW . CO2. butane. It is proportional to the reaction force that an object experiences as a result of this acceleration—or. GEARBOX .80665 m/s² (9.Frames used at the front. 73 . GEAR BONGER . ‘Double-declutching’.174 ft/s² (32.These are carried in pressurized tankers only. as a result of the net effect of this acceleration and the acceleration imparted by natural gravity. GBL . LPG. GCWR . GATES .
²Pre-heaters that aid starting cold engines. GEAR JAMMER . GLIDER KIT .¹Devices used on some diesel engines to assist starting in cold conditions. and fairly closely packed. or (commonly) in top gear. GIN .5 revolutions of an input shaft cause one revolution of the output shaft. GIN-POLE TRUCK . See Cotton Module Mover/Truck. GLOW PLUGS (HEATERS) . typically in LTL quantities and generally involves the use of terminal facilities to break and consolidate shipments. the gear ratio is 2. Example: If 2.See ‘g’. GONDOLA .Driver of a livestock carrier. 74 . GLUTS . GOAT 'N' SHOAT MAN . G-FORCE . Applies to transmissions. GEAR RATIO . GENERAL FREIGHT . GLAD HANDS . usually expressed as a decimal fraction.Number. GOODS – Merchandise or product.A truck equipped with hoisting equipment and a pole or arrangement of poles for use in lifting heavy machinery. ²Air hose brake system connections between tractor and trailer.A carrier which handles a wide variety of commodities. GENERAL FREIGHT CARRIER .GEARED SPEED . or the engine that separates the cotton from the seed.Can refer to cotton.¹The attachments at the end of the air hoses at the back of the tractor that connect to the trailer.This cargo category is for processed items.One who constantly clashes the gears.Calculated vehicle speed at the engine's governed rpm in each transmission gear.Refers to coal hopper bottom trailers or large produce bins that are transported on flatbeds.5:1. power takeoffs. packaged or in some way containerized. Used to rebuild a wrecked tractor or to custom build to buyer specification.See Chocks (also see Dunnage).Usually a cab and chassis without an engine or rear axles. representing how many turns of the input shaft cause exactly one revolution of the output shaft. cotton waste. power dividers and rear axles.
GOVERNOR .A dump trailer or a gravel hopper bottom which is used to haul gravel. the left lane) GRAVEL TRAILER . the upper coupler and front crossmember. maximum speed regardless of the load. and including.¹A device for regulating a supply of fuel that keeps the same. Can be 5th wheel or an inverted ball hitch attachment.Low side open top truck or trailer body primarily designed to transport dry fluid commodities. ²A control that maintains a steady speed in a machine (as by controlling the supply of fuel).A motor vehicle built to be used primarily to carry goods or materials used in any trade. GOOSENECK . GRABRAIL (GRAB HANDLE) . GRAVEL TRUCK . 75 .To shift into a lower gear as a means of gaining power when driving uphill. GRAB ONE . 1935. Example: A truck with a gradeability of 5% at 60 mph can maintain 60 mph on a grade with a rise of 5%. Both straight trucks and tractor-trailer rigs can use goosenecks.A dump or a hopper bottom truck which hauls gravel.GOODS VEHICLE . a device that governs the maximum rpm of an engine. ³A built-in pressure regulating device to control pump discharge pressure by manipulating engine rpm.The various hand-holds on the outside or inside of the truck. GRAIN BODY . GRAB HANDLE . Example: A vehicle climbing a 5% grade rises 5 feet for every 100 feet of forward travel.Vehicle's ability to climb a grade at a given speed.See Grabrail.Steepness of a grade or hill. that portion of the trailer which extends upward and forward from the front of the loading deck to. business or industry.¹On a drop frame trailer. over which it or its predecessor in interest was in bona fide operation on June 1. GRADEABILITY . GRADE . ²A hitch resembling the neck of a goose.The right provided in the Motor Carrier Act for a common or contract carrier to obtain a certification of public convenience and necessity to operate over the route or routes.The right lane. the slowest moving lane. GRANDFATHER RIGHTS . GRANNY LANE . expressed as a percentage. without further proof of public convenience and necessity. (In Australia.
¹The value specified for the vehicle by the “Manufacturer” as being the maximum of the sum of the “Gross Vehicle Mass” of the drawing vehicle plus the sum of the “Axle Loads” of all vehicles being drawn. "Gray area" carriers illegally operate as for-hire carriers through the use of some form of subterfuge or camouflage.. GROSS. GREASE MONKEY . ²How much the entire rig weighs including tractor.240 pounds.The loaded weight of an articulated vehicle or combination vehicle. GREASY PLATE .¹Total weight of a loaded combination vehicle. Usually used with semitrailers having a trailer block behind the kingpin.¹The mass on the axle(s) of a trailer when fully loaded. GROSS COMBINATION WEIGHT RATING (GCWR) . (Also called Gross Train Mass) GROSS COMBINATION WEIGHT (GCW) ... The Gross) The gross (total) pay for the load. for-hire trucking companies must be certificated and regulated by state and federal governments.GRAY AREA . 76 .. GROSS TON .Mechanic.LIMIT . GROSS .2.Except for those carrying certain exempt commodities. ²The vehicle weight plus maximum cargo weight plus trailer weight. consisting of two large plates lubricated with grease which functions like a ballrace turntable. GREASY SPOON ..The loaded weight of a road train.Not a good restaurant. GROSS TRAILER MASS (GTM) . GROSS TRAIN MASS .. such as a tractor-semi-trailer or truck and full trailer(s). GROSS ROADTRAIN MASS (GRTM) . GROSS COMBINATION MASS (GCM) .. before anyone gets their cut. More commonly called a long ton. ²The mass transmitted to the ground by the axles of a trailer when the trailer is loaded to its GVM and connected to a towing vehicle.(Gross Pay. GROSS COMBINATION MASS LIMIT).A type of turntable.See Gross Combination Mass (GCM)..The three terms listed above are often used to define the respective mass limits although this is not strictly correct unless the word LIMIT is also added (e. trailer and load.g. ³The maximum allowable fully laden weight of a tractor and its trailer(s).
In relation to an axle group. ²Total weight a vehicle is rated to carry by the manufacturer. ²Total weight of a vehicle (tractor. The GVWR is not the unloaded weight.000 lbs. or (b) as specified by the relevant authority if — (1) the manufacturer has not specified a maximum loaded mass. GROSS WEIGHT . and load can weigh. the GVW is 80. (2) the manufacturer cannot be identified. or (3) the vehicle has been modified to the extent that the manufacturer’s specification is no longer appropriate. Typically.¹The loaded weight of a rigid vehicle.See Gross Roadtrain Mass. Ground contact width of an axle GRTM . including its load.(a) The weight of an article together with the weight of its container and the material used in packing.¹The maximum laden weight of a motor vehicle as specified by the “Manufacturer”. GROSS VEHICLE WEIGHT (GVW) . including its own weight and the weight of its load. GROSS VEHICLE WEIGHT RATING (GVWR) .GROSS VEHICLE MASS (GVM) . semi-trailer (trailer). GROUND CONTACT WIDTH . (b) As applied to a truck.Greater Toronto Area. trailer and the load). means the greatest ground contact width of all the axles in the group. ²The maximum loaded mass of a vehicle — (a) as specified by the manufacturer.¹Total weight of a vehicle and everything aboard. the weight of a truck together with the weight of its entire contents.In relation to an axle. 77 . ³The maximum allowable weight in pounds or tons that a truck is designed to carry. 4The total amount tractor (including fuel and everything else). ³The vehicle weight plus maximum cargo weight. means the distance between the outermost point of ground contact of the outside tyres on each end of the axle. GTA .
78 .¹An independent truck operator who drives his own truck and obtains/secures freight wherever he can.Rotating warning light on top of an emergency vehicle. GYPSY .GTM .See Gross Trailer Mass.See Gross Vehicle Mass. GUM BALL MACHINE .See Gross Vehicle Weight Rating. GVW .See Gross Vehicle Weight. GVM . ²One who trip leases to authorized carriers. GVWR .
The ‘in-line’ tensioners can be either hand ratchet winches or over-centre buckles that are attached to the tie rails.-HHAMMER LANE . Hand ratchets that operate by pulling the handle downwards will normally produce much more tension than truck winches. 79 . Higher tensions can be obtained by looping the strap over a standard triangular end fitting. ²CB call sign or name.See Hand Ratchet Winch.Left lane on a four lane highway. The lashing capacity can be doubled and the pre-tension increased by an extra two-thirds. HANDLE (CB-HANDLE) . using a webbing strap and hook. Hand ratchet winch The amount of tension produced by a truck winch or hand ratchet depends on the length of the handle and how large the diameter of the webbing spool becomes during tightening.¹A name for a person that is primarily used while talking on the CB. HAND RATCHET . HAND RATCHET WINCH .
²Heavy bulkhead that extends over cab from trailers. or a rigid motor vehicle being used to tow a trailer. ²Hazardous materials and transport of hazardous materials is strictly regulated (also known as Dangerous Goods or TDG). explosives. HEADBOARD .Driving an empty truck or trailer. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).¹Hazardous materials. (The loose end of any lashing should be positively secured on the vehicle to prevent contact with rotating wheels and unexpected wheel lock-up). See Placard.¹Usually a permanent vertical frame used at the front of a vehicle’s loading deck to contain its load (also known as a bulkhead). as classified by the U. e. HAZARDOUS MATERIALS . ²A vertical 80 . usually made of pipe and used in steel hauling. Designed to prevent "headaches" caused by load shifting forward from the trailer and crushing the cab.S.What you are carrying in your trailer or what you are hauling. Transport of hazardous materials is strictly regulated by the U. HAULING . paint.High pre-tension tie-down This principle can be used for a combined chain and webbing system. HAULING UNIT .¹Heavy protective barrier mounted behind the tractor's cab.A prime mover. HCFC . ³A heavy bulkhead that is positioned behind the cab of a power unit.Any load that requires placards is considered hazardous.g. etc.S. HAZMAT . Usually made of pipe and meant to stop any forward cargo shift. See Bulkhead.Hydrochlorofluorocarbon. Department of Transportation. HAULING POST HOLES . radioactive materials. HEADACHE RACK .
barrier across the front of the deck of a vehicle to prevent forward movement of cargo. though not necessarily.Truck with a gross vehicle weight generally in excess of 19. Examples: Off road-vehicles. Gates.¹Cargo of such low density that the amount that can be transported is limited by the vehicle’s volume rather than its mass.High-beam for a headlight or front fog light fitted to a vehicle. unloading. See also. or a vehicle especially designed for maximum cargo space. shape. or other inherent characteristics require special equipment for loading. the top of the main beam of light projected is above the low-beam position.What direction you are going in or where you are traveling to.An insulated dry van trailer equipped with a heater to control the temperature inside the unit. HEAVY DUTY TRUCK . HEAVY MACHINERY . means that the light is built or adjusted so that. ²A body with above average cubic content. HEADER BAR . HEAVY TRAILER COMBINATION . large lathes. HEADER BOARD .This cargo category will tend to be on flatbed trucks and trailers. HEATER . when the vehicle is standing on level ground. 81 . like bulldozers and backhoes.A trailer with a flat deck.Protection by heat of freight that would be damaged by freezing. HEAVY SPECIALIZED CARRIER . construction machinery.An apparatus attached over the cab of tractors to carry motor vehicles as freight.Protective shield at front end of flat bottom trailer to prevent freight from shifting forward. forklifts.5 tonnes. Usually constructed with low floors and thin walls. HIGHBOY . Other minimum weights are used by various law or government agencies. and farm tractors. HIGH-BEAM .A trucking company franchised to transport articles which because of size.Rear cross piece on open top trailer.A hauling unit and trailer with a GCM over 13. weight.500 pounds (class 6-8). HEADING . Auto carriers may or may not have head ramps. HIGH CUBE . or transporting. HEAD RAMP . HEATER SERVICE .
Sometimes referred to as bottom dumps.The location where a vehicle is usually parked when not in use or on the road. HORSE . recycling. HOPPER BODY/BOTTOM . HORSE LIGHT . Examples include vehicle registration fees.Tractor or power unit. HIGHWAY USER FEE or TAX . HOOK-LIFT CONTAINER .Sometimes used to refer to the lifting mechanism under cargo bodies that dump.Typically a three axle (2 drive axles) tractor with two 45 foot (or 48 foot) trailers. primarily used to contain and transport materials in the waste. HOPPER .HIGH TORQUE RISE ENGINES .American term for bonnet. HOME BASE .Garage mechanic. HOOD .A specialized container. and scrap industries. HIGHWAY TRACTOR . These trailers will have two axles. HOIST BOX (TURRET) . Funds collected are usually applied toward highway construction. reconstruction and maintenance. HOBO .A container designed for discharge of loose dry material through a gate valve at the bottom of the container. in which the container is loaded and unloaded onto a tilt frame body by an articulating hook-arm.Spotlight mounted on cab to reveal open-range livestock. 82 . construction/demolition. ²An open top cargo body capable of discharging its load through a bottom opening without tilting.A guard fitted around a hydraulic hoist ram on a tipper body to protect it from damage.¹Truck or trailer body capable of discharging its load through a bottom opening without tilting. HOOD LIFTER . which are used in conjunction with specialized vehicles.The latest technology in fuel efficient engines. See Tractor. HOIST .Tractor that is shifted from terminal to terminal.A tractor is the power unit used for pulling trailers on the highway. and weight-distance taxes. May be mounted on a vehicle or trailer or may form an integral part of a trailer. fuel taxes. HIGHWAY DOUBLES .A charge levied on persons or organizations based on the use of public roads.
³Rush shipment of cargo. alternator.HORSEPOWER . HOT SHOT . ³Safety regulations that govern the hours in which a driver can operate a commercial (HOS) vehicle. exhaust system or any other accessories. SAE NET . HOUSEHOLD GOOD MILES . ²U.S. Example: Lifting 33. HOURS-OF-SERVICE (HOS) .Horsepower capability of an engine with full accessories and exhaust system.A distance recording device usually mounted on drive and trailer wheel hubs. or lifting 3300 pounds ten feet in one minute.¹U.(Slang) 1) A local freight hauler. water pump. HORSEPOWER. 83 . ²A rail or framework (permanent or removable) added to the sides of a truck body to increase load capacity. HOT LOAD .¹Emergency shipment of cargo needed in a hurry. and Canada have set rules that govern the hours of service of commercial vehicle drivers engaged in interstate and international trucking operations. Department of Transportation safety regulations which govern the hours of service of commercial vehicle drivers engaged in interstate trucking operations. HOUSEHOLD GOODS . Test procedures per standards of Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE).This cargo category is for uncrated household or office furniture. Also known as a Cheat Board. ²A load with a delivery guarantee that needs delivery as soon as legally possible after the pick up and can carry penalties to the carrier if the load is late.Tested horsepower of a "bare" engine without fan. and trade show displays.000 foot-pounds of work in one minute. GROSS LABORATORY . HUNGRY BOARD .(HP) Measure of power (the amount of work that can be done over a given amount of time). HORSEPOWER.¹Truck or trailer body designed primarily for the transportation of valuable horses. 2) A one ton truck equipped with a fifth wheel for pulling light weight trailers. band equipment. One horsepower is defined as 33.000 pounds one foot in one minute.¹A board fitted around the top of a tip truck to increase capacity. HORSE VAN BODY . HUBODOMETER . ²Truck designed for the transportation of valuable horses (livestock).A source of mileage between points commonly used by shippers and carriers for freight rate purposes.S. theatrical equipment.
Also called aquaplaning. Caused by speed. HYDROPLANING . and inflation pressure.HYDRAULIC BRAKE SYSTEM . causing it to lose contact with the road. tread depth. water depth.A hydraulic auxiliary brake that works on the drive train (sometimes called a Voith brake). Slowing down will usually restore normal tyre contact with the road.A system that uses hydraulic fluid for transmitting force to the braking units in each wheel. HYDRAULIC RETARDER . Hydroplaning 84 . ²A phenomenon of driving when water builds up under the tyre tread.¹When the tyres lose contact with a wet road surface.
-II 94 CARD – A Visa Waiver Card. It is purchased the first time you cross the Canadian/USA border. It must be renewed every 3 months. ICC - See Interstate Commerce Commission. ICC BUMPER - Typically made out of 3" to 4"steel channel stock, usually about 75% of the width of the trailer, suspended half the distance from the trailer floor to the pavement with a strong enough bracing to meet federal regulations governing underride guards.
ICC bumper IN-BOND - A shipment that has not cleared customs and must be taken directly to a bonded warehouse to clear. INDEPENDENT CONTRACTOR - The person who owns and operates a truck, leasing himself and/or his rig for hauling products interstate. Same as Owneroperator. INDEPENDENT TRUCKER - See Independent Contractor, Owner Operator. INDIRECT RESTRAINT - See Tie-down. INDIRECT TIE-DOWN - A tie-down whose tension is intended to increase the pressure of an article or stack of articles on the deck of the vehicle. INDIVISIBLE ITEM - An item that cannot be divided without extreme effort, expense or risk of damage to it, and cannot be carried on any conforming vehicle combination without exceeding a mass or dimension limit.
INITIAL CARRIER - The transportation line that picks up a shipment from the shipper. INITIAL POINT - The point at which a shipment originates. INLAND CARRIER - A transportation line that hauls export or import traffic between ports and inland points. IN-LINE TENSIONER - Can be either hand ratchet winches or over-centre buckles that are attached to the tie rails, using a webbing strap and hook. Webbing straps are tensioned using either attached clip-on, sliding winches or inline tensioners. Geared winches are also available. See also, Hand Ratchet Winch, Over-centre Buckles, Truck Winch. INSULATED BODY - A truck, trailer or van body designed primarily for the transportation of commodities at controlled temperatures, and usually provided with refrigerating and/or heating equipment. INSULATED TRAILER - See Insulated Body. INSULATED VAN BODY - See Insulated Body. INSULATION - Any of several materials, or classes of materials, used in the construction of trailers and containers whose function it is to control the transfer of heat in or out of the vehicle. INTEGRAL LOCKING DEVICE - A device that is purposely designed and used to restrain an article of cargo on a vehicle by connecting and locking attachment point(s) on the article to anchor point(s) on the vehicle. INTEGRAL SECUREMENT SYSTEM - A feature of roll-on/roll-off containers and hook-lift containers and their related transport vehicles in which compatible front and rear hold down devices are mated to provide securement of the complete vehicle and its cargo. INTER-AXLE DIFFERENTIAL - A differential which operates between two driven axles to allow one axle to turn at a slightly different speed from the other. This allows for small differences in tyre diameters on the two axles and the different distances they travel on turns. INTER-AXLE LOCK - Locks up the inter-axle differential so drive is shared equally by both driven axles to reduce wheelspin and increase traction in slippery conditions. INTERCHANGE POINTS - A terminal where freight is transferred from one transportation line to another.
