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In fact, the various Filipino ethnolinguistic groups have a collection of their own epics, legends, folk tales and mythology. These tales have been utilized by historians to examine the culture and society of precolonial Philippines. But in the absence of other corroborating evidence, they tend to be unreliable historical sources. Oral literature, by its very nature, is transmitted orally through generations, and thus, is vulnerable to alterations. Still, these tales are valuable historical sources because they embody the collective consciousness of the Filipino people. Frauds in History -refers to the legends and other oral stories that were once believed to be reliable historical facts, but further research has exposed their inconsistencies and questionable features. The inclusion of this category in Philippine history was done to inform readers of the Philippine historical hoaxes in order that we can delineate what constitutes history and what belongs to the purview of fiction. Below are ten of the hoaxes and frauds in Philippine history: 1. Code of Kalantiaw - was a mythical legal code in the epic story Maragtas written in 1433 by Datu Kalantiaw, the chief of Negros. It precribed extremely brutal punishments to criminals. 2. Legend of the Ten Bornean Datus - refers to the ten chieftains who allegedly ventured to the Island of Panay boarding a boat called balangay (or barangay) to evade the tyrannical ruler of Borneo, Datu Makatunaw. 3. Code of Maragtas - was a document dated between 1200 to 1250 which tells the story of the arrival of the ten datus from Borneo who allegedly bought the island of Panay from the Aetas for a golden salakot. 4. Rajah Bendahara Kalantiaw - was one of the mythical characters in Jose E. Marco's Maragtas Legend. He became the chief of Negros (or Aklan) two hundred years after the rule of Datu Bangkaya. 5. Datu Puti - was the supposed leader of the ten Bornean datus. Under his command, they reached Siwaragan (now San Joaquin), Iloilo. 6. Datu Sumakwel - headed the Bornean datus upon the return of Datu Puti to Borneo. He ventured to the mountains in search of a local deity named Bulalakaw. 7. Povedano Map - was geographical map illustrated by a certain encomendero by the name of Diegus Lope Povedano of Buglas Island which shows his many land travels and sea voyages with the King of Spain, including that in the year 1572. 8. Povedano Calendar - was a manuscript that showed a wheel composed of twelve-month year, and seven-day week time calculation in baybayin. It was supposedly a replica of the calendar used by the precolonized inhabitants of the Philippines. 9. Tasaday - was a group of tiny people who emerged, in 1971, from a rain forest in mountains of the Philippines. They were uncivilized and had thought of the forest as being the whole world itself, with them as the only people living in it. 10. Princess Urduja - was a mythical, legendary warrior-princess who ruled the kingdom of Tawalisi in the province of Pangasinan. She was said to
1. was an ordinary book written in 1907 by Pedro Monteclaro in which he compiled the local legends of the Visayas from mainly oral traditions and a few written documents that were fairly modern in their origins. and this state of war continued until arbiters were able to determine the amount of gold which had to be paid for the killing… The death penalty was not imposed by public authority save . Offences to the law ranged from as light as singing at night to as grave as murder. beaten. why should we not believe this story that has been taught as history for so many years in Filipino schools? There are three good reasons. The early Spanish accounts tell us that Filipino custom at that time allowed even the most serious lawbreakers to pay a fine or to be placed into servitude for a time in cases of debt. chopped to pieces or fed to crocodiles. there is much archaeological and foreign documentary evidence of regular trade and travel at that time between the Philippines and its neighbours. Kalantiaw was an utter hoax from the beginning.have personally took part in waging battles and engaged in duels with other warriors The story of Datu Kalantiaw is often mistaken to be part of the epic of ten intrepid chiefs who founded Visayan civilization as much as 800 years ago. If the slain was a chief. The Incredible Code of Kalantiaw Throughout the latter half of the 20th century Filipino students were taught about the vicious and bizarre laws that were said to have been enacted by one Datu Kalantiaw in the year 1433 on the island of Panay. drowned. There is also no evidence that Philippine culture ever spawned such a barbaric set of laws. the story of Kalantiaw is more alarming because he was never a part of the Philippines' history or even its oral traditions. were exposed to ants. After all. if we put aside the modern additions such as obviously phoney "original" manuscripts and the use of precise but utterly uncorroborated dates from the pre-colonial era. boiled. lashed. But while Monteclaro's misguided nationalism. Many of his commandments contradicted each other and his punishments were extremely brutal. Those convicted supposedly were made slaves. burned. usually having no relation to the severity of the crime committed. had fingers cut off. Monteclaro never mentioned a chief by the name of Kalantiaw in his Maragtas. combined with the blatant dishonesty of other writers who embellished his work. Why not? Even though there are no ancient documents to show that Chief Sumakwel and his followers actually existed. There are simply no written or pictorial documents from that time in Philippine history. it is not hard to believe that exiles could have sailed from Borneo to settle in Panay. however. The first reason is the lack of historical evidence. blurred the line between legends and hard historical facts. So. There are no documents from other countries that mention the great Kalantiaw either. stoned. as far as legends go. The stories of the ten datus or chiefs might have been told for generations and they are perfectly believable. all his kinsfolk took the warpath against the slayer and his kinfolk. as told in an ancient and mysterious document called the Maragtas. As the missionary Francisco Colín wrote in 1663: In the punishment of crimes of violence the social rank of the slayer and slain made a great deal of difference. Some of the Maragtas legends are a part of Visayan folklore and they are a source of fierce pride for many Visayans today. This document.
