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SOP 2772 TEST 6 STUDY GUIDE CHAPTER 17 What is an STD? By what other names has it been known?

known? o Sexually transmitted disease, STI- sexually transmitted infections How does the probability of contracting an STD compare between men and women? o Women are twice as likely to get an STD from a man then vice versa. What is the best predictor that someone is likely to contract an STD? o Multiple sex partners Name the eight main STDs. o Syphilis, Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, Herpes, Hepatitis, HPV, HIV, Trichomoniasis What are the specific symptoms of the various STDs and their basic treatments? o Syphilis 1- painless chancre sore on vulva penis anus mouth vagina breasts goes away, secondary bumpy skin, flu symptoms latent- dormant, people tertiary- people, affects whole body o Gonorrhea- discharge, burning urination, painful intercourse, throat/rectal infections, arthritis, heart disease, asymptomatic o Chlamydia- vaginal irritation, green/yellow discharge foul odor, burning urination, asymptomatic o Herpes- HSV herpes simplex virus Herpes 1- cold sores, mouth area, painful, rest of life Herpes 2- genital area?, itching burning, painful o Hepatitis A- fecal matter, loss of appetite, nausea, yellow skin, attacks liver B- sexually transmitted, can kill, attacks liver C- sharing needles, can kill, liver o HPV- lead to cervical cancer, cauliflower looking, painless warts o HIV- fever, swollen glands, fatigue, rash, discomfort, sweat, weight loss o Candida- burning urination, slight smelly discharge, yeast o Trichomoniasis- vaginal discharge, discomfort, odor, painful urination, absent symptoms o Pubic lice-itchy, suck blood o Scabies- redness and itching What are the three most common STDs? o Gonorrhea, Chlamydia, trichomoniasis What are the two most commonly reported STDs? o Chlamydia (1), Gonorrhea (2) What is AIDS? How prevalent is it?

o Aquired immune deficiency syndrome, after HIV, 45 million people have it, 50% women have Know the stages of HIV, their symptoms and characteristics. o Primary- fever, swollen glands, fatigue, rash o Chronic asymptomatic- contagious, high immune system o Chronic symptomatic- low immune systems, infections- thrush, discomfort, drenching night sweat, weight loss o AIDS What is the most accepted theory about the origin of the HIV virus? Where did it first appear in humans? o HIV came from monkeys, African tradition where theyd eat brains of the monkey who most likely had SIV- siminian virus, it was around in the 1930s but appeared in the US in 1970s Under what circumstances do we see higher than average rates of infection and death from AIDS? o Poor neighborhoods? What is happening to the rates of HIV infection among young gay males in the U.S.? o I believe it went down for awhile, but now its going back up! What populations are exhibiting a dramatic increase in HIV infections? o Men, homosexual men,, black women How does the probability of contracting HIV differ between men and women when engaged in heterosexual sex? o How are babies affected by HIV? How can they be protected? o Usually by breast milk I believe, or birth through birth canal? o Can be protected by taking the medicine for birth canal or using the other milk substances What kind of sexual relationships are the main channel for the HIV infection globally? What about in the US? o Anal intercourse??, Men have sex with men, MSM How are college campuses affected by HIV infection? o What distinguishes a retrovirus from other viruses? o Retroviruses carry RNA which is the carrier to DNA, so it is like the transfer vehicle to go to DNA What are the four bodily fluids where the HIV virus is found? o Blood, semen, vaginal secretions, breast milk/prenatally? How can HIV enter the body? In what ways does it not enter the body? o Anal or vaginal intercourse, oral genital, contact with semen/vaginal fluids, infected blood, mother to child o Cant by casual contact, only one case through kissing What are the standard blood tests for determining the presence of an HIV infection?

o Elisa- measures presence of antibodies, cheap but have a high positive rate o Western Blot- next one after elisa, checks if you are really positive o Ora-quick- fast cheap, by saliva What does an HIV test actually try to detect? o The presence of antibodies trying to fight the infection If you feel you have been exposed to HIV, how frequently should you be tested? o What treatments for HIV have proven effective? How do they work? What are their disadvantages? o Zidovudine o Cocktail therapy- two or more drugs at once, dont improve mental health, expensive, complicated What is the status of an HIV vaccine? o One being created in UM? And the other in.somewhere. o Trying to create but its hard because there is no resistant model, its dangerous for trials, and it hides in cells What is the difference between a therapeutic vaccine and a preventative vaccine? o Thearapeutic vaccine is for people who are already infected o Preventative people who dont have, before.

CHAPTER 18 How does Kaplans model of sexual response relate to sexual dysfunctions? o What is the difference between a lifelong or primary dysfunction and an acquired or secondary dysfunction? o Lifelong/ Primary- a difficulty with sexual functioning that has always existed for that person o Acquired/ secondary- a difficulty with sexual functioning that develops after some period of normal sexual funcitoning Be able to distinguish among dysfunctions of desire, arousal, orgasm, and dyspareunia. o Desire- Hypoactive sexual desire disorder, sexual aversion disorder, and asexuality. o Arousal- ED, female arousal. o Orgasm- inorgasmia, premature ejaculation. o Dyspareunia- When sex is painful.

Distinguish between sexual aversion, hypoactive sexual desire disorder, and normal asexuality. List their primary causes or etiology. o Sexual aversion- Sex grosses you out, phobic. Causes: Molestation/abuse, religious, punishment, or health concerns. o Hypoactive sexual desire disorder- You lack desire or interest in sex. Males have a comorbid dysfunction, while women probably have a problem in the relationship. Its secondary. o Normal asexuality- No interest in sex, never had sex. Primary. What is erectile dysfunction? Describe the possible etiology. o Its when a guy cant keep his penis hard. Could be due to physical or psychological problems. Causes: High blood pressure medicine, hair growth medicine, alcohol, depressants, cocaine, cigarettes, spinal cord injury, or diabetes. What is premature ejaculation and how does it begin? How is it treated? o Premature ejaculation is when a guy comes too fast because he probably practiced how fast he could come as a child. Its treated by stopping masturbation when having the feeling of coming and squeezing the corona, sending the sperm signal away? What types of attitudes are found in women who report that they do not have orgasms? o They are usually angry with their partner or fighting, have been sexually traumatized, anxiety or guilt, and not enough lubrication. How does high blood pressure affect sexual performance? o Its not as much high blood pressure but the medicine given. The medicine being taken could make it harder to keep an erection. How is alcohol use related to problems in sexual arousal? o Affects the frontal lobe and you dont realize whats going on as easily, taking longer to get aroused. What is performance anxiety? o When a person starts thinking if theyre performing alright or if theyre doing okay, and then they start losing their boner and then perform worse? Describe the anticipatory performance anxiety cycle. o What is vaginismus? How is it treated? o Vaginismus is a condition where there is involuntary tightness of the vagina during attempted intercourse. Can be treated with a dilator? How do sex therapists treat women who are unable to have an orgasm during shared sex? o