INTERCITY TRUCKING - Trucking operations which carry freight beyond the local areas and commercial zones. INTERCOOLER - A device used for cooling turbocharged air before it enters the engine. The cooling increases air density and engine power and reduces thermal stress to the engine. Intercoolers can be air to air or air to water types and are sometimes called aftercoolers. INTERLINE FREIGHT - Freight moving from point of origin to destination over the lines of two or more transportation companies. INTERMEDIATE CARRIER (BRIDGE) - A transportation line hauling a shipment between the originating and delivery carrier. INTERMODAL - Used to denote movements of cargo containers interchangeably between transport modes, i.e. motor, water and air carriers, and where the equipment is compatible within the multiple systems. INTERMODAL CONTAINER - ¹A reusable, transportable enclosure that is specially designed with integral locking devices that secure it to a container chassis trailer to facilitate the efficient and bulk shipping and transfer of goods by, or between various modes of transport, such as highway, rail, sea, and air. ²A cargo container designed for high-speed transfer of cargos between different transportation modes. Typically seen around harbor ports, railway yards, and cargo storage facilities. INTERMODAL TRANSPORTATION - Transportation movement involving more than one mode, e.g. rail-motor, motor-air, or rail-water. INTERSTATE - ¹Between states. ²Trucking commerce crossing state lines. INTERSTATE COMMERCE COMMISSION (ICC) - (1887 – 1995) First regulatory agency established in the U.S. and a prototype for independent government regulatory bodies. An agency of the U.S. Department of Transportation, it was responsible for the economic regulation of interstate surface transportation, including railroads, trucking companies, and bus lines. It certified carriers, regulated rates, oversaw mergers, and approved railroad construction. The ICC was dissolved in 1995. INTRASTATE - ¹Within a state. ²Travel within the same state. ³Trucking commerce within the same state. IRON - Old model truck. IRON LUNGER - The conventional 220 or 250 horsepower engine.
AVL. The purpose of IVHS is to increase efficiency of use of existing highways. WIM) 88 . (4) Advanced Vehicle Control Systems (AVCS). Intelligent Transportation Systems (ITS). There are five functional areas: (1) Advanced Public Transportation Systems (APTS). (See AVI. encompasses both IVHS and modes of transportation other than highway. fuel consumption. (2) Advanced Traffic Management Systems (ATMS).ISOLATION SWITCH . reducing travel time.A device which completely disconnects the battery from the electrical system of the vehicle to prevent any possibility of fire due to short circuit. (5) Commercial Vehicle Operations (CVO). computer hardware and software and radio communications. A more recently coined term.Blanket term for a wide array of technologies. including electronic sensors.See IVHS. such as rail. (3) Advanced Traveler Information Systems (ATIS). air pollution and accidents. ITS (INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS) . IVHS (INTELLIGENT VEHICLE HIGHWAY SYSTEMS) .
Jacobs Engine Brake. ³A device that increases braking efficiency by manipulating the engine valves to create engine drag.A cover placed around such containers as cans and bottles. May be mounted directly on the rear of the main gearbox or separately from it. Also can refer to the loss of control where the trailer begins to push the tractor out of the way. JACK-KNIFE . JAKE BRAKE . also referred to as an engine retarder. which cooperate to offer a through service. JOINT RATE . ²To purposely place the trailer at a very sharp angle to the tractor when backing.An auxiliary gearbox located after the main gearbox to provide additional overdrive or reduction ratios.¹A trailer designed to transport long logs. JACK-RABBIT START .Routes established by two or more connecting carriers for the continuous through-movement of traffic over their lines.A short drive shaft especially one transmitting power from one drive axle to another.See Just In Time. ²A general name for Engine Brakes based on a common brand. JOEY BOX .¹This is a compression brake. JACK SHAFT . The shipment travels on one bill of lading. Retarder. and is connected to the vehicle in front of it by a pole or cable or the load itself. ³Skidding of an articulated vehicle sometimes results in rotation at the articulation (hitch) point so that the tractor is rotated against the trailer in a manner similar to the closing of a jackknife. JEEP DOLLY .-JJACKET . if any.The sudden or quick release of the clutch that causes immediate movement of the vehicle. It changes the valve timing to "retard" the engine. Speed Retarder. 89 . JOINT ROUTES . JACKING IT AROUND . See Engine Brake.A rate for hauling a single shipment over two or more independent transportation lines. JINKER . JIT (JUST-IN-TIME) .Backing a semi-trailer around a very sharp curve.A heavy-duty goose neck dolly usually with 2 or more axles that support the front of a cradle frame for transporting large objects or a heavy-duty lowboy trailer.¹To place the trailer at a very sharp angle to the tractor. ²An axle or axle group which is built to support part of a load.
¹Manufacturing system which depends on frequent. 90 . ²In this method of inventory control.The passenger seat in a tractor. warehousing is minimal or non-existent. JUST IN TIME (JIT) . that is not too early or too late. JUMP SEAT .Missing the fifth wheel pin on the trailer when coupling tractor to trailer. small deliveries of parts and supplies to keep on-site inventory to a minimum. the container is the movable warehouse and must arrive "just in time".JUMPED THE PIN .
Pin around which a steer axle's wheels pivot.89 kPa = 1 psi) KINGPIN .A unit of pressure in the metric system. (6. KINGPIN (AXLE) .Hard riding truck. ³Attaching pin on a semi-trailer that attaches to and pivots within the fifth wheel of a tractor or converter dolly. KNOWN LOSS . Abbreviated KD. KIDNEY BUSTER . ²Articles which are taken apart to reduce the cubic footage displaced or to make a better shipping unit and are to be reassembled. 91 . KNOWN DAMAGE .¹A term denoting that an article is partially or entirely taken apart (not set up).Damage discovered before or at the time of delivery of a shipment. ²An anchor pin at the center of a semi-trailer's upper coupler which is captured by the locking jaws of a tractor's fifth wheel to attach the tractor to the semi-trailer.Check the tyres. ³Unassembled freight or merchandise. KICK THE DONUTS . Pounds per square inch (psi).-KKICK DOWN . KILOPASCAL (kPa) . See also.Loss discovered before or at the time of delivery of a shipment. Also the pin around which a steerable wheel rotates in the vertical axis.¹A pin on a semi-trailer skid plate which locks into a prime mover's turntable jaws.Shift down to lower gear. KNOCKED DOWN .
LAID OVER . LASHINGS . chains and straps used to lash down loads.¹Retractable legs that support the front of a semi-trailer when not coupled to a prime mover. the freight in a vehicle. LAYOVER TIME . hooks. ³Retracting legs that support the front of a trailer when it is not coupled to a tractor (also referred to as Dolly Legs).Any rate constructed and published in accordance with the laws.¹Fastening devices. ²Refers to the freight shipped.See Indivisible Item. chains. LASHING CAPACITY (LC) .¹Any off-duty period away from home. transverse. Generally a lay over is when a driver sits waiting for a load for 24 hours or more. LATERAL . ²Retracting legs which support the front of a semi-trailer when it is not coupled to a tractor. ²Eight hours or more rest before continuing trip or any off-duty period away from home. etc. or across a vehicle. LARGE INDIVISIBLE ITEM . 4Device that supports the front end of semi-trailer when not attached to a tractor. LANDING GEAR or LANDING LEGS .-LLABOURING .See Lugging. rules and regulations administered by the ICC in interstate traffic.¹That which constitutes a load. or by state commissions in intrastate traffic. LAWFUL RATE . LADING . ²Ropes. LADING PROTECTORS . Usually raised and lowered with a two speed crank.Sideways. ³A lashing is a restraint device such as a rope.The non-working time that a road driver spends away from his home terminal before being dispatched to some other destination. chain or strap and can include other components such as tensioners.Apply brakes. 92 . crosswise. the contents of a shipment. cables.There is no load available for pick up.Material used to prevent the load being damaged through contact with restraining chains or lashings. LAYOVER . LAY ON THE AIR .The maximum force (in kilograms) that a lashing system is designed to sustain in use. ropes or webbing used to restrain loads.
²A tractor pulling two or more semi-trailers on an interstate roadway weighing more than 80. unpowered axle needed only when the vehicle is loaded. steel. means the trailer that is. or that is to be. and the lessee is the operating authority. ²A tier of dressed timber. See also. LICENSED WEIGHT .LAZY AXLE . triple 28-foot trailers.¹In general. 93 . LIFT AXLE .In a combination. Trailing Axle. vehicles longer than a standard doubles rig (tractor and two 28-foot semi-trailers). or other materials. LESSOR . whereby rent (paid to the carrier for the privilege of using the cab) is applied to the principal owed. LIFT .Extra. attached to the prime mover. For our purposes a long-term lease is equivalent to ownership.An unpowered axle which is part of an axle group which includes a drive axle. The lift axle is mounted to an air spring suspension that raises the axle when it is not required. western states and eastern toll roads: Twin 48foot trailers. LESS-THAN-TRUCKLOAD .Less Than Container Load. LCL .(Same as “Longitudinal”) LESSEE .Company or individual which leases vehicles. Tag Axle.See LTL. LENGTHWISE . Turnpike. The lazy is usually behind the drive axle.Company which leases vehicles.Truck companies sometimes lease trucks or trailers from leasing companies.S. LEASE . See also. LCV (LONG COMBINATION VEHICLE) . LIE SHEET .The maximum gross weight (vehicle plus cargo) a vehicle is licensed to carry. LEASE PURCHASE . Pusher Axle. allowing it to meet federal and state vehicle weight standards. Examples of LCVs which are permitted in some U.Method of purchasing a rig from a regulated carrier.5 feet in length.¹Dressed timber or steel which has been stacked in layers. or a doubles rig with either trailer greater than 28.000 lbs.Driver's log book. LEAD TRAILER .
Sometimes have double decks. pneumatic tyred earthmoving machinery). and live fish if transported in water. Examples include brine.A power-operated tail gate capable of lifting a load from street level to the level of the truck or trailer floor.¹Truck or trailer body designed primarily for the transportation of livestock. It does not include pickup and delivery services.A cargo container that is loaded and unloaded with a crane. or for any load to be restrained.¹Operating on fixed long distance routes. driller's mud (90% water). sulfuric acid. hanging meat.¹A load which. ²To load a trailer with the driver physically present at the time. Line haul does not include pickup and delivery services.This trailer cargo body style typically has slotted or slatted sides. LIQUIDS IN BULK . LIVE AXLE . ²Movement of freight between cities and terminals. LINE-HAUL DRIVER -Truck driver who travels a set route from city to city and typically returns home after each shift. gasoline.LIFT OFF CONTAINER . These trailers sometimes have "possum bellies. water. It may have a double deck. LIVESTOCK CARRIER . Often has slatted or perforated sides. LIVE LOAD . milk. 4Transportation from one city to another as differentiated from local switching service.A retractable lazy axle that can lift the wheels clear of the ground when the truck is empty. LOAD ANCHOR POINTS . the exceptions are roll-offs and the air freight container. livestock.g. molten sulfur.Axle driven by engine. equipment or substances necessary for the vehicle or combination to function. LOAD . or (b) personal items used by the driver. LINEHAUL . ³The movement of freight from one point to another. because it cannot be completely secured is able to move about within the load space (e. bulk liquids. Also known as a regional driver. 94 .This cargo category describes the contents of liquid tanks that are not otherwise packaged.See Anchor Points.¹In relation to a vehicle includes anything that is normally removed from the vehicle when the vehicle is not in use." compartments in the bottom for holding smaller animals. but does not include — (a) tools. whiskey mash. LIFT TAIL GATE . ²The normal term for the freight a truck is carrying on the trailer. septic waste. oil. most cargo containers are of this type. ²Truck or trailer designed for the transportation of farm animals. LIVESTOCK BODY . tallow. LIFT-UP LAZY .
See Front-end Loader. See also. Some logging industry trucks are equipped with log loaders for loading fresh cut logs. ³The weight of cargo that a vehicle can carry when loaded to its allowable gross vehicle weight in a particular jurisdiction. lubricants.Distance traveled with a loaded trailer. a load.(1) An off road vehicle with a large 'bucket' or shovel on the front to move material. Gates.A vehicle designed and constructed to haul or carry goods and wares in addition to any fuel. ²The maximum load which a vehicle is rated to carry by the manufacturer. LOADING RACK . ²In relation to a vehicle. ²A device fitted to a chain or lashing used to tighten (tension) the restraint.¹A device used for tensioning a lashing (see Truck Winch or Dog).¹The total mass of the vehicle and its load. tools and any other equipment or accessories necessary for normal operation of the vehicle. ³A binder incorporating an overcentre locking action. means a vehicle that is carrying.A load distribution graph shows the maximum load that can be carried at each position of the centre of mass of the load along the vehicle. LOAD-CARRYING .LOAD BARS . consisting of a lever-operated toggle and lock.A tool used to secure freight in a trailer. Winches are sometimes used as load binders. LOADED MASS . or is built to carry.In relation to a vehicle.Agents that match shippers’ loads with the available carriers/trucks. LOAD BROKER . LOAD CARRYING VEHICLE . LOAD CAPACITY (LC) . An over-centre locking action is incorporated. water. without exceeding legal axle load limits and without reducing the weight on the steer axle(s) below the safe limit. LOADED MILE . 4A mechanical device. means the sum of the mass of the vehicle and the mass of the load on the vehicle that is imposed on the surface on which the vehicle is standing or running.The heavy duty gate at the front of a flat top trailer. LOADER .¹The difference between the GVM or GTM of a vehicle and its tare mass. 95 . generally used to tighten a cargo securing system. LOAD DISTRIBUTION GRAPH . LOAD BINDER . particularly dirt or debris. (2) Refers to a hydraulic mechanism mounted on a trailer or behind the cab of a truck or tractor used to load cargo onto the trailer or truck. Graphs should be obtained from the vehicle or body manufacturer or a vehicle engineer.
See ‘Load Sensing or Load Proportioning Valve’. or on any motor vehicle upon the road. rearwards and vertically.Letter code system for the weight carrying capacity of tyres.Long. Direct restraint is when the load is prevented from moving by containing. ‘Pads. This load limit varies from State to State although the trend is to nationwide uniformity. LOAD MAT . LOAD PROPORTIONING VALVE .A sheet of material used to increase friction and protect the load (also called an Anti-slip Mat or Friction Mat). These load restraint methods are summarized in the following diagram.LOADING STAKE. which shows restraint of forward movement of the load. blocking or attaching it to the vehicle. PEG or PIN . LOAD RATIO . either indirectly or directly. Tie-Down and Direct Restraint.A metal fixture used for load control when set in pockets. telescoping poles with locking levers. See also. These principles also apply for restraint sideways.See Loading Rack. 96 . and Load Locks (Accessory Equipment)’. See also.Loads can be restrained by two basic methods. They are set between the walls of the trailer or floor to the ceiling to prevent the freight from shifting en-route. Tie-down is when the load is prevented from moving by friction only.The ratio of loaded miles to empty miles per tractor. LOAD RESTRAINT METHODS . LOAD RANGE (TYRES) . LOAD LIMIT . Straps. LOAD LOCKS .The maximum load which may be carried in. These methods are called ‘Tie-down’ and ‘Direct Restraint’ respectively. LOAD RACK .
LOAD STRAPS .An axle group suspension system that is built to divide the load between the tyres on the group so that no tyre carries a mass more than 10% greater than the mass it would carry if the load were divided equally. 97 .Reduces the proportion of braking effort going to the rear axle(s) to compensate for forward weight transfer and light or no load. each gets its proportional share of the load. and has effective damping characteristics on all axles of the group. returning home after each shift. Load straps are also used on the inside of an enclosed van to secure freight. If one axle is dual tyred and another single.Load restraint methods (To control forward movement) LOAD SENSING or LOAD PROPORTIONING VALVE .A company that transports property entirely within the commercial zone of a municipality (or contiguous cities). Also known as a city or P&D driver. Helps prevent rear wheel lock-up under braking.Canvas belts that are long enough to go over the top of a load and used to hold the cargo onto the deck of a flatbed trailer. LOAD SHIFT . LOADSHARING SUSPENSION . LOADSHARING SUSPENSION SYSTEM .A specialized load restraint system that incorporates limited forward load shift to increase the pre-tension in the lashings up to their rated lashing capacity. Drivers typically run the same route everyday. LOCAL CARTAGE CARRIER .A suspension which enables all wheels of an axle group to support an equal load. This may be pickup and delivery service for a line haul carrier. LOCAL DRIVER -Truck driver who picks up and delivers packages along a city route.
Log) This is a diary that each driver must keep by law. LOCAL TARIFF ." ²Movement and supply of goods. and controlling the efficient. The “Council of Logistics Management” defines logistics management as: "The process of planning. routes. 7 days per week. ²A book carried by truck drivers in which they record their hours of service and duty status for each 24-hour period. (2) On-duty (not driving). 6A daily record of a driver's hours. implementing. It is a federal document and has many pages of rules and regulations that a driver must follow. 4 A daily record of where a driver is and what he/she does. finished goods. partially. LOG BODY . in-process inventory. and related information from point-of-origin to point-of-consumption for the purpose of conforming to customer requirements. 5(Funny Book. From the day you're hired. (3) Sleeper berth. Required by the Department of Transportation. Raw logs include all tree species with bark that have been harvested and may have been trimmed or cut to some 98 . LOG BOOK .A tariff containing rates applicable only between terminals located on the same transportation line. Required in interstate commercial trucking by the U. Liar’s Book. until you quit. LOGS .S.¹A driver's record of hours driven and rest periods taken. There are four lines: (1) Driving. Department of Transportation. cost-effective flow and storage of raw materials.A permanent trailer turntable which can be locked in the straight-ahead position enabling a dog trailer to be more easily reversed. in 15 minute increments. Others are skeletally framed. Some have double decks. LOGISTICS .¹Process of systematizing information to facilitate the efficient and cost-effective flows of goods and services to produce customer satisfaction. It covers 24 hrs per day. (4) Off-duty.Truck or trailer body designed primarily for the transportation of logs or other loads which may be boomed or chained in place. you must keep a logbook.LOCAL RATE . etc. ³A book carried by truck drivers containing daily records of hours. whether raw. Comic Book. LOCKING TURNTABLE . Most will have cradle-like features called bunks to hold the logs in place. routes.Some pole trailers consist of a set of axles with a cradle to hold logs and a pole attached to the rear of a power unit. See Turntable. LOGGING TRAILERS . or fully processed. Greasy plate and ballrace turntables can also be locked for use with semi-trailers that have no blocks behind the kingpin. For presentation to DOT or police to show that one has not gotten someplace too quickly or exceeded the hour of service limit. etc. Log books are required by government regulations.Include all natural wood that retains the original shape of the bole of the tree.A rate applying between stations located on the same transportation line.
when measured 25 m in front of the vehicle. Partially processed logs that have been fully or partially debarked or further reduced in length. ²Open truck trailer constructed to provide a low platform height.This cargo category includes processed wood.Low-beam for a headlight or front fog light fitted to a vehicle. the top of the main beam of light projected is — (a) not higher than the centre of the headlight or fog light. LOT LIZARD . means that the light is built or adjusted so that. LUMBER . fresh from the factory. LONG COMBINATION TRUCK . wood residuals. POLES.240 pounds. treated poles.Any combination of truck tractor and two or more trailers or semi-trailers which operate on the Interstate System at a gross vehicle weight greater than 80. Wood chips. Designed for the transportation of extremely heavy or bulky property.2. A headlight in the low-beam position LOW-BED TRAILER . but not used empty crates. and new pallets. and log cabin building components. LOW-BEAM . Such logs are usually described as long logs or treelength. LONGER COMBINATION VEHICLE (LCV) . Not a fixed term in the industry but a common one.A truck nominated to haul 2 or more trailers.All logs that are not shortwood and are over 4. LONG TON . LOGS.000 pounds.length. when measured 8 m in front of the vehicle.9 m (16 feet) long.Lengthwise or along the length of a vehicle.¹A trailer or semi-trailer with no sides and with the floor of the unit close to the ground. when the vehicle is standing on level ground. and (b) not more than 1 m higher than the level where the motor vehicle is standing. pulpwood.Driving that keeps the driver away from home for more than a night or two. 99 . LONGWOOD . and bark are solids in bulk. like 2x4's. firewood. LONGITUDINAL . LONG HAUL DRIVING .Trucker slang for prostitutes who hang out in truck stops. plywood. Fully processed logs include utility poles.
