Quality Management Gurus

As industry has become more concerned about quality as a competitive advantage, the question raises how to define the term quality as quality becomes more and more contentious. Many managers operate on the "I know it when I see it" principle; however, a growing awareness exists that in order to have a quality product or service or company, there must be some consensus on what quality is. Since in the past when not-so-quiet revolutionary management techniques were developed three individuals spearheaded and developed new techniques to manage and obtain quality products: Phillip Crosby, W. Edwards Deming, and Joseph Juran. While many people are of the opinion that the ideas of these three men may differ, here we will explain and compare the techniques devised by Crosby, Deming, and Juran to obtain quality , and how they defined the quality.

W. Edwards Deming:
The problem of defining quality is most important to Deming. In Deming’s view, the consumer is by necessity the most important part of the production system. Without a consumer, there is no reason to produce. The question then becomes one of what the consumer needs (or what the consumer thinks he needs or wants). To Deming, the only meaningful definition of quality is that which the consumer specifies. A product could meet every possible technical specification and be offered at an appropriate price, but if it is the wrong product, it is worthless to the consumer. Deming introduces his Continuous Improvement Helix, an outgrowth of the famous Deming Cycle (Plan, Do, Study/Check, Act):

o (a) Work standard quotas for production should be eliminated and substitute leadership methods should be used for improvement. and increased productivity may grow. . 3. find out what the user thinks of it. Deming also presented his famous 14 points in Out of the Crisis. According to Deming. will result in increasing quality at a decreasing price. (Plan) Design the product. Dr. Managers should avoid numerical goals.1. (Act)Test it in service. o Leadership (managers) should be taught and instituted to improve all job functions. and trust should be created. o Managers should strive to reduce intradepartmental conflicts. these four steps. o Managers should end up the practice of awarding business on the basis of price tag alone. o Managers should adapt to the new philosophy of the day. focus should be on the system and morale. His famous 14 points are given below as management guideline: o It is important to Create and communicate to all employees a statement of the aims and purposes of the company. 2. higher profits. test it in the production line and the laboratory. serve as management guidelines. 4. (Check) put it on the market. These points cultivate a fertile soil in which a more efficient workplace. o Exhortations for the work force should be eliminate. o Company should train his employees by instituting on-the-job training. o Managers should build quality into a product throughout production process. (Do) make it. industries and economics that are always changing. repeated continuously. instead. try a long-term relationship based on established loyalty and trust. o Managers should work to constantly improve quality and productivity. and why the nonuser has not bought it and act according to the response. instead. (b) MBO should be eliminated. o Fear among the employees should be driven out fear.

anger. measures should be taken to improve them improve them.". educates. "It is not enough to just do your best or work hard. Eliminate tools such as production quotas and sloganeering which only alienate workers from their supervisors and breed divisive competition between the workers themselves. Strictly put. Deming believed that every worker has nearly unlimited potential if placed in an environment that adequately supports. o Everyone in the company should be included to accomplish the transformation. Juran: Like Deming. A manager seeking to establish such an environment must: Employ an understanding of psychology--of groups and individuals. Form the company into a large team divided into sub-teams all working on different aspects of the same goal. The expense pays for itself. decency. Joseph M. envy." Under this heading. not individuals. Juran goes on further to quantify "fitness for use" in two different categories: 7 . he stated that the majority--85 percent--of a worker's effectiveness is determined by his environment and only minimally by his own skill. workers better understand their jobs--the specific tasks and techniques as well as their higher value. and personal responsibility. the capabilities of processes should be learnt. forever changed the world of management.W. and nurtures senses of pride and responsibility. Edwards Deming may seem common or obvious now. In the resulting company. o Educate with self-improvement programs. they perform better. thus stimulated and empowered. Deming's ideas (and personal example) of hard work. and revenge from the workplace. o Barriers that rob people of pride of workmanship should be removed.Alternatively. Spread profit to workers as teams. Edwards Deming. Eliminate fear. sincerity. barriers between departments often give rise conflicting objectives and create unnecessary competition. however. You must know what to work on. Juran defines quality as "fitness for use. Employ sensible methods such as rigorous on-the-job training programs. Juran also sees quality as a concept which can only be usefully defined by the consumer. they've become embedded in our culture of work. The ideas of W. Dr.