like Digno Alba. claim that he has long been a part of Visayan culture and heritage. Don Digno. Kalantiaw eventually became the most successful of many hoaxes in Marco's career of almost 50 years as a forger and fraud. simply created "facts" from thin air. In almost 400 years of documented Philippine history – from Magellan's arrival in 1521 until the second decade of the 20th century – no such legend was ever recorded. This is simply not true. only a . and the slayer could not pay the blood price. 435 (not 1435). The second reason is the lack of evidence for Kalantiaw even as a legend of oral history. Arbitration is still the custom of those Philippine cultures that were never conquered by the Spaniards. 2. Some. On May 5. Scott wrote to Alba and asked him: When you were a child. It is certain that there were no legends of Kalantiaw before the 20th century. Scott eventually traced the ultimate origin of Kalantiaw back to a single person. who disdain all historical evidence to the contrary.D. Negros. Many ardent admirers of the Datu. K2 3. Marco claimed to have discovered the Pavón documents that were mentioned in Scott's letter to Digno Alba. (For more about the life of Jose Marco The Origin of Kalantiaw and the Pavón Manuscripts Kalantiaw's name first appeared in print in July of 1913 in an article entitled Civilización prehispana published in Renacimiento Filipino. Aklan dated May 15. K3 The article mentioned 16 laws enacted by King Kalantiaw in 1433 and a fort that he built at Gagalangin.in cases where both the slayer and slain were commoners. 1967 the historian William H. 1967: I had tried to get stories or legends from the present generations of Aklanons living in Batan… but not one old man can tell me now. Marco of Pontevedra. Negros Occidental. The article was written by Manuel Artigas who. José E. He looked for Kalantiaw in local folklore in the 1950s but did not find him. who definitely did not live in the 1400s. In 1913. Kalantiaw even escaped the attention of Pedro Monteclaro when he published the Maragtas legends in 1907. The Aklanon historian Digno Alba was a young man at the start of that century. did not the old folks of Aklan have stories about Kalantiaw even before the discovery of the Pavón documents in 1913? Were there no popular legends or folklore that the elders told their grandchildren? To which Alba replied in a letter from Kalibo. were in fact Marco's own creation. which was destroyed by an earthquake in the year A. Did the Spaniards suppress the legend of Kalantiaw? This accusation is usually the first thing that history buffs reach for when they need to explain a gap in Philippine history. If the Spaniards were aware of such a legend they had no reason to suppress it because those Spaniards who were sympathetic to the Filipinos could have presented the mere existence of the Code as proof that their ancestors were civilized – just as many Filipinos do today – while detractors could have pointed to the maniacal Datu himself as proof of their savagery – even though his methods of torture were no more sadistic than those of the Spanish Inquisition. where did he come from? Many writers on this subject didn't bother to mention where they obtained their information. If Kalantiaw was not a historical figure or a legendary character. The third and most important reason to reject the Kalantiaw myth is its source. which contain the Code of Kalantiaw. These documents. This is very suspicious considering that there are more stories today about Kalantiaw than there are about any of the ten datus of the Maragtas.