Lowboy Trailer. Cab to End. ²Type of flatbed in which the load floor is as close to the ground as possible. consists of a gooseneck rigid frame. bulldozers.(Less-Than-Truckload) ¹A quantity of freight less than that required for the application of a truckload (TL) rate. LOW LOADER . Most commonly used to haul heavy equipment. See also. (See FTL. LP . used to haul construction equipment or bulky or heavy loads. Also CF or CE are used for the same distance.¹Open flat-bed trailer with a deck height very low to the ground. Propane Butane. See also. a kingpin and a fifth wheel coupling. ²A quantity of freight less than that required for the application of a full truckload (FTL) rate. ²Liquefied Petroleum Gas.A mass-distributing device that is usually coupled between a prime mover and a low loader. LPG . LTL .A gooseneck semi-trailer with a loading deck no more than 1m above the ground.000 pounds and generally involves the use of terminal facilities to break and consolidate shipments.¹Liquid propane gas. ³A low trailer for hauling heavy machinery. usually less than 10. (See FAK) 100 . e. etc. LOW LOADER DOLLY . See Low-bed Trailer. and a combination of small shipments on a trailer from multiple shippers to multiple consignees. See also. LOWBOY TRAILER .g.LOWBOY . cranes. TL) ³Refers to situations in which general freight from various shippers is combined into a truck load. 4Gooseneck flatbeds slung very low to the ground. and is equipped with one or more axles. Dolly. does not directly carry any load on itself. Typically about 12" off the ground.Lowboy trailers are very low to the ground and can transport freight up to 12 feet high. Often the gooseneck is detachable so that equipment can be loaded from the front. Sometimes ramps are at the rear.Acronym for the distance from the back of a truck's cab to the end of its frame.
LUMPING .¹Loading or unloading a trailer by hand. ³Laborers who unload trucks for a fee charged to the trucking company or customer.Platform truck or trailer body with traverse rollers designed for the transportation of sawed lumber. quite commonly used in the food industry. LUMPERS .Caused by the combination of overloading the engine and insufficient engine speed.Trucking company which consolidates less-than-truckload cargo for multiple destinations on one vehicle. 101 . The symptoms of lugging are shuddering or excessive vibration in the engine. (See TL Carrier) LUGGING or LABOURING .¹Someone the driver pays to load or unload a trailer. LUMBER BODY . ²The act of assisting a motor carrier owner-operator in the loading and unloading of property.LTL CARRIER . vibrations in the driveline and black exhaust smoke due to excessive fuel (all of which can result in engine and driveline damage). ²A person hired to help unload a container or trailer instead of using the driver. The remedy is to shift to a lower gear.
both of which are designed to carry cargo. MARK . as in "large Mark.The highest lawful rate that may be charged." MARKS . MAXIMUM GROSS COMBINATION WEIGHT . corrugated tin. The trailing unit is a trailer or semi-trailer with a cargo box so designed that the power unit may be loaded and unloaded through the trailing unit. MASS .A document describing a shipment or the contents of a vehicle or ship. and similar processed metal cargoes.A duplicate copy of a bill of lading. steel plates. MAXI-CUBE VEHICLE .Slang expression used to refer to a shipment. other than a short combination truck.A combination vehicle consisting of a power unit and a trailing unit. MAXI-BRAKE . MEMORANDUM BILL OF LADING .40 cubic feet." "4 Marks. coils. This category includes 102 . numbers and characters put on a package for identification. nominated to haul one trailer.Letters. metal fencing.The measure of the amount of matter in an object.A truck. in combination with a semi-trailer which does not exceed 34 feet and is designed to be loaded through the semitrailer or in combination with a trailer that does not exceed 28 feet. METAL .This cargo category is for processed.-MMANIAC .See Spring Brake. generally unpackaged. MAXI-CUBE . MEDIUM COMBINATION TRUCK . MERGE . The power unit is a nonarticulated truck with one or more drive axles that carries either a detachable or a permanently attached cargo box. MANIFEST .A non-articulating straight truck. ingots. This category includes metal pipe.Shop mechanic. metal only. MEASUREMENT TON . MAXIMUM RATE .The most weight allowed by law for a tractor and loaded trailer combined.To move gradually from one road or lane to another and blend in with traffic.
large object. MICROBRIDGE . MOTOR BRAKE .Easy trip. which is illegal and dangerous.The lowest weight at which a shipment is handled at a truck load rate.An intermodal system for transporting containers by ocean and then by rail or motor to a port previously served as an all-water move. MLB .A cargo movement in which the water carrier provides a through service between an inland point and the port of load/discharge. MILEAGE TARIFF . MODE . MIXED TRUCKLOAD . air and water. MINI LANDBRIDGE .Frequently used to refer to the basis divisions of the transportation industry.Mini Landbridge. MILE .6 km. MEXICAN OVERDRIVE .¹Slang term for coasting downhill in neutral.Any shipment under 100 pounds. 103 . and other manufactured metal items that do not fall in either the heavy machinery. MILEAGE .items like steel guard rails. Also called Angel Gear.A truckload consisting of different articles in a single shipment. or general freight categories. ²Kicking out of gear going down grade. rail. MINIMUM TRUCKLOAD WEIGHT . MICHIGAN DOUBLES . The principal modes of transportation are truck.Pay based on miles between origin and destination. MILK RUN .See Engine Brake.The percentage of total freight moved by a particular type of transportation. MINNIE .1. MINIMUM RATE .The lowest lawful rate that may be charged.A combination vehicle consisting of a tractor pulling two trailers with a total of 11 axles.A tariff containing rates applied according to distance. MODAL SHARE . typically for hauling gravel (dump trailers) or steel (flatbed trailers).
²A vehicle built to be propelled by a motor that forms part of the vehicle. carried such that no wheels touch the road.¹Any vehicle driven or pulled by mechanical power.Miles per gallon. with or without a mudflap. as far as practicable.In relation to a vehicle.Multi-axle lowboys are used to transport extremely heavy freight.Small tractor used in warehouse to pull two axle dollies. including any load. MOTOR VEHICLE(S) .A fitting or device. It is used on the highways for hauling property or passengers as determined by the Federal Highway Administration (FHA). MPG . water or other substance thrown up by the rotation of the wheel to which the fitting or device is fitted. also yard tractor. MULE . or (b) In relation to a vehicle for which there is no compliance plate--its operating mass.Camper. 104 . means: (a) The maximum mass of the vehicle.MOTOR CARRIER ACT . MRC (MASS RATING for CHARGING) . MUDGUARD . mud.A law passed in 1935 which brought the Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) into the truck regulation business. ³This cargo category refers to motor vehicles capable of at least 40 MPH on-highway. catch or deflect downwards any stone. These will probably be on flatbed trucks and trailers or on auto-carriers. MT . recorded on the compliance plate as the Gross Vehicle Mass. that is built and fitted to a vehicle in a way that will. Gross Trailer Mass Rating or Aggregate Trailer Mass of the vehicle. MULTI-AXLE LOWBOY TRAILER . MOTOR HOME .Metric Ton.
MULTI-STOP BODY .A company that transports munitions by motor vehicle.A prime mover nominated to haul 2 or more trailers.MULTI-COMBINATION PRIME MOVER .Fully enclosed truck body with driver’s compartment specifically designed for quick and easy entrance and exit. MUNITIONS CARRIER . 105 .
NHTSA . NON-POWERED AXLE . exempt agricultural shipments and private trucking operations. Inc.Refers to the non-load bearing coupling portion of a trailer. a self-sustaining group within the American Trucking Associations.In weighing terminology. ‘Non-synchromesh Gearbox (Constant Mesh)’. ‘Double De-clutching or Double Clutching’.The amount spent annually on freight transportation by the nation's shippers. See Constant Mesh Transmission. Department of Transportation. Crash Box. NECK . NATION'S FREIGHT BILL . the matching of engine and road speeds depends entirely on your judgment and skill as there are no synchronizers in the gearbox to help you.The weight of an empty cargo-carrying piece of equipment plus any fixtures permanently attached.g.See Constant Mesh Transmission. 106 .S.(National Highway Traffic Safety Administration) Part of the U. NON-REGULATED TRUCKING . Net = cargo.National Accounting and Finance Council. Crash Box. (b) As applied to a truck-load. ‘Non-synchromesh Gearbox (Constant Mesh)’.(a) The weight of an article excluding packing and container.In this type of gearbox. the weight of the entire contents of the truck. composed of individuals specializing in motor carrier accounting and finance. Gross = Tare + Net). NON-SYNCHROMESH GEARBOX (CONSTANT MESH) . NET TARE WEIGHT . NON-SYNCHROMESH TRANSMISSION .See Constant Mesh Transmission. NET WEIGHT .-NNAFC . A non-synchromesh gearbox may commonly be known as a crash or constant mesh gearbox.An axle that supports part of the vehicle weight but does not transmit driving force to the wheels.A carrier which is exempt from economic regulation. e. NMFC . NON-SYNCHRONIZED TRANSMISSION . (Tare = unloaded.National Motor Freight Classification. also represents the total revenue of all carriers operating in the nation. NET . refers to cargo weight. Double-declutching is essential while you are learning to use this type of gearbox.. Also called a dead axle. Crash Box.
doesn't have to do any of the unloading. NO TOUCH .Means the driver does not have to "touch" the load -.Term that refers to the front of a trailer.A bonnetted vehicle where the driver sits in the "normal" position behind the engine. NOSE DIVE .. NOSE . 107 .NORMAL CONTROL VEHICLE .doesn't have to fingerprint ..Trailer tipped forward on its nose.
Over-Head-Cam. They are used strictly off-road for mining and heavy dirt hauling jobs. OCEAN GOING CONTAINER .-OOAKIE BLOWER . 108 . OHV .Overland Common Point.Outside Diameter. ODOMETER . This device is attached to the speedometer. OAL . ²Mile or kilometer counter in the dashboard. OHC .Air scoop on air intake to increase power.¹Usually made of steel.Overdrive. Off-Road Mining Dump Truck OH . OCP .See Elastic Straps. ²A completely enclosed.Over-All-Length (Of the Vehicle).Overall Height (Of the Vehicle).To unload.Over-Head-Valve. OFFLOAD . OD . it is a large rectangular box designed for easy lift on/off by cranes.¹A device that measures the distance of travel in miles. often water tight container designed to be loaded onto ocean freighters to carry commodities overseas. O/D .Off-road dump trucks more closely resemble heavy construction equipment or engineering vehicles than they do highway dump trucks.See Ocean Container. OCEAN CONTAINER . OFF-ROAD DUMP TRUCK . OCTOPUS STRAPS .
ON-BOARD COMPUTER . OPERATING AUTHORITY . then the trucking company would be the operating authority. OPERATING MASS . means the maximum mass of the vehicle.¹Heavily-constructed platform type truck body equipped with a rear end roller or bullnose adapted for winch loading.See Trip Recorder.In relation to a vehicle. often used for heavy equipment that must be lowered into place by crane. An example would be if you own the truck and are transporting your own cargo then you would be the operating authority.A person who controls or directs the operations of a vehicle. He's wise.The entity responsible for a truck being on the roadway. 109 . ²A truck or trailer without a permanent metal top. OPEN TOP VAN . ³Trailer with sides but without permanent top. including any load. (such as driver wages and fuel) and indirect costs (e. or someone else). A rule of thumb in determining operating authority is to examine who owns or is responsible for the cargo.An "old hand" is a truck driver that has been around the block many times. solid top.OILFIELD BODY . and everybody knows it.g.The costs of handling traffic. and no one argues with him because he's right. OPERATOR . fixed. OPEN TOP .See Open Top. or who is otherwise responsible for it. or if you needed a commodity shipped and hired a trucking company to transport it for you. including both direct costs. OLD HAND .(Office of Motor Carriers) Interstate heavy truck and bus regulatory agency. OPERATING RATIO . OMC .¹A container with sides and doors but no roof. generally soft-spoken. doesn't offer an opinion unless asked for it (unless he thinks you're about to kill yourself. OPERATING EXPENSES . Sort of a wise elder of trucking. as determined by the Registration Authority having regard to the design and construction of the vehicle or of any of its components.Total operating expenses divided by gross freight revenue. computer expenses and advertising) but excluding interest expense. Designed primarily for work in oil fields. ²Heavily constructed platform-type truck body equipped with instruments and machinery for oil drilling. 4A cargo body style with sides but without a permanent.
spar or framework projecting from the loading platform on the vehicle. You must call in if you have any of these conditions with your load before leaving the receiver -. 4Leg-like extensions used on the front or rear of machinery to improve stability. Fixed lever dogs can cause injury to the operator when applying or releasing the chain tension especially when standing on the load and also when using pipe handle extensions (‘cheater bars’).Chains can also be highly tensioned using turnbuckles or over-centre tensioners (also called ‘dogs’). If a cheater bar is used.Extra freight from what should have been shipped. structural load-carrying members attached to and extending from the main frame of a trailer. OVERAGE . ²A driver who has been ordered off the road because DOT has discovered that he/she is over their limit of operating hours. OVER-CENTRE TENSIONERS . The pivoting lever dog is designed to reduce the ‘kickback’ by limiting the lever movement. S & D. Someone in your company is in charge of O. you must call before even pulling out of their dock. the handle can rotate out of control releasing all the energy in the chain.Overage. OSHA . When a fixed lever dog is released. Also. shortage and damaged. it can be thrown off at high speed. ²Structural load-carrying members attached to and extending outward from the main longitudinal frame members of a trailer.O.See Hand Ratchet Winch.When one of the axles is overweight. OVER AXLE . OUT OF SERVICE . 110 . ³A driver who has been ordered off the road because he/she did not have the legal documentation to operate a commercial vehicle. OUTRIGGER .and in some cases. ³Device used for increasing width of trailers. Some may be retracted or extended.Occupational Safety and Health Administration. The use of these extensions is not approved by any manufacturer and can be dangerous. OVER-CENTRE BUCKLES .¹A horizontal beam.¹Truck or trailer that has been declared unsafe by the DOT and ordered off the road until repairs are made. The following diagram illustrates a fixed lever dog and a pivoting lever dog. S & D .
²Gearing in which less than one revolution of a transmission's input shaft causes one turn of the output shaft.81 the engine turns only 8 times for every 10 turns of the tailshaft). Over-height Vehicle) OVERDRIVE .When a driver goes over the legal limit for hours of service. Used properly. including the mass of any load.¹A gear ratio in which the engine turns more slowly than the tailshaft (e. Turnbuckle. See also. OVER GROSS . exceeds a relevant mass limit (whether or not the vehicle is also oversize).70 to one. Turnbuckles are screw tensioners operated by either a ratchet or sliding lever. Example: A transmission with an overdrive top gear has a ratio of 0.0 revolution of the output shaft.g. an overdrive allows the engine to turn more slowly at cruising speed which reduces engine wear and fuel consumption. OVERMASS . 111 . with all axle weights combined. OVERCHARGE .Having a mass that. OVER HOURS . weight or height. has exceeded the maximum gross weight that it is licensed for. width.Over-centre tensioners or ‘dogs’ Dogs are not suitable for tensioning short chains.A vehicle that exceeds the maximum permitted height.A vehicle that exceeds the maximum permitted length. (See also. OVER-HEIGHT VEHICLE .When a commercial vehicle. for an overdrive ratio of 0. OVER-DIMENSIONAL VEHICLE .7 revolutions causes 1.To charge more than the amount provided in the proper tariff. Turning the input shaft 0. The resulting chain tension could be much too low. This is because the chain link spacing can be greater than the stretch in the chain. The purpose of overdrive is to reduce engine rpm in high gear for better fuel economy.
exceeds a relevant dimension limit (whether or not the vehicle is also overmass). ³A professional driver who owns and operates his/her own truck(s). ²An abnormal or wide load.Occurs when the engine speed exceeds the maximum limit specified by the manufacturer. Usually caused by descending hills too fast and in the wrong gear. Can cause serious damage to the engine. OVERSIZE . as distinct from travel in and around the vehicle's base. ²Travel from one city to another. OVERSIZE TRI-AXLE GROUP . Typically averages over 100.¹Truck driver who travels cross-country to deliver freight and usually sleeps within a berth in the truck cab.A group of 3 axles in which the horizontal distance between the centers of the outermost axles is more than 3.000 miles per year.Overall Width (Of the Vehicle).¹Having a dimension that. 112 .2m.OVER-REVVING . The rev limit is usually marked on a rev counter by a red line. See Independent Contractor. ²The person who owns and operates his own rig(s).¹A truck driver who owns and operates his own truck(s). including the dimension of any load. OWNER-OPERATOR . 5 A for-hire carrier who both owns and drives a vehicle and serves as the operating authority. OW . 4An independent trucker who drives the vehicle for himself or on lease to a company. OVER-THE-ROAD (DRIVER) .
PANEL BODY . and load locks are often used to brace and cushion fragile freight to prevent damage. These generally contain a platform for the user to stand on while hauling pallets around a warehouse or loading/unloading trucks. furniture van). ²A platform or tray on which cargo is placed so that it can be handled as an article. often motorized. PALLET JACK .g.See Pickup and Delivery.).Stacked on pallets. PADS.A brake diaphragm housing on each set of dual wheels on a semitrailer and on most tractors. 4Double wooden platforms about three and a half feet by four feet. PALLETIZED . to move laden pallets on a dock. upon which freight is loaded.Small.Pads. fully enclosed truck body often used for small package delivery. PAJAMA WAGON . on which a number of packages or pieces may be loaded to facilitate handling by a lift truck. See Pallet. PANTECH OR PAN . PANCAKE . Powered pallet jacks are motorized to allow lifting and moving of heavier and stacked pallets. 5A platform with or without sides. and LOAD LOCKS (ACCESSORY EQUIPMENT) . 113 .A completely enclosed van body on a rigid vehicle. Some contain a type of dead man's switch rather than a brake to stop the machine should the user need to stop quickly or leave the machine while it is in use. PANTECHNICON. scaling. straps. log sheets. receipts for items such as tolls. Between the top and bottom platforms is a four inch space into which the forklifts and floor jacks can slip their forks. PALLET . The powered pallet jack is generally moved by a throttle on the handle to move forward or in reverse and steered by swinging the handle in the intended direction.-PP&D .Sleeper tractor. ²A manual pallet jack is a handpowered jack. STRAPS.¹A portable platform or tray onto which loads are placed for mechanical handling. PAPERWORK .¹A dolly resembling the tines of a forklift with a handle attached. semi-trailer or trailer (e. (Same as “Skid”) ³A portable platform for holding material for storage or transportation. etc.The documents surrounding a trip (bill of lading.
etc. You can pay by the day or by the month. PEANUT WAGON . Includes packaging. banding. PAYLOAD . These provide hookups for cable TV and a phone line.PNV is a service that a large number of truck stops offer.Power produced by the engine. PEGS . etc. PERISHABLE FREIGHT . ³Weight of commodity being hauled. ²Truck run with frequent deliveries en route.PARASITIC HORSEPOWER . pallets. Bolster. PEDDLE RUN . You can then make local and 800 number calls for free from the cab of your truck. PEDDLE FREIGHT .. but does not include the truck. PARK-N-VIEW (PNV) . truck body. PERFORMANCE STANDARDS . banding. 114 . Stanchion. See also.Removable uprights that are used for restraining loads on the vehicle.Pre-Arrival Review System. ²Total weight of the commodity being carried on a truck at a given time including packaging.¹Truck route with frequent delivery stops.Small tractor pulling a large trailer. PARS . etc. measured in terms of ‘g’ (g-force) or the weight of the load.¹Weight of the cargo/freight being hauled. a license. PERMIT .Shipments delivered from a terminal location to small surrounding communities beyond normal delivery limits.A way of specifying the minimum amount of load restraint required. PEG-LEG .See Pegs.Tandem tractor with only one power axle. PEG .A written order or certificate granting permission to do something. There is a junction box (or ballard) in the ground next to the trucks when they are parked. but absorbed by vehicle components before being delivered to the ground by the drive tyres.Freight subject to decay or deterioration.A lever or lock which protects reverse rotation on a winch. A system in which a driver can fax the paperwork for a shipment and the Customs Broker will set up the clearance of the load prior to the driver arriving. PAWL . They also provide Internet access (ISPs).