In many cases. proposes that the producer learn what the customer expects from the product. Identify the customers 3. The system is known as Juran trilogy. Choose control subject 2. Product features that meet customer needs. Develop the product 5. the task is to translate the customer demands into the desired production specifications and features. o quality control o quality improvement are known as the Juran Trilogy. this also includes determining who the end customer really is. By comparing the actual results with the desired results. Establish Measurement 3. Develop the process 6. and come up with a coherent plan to produce them The second objective is achieved through measuring the results of production and how well-received the product is in the marketplace. Establish standards of Performance 4. . Establish the project 2. 2. continuous improvement can be attained.1. Freedom from deficiencies To achieve the first objective. Discover the customer needs 4. Juran. Take action on the difference Quality improvement process is the process for creating breakthrough levels of performance by eliminating wastes and defects to reduce the cost of poor quality. like Deming. At this point. Steps in quality planning process are: 1. Develop the controls and transfer to Operations The steps in Quality Control Process are: 1. Compare to Standards (interpret the difference) 6. Juran trilogy: These three activities o quality planning. Measure Actual Performance 5. acting on deficiencies and providing feedback into the system.

the Juran Trilogy is intended to be seen as an endless feedback loop. training. then an attitude of "no reason for not doing it right" can be built throughout the company. In Crosby’s view. The grid is a simple 6 x 6 matrix that shows different stages of maturity of the company’s quality management against six different quality management categories (management understanding of quality. Identify the improvement projects 3. Prove the need for improvement 2. Crosby sees many of the more nebulous statements about quality (delight the customer. Juran is of the opinion that proper planning of a system in the beginning can help the producer avoid unnecessary rework and hidden quality costs. problem handling. Crosby tends to take a narrower. Whereas Deming sees quality problems as a result of poor understanding of an existing system. Crosby While Deming and Juran have mainly focused on quality as seen from a customer perspective. Philip B. he calls it the Quality Management Maturity Grid. he advocates the use of a simple tool to show where you are in the quality management spectrum. etc) . Provide the project teams with resources. management-centered view. etc. cost of quality. although Juran takes the concept further and explores the practicalities of implementing such a system for any given operation. if requirements are clearly communicated to all levels of the organization.Steps for quality improvement process are: 1. continuous improvement.) as simply extension of a very basic definition: conformance to requirements. and motivation to: o diagnose the causes o stimulate the remedies o establish controls to hold the gains Like the Deming Cycle. be it service or manufacturing-related. Establish project improvement teams 4.


and Crosby all point in the same direction. lies mainly in perspective. it is clear that Deming. while not independent of the marketplace. why not? The difference. then the highest level. ‘Wisdom’. quality management is a low priority and reactive. also. is more engineering-driven. designed to translate the customer’s vision of quality into that which can be produced. Juran’s bipartite definition of quality. And all three see the importance of feedback in any mechanism designed to measure and manage quality: Deming’s Continuous Improvement Helix. though with varying degrees of rigor. etc – then as quality management matures it goes through the stages of ‘Awakening’. ‘Certainty’ Quality Management Maturity Grid is (a) Very quick and easy to use (b) insightful – it makes you think. Juran. Deming’s perspective is customer-driven and relies heavily on market research to determine what the customer will define as a quality product or service. as stated before. ‘Enlightenment’. the Juran Trilogy. what your company would have to be like to get a higher score. All three insist on there being some tangible definition of quality. and Crosby’s Price of Non-Conformance are all feedback mechanisms designed to answer one question: is the product performing in the marketplace as expected? If not. Crosby’s perspective transcends both of these. and Crosby’s tacit "conformance to requirements" definition all insist on the customer being the final arbiter of what quality is or is not with respect to a particular product or service. Deming’s assertion that the customer be the one who determines whether or not quality exists in a product or service. and (c) – most important – it doesn’t just show you where you are but. it therefore acts as your route-map for strategic quality and helps you plan your quality improvement initiatives so that you move steadily towards the right in the grid.The lowest stage of maturity is called ‘Uncertainty’ – the organization is inexperienced. taking the high-road view of management: how one achieves quality is less important at the upper . Juran’s. Conclusion: While all three major quality leaders have their own ideas on how quality should be measured and managed.

and at what cost. While an inherently subjective term such as quality can easily take on a multitude of definitions. while one might at first glance think that Deming.management level than whether or not the goals of quality are being met. it is clear that these three leaders of the quality movement are pointing in the same direction. Juran. in the final analysis all three insist on the same basic principles. . To conclude. and Crosby have different approaches to the management of quality.

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