was one of six translated documents that were dated before the arrival of the Spaniards in the Philippines. The original Code was purportedly discovered in the possession of a Panay datu in 1614. Mistakes in the Pavón Manuscript Aside from the doubtful origin of the Code of Kalantiaw and Pavón's Leyendes.year before. In the 1800s it was still common to abbreviate dates by omitting the first one or two digits of a year but never the final digits. he said. in chapter 9 of part 1. which cover approximately forty different offences. It could only mean 1150. a two volume leather bound work that was supposedly written by a Friar José María Pavón in 1838 and 1839. when he explained the origin of the manuscripts to the Philippine Studies Program at the University of Chicago in 1954. The anthropologist and historian Henry Otley Beyer related this story to his colleague. had provided the footnotes to a poorly written essay by José Marco. The title of the Code is The 17 theses. Reseña historica de la Isla de Negros. It was this old cook. More details about Kalantiaw emerged a year later. in 1914. Pavón was the priest in the town of Himamaylan. and not 16 laws as reported by Artigas in 1913. the same year in which Kalantiaw allegedly wrote his laws. Improbable dates are typical of all the documents that José Marco claimed to . which were apparently the Pavón manuscripts. Marco's father was among some looters who had stolen what they thought was a chest of coins or jewelry but when it was accidentally dropped in the river it became so heavy that they realized that it was full of papers. Kalantiaw's third law condemns a man to swim for three hours if he cannot afford to care for his wives. which is just as nonsensical as 150. the document that shows that date was supposedly written in the year 1137! And in spite of the fact that ancient Filipinos had no clocks or a measure of time equal to one hour. the dates in the title make no sense. As the story goes. he said that he had got them from an old cook who once worked at the convent in Himamaylan where Pavón had lived. And of course. Although this number is a correct abbreviation of 1433. In 1966 the Philippine government asked the government of Spain for the return of the original Code of Kalantiaw by the descendants of Marcelio Orfila but the Police Commissioner there could not find any record of that family in the city of Zaragoza. Perhaps Marco saw the flaw in his story so. evidently. when José Marco donated five manuscripts to the Philippine Library & Museum. For several decades José Marco didn't explain. The second chapter in part two of Leyendes tells about the building of Kalantiaw's fortress in 433. which contains it. Among the documents was Las antiguas leyendes de la Isla de Negros. in the early 1950s. When that town was looted during the revolution in 1899. sold them to Marco in 1913. At the time of Pavón's writing in 1839 it was supposedly owned by a Don Marcelio Orfila of Zaragoza. Mauro Garcia. José Marco would have had to explain why he didn't use this wealth of information or even mention these documents when he wrote his Reseña Historica in 1912. or laws of the Regulos [Datus] in use in 150 since 1433 (sic) but there are actually 18 laws listed. K5 The Code of Kalantiaw. K4. Therefore the number 150 was not a contraction of the year 1500. where he got Friar Pavón's manuscripts but it seems that he had a ready explanation to tell privately. these documents themselves are both highly suspicious. However if this story was true. Negros in the 1840s. while his fifth law metes out the punishment of a one hour lashing. at least in writing. who had stolen the manuscripts during the looting and then.