Deck Load.¹Pickup and delivery may also be referred to as a city driver. Plan IV is like Plan III. as well as a delivery operation at the terminating rail head. See also. PIGTAIL . PIGGYBACK/TOWAWAY . See also.Trailers which are designed for quick loading on railcars. for which the trucking company pays a negotiated rate. Deck Set.(a) Authority granted by the ICC to allow motor carriers to operate in interstate commerce. PICKUP and DELIVERY (P&D) .PERMIT BOOK . 115 .Small delivery truck.See Pig Trailer. This category is also used for wreckers towing a vehicle. A trucking company trailer is used. Plan I is transportation on a trucking company owned trailer on a rail flatcar. PICK-UP . It is essentially a joint carrier movement in which the motor carrier forms a pickup and delivery operation to a rail terminal. Deck Set. In Plan III.¹Semi-trailer built with reinforcements to withstand transport by a railroad flatcar. the railroad furnishes both trailer and flatcar. ²Pickup and delivery is usually used in reference to city work. PICKUP TRUCK . PIGGYBACK TRAILERS . Piggyback. In Plan II. So named because it is coiled like a pig's tail.This cargo category refers to motor vehicles being carried piggyback on a power unit.Cable used to transmit electrical power from the tractor to the trailer. Several vehicles may be hitched together in this way. PERMITS . The trucks being carried have their front axles off the ground resting on the vehicle in front.Normally a three-ring binder in which the various permits required for operating are inserted for display to the DOT or other law enforcement agencies. PIG .Small delivery truck. Under Plan V. Deck Load. PIGGYBACK . There are five basic piggyback plans. 5Refers to the way empty log trailers are carried on the bed of a tractor such that no axles touch the ground. 4The transportation of highway trailers or removable trailer bodies on rail cars specifically equipped for the service. ³(See also Intermodal) A transportation concept whereby truck trailers are hauled on railroad flatcars. (b) Permission granted to carriers by states to transport freight exceeding legal weight and size limits. the company and railroad cooperate to offer the joint rate. (See TOFC) ²Transportation of a highway trailer on a rail flatcar. Also may refer to other kinds of vehicles carried on the rear of a power unit in a manner that axles do touch the road. a shipper or freight forwarder owns the trailer. but the shipper or forwarder also owns the flatcar.
It has a curved. PISTON DISPLACEMENT . triple trailer and truck-trailer combinations. ²A trailer with one axle group or a single axle near the middle of its load-carrying surface. Pig trailer Rigid truck and pig trailer combination PIKE .Common abbreviation for pickup truck.¹What locks into the drawbar eye on an automatic tow coupler.See Displacement. PINS . PIN-UP . Harder to hitch up than Ringfeder type couplings.¹A trailer having one non-steerable axle group near the middle of the length of the load carrying platform.A motor vehicle. Bolster.See Over-centre Tensioners. fixed towing horn and an upper latch that opens to accept the drawbar eye of a trailer or dolly. ²The pin on the fifth wheel that locks the trailer to the tractor. PIN .¹A type of trailer coupling widely used in the US but usually only on light or military trailers in Australia. PK . ²Coupling device used in double trailer. PIVOTING LEVER DOG .Hook tractor to semi-trailer. PINTLE HOOK . and connected to the towing vehicle by a drawbar. Stanchion. See also. See Trailer Hitch. other than an escort vehicle being used to warn other road users of the presence of an oversize vehicle. PILOT VEHICLE . ³Trailer transported on flat car. Also see Kingpin.See Turnpike.PIG TRAILER .Removable uprights that are used for restraining loads on the vehicle. 116 .
¹The axis of rotation of a turntable. stakes or loading pegs. etc. 117 . single drops and double drops.Signed copy of the bill of lading (BOL) and legal document that entitles the carrier to payment for the movement of the freight. PLATFORM BODY . POCKETS .Housings or slots fixed to the vehicle to locate gates. explosives. (See Load Range) ²A measure of the strength of tyres based on the strength of a single ply of designated construction. POGO STICK . ²A sign affixed to each side and each end of a truck. (b) the vertical axis of rotation of a fifth wheel coupling. which indicates the hazardous designation of the product being transported in that vehicle. (d) the vertical axis of rotation of the front axle group.Preventive maintenance inspections.¹A sign showing the type of hazardous materials loaded in a vehicle.A spring mounted pole behind the cab for holding up trailer brake hoses and electrical connections. PLATFORM TRAILERS . A 12 ply rating does not necessarily mean that 12 plies are present. There are straight platforms. of a dog trailer. PLY RATING (PR) . or (e) the coupling pivot point of a semi-trailer. Can also be a spring loaded bar or pole for cargo restraint with ends that fit into recesses in van side walls. ²Point of articulation means — (a) the axis of a kingpin for a fifth wheel. dangerous. POINT OF ARTICULATION .Truck or trailer body with a floor but no sides or roof.¹Relative measure of tyre casing strength. or freight container. only that the tyre has the strength of 12 standard plies. or single axle.Normally flatbed trailers. POD (PROOF OF DELIVERY) .PLACARD . Examples are flammable. (c) the vertical axis of rotation of a turntable assembly. The pivot or ’bending’ point of an articulated vehicle. PMs . ³Placards are warning signs placed on all four sides of the trailer denoting that the trailer is carrying hazardous materials. rail car.
sometimes adjustable pole attached to the rear of a power 118 . POLE/LOGGING .Point of articulation — fifth wheel coupling on a converter dolly (forming the front axle group of a dog trailer) Point of articulation — fifth wheel on a prime mover Point of articulation — kingpin for fifth wheel POINT OF ORIGIN .The terminal at which a shipment is received by a transportation line from the shipper.Some pole trailers consist of a set of axles with a cradle to hold logs and a long.
Some have double decks. poles. (2) Sometimes refers to a flatbed with bunks. and is ordinarily used for transporting loads.A hopper bottom or a live bed truck used to carry potatoes. ²Truck trailer which uses a rigid pole as a structural member connecting the axle unit to the truck pulling it.(Slang) For a smaller diameter wheel attached to a lift axle. Usually has bunks for holding logs. Others are skeletally framed. rigid loads such as logs. They are used to haul long.Weigh stations (scale) or Customs Office that routinely documents who comes into a province/state and where they are going. structural members. PORT OF ENTRY . ³A logging trailer.it has lifting equipment for lifting poles in oilfield service and contracting.A quick visual inspection of the commercial vehicle at the end of the day or trip. or other long objects. 119 .Flares placed on highway to warn traffic of an obstruction or hazard. POLE-TYPE TRAILER .See Possum Belly. POST TRIP . POLE TRUCK . A "spud bed.unit.A trailer that is attached to a towing vehicle by a pole. etc. See also." POTS . Pole-type trailer PONY AXLE .(1) Also called a winch truck . pipes. Pole-type Trailer. Most will have cradle-like features called bunks to hold the logs in place.Livestock trailer with a drop frame to haul small animals (chickens. POTATO TRUCK/TRAILER . that can generally support themselves like beams between supports. POLE TRAILER . POSSUM BELLY . It can have an A-frame.¹A trailer whose body consists simply of a drawbar by which the trailer is drawn. such as logs. pipe and other cargo capable of resting as a beam between the axle unit and the truck pulling the trailer.) underneath heavy cattle. POSSUM BELLY TRAILER . or an attachment fitted to the pole. The center portion of the trailer may be adjustable in order to accommodate loads of different lengths.
A prepaid shipment is one on which the charges for transportation service rendered at the request of the Consignor. See also.g. PRE-LOADED .¹The group of components which drive the vehicle. 120 . The load is ready in advance of sending the driver in to pick up the load.89 kPa) POUR ON THE COAL . including the engine. Prepaid Shipment. which transmit the engine's power to the rear wheels: clutch.POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH (PSI) . See also.A term denoting that transportation charges have been or are to be paid at shipping point. PREPAID . garbage compactor.A unit of pressure in the imperial system. transmission. and used to transmit engine power to auxiliary equipment such as pumps. ³A truck or the part of a combination that has the engine. A PTO often drives a hydraulic pump.¹The control and pulling vehicle for trailers or semi-trailers. transmission. See also. kilopascal (kPa). (1 psi = 6. PREPAID SHIPMENT . POWER DIVIDER . winches. Frequently called a drive axle. or off the front of the crankshaft. POWERTRAIN (DRIVETRAIN) . etc. clutch.An axle that supports a portion of the vehicle weight and transmits a driving force to the wheels. POWER TAKE OFF (PTO) . POWERED AXLE . Tractor. while others attach at the front or rear of the engine. 4An outlet from a vehicle engine used to transfer power to towed equipment or machinery. ²Device used to transmit engine power to auxiliary equipment. Namely: engine. Some designs mount to a standard opening on the transmission. ²All the components.Step on the gas. which can power a dump body. including charges for any accessorial services performed at the request of the Consignor are to be paid by the Shipper. driveline and drive axle(s). See also. ²The tractor or prime mover. hydraulic hoist). Drivetrain.Open throttle while applying brakes.A driver is not present at the time the loading of the trailer occurred. tipper hoist.See Inter-axle Lock. tailshaft and rear axle. POWER BRAKE . concrete mixer or refuse packer. POWER UNIT . concrete mixer. See Prime Mover. ³A device usually mounted on the side of the transmission or transfer case. bulk liquid pump.¹A device attached to a vehicle’s transmission or flywheel enabling engine power to be used to drive ancillary equipment (e. Drop and Hook.
PRE-PLAN . PROHIBITED ARTICLES . PROOF OF DELIVERY . PRE-TENSION . PRIME MOVER . The required gear is first selected by operation of the gear shift control (gear lever or shift button) but actual engagement of the gear is achieved by operating the clutch pedal or releasing the accelerator. ²A motor vehicle built to tow a semi-trailer. (See For-Hire Carrier) ²A company which maintains its own trucks to transport its own freight. Preselection requires that the range lever is moved to the needed position before starting the shift.See Tailshaft. (2) Always preselect all range shifts when upshifting or downshifting. PROPORTIONAL RATE . ²Pre-tension is the force in a lashing resulting from initial tightening by the operator.Different categories of drivers include overthe-road. PROPELLER SHAFT .¹A short wheel base truck used to tow a semi-trailer.Articles which will not be handled. PRE-SELECTION (OF GEARS) . line-haul and local. This is legal proof of delivery.The next load that a driver is set up to pick up after the completion of the load that he/she is currently on. (It is called a “Tractor” in the United States) PRIVATE CARRIER .¹The initial tension in a lashing after tensioning.A rate specifically published to be used only as a factor in making a combination through rate. Preselected range shifts are completed automatically as the lever is moved through neutral and into the next gear.¹Business which operates trucks primarily for the purpose of transporting its own products and raw materials.Carrier establishes proof of delivery from delivery receipt copy of freight bill signed by consignee at time of delivery. The principle business activity of a private carrier is not transportation.A system of gear shifting in which selection and engagement of the gears are two distinct operations. PRESELECT . Preselecting all range shifts prevents damage to the transmission and provides for smoother shifts. Two speed axle ratios or transmission range changes may be pre-selected and then shifted in this manner. 121 .(1) Moving the shift button just prior to starting the shift. The shift button should not be moved while the shift lever is in neutral. A rate from New York to Chicago published to apply only on traffic destined points beyond Chicago would be a proportional rate. PROFESSIONAL TRUCK DRIVER .
Logs (usually shorter and smaller in diameter) used for making pulp to manufacture paper. circulars. running lights. and used to measure tyre and air brake system pressure. bill instructions.(Power Take Off) See Power Take Off. This information is utilized to determine when a driver needs to be planned for. and to ensure that there is enough freight for the driver to move.To divide or distribute proportionally. full trailer (supported by axles front and rear) with an extended tongue. air brake system pressure and turbocharger boost. PU . guide books. and it does not include driving lights. PULPWOOD . PSC (or PUC) . fog lights. PROTRUSIONS . exception sheets.Common abbreviation for pickup truck. PUP . aerials/antennas etc. classifications. See Pup Trailer. PULL TRAILER . territorial directories. PUBLICATION . Pup Trailer. nudge-bars.PRO RATE . PSI (POUNDS PER SQUARE INCH) .Projected Time of Availability. See also. PTO .A fitting such as 'bull bars'. This must be done in the manner required by the Interstate Commerce Act or state law.Release the fifth wheel lock. PUP TRAILER . etc. ²A short semi-trailer used jointly with a 122 . ‘Pounds Per Square Inch’.Making public tariffs.¹Short. unit of measurement for tyre air pressure. such as license fee based on proportion of miles traveled in each state. See also. ²Pounds per square inch. ²A full trailer.¹In trucking.¹A trailer having a single non-steering axle near the middle of the length of the load-carrying platform. with reference to the driver.A short semi-trailer used in combination with a dolly and another semitrailer to create a twin trailer. PTA . ‘roo-bars'. P/U .Common abbreviation for pickup truck.(Public Service Commission [or Public Utilities Commission]) The state body which regulates utilities and for-hire trucking operations within a state's boundaries. and will attach with either a ball or a pintle hitch. It has at least two axles. PULP WOOD BODY .Truck or trailer body designed primarily for the transportation of pulp wood. PULL THE PIN .
with whom we do not have occurrence of a joint route for delivering a shipment to a point we have rights to service. Sometimes used to refer to a short semi-trailer not in twin combination.Payment of local charges to a connecting carrier. PUSHER AXLE . usually between 26 and 32 feet long. (Also called a dog trailer – see Dog Trailer) 4A short semi-trailer used in combination with a dolly and another semi-trailer to create a twin trailer.Put on tyre chains. PUT ON THE AIR .dolly and another semi-trailer to create a twin trailer. Sometimes a pull trailer is referred to as pup. with a single axle. but which we give to the connecting carrier for our operating convenience. ²Powered rear axle on a vehicle having a non-powered axle ahead of it.Apply the brakes. 123 .A temperature gauge that measures the temperature of the engine exhaust gases. See also.¹A drive axle when located at the rear of a tandem axle group in which the other axle is unpowered. PUT ON THE IRON . PURCHASED TRANSPORTATION . Axle. PYROMETER or EGT GAUGE . See Pull Trailer. ³A short trailer or semitrailer.
-QQUAD-AXLE GROUP .2m. but not over 4.9m.A group of 4 axles in which the horizontal distance between the centers of the outermost axles is over 3. 124 .
mounted on the radiator and resemble a Venetian blind. RAMPS . Usually hides behind the mike and doesn't have the balls to say where he is. Used to allow the normal transmission ratios to be repeated in another higher (or lower) range thus doubling the number of gear ratios available. Preselection requires that the range lever is moved to the needed position before starting the shift.¹Removable wood or metal wall sections (usually slatted) held in place on flatbeds normally by stake pockets.Articulated or removable bridge-type structures used to load or unload lowbed or drop frame trailers. Almost all heavy trucks use range change boxes. The company provides loads through Agents for owner/operators and small fleets to haul. Preselected range shifts are completed automatically as the lever is moved through neutral and into the next gear.A cargo container that can be loaded or stacked on a railroad flat car.A set of transmission gears engaged by a lever or knob which is independent of the normal shift lever.The range lever selects LO or HI range (Up for HI Range/Down for LO Range). RAILWAY CONTAINER . ²Removable wood or metal wall sections attachable to flatbed trailers to make sides for confining loads. RAMBO . RAIL VEHICLE . See also.-RRACKS . RADIATOR SHUTTER . Mostly used on North American trucks. RANGER TRANSPORTATION . Always preselect all range shifts when upshifting or downshifting. It is used once during an upshift sequence and once during a downshift sequence. Preselecting all range shifts prevents damage to the transmission and provides for smoother shifts. RANGE LEVER .A company that owner/operators and small fleets lease their equipment to.A device now rarely found in Australia.Open top trailer using a tarpaulin for a covering. RANGE CHANGE . The shutters are thermostatically controlled. RAG TOP . They control air flow to the radiator and are particularly effective in very cold climates. Splitter.Someone getting mouthy on the CB.A vehicle whose skeletal structure is fitted with stakes at the front and rear to contain logs loaded crosswise. The company also handles all the legal 125 . RAGS .Bad tyres.
RAVE .A freight bill showing quantities. RATED FREIGHT BILL . 126 . RANGE SELECTOR . RAV . RATE BASIS .A light used on a vehicle to make it more easily visible from the rear in dense fog.A refuse truck that is loaded at the rear usually with some kind of compacting mechanism.Red and yellow plates which must be fitted to the rear of heavy vehicles to make them more visible when they are moving slowly or parked. awards. drug testing. and so on. safety.See Range Lever.requirements – logs. driver qualifications. ²A rail or framework (permanent or removable) added to the sides of the loading platform to increase load capacity (greedy boards).Amount of change between two gear ratios expressed as a percentage. and total price. class 2 permit or class 3 permit. REAL MILES . RATE . RAV PERMIT . class 2 notice or class 3 notice. REAR MARKERS (REFLECTOR PLATES) . RANGE SHIFT . RAT HOLE SERVICE .See Range Lever. the real miles driven from shipper to consignee.The charge for transporting freight. insurance. RAV NOTICE .See Restricted Access Vehicle.See Turnbuckle. price per unit.A table of rates graduated according to distance or zones. RATIO STEP .A class 1 notice. Example: The ratio step from 1st gear to 2nd gear is 35%.A formula containing the specific factors used in making a rate. (Not book miles) REAR FOG LIGHT . REAR LOADER .¹A rail or framework around the platform to increase load capacity. RATCHET . RATE SCALE .Refers to drilling rigs.A class 1 permit.From the odometer.
²The distance between the rear overhang line and the rear of the vehicle.REAR OVERHANG . ²The retread portion of a rebuilt tyre. Rear overhang and rear overhang line Rear overhang and rear overhang line — vehicle with tri-axle group at rear Rear overhang and rear overhang line — semi-trailer RECAP .¹Another term for a retreaded tyre. 127 .¹Distance from the center of the rear axle to the end of frame.