When Pavón described an ancient Visayan calendar in 1838-39 he happened to write that November was called "a bad month. Even though the ancient Filipino letters were used in these documents. And the anachronisms are not limited to the pre-Hispanic documents. was similar to spelling of the 1500s. 14. in the province and town above named on the twenty first of the month of July in the year 17…" There was no province of Negros Occidental in those centuries or in Pavón's time. each letter represented a complete syllable whereas Spanish letters (our modern letters) represent only basic sounds. It was substituted by a combination of the letters "N" and "G" with a large Spanish tilde (~) placed above! In short. This is wrong because in all other forms of ancient Filipino and Malaysian writing. However Pavón did not explain how he was able to employ these new . Pavón wrote that he had adopted the "many changes in spelling" contained in the latest dictionary of the Spanish Royal Academy and indeed the style of volume 2 was proper for that time. The title pages of Leyendes were obviously hand drawn but made to look as though they were printed text. Maria Christina. the 8 year old child Queen Isabella II had held the throne since 1833 under the regency of her mother. The spelling in volume 1. Pavón dedicated Leyendes to the King of Spain on August 1. Francisco Deza had supposedly recorded in 1543 but he was not born until in 1620. for it brought air laden with putrefied microbes of evil fevers". That same document was stamped.S. as for instance 1777". Upon completing his masterwork. decades before western culture made contact with the Philippines. which was written in 1838. Various type styles were mixed and the uppercase "I"s were even dotted. The presumed author of Leyendes. translated the Code of Kalantiaw and five other pre-Hispanic documents. Another document was signed by Deza on March 23. mentioned the "first Friday of the year" and years with "three numbers alike. "R. though not consistent with that dictionary. Pavón was just as confused about his own era. The examples of ancient Visayan writing in Leyendes looked very similar to others that were allegedly discovered by José Marco and they contained the same mistakes. It also mentioned coins of King Charles V of Spain who was not even born until the year 1500. "Parish of Ilog of Occidental Negros" with a note. The word microbe was not invented until 1878 and Louis Pasteur only developed his theory that infectious germs could be transmitted through the air in the 1850s. There was no king again until 1874. That is to say. Pavón's own writing was also curious. depending on which century was intended for the year ??14.) The spelling throughout the two volumes of Leyendes was also erratic. it seemed that each Spanish letter was merely substituted by an ancient Filipino letter. pre-colonial Filipino authors supposedly wrote in ancient Filipino letters but applied to them Spanish spelling conventions in an era before any Spaniard had set foot in the Philippines. For the second volume in 1839. Also. which was either six years before his birth or 94 years after. 1839. yet his "exact" translation of a document that was supposedly written in 1489.have discovered. there were no marks above or below the letters to indicate vowels other than "A" and there was no character for the "NGa" syllable. José María Pavón. He himself even wrote that the ancient Visayans did not keep track of the years for any extended length of time. Pavón included the pre-Hispanic Visayan alphabet that Fr. Spain had no king at that time. The island of Negros was not divided until 1890. the words were not written in the syllabic method of the Philippines but were spelled phonetically in the Spanish style. but he did not explain how he had calculated their dates. (As in the example shown above.
The Guía de Forasteros or "Foreigner's Guide" contained a directory of various government officials and it was released annually during the Spanish era. bestowed upon the great lawmaker the title "Rajah Kalantiaw" and he concluded that the Code was written for Aklan. This is the earliest known record of the real José María Pavón. Frauds and scholars alike began to build a history on the foundation of his artificial legend. One of his supposed classmates at that time was Fray Jorge G. the author. de Setién who was also mentioned in José Marco's Reseña histórica as the author of a travel book about the Philippines in 1779. it is no small coincidence that Pavón's own life story. 1842. Embellishments to the Myth The Kalantiaw hoax was created by José Marco but it soon took on a life of its own. often signed his name as "Fray José María Pavón". He even mentioned taking a trip to Borneo with some "companions of the habit". It is more likely that his name was simply plucked from the records of history to be used in a very ambitious but clumsy hoax. K6 Soncuya. Pavón claimed that he was a schoolboy in 1788 in Seville. he and Pavón were no younger that 9 years of age in 1788. could not have written the documents that were ascribed to them. 1830 but according to the Libro de Cosas notables of Himamaylan. which meant that he was a secular priest. a native of Banga. It is obvious that the real José María Pavón did not write the Pavón manuscripts. which implied that he was a friar in a religious order. He wrote that he completed Las Antiguas Leyendes in Himamaylan in 1839. as described in his manuscripts. On July 20. Spain. Robertson submitted a paper about the Kalantiaw Code to the Panama-Pacific Historical Congress in California and then published an English translation of the Code in 1917. Panay and not Negros because he had spotted two Aklanon words in the text. Who was José María Pavón? Friar José María Pavón y Araguro acknowledged many sources of information for his books: untraceable informants. This would have made Pavón at least 87 years old in 1866 when he was known to be the parish priest of Cebu. 1915. he actually took charge of that parish 12 years later on September 7. Thus. James A. was equally dubious.spellings in a document he wrote back in 1837 when he did not yet know about them in 1838. Marco and Kalantiaw instantly attained a veneer of legitimacy when Dr. which was the same year the Guía de Forasteros listed him as a Professor of Syntax and Rhetoric at the seminary in Cebu. That document was Brujerías y los Cuentos de Fantasmas and it was also "discovered" by José Marco." (for "Don") before his name. It always listed Pavón with a "D. He also wrote that he had lived in the convent of his parish of Himamaylan since at least July 17. But Pavón. unknown documents and authors who were were already deceased or not even born yet or who. If we suppose that Setién was a very precocious infant in 1779. due to other circumstances. Aklan. In that same year a Spanish version of the Code was published and discussed by Josué Soncuya in six chapters of his Historia Prehispana. He overlooked the fact that the title of the book that told the tales of Kalantiaw was The Ancient Legends of the Island of Negros and that it was supposedly . Pavón claimed that he arrived in the Philippines in 1810 but there are no records to support this. Robertson acquired the new "discoveries" for the Philippine Library and Museum in 1914.