RECOOPER . ²A refrigerated trailer with insulated walls and a self-powered refrigeration unit. See also.This cargo category is for cargoes carried in refrigerated cargo bodies. REFLECTOR PLATES . 128 . REFRIGERATED FOODS . Reefer. The line is painted across the top inside ceiling of the trailer. Refrigerated foods must be both refrigerated and food for human consumption. Van.The granting of privileges by a state to vehicles or vehicle owners from another state in return for similar privileges. ice cream.A cargo body style typified by a totally enclosed box with a refrigeration unit. REDUCTION . etc. Ice is included in this category. 6Refrigerated truck or trailer designed for hauling perishables.See RFG.¹A dry freight container which is insulated and fitted with a refrigeration unit. 2) double reduction: an additional gear-set in the rear axle to reduce output speed further. 4A refrigerated van used for cold goods.See Rear Markers. REFORMULATED GASOLINE .A label required on shipments or articles of an inflammable character. Most commonly used for transporting food. Refrigerated Van Trailer. REFRIGERATED VAN TRAILER .Used to indicate the slower output speed resulting from a ratio proportion (faster on reductions of less than 1). 8(Slang) A van style cargo body with a refrigeration unit. REFRIGERATED VAN . RED LINE . Used for hauling produce. 7A refrigerated van type of trailer. May or may not be used as a 2-speed rear axle.Repair damaged cartons or containers.(Reefer) A type of trailer: freight is transported in an enclosed refrigerated trailer (reefer) to maintain a specific temperature. 1) single reduction: a single set of reducing gears in the rear axle. 5A box trailer with a heating/cooling unit (reefer) attached. It can both cool and heat a trailer.RECIPROCITY . ³A refrigerated trailer used for carrying refrigerated products. The privileges may be complete exemption from the payment of all fees and motor vehicle taxes or partial exemption.Term referring to the halfway point in a trailer. See also. RED LABEL . REEFER (REEFER TRAILER) . See also.
usually through the use of large hooks or removable pins. in which one driver takes a truck for 8 to 10 hours.Those commodities which are transported under governmental regulation.A holder placed on the front of the trailer to hold the trailer licensing information.A mechanical device designed to be mounted on a refrigerated trailer or container for the purpose of cooling the cargo area.A gooseneck which can be separated from the trailer and reconnected.Repayment of excess freight charges. REFUSE .Those carriers transporting commodities for which operating authority from the ICC is required.A cargo body designed for loading and hauling rubbish. then turns the truck over to another driver. RELAY (RELAY DRIVING) . Reefer. The motive force required to remove such goosenecks is usually obtained through the use of the tractor winch line or hydraulic cylinders. pony express style.See Garbage/Refuse. REFUSE BODY . See also.Common practice in the less-than-truckload industry.The protection of perishable freight by ice or mechanical means. REGULATED COMMODITIES . REGULATED CARRIER . REGISTRATION HOLDER . REFUND . REMOVABLE GOOSENECK . REFRIGERATION UNIT .REFRIGERATION .A carrier subject to economic regulation by the Interstate Commerce Commission. 129 . REGULATED MOTOR CARRIER .
A condition in which the vehicle is induced to roll from side to side at its natural roll frequency. ³An electro-magnetic device for slowing a vehicle down without using wheel brakes. or 19 m in the case of a combination. RESTRAINED . Another word for tachometer. a length of 12. REV COUNTER . Energy stored in the suspension builds up as it repeatedly transfers from one side to the other.An article that is not contained. See also. exceeds one or more of the following limits: a prescribed mass limit or one of the following dimension limits: a width of 2.¹See Speed Retarder. RESONANCE ROLL .5 m. a height of 4. REVOLUTIONS PER MINUTE .¹An axle which can be raised when not needed.Gasoline blended with pollution reducing additives. REWORK A TRAILER . not employed by the company. RFG (REFORMULATED GASOLINE) . but is prevented from tipping or shifting. RETARDER .5 m in the case of a motor vehicle that is not part of a combination. or any other dimension limit specified in the regulations or the Vehicle Standards.REPARATION .A vehicle that alone. Roll Frequency. or together with any load. RIDER POLICY . usually as a result of steering back and forth from one side to the other. ²An axle that can be raised so that the tyres on the axle do not touch the ground.3 m.) Other types of retarders include exhaust retarders.A policy the company might have that allows someone. RETRACTABLE AXLE . transmission-mounted hydraulic retarders and axle-mounted electromagnetic retarders. RESTRICTED ACCESS VEHICLE (RAV) . (This type is commonly referred to as "Jake Brake" because the predominant manufacturer is Jacobs Vehicle Equipment Co. RESTRICTED ARTICLES .See RPM. ²A device used to assist brakes in slowing the vehicle.Commodities that cannot be handled at all or may be handled under certain specific conditions. increasing the roll each time until the vehicle may overturn.To move the freight around on a trailer in order to legalize the axle weights.Compensation for damage.An instrument which tells how fast the motor is turning. The most common type of retarder on over-the-road trucks manipulates the engine's valves to create engine drag. Typically limited to certain 130 . to ride along with you.
corrosives (hydrochloric acid).times of year (April to November) and limited to age of rider. books. Rigid vehicle RINGFEDER . RIDE SHOT GUN . ROAD HOG . Manufactured by Wabash Corp.¹Usually means any combination of truck or prime mover and trailer(s). also known as a crash box. flammable gases (LP Gas). See Constant Mesh Transmission. The Policy might also stipulate the person must be an immediate family member only. RIGID VEHICLE .A constant mesh gearbox. flammable paints. or other combinations. ROAD-MONEY .Truck body similar to an oilfield body designed primarily for rigging work. RIGGERS BODY .Semi-trailer specially designed to travel both on highway and on rails. ROADRAILER .A bulk road tanker that is designed for transporting dangerous goods such as: flammable liquids (petrol. etc. tractor semi-trailer. truck and full trailer. ROADRANGER GEARBOX .). RIG . and non-flammable non-toxic gases (CO2). See also.A vehicle without a trailer. RING ROAD .What we spend while on the road: food. riding on right side of cab (left side of cab in Australia). turpentine. and is suitable for this purpose. Truck. etc. kerosene. ³Slang term for a transport truck. It does not have synchromesh so you have to double clutch every time you change gear. ²Truck.A circular route around a city.Not driving.Motorist who takes more than his share of the highway. ROAD TANK VEHICLE . smokes. 131 .See Automatic Tow Coupling. Straight Truck.
and Canada the terms "triples". BAB-Quad. AAB-Quad.) ²A combination. which consists of a prime mover and two semi-trailers. Typical Road Trains Foden Road Train Rotinoff Road Train Kalari Transport 3-trailer Road Train Kenworth 2-trailer Road Train Mack 2-trailer Road Train 132 . B-Triple. ABB-Quad. Type 1 Road Train. The term "road train" is most often used in Australia. the United States. 2AB-Quad. BA-Triple.¹Either a truck hauling two or more trailers.S. BB-Quad. consisting of a motor vehicle towing at least 2 trailers (counting as a single trailer and a converter dolly supporting a semi-trailer). Type 2 Road Train. and Western Canada to move bulky loads efficiently. "Turnpike doubles" and "Rocky Mountain doubles" are commonly used for longer combination vehicles (LCVs). ABTriple. See also.ROAD TRAIN or ROADTRAIN . ³A road train is a trucking concept used in remote areas of Australia. or a prime mover and semi-trailer hauling one or more trailers. In the U. (Note: This is not a BDouble. except a B-double.
ROH . 133 .A combination vehicle consisting of a tractor pulling a 45 to 48 foot semi-trailer and a second shorter semi-trailer (usually 28 feet in length).To free vehicle from mud or snow by alternately driving forward and reverse.Rear Overhang.Western Star 2-trailer Road Train Western Star 2-trailer Road Train Livestock Road Train KW 3-Trailer Road train Mack 3-trailer Road train Kenworth Road Train Mack Road Train Road Trains ROCK IT .When a long haul driver drives and stops at regular intervals to sleep. ROLL and REST . ROCKY MOUNTAIN DOUBLE .
ROLLTOP . Sometimes this takes only a year or two. because of the friction of the rope as it passes over itself in the knot and slowly becomes locked in the knot. The vehicles used for transporting roll-off containers have rails or a flatbed with a hydraulic hoist for loading and unloading these large containers.A new truck driver.) Ropes should only be used for restraining relatively lightweight loads. He/she is considered to be a rookie until he/she stops acting like one.Ropes are normally tensioned using a single or double ‘truckie’s hitch’. not the tension achieved when tightening.The natural frequency at which a vehicle tends to roll from side to side on its suspension. ROPE SINGLE HITCH and ROPE DOUBLE HITCH . measured with tyre loaded to rated capacity. Each hitch has a multiplying effect like a ‘block and tackle’. Resonance Roll.Attachments fixed to the surrounds of the loading deck for securing of tarpaulin and tie-down ropes. chains.Usually made of pipe and fitted under the coaming rail. ROPE RAIL or TIE RAIL . often used as refuse containers.Trailer with a sliding roof to permit crane loading. However. 134 . All transport fiber rope with a diameter of at least 12 mm is color-coded for its lashing capacity. See also ‘Rope Single Hitch and Rope Double Hitch’.Rope designed for use in transport (Transport Fiber Rope) is made from synthetic fiber.ROLL FREQUENCY . A rope with two black marker yarns has a lashing capacity of 100 kg and a rope with one yellow and one black marker yarn has a lashing capacity of 300 kg. ROLL-OFF CONTAINER . ROOKIE . and tarps to secure loads. See also. ROLLING RADIUS . Rope made from natural fiber has lower strength than synthetic rope. most of the applied tension is lost. ROPE . ROPE HOOKS . Used for tying ropes.Tyre dimension from centre of the axle to the ground.Typically an open top container designed for transporting solids in bulk. Used in calculating geared speed. (Note these are the strength of the rope. The double hitch gives about twice the tension of a single hitch. but some drivers never lose this tag.
²Measure of the speed at which a shaft spins.¹Emergency bypath next to a steep downgrade that a heavy truck can steer into after losing braking power.(a) The course or direction that a shipment moves.Truckie’s Hitch (single and double hitch) ROUND TIMBER . Most often used to describe engine crankshaft speed. logs. ROUTE . gravel-filled pathway which helps to absorb the truck's forward momentum. Depending on the surrounding terrain. bringing it to a safe stop. RUB RAIL .A rail along the side of a vehicle that protects the side of the vehicle from impacts. 135 . RPM (REVOLUTIONS PER MINUTE) .Felled trees. Usually one to three lanes wide and several hundred feet long. (b) To designate the course or direction a shipment shall move. the ramp may be level or run up or down hill.¹Also referred to as revs per minute or revs. (c) The carrier or carriers by which a shipment moves. Indicated by a tachometer. RUNAWAY LANE or RUNAWAY TRUCK RAMP . the lane or ramp is a soft. ²A safe emergency lane or ramp at the end of a steep downgrade that you can steer into if you lose brake power.
See also. Fifth Wheel Coupling. which is designed to be towed by a pickup or medium duty truck equipped with a special hitch called a fifth wheel coupling. a generator. A modern fifth-wheel trailer with a single slide-out (type of RV) 136 . usually over 40 feet (12.Runaway lane or ramp RUNNING . Part of the trailer body extends over the truck bed. and satellite Internet. are generally used to refer to an enclosed piece of equipment dually used as both a vehicle and a temporary travel home. an upgraded electrical system.) RVs can also be rented in most major cities and tourist areas. such as a small Freightliner. are pulled by small semi-trucks. RVs are intended for everything from brief leisure activities such as vacations and camping.000 pounds (8. not to be confused with RVs/motorhomes. (However. to full-time living.In North American English the term recreational vehicle.2 m) in length and 18.200 kg) in weight. they are also used as mobile offices. and its acronym RV. RV . Furthermore. shortening the total length of vehicle plus trailer combined. There are different classes of vehicles generally labeled as RVs. many trailer parks are reserved just for mobile homes. for which they are often parked in special trailer parks. When used as mobile offices they often include customizations such as extra desk space. One such type is a fifth-wheel trailer. Some larger fifth-wheel trailers.A fairly regular term for driving. They are also called motor home and motor caravan (or motorhome and motorcaravan).
Device that is serially numbered and used to temporarily fasten trailer and truck doors so that unauthorized entry into the unit can be detected.A dump truck with a special hydraulic system. such as lifting shingles to a roof. SCOTCHES .¹The fuel tank on a truck or tractor. SECURED . SECURING DEVICE . you are scattering traffic from both of the lanes into the turn. SCATTERING TRAFFIC .A scale is a place where the law makes sure you are not over gross weight or over axle weight. It is also called "checking your ground pressure". SCISSORS DUMP . you put on your right indicator to take up half of the right hand lane. SCALE. SEAL . SEAT-COVER . WEIGH STATION) . and generally be harassed. determined by the cross-section area and shape of the side rails. ²Fuel storage area on a tractor. SCALE MASTER (CHICKEN COOP. WEIGH MASTER.Any female in a passenger seat. 137 . SCISSORS LIFT . You can also have your truck inspected. SCALES .Any device specifically manufactured as a means to attach or secure cargo to a vehicle or trailer. only by the shape and position of the rail.A cargo body which is used to lift materials to a higher surface. you are turning left at a roundabout and you need to take up two lanes in order to compensate for the length of your trailer in the tightness of the turn: first. thus.-SSADDLE TANK . your logbooks checked.Provincial/state scales for determining the weights of trucks and the weight of each of their axles. Section modulus is not affected by the material from which the side rail is made.To put on right and left indicators to make a turn. A scale master is also a law enforcement official who runs the scale. and then you put on your left indicator to take up half of the left hand lane.See Chocks. For example.A measure of the strength of frame side rails.Means by which cargo is contained or restrained. SECTION MODULUS .
SERVICE ROAD . and (b) a means of attachment to a prime mover that results in some of the load being imposed on the prime mover. A semi-trailer has no front axle and cannot stand without support. 4Trucktrailer equipped with one or more axles and constructed so that the front end rests upon a truck-tractor. SEMI-TRAILER .To stop quickly. Semi-trailers are pulled by tractors only. Tractor-Semi-trailer.¹A semi-trailer has one axle group at the rear and is designed so that the front is supported by the prime mover which is used to tow it. SETBACK AXLE .SEMI or SEMI-TRAILER . A trailer whose front half rests on the back of a tractor. A substantial part of the weight of both trailer and load rests on the tractor. 5A trailer without a front axle. SET IT DOWN . Truck) Semi-trailer. ²A trailer (including a pole-type trailer) that has — (a) one axle group or single axle to the rear. Advantages: Shorter turning radius and more of a vehicle's weight shifted to front axle. See Semi-Trailer.¹Common term for an articulated vehicle (prime mover and semi-trailer). Semi-trailer Road train with two (2) semi-trailers and one (1) converter dolly SERVICE BRAKE . ²(See also Semi-trailer. 6The front portion of a semitrailer rests on the back of a tractor. ³Truck trailer supported at the rear by its own wheels and at the front by a fifth wheel mounted to a tractor or dolly.A frontage road. The semi-trailer is coupled to the tractor by the fifth wheel on the tractor and the kingpin on the trailer. ²The brake normally used to decelerate the vehicle. 138 . A full trailer has an axle group at both ends and can support itself. coupled to the tractor by a fifth wheel.Front steering axle moved rearward from the generally accepted standard position.¹The main brake system acting on all road wheels and controlled by a foot pedal. used loosely in reference to tractor and semi-trailer unit.
as when driving a motor vehicle.Driver with questionable ability.(Pickup) ¹Where you pick up a load.¹A change in the longitudinal or lateral position or orientation of an article. Used also as a record by the freight agent at origin. SHIFT .Broken down cases (the amounts contained in boxes or other containers). SHIPPER’S LOAD and COUNT . Splitter Shift. ²To change gears. SHIFTER .Blinking headlights as a warning signal. SHAG . ²The customer location in which a load is picked up from. SHIFT BUTTON . SHIFT LEVER . 139 . SHAKE THE LIGHTS . a gear lever. but excluding fuel and coolant. SHIPPER .The document authorizing release of a shipment (See Bill of Lading). The two principal shapes are "D" and "bow"."Dry" weight of a truck including all standard equipment. Usually it is a copy of the bill of lading.SHACKLE .Instructions to carrier for transportation of a shipment. SHIPPING WEIGHT . See also. SHIPPING ORDER . See Cases. ²A metal coupling link closed by a bolt. SHEEP HERDER . a gearstick).Indicates that the contents of a truck were loaded and counted by the shipper and not checked or verified by the transportation line. which can be used for connecting chains to anchor points.The lever that changes gears in a transmission.A mechanical device for engaging and disengaging gears (also called a gearshift. SHIPPER'S ORDER .¹A metal coupling link closed by a bolt which can be used for attaching chain fittings.The button on the side of the shift knob used to change gears.Papers used in connection with movement of freight.Small. SHOOKS . city trailer. SHIPPING PAPERS . ³A U-shaped metal coupling link closed by a bolt.
SHORT TON . and includes vans and dump bodies. It may be adjustable and also can be known as a shoring pole. SHORT COMBINATION TRUCK . and (b) The maximum total mass that is legally allowable for the combination is 42. SICK HORSE .See ‘Stretch and Shrink Wrapping’. column.5 tonnes or less. SHORTWOOD .A vehicle whose cargo compartment is enclosed on all four sides by walls of sufficient strength to contain cargo. SIDED VEHICLE . SHUNT . Such logs are often described as cut-up logs. SHORT COMBINATION PRIME MOVER .SHORING BAR .See Gates. ²Metal or wooden load-carrying beam or fabricated truss section used to restrain or transmit a load from one frame. Can also be the curtains on the sides of a Tautliner type truck or trailer body.¹Adjustable metal beam used to restrain or segregate sections of load (also known as a Shoring Pole). and includes a sided intermodal container carried by a vehicle. where the walls may include latched openings for loading and unloading.000 pounds (also called a net ton).Improper loading of freight.All logs typically up to 4. SIDE CURTAINS . SIDE GATES . wall or bearing point to another. though that loaded crosswise is usually no more than 2.A prime mover nominated to haul one semi trailer. SHORING POLE .A tarpaulin that encloses the side of a load.See Shoring Bar.A tractor in poor mechanical condition. Shortwood may be loaded lengthwise or crosswise. post.When quantity actually received is less than that shown on the waybill. especially with low power. ³A structural section placed transversely between the walls of a vehicle to prevent cargo from tipping or shifting. SHRINK WRAPPING . or pulpwood. Usually attached to the gates. 140 .6 m (102 inches) long. cut-to-length logs. SHORTAGE . according to the nomination: (a) The combination has 6 axles or fewer.A truck nominated to haul one trailer where. bolts. SHOVELING .2.To maneuver trailers or to do a local shuttle service.9 m (16 feet) long.
²An axle (one axle) that is mounted independently of any other axle.A trailer or semi-trailer that has no tray but has attachments fitted to the frame for the carrying of goods (e. SKELETAL or SKEL TRAILER . SINGLE AXLE .¹Semi-trailer with hydraulic cranes mounted on tracks at both ends of the trailer allowing for the loading and unloading of different sized shipping containers without the need of a forklift or other container handling equipment. heavy loads (such as steel bars) or pallets. SINGLE DROP PLATFORM .SIDELIFTER/SIDELOADER .See Single Drop Trailer.Service in which companies can lease drivers and trucks from the same source.See Stepdeck. ²A high-lift industrial truck able to work in very narrow aisles and equipped to reach forward to pick up or deposit long. (Same as “Pallet”) ²A wooden platform on which heavy articles or packaged goods are placed to permit handling equipment. SKID . SINGLE-SOURCE LEASING .¹An axle not forming part of an axle group. SINGLE AXLE GROUP . SINGLE DROP TRAILER . extending across the full width of the vehicle. Also.g. twist locks for containers. The Federal single axle weight limit on the Interstate System is 20. ³(Side Loader) A refuse truck which is loaded from the side. 141 . SIX BANGER .¹A platform or tray on which cargo is placed so that it can be handled as an article. or bolsters for logs or timber). Stepdeck.A group of at least 2 axles in which the horizontal distance between the centers of the outermost axles is under 1m. sometimes used in reference to side reach vehicles like the Raymond Swing-Reach®. The rear is closer to the ground than the front.000 pounds. The front of the plate is usually curved upwards to enable the prime mover to slide more easily under the trailer during coupling. rather than having to procure them from different companies. See also. SINGLE-DROP DECK .A thick steel plate fixed to the underside of the front of a semitrailer and incorporating the kingpin (and often a block to keep the skid plate from turning on the upper part of greasy plate and ballrace turntables).A type of flatbed trailer.Six-cylinder engine. SINGLE AXLE WEIGHT .The total weight transmitted to the road by all wheels whose centers may be included between two parallel transverse vertical planes 40 inches apart. Also called a single drop platform. Pallet. SKID PLATE . See also.
SLEEPER BOX .A cab with a bunk or sleeping compartment. 4A fifth-wheel assembly capable of being moved forward or backward on the tractor to adjust the load distribution on the tractor and the overall length of the rig.¹Sleeping compartment mounted behind a truck cab. ³A trailer tandem that has a sliding and locking apparatus for variable weight distribution.A separate sleeping compartment fitted behind but with an opening into the truck cab. sometimes attached to the cab or even designed to be an integral part of it. SLIDING TANDEM (SLIDER) . SLEEPER BERTH . SLIDER .Six axle trailer. ²Truck with a sleeping compartment in the cab. ³The area behind the driver's seat and the jump seat. SLEEPER CAB . SKINS . SLIDING FIFTH WHEEL .SKINNIE AXLE .Tyres.See Team. ³A fifth wheel that can be moved forwards and backwards on the frame rails to put more or less weight on the steering axle. ²A fifth wheel assembly capable of being moved forward or backward on the truck tractor to obtain desired load distribution between tractor and trailer axles. ²A two-axle assembly capable of being moved forward or backward on the trailer body to obtain desired load distribution.¹Mechanism that allows a tandem axle suspension to be moved back and forth at the rear of a semi-trailer.See Sliding Tandem. storage.A simple gearbox for engaging power takeoffs (PTOs). SLIDING MESH TRANSMISSION .¹Fifth wheel mounted to a mechanism that allows it to be moved back and forth for the purpose of adjusting the distribution of weight on the tractor's axles. ²A truck tractor or truck cab incorporating a bed or bunk. Also provides the capability to vary vehicle combination lengths. and other stuff is. See Sleeper Box. 4 Truck cab with a sleeping compartment.¹A driving cabin that is fitted with one or two bunks. where the bed (bunk). 142 . Bonnetted longhaul trucks most commonly have sleeper boxes but the trend is for integrated sleepers which cabover trucks have had for years. SLEEPER TEAM . for the purpose of adjusting the distribution of weight between the axles and fifth wheel. SLEEPER .
SNOW CHICKEN .See Strop. SLIP-SHEETS . and are generally carried loose.Relay operation where drivers are changed periodically. He/she must stop and rest for eight hours after each ten hour driving shift. (Used for meat. vegetables. SOLIDS IN BULK . require special equipment for loading.This cargo category is for commodities that are not packaged.Changing a driver’s truck each time he/she departs on a trip. SPACE CUSHION . SNOTTER . SPACER .A trucking company franchised to transport articles which.Tractor emitting excessive smoke from exhaust.A single driver in a truck.An area around a vehicle which would allow a driver time to avoid an accident. SLIP SEATING . SMOKER . weight. etc). but the truck continues from origin to destination.An insulated container that is fitted with port holes so that the contents can be snap frozen using liquid nitrogen. unloading or transporting. Can be slipped on and off by certain types of forklifts to move loads around without manually handling them or putting them on pallets. SPAR . 143 . It has no on-board refrigeration equipment. webbing or steel-wire rope with eyes formed at each end. SOLO .SLING .A driver that hates driving in snow and ice. SPECIALIZED CARRIER . Usually will either park the truck or drive many miles off normal route to avoid the snow. SNOW SHOOTER .Vertical exhaust pipe on side of cab.See Transverse Beam. or other inherent characteristics. because size. SMOKESTACK .Pass another vehicle.Specially cut pieces of cardboard that go between a stack of goods and the floor. shape. SMOKE HIM .Material placed beneath an article or between tiers of articles. SLIP-SEAT .A length of hemp-core rope.
The HI range "H" forward/overdrive position splits each of these gears providing 8 ratios in HI range. A splitter provides a low and high range in each gear thus doubling the number of gears available.A motor vehicle.A two speed. SPIDER . The LO range "L" rearward/direct position provides for LO to 4th gear. (For example.A type of hook used for pulling a trailer. SPECIFICATIONS .4-High. SPLITTER or SPLITTER BOX . grade and load. The HI range "L" rearward/direct position provides for 5th to 8th gear. SPLITTER SHIFT . other than a tow truck or an agricultural vehicle. Range Change. SPEEDABILITY .3-High . SPINDLE HOOK .Lose traction on slippery roadway. The LO range "H" forward/overdrive position splits each of these gears giving 10 ratios in LO range.) See also. SPEED RETARDER .3-Low . SPIGOT . SPEED LIMITER .The cast spoke hub of a wheel upon which the rim is mounted.When in LO or HI range the ratios can be split by using the splitter button.An accessorial service of picking up or delivering portions of volume shipments at more than one place within origin or destination point boundaries. support).1-High . air resistance.Top speed a vehicle can attain as determined by engine power.An engine management device that limits the top speed of a truck without limiting engine revs or power in the lower gears.2-Low . SPLIT PICKUP or DELIVERY .A hydraulic or electric auxiliary brake fitted to the driveline which reduces the load on the service brakes. SPLITTER BUTTON . close ratio gear set operated by a lever or knob which is independent of the normal shift lever. the upshift sequence for a 4-speed transmission with splitter would be: 1-Low .2-High . driveline efficiency.The cylindrical end of a fitting which mates with a hole in another component forming a joint (connection. gross weight.SPECIAL PURPOSE VEHICLE . built for a purpose other than carrying a load.Descriptions of particulars or details.4-Low . SPIN OUT . except for water in the case of concrete pumps and fire trucks.See Splitter Shift. engine governed speed. (18 progressive ratios can be obtained in this example – an 18 speed Roadranger transmission) 144 .
depending on where they are mounted. State and federal bridge laws favor trailer axles with a wider spread by allowing higher weight than on tandems with standard spacing.Connects sidegates at the top strengthening them and raising the cap tarp in the centre so that water runs off when the load height is lower than that of the gates. These mirrors are round in shape. SPREAD AXLE (SPREAD TANDEM) . SPREADER CHAINS . gravel or sand) for spreading.Parking of a semi-trailer or trailer.See ‘Spread Axle (Spread Tandem’). There is always at least one on each side below the west coast mirror. and the convexity can vary. ³A two-axle assembly in which the axles are separated beyond the spacing of a normal tandem assembly in order to qualify for maximum axle loads allowed by regulations. The U.¹Tandem axle assembly spaced further apart than the standard spacing of 54 inches. See Spread Axle. SPOT THE BODY . SPOTTER . ²The person standing outside the truck to give the driver another set of eyes when the driver is making tight maneuvers or is backing up. Distance between centers of axles of a spread tandem has generally been over 50 inches. 4Tandem trailer axle assemblies spaced further apart than the standard spacing.¹A tandem axle group on a trailer having the two axles separated by a distance greater than 2 meters. SPREADER . ²A two-axle assembly in which the axles are separated by distances substantially greater than that in conventional assemblies. and 4-8 inches in diameter. It is also a supervisor who watches the activities of the driver on the road. SPOT MIRROR . SPOT A TRAILER .g.SPOKE WHEEL .A transverse spar or frame used to support tarpaulins and side gates. See also. ²A two-axle assembly with the axles spaced to allow maximum axle loads permitted by existing regulations. SPREAD TANDEM AXLE . Yardbird. SPREAD TANDEM . No longer built in Australia. SPREADER BAR .To back a trailer into a loading or unloading spot or drop the trailer in a customer/company yard. 145 . See also.See Cast Spoke Wheel. federal bridge formula favors trailer axles with an eight or nine foot spread by allowing higher weight than on tandems with standard spacing. They are usually convex in shape.¹A terminal yard driver who parks vehicles brought in by regular drivers.Used to restrict and adjust the opening of tipper tailgates to allow a regulated flow of the load (e.Another type of mirror trucks use. West Coast Mirror.S.
146 . Rates via other routes between the same points are set in relation to the standard rate. it is ’fail-safe’. (Same as “Standard”) STAKE BODY . Also called a Maxibrake.SPRING BRAKE .A large upright fixed to the side of a vehicle for sideways restraint.¹An upright metal rod or section (also called a Peg or Pin).¹Truck or trailer platform body with readily removable stakes. STACK OF LOGS . Spring brakes are used for parking and emergency braking on air braked vehicles. The necessary rotation between semi-trailer and prime mover is made between the upper and lower parts of the turntable. (Same as “Stake”) STANDARD RATE .Logs aligned parallel and heaped one upon others. STAKE .¹A single column of articles placed one above another. STAGE A LOAD .The carrier or carriers having a direct route between two points. STANDARD ROUTE . STACK . SQUEALER . ²A flatbed with sides or stakes to retain the load. STANDARD .A brake which is mechanically applied by a spring and released by air pressure which compresses the spring. and may also be used as an anchor point. number of stops. STAKE POCKET . speed and other factors during a trip.A female housing fixed to the side or ends of a vehicle to receive a stake or peg. STABILIZED TURNTABLE . ²A member mounted close to vertical on a vehicle frame or as part of a bunk that serves to immobilize cargo placed against it. STANCHION . slats or panels.A rate established for direct routes from one point to another. The stakes may be joined by chains. A device used in a cab to automatically record miles driven.A greasy plate or ballrace turntable where its upper plate and the semi-trailer skid plate are prevented from turning by a block on the semi-trailer skid plate. Because the brake automatically applies if air pressure is lost.Also known as "tattle tale" whose proper name is tachograph.A member mounted close to vertical on a vehicle frame or as part of a bunk that serves to immobilize cargo placed against it.When a shipper brings the freight out of a storage area in a warehouse to locations near a door in preparation for loading a truck. ²Exhaust pipe on diesel.
THE STEERS) . A unit may have more than one steering axle.An independent and autonomous association representing all classes and types of truck operation in a state. ²The front axle of a tractor.The first or front set of tyres on a tractor. Inc. STEP BUMPER . STEER TYRES (STEERS. STEPDECK (SINGLE-DROP DECK) . STEERING AXLE . See also. STEM WINDER . 147 . Stepdeck (Single Drop) Trailer.A bumper that can also function as a stepping platform either into or out of a cargo body. some can be steered remotely from the cab.STATE TRUCKING ASSOCIATION .Used in transporting extremely long objects.¹A trailer that has a main deck that is lower than the deck above the fifth wheel. ²A two level deck trailer with the lower deck usually 1 foot below the upper deck.A lightweight delivery truck designed so the driver can step into and out of the cab as well as into the rear cargo area. They must be new tyres only. recaps are not allowed. is a federation of these trucking associations. The back of the deck is usually level with the top of the trailer tyres. but not as low as that of a double drop. STEERABLE DOLLY . usually these bumpers are mounted relatively close to the ground.Hand-crank starter. Single Drop-Deck/Stepdeck STEP VAN . A steering axle may be powered on non-powered.¹An axle through which directional control of the vehicle is applied. American Trucking Associations.
tank. as contrasted to a combination unit such as a tractor-semi-trailer.3. and they cannot be unconnected.A metal structure for containing individual items of load. The size is computed to offer the right weight.A truck or trailer body built for carrying livestock. Straight trucks may or may not pull trailers. Some States allow stock crates to be up to 4.A truck tractor semi-trailer wherein the fifth wheel is located on a drop frame located behind and below the rear-most axle of the power unit.6 meters high while other trailer types are limited to 4. tank.Temporary safekeeping of a shipment at a point between origin and destination. STINGER FIFTH WHEEL . 4When a rigid truck or a truck and trailer are in one piece. Truck. less than a foot off the ground. Examples include refuse.¹A truck with the body and engine mounted on the same chassis. Examples include refuse. STILLAGE . 6This is a one unit vehicle capable of carrying cargo. Some states also allow ”volume loading” of stock crates where a trailer is built to a certain size and then is not required to weigh in.A rigid bar with an eye at each end used to couple roadtrains for pushing or pulling when one is bogged.Freight stored or packed as in a terminal or on board a truck. Straight trucks may or may not pull trailers.STEVEDORE . and dump trucks. ³A vehicle which carries cargo in a body mounted to its chassis.Seen most commonly as the connection point for auto-carriers. and dump trucks. STIFF BAR . The inverted fifth wheel is mounted behind the rear axles. Rigid Motor Vehicle. STORAGE IN TRANSIT .One who loads or unloads ships. rather than on a trailer towed by the vehicle. The bar is usually about 8 feet long so it can be carried crossways on the back of the prime mover. This recognizes that it is often impossible to find weighbridges where stock is loaded. STOCK CRATE . STINGER-STEERED COMBINATION . STOWAGE FREIGHT . STRAIGHT TRUCK . but are also seen on some logging rigs. STRADDLE TRUCK . ²A vehicle with the cargo body and tractor mounted on the same chassis. rather than on a trailer towed by a vehicle. 5A vehicle which carries cargo in a body mounted to its chassis. at the very end of the tractor.A high-lift truck with a wide enough baseleg opening (BLO) to straddle a pallet and engage the load. See also. 148 .
¹Strapping can be steel or plastic material and is used for unitizing loads into packs or bundles.¹A rigid support intended to bear loads along its length. STRETCH and SHRINK WRAPPING . Properly engineered super single installations on trailers allow wider spring centers and wheelbases for greater 149 . SUPER SINGLES .A cradle made from flexible material to make it easy to load with a hoist or pulley. and Load Locks (Accessory Equipment)’. making it very suitable as a tie-down lashing for heavy objects especially on container flats and pallets.See ‘Pads.A short axle that carries one of the front wheels and has limited angular movement about a kingpin. The use of handling equipment can damage the wrapping and reduce its effectiveness.The distance traveled by a piston in a cylinder during ½ revolution of the crankshaft. SUCKER BRAKES . (Same as “Banding”) STRAPS . Strapping can be highly pre-tensioned using manual or powered tensioners.Stretch film wrapping and shrink wrapping can be used to unitize a load consisting of many small objects such as palletized loads.A very low gear which is not used under normal circumstances. They are often not suitable for heavier loads or loads with sharp corners that can penetrate the wrapping. Straps. Also known as a snotter. ²A strip of material that may be used to unitize articles and is tensioned and clamped or crimped back upon itself. STRUT .Vacuum brakes.Straight truck STRAPPING . STRIP HER . STUB AXLE . STUMP PULLER . Also called a Bog Cog or Crawler. STROP . STROKE .Unloading the trailer. ²A rigid member which can support loads in the direction of its length.A wide profile wheel and tyre used on a steer axle or in place of a dual wheel assembly on trailers.
SUV – Sport/utility vehicle.A helper who rides with driver. Synchromesh Gearbox.¹A synchromesh gearbox is the same as a car manual gearbox.¹A transmission in which the speeds of the gears are matched or ’synchronized’ by means of in-built synchronizing clutches before they are meshed. you change gears while you have the clutch pushed to the floor. SWAMPER . Synchromesh Transmission. as the synchronizing of the gears is done by the gearbox. SUSPENSION SEAT .Counterbalanced Swing-Reach®) . SYNCHROMESH .A high-lift counterbalanced truck (equipped with a rotatable elevating mechanism) capable of transporting and tiering a load. especially when used with aluminium wheels. SWINDLE SHEET .stability which is especially important on naturally unstable vehicles like stock crates and tankers. ²This type of gearbox works in much the same manner as those in most modern cars.A device in a manual transmission that allows two gears to mesh more smoothly. They are easy to use. Must be swung open and secured along the side before tipping or it will strike the ground. (Compare with 150 . SURCHARGE . Easier to shift but is not as quick as a constant mesh transmission and it is necessary to use the clutch for every shift.See Yard Horse. Be aware that damage can be caused by forcing gear changes before the engine and road speeds are matched. SYNCHROMESH GEARBOX . See also. Synchromesh Transmission.An additional or extra tax. When a synchronizer gear matches the speed of the transmission main shaft to the speed of the gear being selected. SWING-REACH® TRUCK (CSR .Interstate Commerce Commission (ICC) log. (Compare with ‘Constant Mesh Transmission’) SYNCHROMESH TRANSMISSION . Synchromesh. There are also considerable tare weight advantages with super singles.A charge above the usual or customary charge. SWING GATE .An air or spring suspended and dampened seat designed to reduce vibration and road shock. See also. they mesh smoothly and prevent grinding and clashing of gears. SURTAX . It was first introduced by Cadillac in 1928. It is able to traverse the load laterally for storage at right angles to the truck travel path. SWITCHING TRACTOR .The rear gate on a tipper when it has side hinges and swings open to the side for bulky objects that would hit a top hinged tailgate.
SVC is: (1) Course.Transmission with built-in mechanisms to automatically "equalize" the speed of its gears to allow smooth shifting without the need to double-clutch. (6) GO when it is safe to do so. (This latter scenario is particularly pertinent to trucks as they are bigger and heavier than cars. look in mirrors and give appropriate signals to inform traffic in front and behind you to your intention to turn or stop. (4) Get into correct GEAR. or (b) (1) Apply BRAKES and slow down to an appropriate speed. checking mirrors as you go. (3) Apply BRAKES and slow down to an appropriate speed. Synchromesh. and check mirrors. 1st or LO gear if you need to stop). and check mirrors before entering hazard zone. See also. (4) Select the appropriate gear to clear the hazard without a further gear change. (3) Brakes. checking mirrors before entering hazard zone. which has right of way). See also. In summary. Synchromesh. Synchromesh Gearbox. (For example. Synchromesh Transmission. the SVC was originally devised for car control) 151 . (Compare with ‘Constant Mesh Transmission’) SYNCHRONOUS . (5) GIVE WAY to all traffic that has right of way. observe the hazard and select the correct course. Scan the hazard zone (intersection). (3) Brake to the appropriate speed to negotiate the hazard. (5) Evasive Action. check your mirrors again to ensure that you are moving off adequately and not obstructing anyone else behind. Synchromesh. Check mirrors again before entering the hazard zone. (2) Get into correct POSITION on road and SIGNAL your intension to turn or stop. (4) Gears/mirrors. See also.SVC is a systematic method of approaching all traffic situations taking into account the current road conditions and the correct use of vehicle controls to ensure the safe passage of the vehicle through any hazard. you might go from 7th or 6th gear to 5th gear if the hazard is clear or to 2nd. and get into correct GEAR. SYSTEM OF VEHICLE CONTROL (SVC) . Synchromesh Transmission. (2) Mirrors/signals.‘Constant Mesh Transmission’) ²A transmission with mechanisms for matching up the gear speeds so that they can be shifted without clashing. (6) As you move out of the hazard. give way to vehicle. (2) Check surrounding traffic. It is: (1) Plan your maneuver. (5) Be prepared to avoid any potentially dangerous situation that may have developed. (Gears should not be used at this stage to slow the vehicle). Delay any power increase until steering is straight. SYNCHRONIZED TRANSMISSION . eliminating the need for double clutching. (3) GIVE WAY to all traffic that has right of way and GO when it is safe to do so. checking mirrors as you go. (For example.The point at which the input gearing speed (engine speed) matches the output gearing speed (road speed) and a shift can occur without grinding. (2) SIGNAL your intension to turn or stop. (6) Acceleration. Two other summations are: (a) (1) Get into correct POSITION on road.