son of Rajah Behendra Gulah. Kalantiaw II was not the father of the more famous Kalantiaw III but his brother! Even harder to believe is that there is an exact date for when Kalantiaw III supposedly issued his famous commandments .) Some maintain that he was not only the third ruler of Panay. diwatas. The title of his Code simply called him Kalantiaw. In the following year. Kalantiaw is thought by many to belong to a long genealogy of Muslim rulers but it is clearly evident in his own Code that he was not even a Muslim. the loves. and according to those manuscripts. In 1949 Gregorio Zaide included the Kalantiaw Code in his Philippine Political and Cultural History with the words "Aklan." However the most shocking aspect of Zaide's claims was that he wrote them while knowing full well that the Kalantiaw legend was proved decisively to be a hoax two years earlier. the 3rd "regulo" or "petty king". The museum even boasts an "original manuscript" of the Code. the duels and the death of Kalantiaw. 1957. The History of Kalantiaw Refuted José Marco continued to produce forgeries almost until his death in 1963 but with ever diminishing success. and clay idols. It was lost during typhoon Clara on September 20. He was born in 1410 and became the third Muslim ruler in Panay at the age of 16. "The law is above all men. it is slightly ironic that Gwekoh gave the exalted Datu the name "Bendahara" because it is actually an old Visayan word. a former school building in the town was converted into the Kalantiaw Shrine by the Philippine Historical and Cultural Society. He was an animist. Kalantiaw II and Kalantiaw III. K7 On December 8. By the 1950s genuine scholars could no longer . which means "prime minister" or second in power to the top datu. 1433. His father was not Rajah Gulah but King Kalantiaw I who captured the town of Batan in 1399 with Chinese adventurers. Gwekoh released new details in the Sunday Times about the life of Datu Bendahara Kalantiaw. venerated trees and animals. Incredible though it may seem. It has a similar meaning in modern Malay. 1956 a historical marker with a brass plaque was erected in Batan in honour of Kalantiaw. His Code punished offences against anitos. Perhaps his devotees thought that the better fertilized land of the Maragtas legends would provide him a little more credibility.December 8. Lakan is a common prefix to Tagalog names that once meant "paramount ruler".written on that island by José Pavón whose manuscripts were allegedly discovered there by José Marco. (See: Postscript. Aside from this. he declared in his book Paging Datu Kalantiaw (1956) that the Datu had set up his government in Batan and made it the capital of the sakup of Aklan. the battles. but that he was also the third in a dynasty of rulers named Kalantiaw. And even though Digno Alba could find no evidence for Kalantiaw as a legend. Incredibly Zaide even reproduced a direct quote from the noble king. Nevertheless. In 1966 Sol H. Kalantiaw built his fortress on the island of Negros. Other unidentified writers are often quoted throughout the Internet for many contradicting stories about Kalantiaw. In 1970 the popular historian Gregorio Zaide speculated in Great Filipinos in History that Kalantiaw's real name was Lakan Tiaw or "Chief of Brief Speech". Kalantiaw was honoured by the Philippine Navy in December 1967 when it acquired the World War II destroyer escort USS Booth from the United States and recommissioned it the RPS Datu Kalantiaw. the elder Kalantiaw I gave his name to both his sons. Many more stories abound about the life. a native of Negros. Panay" attached to the title. the Kalantiaw legend was successfully transplanted into the soil of Panay. 1981.
105. a new generation of academics began to question the dogma of a half century of Philippine historiography. There is therefore no present evidence that any Filipino ruler by the name of Kalantiaw ever existed or that the Kalantiaw penal code is any older than 1914. He only showed a few of these forgeries to Scott so as not to prejudice his research. Scott's exposé did not have an immediate effect on Filipino society. The decree prohibited all forms of desecration including "unnecessary noise and committing unbecoming acts." Like Kalantiaw's Code. On March 1.take him seriously and despite Kalantiaw's growing renown. 294). K9 Scott successfully defended his thesis before a panel of eminent Filipino historians. K8 He examined the original documents and searched archives and museums the world over for supporting documents and artifacts. On January 24. He interviewed the friends and colleagues of Jose E. some of whom had formerly endorsed many of the facts of Philippine history that he had proved false. Marco and he examined their correspondence with him. the National Historical Institute (NHI) published the pamphlet. In the matter of Kalantiaw. "imprisonment for not less than ten (10) years or a fine not less than ten thousand pesos (P10. Datu Bendahara Kalantiaw. Mercedes Grau Santamaria. which included several specific pre-colonial dates and the obligatory comparison to Solomon." In 1976. Nicholas Zafra and Gregorio Zaide. were sacred. and the artist Carlos Valino Jr. saving the most blatant fakes until after Scott had formed his own conclusions about Marco's work. 1973. which declared that the Kalantiaw Shrine. Scott summarized the results of his painstaking investigation in just two sentences: The José E. The panel included Teodoro Agoncillo. José E. He questioned the top historians of the day about their sources of information. all the information was traced back to a single source. Scott's meticulous research was published in 1968 in his book Prehispanic Source Materials for the Study of Philippine History and since then no historian has contested his conclusions. That same year a beauty pageant winner was crowned "Lakambini ni Kalantiaw" on the supposed anniversary of the Code (December 8). an award "for services to the country in the areas of law and justice" (Executive Order No. the penalty was hefty. complete with an anecdote of one of his judicial cases as an example of his wisdom. Marco. Garcia had received several fake documents from José Marco in the past. Scott focused his investigation by tracing the original source of every single reference to the pre-Hispanic history of the Philippines in the four standard college text books in use at that time.000) or both. In 1965 William Henry Scott was a doctoral candidate at the University of Santo Tomas when the bibliographer Mauro Garcia suggested that for his thesis he examine the history of the Philippines before the arrival of the Spaniards. Marco contributions to Philippine historiography… appear to be deliberate fabrications with no historic validity. Marcelino Forondo. The Die-Hard Lie William H. depicted Kalantiaw issuing his commandments (See painting above). quoted . containing a short biography of the chief. President Ferdinand Marcos instituted the "Order of Kalantiaw". Horacio de la Costa. which made him suspicious of Marco's first discoveries upon which so much early history was based. Marcos also issued Presidential Decree No. and all national shrines. The pamphlet also contained the Code itself. 1971.
not a single question was raised about the chapter. According to Scott. Henry Scott. Philippine History (1984). Pageant of Philippine History (1979). Old school textbooks are revised to include relativley recent events such as the People Power Revolution of 1986 but the fictitious codes of Kalantiaw and Maragtas remain untouched. Marco to Philippine historiography". the author of countless school textbooks and a member of the very dissertation panel that examined Scott's thesis in 1968. and often dismissive. Some historians. Kasaysayan at Pamahalaan ng Pilipinas (History & Government of the Philippines): It is good to examine the contents of the Kalantiaw Code. The Gintong Pamana (Golden Heritage) Awards Foundation. Zaide's death in 1986 his daughter. women and the environment. the ghost of Kalantiaw continues to haunt Filipinos some 40 years after the hoaxes were exposed. K12 One wonders just how closely the author examined the content of the Kalantiaw Code when he wrote this charitable description of such a saintly community. mutilations and tortures? The bibliography in the book does not list any works . However. Dagdag’s 1997 high school textbook. notes about rival “opinions. Would a society that "valued life" have wanted such an irrational legal code wherein 14 of its 18 laws inflicted the most gruesome deaths. one astonishing exception was Gregorio F. authors of the old school still retell the obsolete theories and fallacies of Philippine history although some now make cynical attempts to present a fair and enlightened view by merely inserting brief. the elderly. of the material based on the Marco hoaxes. Once his irrefutable proofs were made public. …Filipinos wanted to have a society that was religious and God-fearing. Zaide. because it can be seen here what kind of society the ancient Filipinos wanted to create. and in reissues of his older works. with respect for authority. Even the NHI continued to honour Kalantiaw in 1989 by including