²A device used in a cab to automatically record miles driven. Tailgating. Can be pivoted at the top so it opens at the bottom. TACHOGRAPH . ²Back door of truck which hinges at the top or bottom.A shaft which transmits the drive from the transmission to the rear axle. TAILSHAFT . number of stops. TAILGATING . and other factors during a trip. 4Two axles operated from a single suspension.¹The opening back of tipper trucks and trailers.Short for tachograph or tachometer. TAILGATE . The graph itself has not changed since 1933 but the machine was mechanical and is now electronic.¹A trip recorder incorporating a clock.One who thinks he is a perfect driver. ²A non-drive rear axle on a truck or tractor. (Also known as a Driveshaft or Propeller Shaft.¹The unpowered axle of a tandem axle group in which only the front axle is driven. either of which may be powered. The first tachograph was put on the market in Germany in1933 and their use is compulsory on heavy vehicles in Europe.Usually single axle equipment like generators. (See Spread Axle) ²An assembly of two axles. TAG AXLE . speedometer and often a rev counter that inscribes a record of a journey on a circular paper graph.¹Following the vehicle in front of you too closely. a rev counter.) TANDEM .-TTABLE TOP . (See Axle) TAG/TAGALONG TRAILERS . This is very dangerous. cement mixers.¹An instrument for measuring engine revolutions. speed. or wood chippers. ³A two-axle assembly having a means of distributing or transferring weight between the two axles. or be hinged at the side for tipping bulky loads such as scrap metal or large rocks. TAILBOARD ARTIST . ²A device inside the cab of a vehicle to show the engine’s RPM. TACHOMETER . TACK . 5Refers to a pair of axles at the rear of the power unit (tractor or 152 . ²Semitrailer or tractor with two rear axles.Truck with a flat bed or tray body. ²Driving too closely behind the vehicle ahead.¹(Tandems) Pair of axles and associated suspension usually located close together.¹An assembly of two axles. TANDEM AXLE . Some tailgates can be adjusted for top and side pivoting. ³See also. either of which may be powered.
See Bogie Drive. usually indicates the number of drive axles on the power unit.¹A combination of two axles which are related to each other through a loadsharing system.Fully enclosed truck or tractor body designed to transport commodities.000 pounds. Not to be confused with trailers which are designed for carrying dry bulk products. TANKER . with centers of axles not less than 1. dry bulk cargo or gases on roads. TANK-LIQUID/GAS . ²A group of at least 2 axles in which the horizontal distance between the centers of the outermost axles is at least 1m. ²A semi-trailer designed to transport liquids.Fully enclosed truck trailer designed solely for the transportation of commodities in bulk.A group of two axles arranged one behind the other. TANK TRAILER .0 meter apart and not more than 2. but not over 2m. extending across the full width of the vehicle. The Federal tandem axle weight limit on the Interstate System is 34. TANDEM DRIVE .A flat rack fitted with framework enclosing a tank used for the transport of liquid goods which usually has standard container locks. ³Truck.¹Used for hauling liquids like gasoline.The total weight transmitted to the road by two or more consecutive axles whose centers may be included between parallel transverse vertical planes space more than 40 inches and not more than 96 inches apart. etc. TANK BODY . TANK-DRY BULK . 4An enclosed cargo body designed solely for the transportation of fluid or gaseous commodities in bulk. Cargo is emptied pneumatically. TANK TRUCK .A cargo body style characterized by tankers which can carry only liquids or gases in bulk. if described as a tandem. TANDEM AXLE GROUP . or trailer with a tank body for hauling liquids.A tank truck (United States usage) or tanker lorry (United Kingdom usage) is a motor vehicle designed to carry liquefied loads. See Tandem Axle. For power units. in bulk. TANDEM AXLE WEIGHT . Used exclusively for hauling dry bulk material.Sometimes called air-can trailers.straight truck) or trailer.0 meters apart. TANKER-DRY BULK . The largest such vehicles are similar to railroad tank 153 . semi-trailer. TANK CONTAINER .See Tanker-dry Bulk. TANDEMS . milk.
liquid or dry commodities in bulk by means of specialized tank truck units. Some are semi-trailer trucks. ³The curb weight plus the weight of the mounted body. Many variants exist due to the wide variety of liquids that can be transported.The mass of a vehicle without its load (i. the weight of the truck exclusive of its contents. Chassis Weight. See also. (b) As applied to a loaded truck.Any for-hire carrier holding itself out to serve the general public and authorized to carry petroleum.A published schedule showing the rates. ³A water resistant fabric cover used to protect the cargo on an open trailer. Tare Mass.) See also. TATTLE TALE . rules.¹A covering. ³Two drivers in one truck. TAUTLINER .¹(a) The weight of a container and the material used for packing. 4The weight of a container and/or packing materials without the weight of the goods it contains. ‘Tarp or Tarpaulin’. and designed for single or multiple loads (often by means of internal divisions in their tank). pressurized or non-pressurized. fares. Tank trucks tend to be large.. TARPING SHIPMENTS (ON OPEN-DECK TRAILERS) .Shipments transported on open-deck trailers that are covered with a tarp to limit exposure to weather such as rain. TEAM (DRIVER TEAM. classification.cars which are also designed to carry liquefied loads. See also. without its occupants or load. Tare Weight. etc. 4Tarpaulin cover for open top trailers. TEAM OF DRIVERS) . etc. Also known as chassis weight. TANK TRUCK CARRIER . Net. ²When two drivers alternate turns driving so that the shipment arrives much faster. Chassis Weight.¹Team of two drivers who alternative driving and resting. regulations.(See also. traditionally made of canvas. TARP or TARPAULIN . TARE WEIGHT . TELESCOPIC HOIST . that protects loads from rain and dust. 154 .The first and still most common type of curtain sider in Australia.e. chemical. when unloaded. One drives while the other sleeps. applying to transportation and incidental services. Commonly used with flat tops and trays but losing out to enclosed bodies because it takes too long and it’s too much work with most loads.A hydraulic hoist fitted to tippers. See Curtain Sider. without fuel. ²A waterproof sheet used to cover cargo. Squealer) Tachograph. TARIFF . Tare weight is also known as actual weight. ²The weight of the empty truck or trailer. TARE MASS . they may be insulated or non-insulated. charges.
The load is prevented from moving by friction between the load and the vehicle. Rope. THROTTLE (HAMMER.¹Another name for the accelerator pedal. "Hammer it!”. ²Any tax on road users other than registration fees or fuel taxes. Dog. ²A trucking company’s yard.TELMAR BRAKE . because pressing the pedal directly increases the flow of air. not gasoline. terminates. rearward and sideways. THIMBLE . In-line Tensioner. THIRD DIFFERENTIAL . etc). Lashings that clamp the load onto the vehicle are called ‘tie-down lashings’.". Engines don't run on liquid gasoline. Tie-down restraint is the most common form of load restraint and involves the use of lashings. When the surfaces are slippery. on a mixture of air and gasoline vapor. "Put the hammer down. ²What 4-wheelers call the "gas pedal". the friction forces can be very low.". THROUGH RATE . THE HAMMER) . The friction force prevents the load moving forward. which also increases the amount of gasoline introduced into the system. The lashings are tensioned to clamp the load to the vehicle and to prevent the load from moving upwards. Trucks don't use gas. Phrases like. "Put the pedal to the metal. See also. but rather. It is fitted into the eye of a rope to prevent chafing and to distribute the load. ³Any location where freight either originates. TIE-DOWN . airflow increases. "Both feet on the floor.¹Tie-down is when the load is prevented from moving by friction only. A through rate may be either a joint rate or a combination of two or more rates.Standardized unit for measuring container capacity on ships.¹A facility including building structures. Truck Winch. 155 . or commercial motor carriers maintain operating facilities. and equipment for the storage transfer.A metal liner usually pear-shaped and concave on the outside. TERMINAL . Hand Ratchet. handling.See Electric Retarder and Speed Retarder. Calling it the "gas pedal" isn't technically correct.". etc. TENSIONER . or is handled in the transportation process. Any other type of tax is called a third structure tax. railcars.¹Registration fees and gasoline taxes are called the first two structures of highway user taxation. When you push the pedal. "Gouge on it!” mean to give the engine full throttle.A rate applicable for transportation all the way from point of origin to destination.A device used to tighten a lashing (Winch. TEU (TWENTY FOOT EQUIVALENT UNIT) . where trucks and trailers can be serviced and parked. delivery and reception of vehicles and materials.See Inter-axle Differential. THIRD STRUCTURE TAX . The friction force comes from both the weight of the load and the clamping force of the lashings.
‘Combined Tie-down and Direct Restraint’. a vehicle or trailer. can bounce when travelling over uneven road surfaces and then shift during changes in speed. The engine cowls of some conventional power units tilt although the entire cab does not.A cab which tilts up for maintenance. See Rope Rail.(Same as “Tie-down”) TIE-DOWN FITTINGS . or restrains cargo on. direction or slope. TIER .¹The cab on a cabover or forward control truck which is hinged so it can be tilted forward for access to the engine and transmission. It does not mean the vehicle is necessarily COE. (Tie-down is sometimes called indirect restraint) TIE-DOWN ASSEMBLY . Unrestrained loads.See Tie-Down. TILT BODY . 156 . TILT . Compare with Direct Restraint. Sometimes specialized dumps are called this.One layer of articles that are stacked one upon another. TIE RAIL . TIE-DOWN LASHINGS . ²A cab-overengine truck or truck tractor cab designed to provide ready access to the engine. and is attached to anchor point(s).An anchor point designed to fasten or restrain a load. TILT CAB .When roadway is obstructed.A round rail which skirts the perimeter of the loading deck below the coaming rail.A flatbed for hauling equipment. ²A combination of securing devices which form an assembly that attaches cargo to.Load restrained using tie-down lashings Friction cannot be taken into account unless the tensioned lashings provide adequate clamping of the load on the deck. TIED UP . See also. even on high friction surfaces.
An article falls over.A charge made for the use of a facility. TILT TRAILER . Also known as a tip-truck or tip-trailer.³Vehicle designed with engine beneath cab and having provision for tilting the cab forward on a pivot near the front bumper to provide easy access to the engine. Tipping or shifting can be prevented by bracing the cargo. 157 .¹A truck or trailer which can discharge its load by tilting the cargo body. For example. usually. some states allow a tolerance in their maximum truck weight limits.Trucking company which dedicates trailers to a single shipper's cargo. See also. TON-MILE . containers or for rigging to ground level.An American term for tyre. construction equipment. A roll-off tipper is a roll-off container carrying setup.Permissible variation. as opposed to an LTL (Less Than Truckload) carrier which transports the consolidated cargo of several shippers and makes multiple deliveries.A unit of measure of transportation. The movement of one ton of freight one mile. and other vehicles from point A to point B without the need for a crane to load or unload. usually more than 10. The Tilt Trailer is also equipped with a 10-ton winch that can assist with loading or unloading. Tilt trailer TIP . (See LTL) TL CARRIER . ²Rear/side tipper . A Tilt Trailer can be used to deliver all terrain lifts.specialized dump rig. The Americans call it a dump truck. (See LTL Carrier) TOFC (TRAILER ON FLATCAR) .This trailer is used for the loading and unloading of freight. (See Piggyback) TOLERANCE . fork lifts. TIRE . such as a bridge or turnpike.(Truckload) The quantity of freight required to fill a trailer. TL . Contained. TOLL .000 pounds. TIPPER .[Trailer on (rail) flatcar] Method of moving cargo which involves transporting semi-trailers on railroad flat cars.
The horizontal distance from the centre of the axle group at the rear of the towing vehicle to the centre-line of the towing pivot. TOWNIE-JOB . TOTER . The unit of measure is a pound-foot which represents a force of one pound acting at right angles at the end of an arm one foot long. TOW TRUCK .Driving vehicle along at normal speed.A set of plates on a tractor wheel that provide mobility for a tracked vehicle. TOW DOLLY . TORQUE . TRACK .A truck for towing damaged vehicles or vehicles that cannot run under their own power. he can go home.A tax calculated by measuring the weight of each truck for each trip. The gross weight is assigned a tax rate which is multiplied by the miles of travel.¹The turning force or turning effort of a shaft.To check the movement of a shipment.TON MILES TAX . 1) Gross torque: the maximum torque developed by an engine without allowing for the power absorbed by accessory units.A truck driver that gets a driving job that lets him go home every day. 2) Net torque: the torque available at the flywheel after the power required by engine accessories has been provided. TRACE .A power unit designed to transport mobile homes. Someone who goes home every night. Engine torque is the turning force available at the crankshaft. ²The amount of twisting effort exerted at the crankshaft by an engine. Toter TOW COUPLING OVERHANG . TOOLING DOWN THE HIGHWAY . TOWNIE . 158 . When he's off.See Dolly.A "normal" person with a regular job is a townie.
TRACTOR TRAILER . ²A truck designed primarily to pull a semi-trailer by means of a fifth wheel mounted over the rear axle(s). It may be used to describe something on the truck. TRACTOR-SEMI-TRAILER . 5A motor vehicle with or without motive power.g. ³A cab. The logs are supported by a bunk located on the rear of the tractor and another bunk on the skeletal trailer. the engine-powered vehicle used to pull a trailer. ³That part of the vehicle used to haul goods and hooked up to an engine-powered tractor.) Tractors can carry motor vehicles in a saddlemount or piggyback fashion. It is used for pulling semi-trailers only. 7A tractor is a vehicle designed to pull semi-trailers and generally has no cargo capacity. This ensures that the tractor (prime mover) brakes remain operational but also means that the trailer spring brakes (if so equipped) will come on due to lack of air. This category also includes mobile home haulers described as tractors. This category includes auto carrier tractors with racks for carrying automobiles.A combination vehicle consisting of a power unit (tractor) and a semi-trailer. or is towed. Sometimes called a truck tractor or highway tractor to differentiate it from a farm tractor. to be drawn by another vehicle. 159 . 5A vehicle designed for pulling loads greater than the weight actually applied to the vehicle. except that a truck tractor and semi-trailer engaged in the transportation of automobiles may transport motor vehicles on part of the power unit. 6This is the truck only. TRACTOR PROTECTION VALVE . even though they lack fifth wheels. 4The non-cargo carrying power unit that operates in combination with a semi-trailer or trailer. by a motor vehicle. 4A vehicle designed without motive power.¹An unpowered vehicle built to be towed behind a motor vehicle. Unlike the straight truck which has a cargo body mounted to the truck frame. to allow it to turn. This category includes gooseneck hitch tractors. or cabled reach. the tractor has a circular fifth wheel plate for coupling to a semi-trailer. TRAILER .A valve which automatically closes off the air supply to the trailer brakes when pressure drops to an unsafe level (e. or other mechanical freedom.A tractor and semi-trailer combination. designed for carrying persons or property and for being drawn by another motor vehicle. but not on the trailer. (That is. scoping.A vehicle that carries logs lengthwise so that they form the body of the vehicle.(Truck Tractor) ¹American term for prime mover. and the trailer may have a fixed. ²A vehicle without its own motive power that is built to be towed. The bunks may rotate about a vertical axis. TRACTOR-POLE TRAILER . but does not include a motor vehicle that is being towed. with fifth wheels and/or ball hitches and lacking cargo bodies. when a trailer brake hose bursts or becomes disconnected). without a trailer attached.TRACTOR . The trailer on which the load is carried is connected to the tractor via the fifth wheel.
It often has a low range for better off-road power and gradeability. The block must not be used with fixed turntables or they will break it off on the first turn. when set upon a specific radio frequency.TRAILER BLOCK . TRAILER TYRES (TRAILERS) . emits a directional signal of its own and enables the receiver to track or monitor the truck's location. TRAILING AXLE .North American term for gearbox.A rear axle. TRAILER BRAKE . typified by a straight dump truck pulling a full dump trailer without hydraulics.See Dropping Trailers (For Loading or Unloading). TRAILER DROPPING . TRANSPONDER .See Trolley Brake.A radiator used to cool transmission oil on many heavy duty vehicles. TRAILER HITCH . TRANSMISSION .The device which attaches a trailer to a towing vehicle.See Trailer Coupling.A piece of equipment which.A block fitted behind the pin on a semi-trailer skid plate which ensures rotation occurs in the greasy plate and ball race turntable and not between prime mover and semi-trailer. Trolley-valve.See Drop and Hook. They can be new or recap tyres. See automatic tow coupling. Ringfeder and pintle hook.See Drawbar. 160 . TRANSFER BOX .A beam aligned across the minor span of an area rather than lengthways along the major span. TRANSVERSE . TRANSFER DUMP .The tyres on the trailer. The dump box of the trailer slides (transfers) into the empty dump bed of the power unit utilizing the hydraulics of the power unit to unload.A secondary gearbox driven off the main gearbox and having one output shaft to the front to drive the front axle and one to the rear to drive the rear axle(s).(Same as “Lateral”) TRANSVERSE BEAM (SPAR) .A common configuration in California. TRAILER POOL . TRAILER COUPLING . There are many different types. Bartlett hitch. TRANSMISSION OIL COOLER . TRAILER DRAWBAR .
" "Turnpike doubles" and "Rocky Mountain doubles" are commonly used for longer combination vehicles (LCVs). A road train consists of a relatively conventional tractor unit. but instead of pulling one trailer or semi-trailer.A hand valve used to operate the trailer brakes independently of tractor brakes.TREAD . TRESTLE . tractor or trailer with three axles grouped together at the rear.Distance between the centers of tyres at the points where they contact the road surface.A load from the start to the finish. TRI-AXLE .Leasing a company's vehicle to another transportation provider for a single trip. TRIP LEASE . engine rpm. Each trailer usually has one axle. the road train pulls two or more of them.A one-trip-only lease. The term "road train" is most often used in Australia. idle time and other information useful to trucking management.2 meters apart. TRIPLES . ²A group of at least 3 axles in which the horizontal distance between the centers of the outermost axles is over 2m. A road train or roadtrain is a trucking concept used in remote areas of Australia. Triple Bottom. TRIP .S. Set of trips) Typically a two axle (one drive axle) tractor with three 27 foot trailers.See Cradle. In the U. A three trailer roadtrain.A truck-tractor which pulls 3 trailers. TRIP RECORDER (ON-BOARD COMPUTER) . (Also referred to as a tridem) ²Three axle tractor or trailer. ³Normally implies four total axles if used to refer to a straight truck. TRIDEM .2m.A combination of a prime mover.¹A three trailer roadtrain. Duals are measured from the center of dual wheels. semi-trailer and two trailers. See also.Cab-mounted device which electronically or mechanically records data such as truck speed.¹Truck. TRI-AXLE GROUP .Group of three axles on a truck. TRIPLE TRUCK . Also called triples.0 meters apart and not more than 3. and Canada the terms "triples. and Western Canada to move bulky loads efficiently. TRIP LEASING . TRIPLE BOTTOM . but not over 3. the United States.¹A group of 3 loadsharing axles with centers of the front and rear axles not less than 2. tractor or trailer. 161 . Tridems are most common on European semi-trailers. TROLLEY BRAKE . ²Triples (Trips.
or (b) 3 axles and an MRC exceeding 16.5 tonnes. the quantity of freight necessary to qualify a shipment for a truckload rate. TRUCK STOP . TRUCK TRACTOR .Determined by dividing the gross freight revenue by total miles traveled.TROLLEY-VALVE (JOHNSON-STICK. Truck (type 2) means a truck that has: (a) 2 axles and an MRC exceeding 12 tonnes. and often food and other services to long-haul trucks. plus a large enough parking area to accommodate from five to over a hundred trucks and other heavy vehicles. cab and body.000 pounds. ²A motor vehicle designed to carry an entire load. JOHNSON-VALVE. the quantity of freight necessary to qualify a shipment for a truckload rate. TRUCKIE’S HITCH . or (b) 3 axles and an MRC not exceeding 16. Prime Mover. TRAILER BRAKE) . See also.See ‘Rope Single Hitch and Rope Double Hitch’.5 tonnes. or (c) 4 or more axles and an MRC not exceeding 20 tonnes. 162 . or (c) 4 or more axles and an MRC exceeding 20 tonnes. (c) When used in connection with freight rates. TRUCKER’S HITCH . rather than on a trailer towed by the vehicle. See also. or it may be of integral construction so that the body and chassis form a single unit. TRUCK GROSS .See ‘Rope Single Hitch and Rope Double Hitch’. parking. TRUCKLOAD . TRUCK MILE EARNINGS . When used in connection with freight rates.¹A vehicle which carries cargo in a body mounted to its chassis. It may consist of a chassis and body. TRUCK . Truck stops are usually located on or near a busy road and consist (at the very least) of a diesel grade fueling station with bays wide and tall enough for modern tractor/trailer rigs. ²Quantity of freight required to fill a truck.¹(a) Quantity of freight that will fill a truck. a chassis. Usually in excess of 10. Tractor. (b) Quantity of freight weighing the maximum legal amount for a particular type of truck. Rigid Motor Vehicle. Straight Truck.A valve with a handle that is mounted to the steering column (or on the dashboard) that can be used to engage the trailer brakes by themselves.What amount the truck earns. Constructed to carry part of the weight and load of a semitrailer. Truck (type 1) means a truck that has: (a) 2 axles and an MRC not exceeding 12 tonnes.Truck driver. TRUCK JOCKEY . ³A rigid motor vehicle that is principally constructed as a load carrying vehicle. after the company gets their cut of the gross.A commercial facility that provides fuel.A motor vehicle designed primarily for drawing truck trailers and semi-trailers.