him in volume 4 of their five volumes of Filipinos in History. History of the Republic of the Philippines (1983).” Take for example these lines from Edgardo E.from the 1970 edition of History of the Filipino People by Teodoro Agoncillo and Milagros Guerrero. even the foremost historians were persuaded to remove the myth from their books. During the revalida [oral examination]. Zaide. and which valued life and a person’s word. (1986) K11 In newer textbooks. as in A History of the Philippines by Leogardo et al. which I called "The Contributions of Jose E. did not give up on Kalantiaw immediately. Soon after Dr. The Central Philippine University in Iloilo has its own "Order of Kalantiao". even though it is not believed to be an authentic written law by some historians such as Professor W. Buildings. Kalantiaw Institute. Aklan or even pass by a local high school. He is still portrayed on the ceiling of the old Senate hall in Manila and the Philippine government still awards the "Order of Kalantiaw" to retiring justices. but not all. Nevertheless. Zaide apparently remained silent but he continued to endorse the myth and even add his own details to it in books such as Heroes of Philippine History (1970). a project of Philippine Time USA Magazine. although others had already dismissed the legend even before Scott's thesis was published. rewards community leadership among Filipino-Americans with the "Kalantiaw Award". Sonia M. like Agoncillo. revised the books that she had co-authored with her father and removed most. a fraternity that was at the centre of a serious hazing incident in September of 2001. K10 Despite this opportunity to challenge Scott's thesis directly on the matter of Kalantiaw. streets and banquet halls throughout the Philippines still bear the name of the imaginary ruler of Panay and tourists can still visit the Kalantiaw Shrine in Batan.
Pabilaan). asked Malacañang to look into the matter. The NHI finally admitted that Kalantiaw was a hoax in 1998 when Chief Justice Andres Narvasa. the chief of the natives. that the new generation of historians have been able to set the records straight. recent generations of students have come to know it as a fraud rather than a fact. Henry Scott so it can be assumed that the author was not familiar with Scott’s absolutely incontrovertible proofs that debunked the Kalantiaw myth so thoroughly. The gradual effect of this teaching is starting to show. Kagila-gilalas na Kasinungalingan (The Amazing Lie). Tibongsapay). Marco's ambition was to better the accomplishments of Rizal by inventing a glorious past to fill the gaps in Filipino history. Datu Libay. upon the arrival of the datus. the situation is not completely hopeless. Marco and the creation of the Kalantiaw hoax in the play Kalantiaw. Datu Dumangsil. But while they portray such a maniac as a Filipino hero. the local inhabitants of the islands. However. For although the Philippine public may be slow to shrug off the Kalantiaw myth. Datu Paduhinogan (and wife. he would have known that the Code and all the legends surrounding it were in fact 20th century fabrications and thus could not possibly show "what kind of society the ancient Filipinos wanted to create. the people of the Philippines need never bear this shame because Kalantiaw never really existed.by W. Today some people still cite the courage and wisdom of Kalantiaw as they continue to heap accolades upon him and the oblivious recipients of those Kalantiaw awards. made their opinion official when they submitted a resolution to President Arroyo to revoke the national shrine status of the Kalantiaw Shrine in Aklan. enraged some Aklanons. a sober look at Kalantiaw's Code reveals that his magnificent courage was merely brutality and his exalted wisdom was in fact incredible insanity. Katurong). Later both parties entered into a trade alliance. President Joseph Estrada gave him the award. Villanueva's intriguing story proposed that Marco's motivation for creating his frauds was his intense admiration for his personal hero. Marikudo invited the datus to a feast. and Datu Balensuela. The datus. during which the ten chiefs negotiated the purchase of Panay Island for . It is only now. Datu Paiborong (and wife. Piangpangan). anyway. that they had peaceful intentions. Datu Sumakwel (and wife. In 2004. Datu Dumangsol. Kapinangan). they disregard what gross slander they lay on the character of all Filipinos. believed to be the fathers of precolonial Philippines. Datu Domalogdog. Jose Rizal. According to the legend. Fortunately. However. In 1994 the playwright Rene O. under the leadership of Ambeth Ocampo. Datu Makatunaw. Legend of the Ten Bornean Datus The Ten Bornean Datus Epic refers to the ten chieftains who allegedly ventured to the Island of Panay boarding a boat called balangay (or barangay) to evade the tyrannical ruler of Borneo. Datu Bangkaya (and wife. the Aeta. who was about to receive the Kalantiaw Award. were the following: Datu Puti (and wife. Kalantiaw's defenders insist that his legend must be true simply because he has always inspired them as a part of their heritage." Inferior textbooks are not likely to vanish soon if the textbook/bribery scandal at the Department of Budget and Management in 1999 was any indicator of the state of the educational system in the Philippines. grew terrified but the diplomatic Datu Puti said to Marikudo. the NHI. which. Otherwise. of course. Villanueva dramatized the life of Jose E. since most of the old guard has passed on.
these studies are contested. Monteclaro was said to unusually put high importance to pre-hispanic myths and legends as an important part of Visayan cultural heritage. There is no argument that the roots of the word "Barangay" came from "Balangay" the boat used by the Ten Bornen Datu and their families. The datus allegedly bought the Island of Panay from Marikudo. he stated that he did not publish them due to their poor condition and he did not imply that they were transcribed in his book. it must not be believed as a reliable source of facts on precolonial Philippines. recent studies discovered the irregularities of the said legend. though History per se is limited to "written" historical accounts. in Iloilo in 1907.a golden salakot. the head of the Barangay is a "Barangay Captain" the only head of a government unit in the world named after a captain of a boat. Fictitious Book This legend was previously accepted by many historians. recent scrutiny of scholars shows that the Maragtas is actually a fictitious book of Visayan oral local legends written by Pedro Monteclaro.” although until the present. a Visayan public official and poet. they retreated to the forest. for a golden salakot (in English: hat). A Hoax Renowned historian William Henry Scott. Irong Irong and Hamtik). the legend is is considered "spoken" historical account and part and parcel of Filipino Culture. however. However. Code of Maragtas The Maragtas Legend was believed to be a document which dated between 1200 to 1250. Aklan. The document claimed that there were ten Bornean datus (or chieftain) who arrived in the island of Panay to escape from the tyranny of a certain Datu Makatunaw of Borneo. the said term has only been known in referral to his compilation. and thus. Since the Aetas found the land overwhelmingly vast for them. He proved in his dissertation that the original Maragtas book and the Confederation of Madya-as were not actual ancient documents from long . The legend is important part of the life. Monteclaro used the word maragtas to mean “history. leading to the birth of Philippine population and culture. the chief of the Aeta group. however. culture and identity of Ilonggo people and inhabitants of Panay Island. These datus and their families were said to be the people responsible for populating the entire Visayan region. he collected the various stories of the elderly of Panay and published them in his Maragtas. and for forming a confederation of barangays called Madya-as under the leadership of Datu Sumakwel. He did refer to two old written documents. leaving the Datus with the land which they divided among themselves (namely Aklan. There have been studies stating that Monteclaro actually translated Maragtas from an ancient prehispanic manuscript but in the preface of the book he clearly stated that he himself was its author. in his doctoral dissertation at the University of Santo Tomas. Arguments of Authenticity But still. made a painstaking investigation into all the sources of information about the Philippines before the coming of the Spaniards. This legend is now commemorated in the yearly Ati-atihan festival since the late 1950s when it officially became a part of the feast of Santo Niño in Kalibo. He wrote the book in the Hiligaynon and Kinaray-a languages of Panay. thus. Until now.
Discuss how Magellan’s voyage differs with the purpose of Legaspi on coming to the Philippines? 5. Scott found that the Maragtas Code was but merely an invention of Guillermo Santiago-Cuino's mind who probably based it on Monteclaro's book and published in 1938. . How did the Philippines got its name? Discuss its evolution. Resolve the issue as to where the first mass was held.ago but only legends that were collected and in some cases possibly concocted by Pedro Monteclaro. After reading the above essay. QUESTIONS: 1. BONUS: List down at least 20 trivia you’ve learned about the Philippines. On top of that. What were the reasons given to refute the genuineness of the Code of Kalantiaw? 4. what do you think are the main reasons why the Filipinos are miseducated with regards the nation’s own history? 3. 2.
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