See Fifth Wheel Coupling.A boat transporter combination consisting of a straight truck towing a trailer using typically a ball and socket connection. Geared winches are also available.¹A device used for tensioning a lashing which is normally placed under the coaming rail and may be fixed in position using the tie-rail or slide on a track (also see Winch). especially one used for local work or as a yard shunter.TRUCK-TRACTOR SEMI-TRAILER-SEMI-TRAILER . 163 . TUG . ² Webbing straps are tensioned using either attached clip-on. The trailer axle(s) is located substantially at the trailer center of gravity (rather than the rear of the trailer) but so as to maintain a downward force on the trailer tongue. The B-train assembly is a rigid frame extension attached to the rear frame of a first semi-trailer which allows for a fifth wheel connection point for the second semi-trailer. Truck Winch TUBE TRAILER . TRUCK-TRAILER BOAT TRANSPORTER . TRUCK WINCH .A semi-trailer used to transport cryogenic gases.Slang term for prime mover. TUG TEST . sliding winches or in-line tensioners.The two trailing units are connected with a "B-train" assembly. This combination has one less articulation point than the conventional "A dolly" connected truck-tractor semi-trailer-semi-trailer combination. The attached ‘truck winches’ clip onto the tie-rails or slide into special tracks under the coaming rails.
Not as common as dogs for securing loads because turnbuckles take longer. Used primarily for adjusting or regulating the tension in lashings. ³A combination vehicle consisting of a tractor pulling two 48 to 53 foot semi-trailers. Turnbuckles Turnbuckles have no kickback when released. Compare with Over-centre Tensioners.¹A device used to tension a rod or wire linkage or chains used in securing loads on trucks or trailers. TURNPIKE DOUBLE . ²A tensioner consisting of a threaded sleeve and two mating threaded ends. ²A truck that leaves from and returns to the same terminal. TURNBUCKLE . It consists of a loop or sleeve with a screw thread on one end and a swivel at the other.000 rpm by the exhaust gases drives an impeller to pump air into the cylinders under pressure thus increasing engine power and efficiency.¹Truck run in which the driver returns to the origin point immediately after his vehicle is unloaded and re-loaded. TURNPIKE . If a turnbuckle does not rotate freely. ³A type of coupling fitted between the ends of a lashing or between two lashings. it will cause the chain to twist and prevent it fully tightening. 164 . ²A combination vehicle consisting of a tractor and two trailers of 45 to 48 feet. TURN AROUND .A trailer combination utilizing a converter to connect and haul two 53 foot trailers with a single tractor. very high tensions can always be achieved.A device in which a turbine wheel driven at 60. Alternatively it has an internal screw thread at each end.¹A combination vehicle consisting of a power unit (tractor) and two trailers of at least 40' in length. 4Turnbuckles are screw tensioners operated by either a ratchet or sliding lever. Unlike dogs.000 to 90.TURBOCHARGER or TURBO . even on short chains and without using handle extensions.
0 meters apart. Turntable/Fifth Wheel TURNTABLE JAWS . allowing the axles to pivot in a turning maneuver. both driven by the engine. ball race and fixed.¹A device for coupling a prime mover to a semi-trailer.TURNTABLE . TURRET .) ²A group of 2 axles — (a) with single tyres. with centers of axles not less than 1. ²A bearing built to carry vertical and horizontal loads. 165 .¹A combination of two single tyred axles fitted to the front of a truck or prime mover and connected to the same steering mechanism.A truck or tractor with two rear axles.0 meter apart and not more than 2.See Hoist Box.The parts of the turntable that lock around the kingpin of the semi-trailer. or (c) a fifth wheel coupling and the vehicle to which it is mounted. A fixed turntable requires the trailer skid plate to slide around the kingpin while resting on top of the turntable.(Twin Trailers) See Doubles. but does not allow quick separation of its upper and lower rotating elements. TWINS . but not over 2m. ³A circular platform mounted under the front of a full trailer or a jeep dolly to which an axle or axles are attached. The three basic types are greasy plate. and (c) the horizontal distance between the centers of which is at least 1m. TWIN-STEER AXLE GROUP . TWIN SCREW . (The wheels of both axles turn when the steering wheel is turned. and that is used to connect and allow articulation between — (a) a prime mover and semi-trailer. (b) fitted to a motor vehicle and connected to the same steering mechanism. The top of the greasy plate and ball race types move with the trailer and are located by the kingpin and the trailer block. (b) the steering axle or axle group of a dog trailer and the body of the trailer.
and both combinations having a maximum length of more than 36. connected by a converter dolly. TWO-SPEED AXLE .Twinsteer axle group TWIN TRAILER . i. One twist lock is used on each comer of the container. usually available with a standard type transmission. ²A rear axle with two ratios and a mechanism for selecting one or the other ratio. A double reduction axle which does not have a mechanism for selecting ratios is not a 2speed axle. Examples could include: (a) A rigid truck towing one trailer (total length exceeding 19m). (d) An AB-triple. (b) A prime mover towing two semi-trailers connected by a drawbar. TWIST LOCK . 4A device designed to support and fasten one corner of an intermodal container to a container chassis vehicle.A short semi-trailer (under 29') designed to be operated as part of a combination vehicle with a tandem trailer of similar length. ²A device welded to the frame of a rigid truck or a trailer and used to secure a freight container to the vehicle. thus doubling the total gear ratios available. Doubles. a prime mover towing a single semitrailer and a set of B-double trailers. (c) A B-triple.5 meters. would both be classed as Type 2 road trains) 166 . See also.A road train that is not longer than 36. ³A locking device designed to fasten containers to the vehicle on which they are being transported. (A longer AB-triple [as described above] or a rigid truck towing two semi-trailers connected by a drawbar.¹A dual ratio drive axle in which high or low ratios can be engaged by a switch on the gear lever. i.¹A locking device with a rotating head which normally engages a corner casting on the load. a prime mover towing 3 semi-trailers connected by turntable couplings.5m.e.e. TYPE 1 ROAD TRAIN .
A typical conventional Type 2 Road Train TYRE . A and B refer to the connections between the trailers in the combination – with an A connection being a drawbar and a B connection being a turntable.5 meters.You cannot tell if the drives or trailers are flat by looking at them. Most drivers will notice if a tyre is 15lbs low or so. a club.A typical conventional Type 1 Road Train TYPE 2 ROAD TRAIN .Anything used to thump the tyres. We do an air-pressure check (with a tyre gauge) weekly.A Type 2 road train is a multi combination vehicle (other than a B-double) consisting of a motor vehicle towing at least 2 trailers. Since they're duals. AAB Quad.An Australian/British term for tire. you can feel/hear if one is low or flat. BAB Quad and ABB Quad road trains are innovative and better performing road train vehicles using B-double trailers as part of the combination. a short stick. TYRE-THUMPER . or the sawn-off handle of a baseball bat. but you thump the tyres whenever you stop. By hitting the tyres with a thumper. one could have air and the other be flat. 167 . Maximum combination length is 53. TYRE-THUMPING . be it a hammer.
Uniform Freight Classification.To charge less than the proper amount.A rear impact guard installed at the rear or under the rear of the cargo body of a truck or trailer so that when the vehicle is struck from the rear. it can limit the distance that the striking vehicle's front end slides under the rear of the truck or trailer. 168 .Tractor and trailer. Most semi-trailers have what are known as ICC bumpers. UNDERRIDE GUARD .The mass of the motor vehicle without any load. but including all tools.¹A unitized load is a number of separate items bound together to form a single item of load. UNITIZED LOAD . oil and fuel in the tanks. vehicle flexing and variations in alignment. UNIVERSAL JOINTS and SPLINES .Devices fitted to tail and jack shafts to allow for suspension movement. transported and secured as a single article.-UUFC . ULEV . in a crate or any other way that enables them to be handled at one time as a unit.Occurs primarily in rear-end collisions when the striking vehicle is wedges under the rear of the vehicle being struck. UNLADEN MASS . UNLATCH . See ICC Bumper. UNIT . UNCLAIMED FREIGHT .A hoist used on tip-trucks or tip-trailers with the hydraulic ram mounted below the body and between the chassis rails. or freight that cannot be delivered. The unladen mass of an articulated vehicle is the unladen mass of the prime mover only. UNDERRIDE . UNDERCHARGE . but a hydraulic liftgate at the rear of a box van can act as an underride guard.Release lock on fifth wheel to drop trailer. fixed cranes. ²A number of articles grouped together with sufficient structural integrity that they can be handled. UNIT LOAD .Ultra-low emissions vehicle.Packages loaded on a pallet. UNDERBODY HOIST .Freight which has not been called for by the consignee or owner.
Load bearing surface on the underside of the front of a semi-trailer.UNLOADED MASS . esp. Utility is also the name of a trailer manufacturer. UTILITY TRAILER . equipped with all standard equipment and with all fuel and other fluid reservoirs filled to nominal capacity.The mass of the vehicle in running order. flatbeds. It rests on the fifth wheel of a tractor or dolly and has a downwardprotruding kingpin which is captured by the locking jaws of the fifth wheel. but unoccupied and without any other load.Normally refers to light duty trailers. UPPER COUPLER . 169 .
and sealed shipping containers mounted on a special bodiless chassis. VEHICLE EXAMINER . trailer or combination. VIA . when rate to be applied is dependent on that fact. A “dry box” is a standard van. VAN TRAILER .-VVACUUM ASSIST POWER BRAKES . Dry Van. VACUUM BRAKES . VANNING . the vehicle.Vacuum-operated or vacuum-assisted brakes. VIN (VEHICLE IDENTIFICATION NUMBER) . trailer. ACTUAL .By way of.Actual value of goods required to be shown on bill of lading by shipper. See also. SPEEDING) .A speeding ticket. There is a differentiation between a dry van. this number is unique to each vehicle and appears on the vehicle's registration and title.A braking system in which the engine vacuum provides power assistance. truck tractor.A term for stowing cargo in a container. or forming part of. or semi-trailer individually or in combination.Assigned by the manufacturer. ²A boxshaped trailer or semi-trailer used to carry goods. drives a plunger in the hydraulic system thereby increasing the effect of pedal pressure. VACUUM SERVO BRAKE . A railway car used to carry baggage is also called a van.¹A truck. VBR (VIOLATION OF THE BASIC RULE. which is used to carry most goods. which is used for cold goods. VEHICLE . Reefer. ²A motor vehicle.Standard type hydraulic brakes with a pressure assist cylinder having a vacuum chamber which when atmospheric pressure is allowed to one side of the piston or diaphragm. and (b) any substances that the vehicle is carrying that are essential for its operation. VALUATION. Included are beverage vans. or bay vans.See Box. ³Any of a number of types of trailers that have walls and a roof. VMRS (VEHICLE MAINTENANCE REPORTING STANDARDS) . including — (a) the equipment fitted to. and a refrigerated van (a reefer).A person authorized to examine and test motor vehicles. reducing driver effort in applying the brakes. 4A cargo body style with a totally enclosed cargo area.¹(Dry Van) A standard trailer or truck with all sides enclosed.Set of codes developed to facilitate computerized tracking of parts and labor used in 170 . VAN .
VOID FILLER .Material used to fill a void between articles of cargo and the structure of the vehicle that has sufficient strength to prevent movement of the articles of cargo. 171 . Established and maintained by the American Trucking Associations. Load space limitation prevents overloading when loaded with the specified cargo (e. VOLUME RATE .A vehicle which is designed and registered to be loaded by volume rather than by mass. a Stock Truck).See Hydraulic Retarder.equipment repair.g. VOLUME LOADER . VOITH BRAKE .A low rate offered to shippers who agree to ship a large quantity of freight.
A flashing red light that is a cautionary sign of danger. This means to distribute the weight evenly from the front to the back. If using these assemblies.¹Description of goods sent with a common carrier freight shipment. consolidation. ²A list of goods sent by a common carrier with shipping directions. 172 .Also known as a "live bottom". WATER-LEVEL . 35. WALKING BEAM SUSPENSION . WEBBING .Wax is part of all diesel fuels but can block filters or even fuel lines in cold conditions. WALKING FLOOR . and storage of goods/cargo.A receipt for goods placed in a warehouse (may be issued as a negotiable or non-negotiable document). which pivot in the centre and connect at the front to one axle of a tandem and at the rear to the other axle.A strong fabric woven as a flat strip or tube of varying width and fibers often used in place of rope. WAY BILL . a type of dump trailer with a conveyor belt or chain running down the center of the floor of the trailer to unload the cargo. one at each side of the chassis. Webbing assemblies comprise webbing. Webbing assemblies that do not comply with the Australian Standard can have much lower ratings.Type of truck and tractor rear suspension consisting of two beams. The 50 mm size is the most common one for road transport and has a minimum lashing capacity of 2000 kg. Australian refiners have winter blends with low wax levels to minimize the problem.As in "make the trailer water-level". end fittings and tensioners. 50. delivery. Tensioners can be either attached to the vehicle (truck winch) or ‘in-line’ (hand ratchet). 75 and 100 mm widths. WAXING . WAREHOUSE . distribution.A type of traffic sign that indicates a hazard ahead on the road.A place for the reception. WAREHOUSE RECEIPT .Trailer. The standard webbing sizes include 25.-WWAGON . WARNING SIGN . The lashing capacity (LC) is displayed on each assembly that complies with the relevant Australian Standard. be sure to find out their rating. WARNING LIGHT .
WIDE SPREAD . WET GOODS . wheelbase refers to from the center of the front tractor axle to the center of the rearmost trailer axle.A piece of wood or metal.Every truck has two of these. WHAT’S YOUR 20? . Trucks generally have more than one mirror on each side. Total tax liability is calculated by multiplying this rate times miles traveled. Most condensation occurs there and the wet tank should be drained as often as possible to protect the air system. for a two axle vehicle. WEST COAST MIRROR . the distance from center of front axle to center of rear axle.WEDGE .¹The distance from the centre of the vehicle’s foremost axle to the rear overhang line. 4A measurement in inches from the center of the front axle to the center between the two rear axles. You might think of them as "side view mirrors". thick at one end and tapering to a thin edge at the other (also see Chocks). (1 kilogram force is the weight of a mass of 1 kilogram. WELL .) WEIGHT-DISTANCE TAX .The depression formed between two cylindrical articles when they are laid with their eyes horizontal and parallel against each other.A tax basing the fee per mile on the registered gross weight of the vehicle.Trailer axles which are more than 8 feet apart. ³The horizontal distance between the centerlines of the wheels of multi-axle vehicles or trailers along the length of the vehicle. 173 . 5For a straight truck or a truck tractor.A person who is driving while drunk or while falling asleep.List furnished by shippers to weighing bureaus itemizing articles in each consignment. WEIGHT SHEETS .Liquids. For a truck tractor and semi-trailer combination.The tank which receives air direct from the compressor. ²The distance from the center of the front wheel to that of the rear wheel in a motor vehicle. WEIGHT . A west coast mirror is rectangular in size. usually expressed in inches.Weight is the force exerted by gravity on a mass. or front axle center to the midpoint between the rear tandem axle centers for a three axle vehicle. about 14 inches high and about 7 inches wide.(See 10-20) WHEELBASE . WET TANK . WILLIE-WEAVER .
WRECKER .A Truck designed for hoisting and towing disabled vehicles. Winches vary in size from those on the front of small vehicles to heavy equipment which may weigh tons.¹A device for tensioning lashings via a rotating spool.Driver with low job seniority. The rope is tensioned with a winch or turnbuckle.Driver’s record of hours driven and rest periods taken. 174 . ²A device for tensioning a webbing or wire rope tie-down that is fitted with means to lock the initial tension. WINCH RIG . usually assigned by the manufacturer of the component.Truck body designed primarily for transportation of disabled vehicles and equipped with a means for hoisting and towing such vehicle. WINCH TRUCK . Winches are used to lift or to pull heavy objects.The maximum load that may be applied to a component of a cargo securement system during normal service.Technology for determining a vehicle's weight without requiring it to come to a complete stop.A winch is a powered spool wound with cable.WIM (WEIGH-IN-MOTION) .Straight truck or tractor with a hoist. WRECKER BODY . WORK DIARY . WORKING LOAD LIMIT (WLL) .Wire rope is used to tie down loads that are placed cross-wise on the deck. WINCH . WIRE ROPE . WOODCHUCK .
-XNo entries. 175 .
easy to get into and out of. ²A truck tractor used exclusively to move trailers around a motor or trailer yard. Equipment is manufactured and sold for such exclusively offroad use. often unregistered prime mover used for shunting semi-trailers in a terminal or yard. ²Operator of the yard or shunt truck. YARDBIRD . spare.A tractor for moving trailers short distances in a truck yard or terminal compound. etc. YARD TRACTOR . yard tractor. YARD GOAT . trailer spotter.Small tractor used to move semi-trailers around the terminal yard. designed solely to move trucks around in a yard. Also called switching tractor.¹A special tractor used to move trailers around a terminal.A small tractor confined to on site shuttling of trailers to and from loading docks. and linehauler. or unroadworthy tractors are used.An old.-YYARD . warehouse. distribution centre. It is not used for over the road travel.(The Yard) ¹A parking lot for trucks at a business. without a sleeper. YARD SHUNTER . yard dog. YARD JOCKEY . YARD HORSE . YARD MULE . with special equipment to make the job easier. but sometimes old. 176 .A two axle truck with a very short wheelbase. YARD TRUCK .(See also Spotter) A driver who connects and disconnects tractor and semi-trailer combinations and moves vehicles around the terminal yard.¹A person who operates a yard tractor or yard mule. (Not a truck stop) ²A term used to reference a company’s terminal or customer’s property.
-ZZEPHYR HAUL .A shipment of light weight cargo. 177 .
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