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The quality of a boiler is judged by its system efficiency . But different norms of how to calculate make comparison difficult and confuse the issue In this first installment of our tool kit, we will attempt to learn the following:

Understanding different methods to calculate system efficiencies. Knowing the difference between the lower and higher heating value of a fuel. Appreciating the difference between the direct and indirect method of measuring the system efficiency. Establishing a list of losses. Understanding the basic mathematics behind efficiency calculations. Converting between norm efficiencies.

Definition of System Efficiency A boiler is an equipment that is sold with a guaranteed system efficiency. Some people call it design efficiency to distinguish it from the operational efficiency. For instance saying a boiler has a guaranteed efficiency of 83% means 17% of the energy input in the boiler (mostly fuel energy) is lost and is not used to generate steam. The trouble with this practice is that there are several norms how to determine and calculate efficiencies. Based on the norm efficiency the same boiler may have at least two design efficiencies. Any consultant involved in boiler testing should therefore have at least some understanding how thermal efficiencies based on measured data, are calculated. The most basic equation everybody agrees is

Where Adsorbed heat = Eout = The energy the feed water has picked up. Energy Input = Ein = The energy going into the boiler. There is no disagreement of what "adsorbed heat" means. It is the energy needed to convert feed water entering the boiler at a specific pressure and temperature to steam leaving the boiler at a specific pressure and temperature. This includes the energy picked up by the blow down and not converted into steam. Disagreement among national norms exist of what is considered an "energy input".Unfortunately any fuel has two widely published energy contents. They are:

The Higher Heating Value (HHV), also called Gross Calorific Value (GCV) The Lower Heating Value (LHV), also called the Net Calorific Value (NCV)

where

is the mass of water (in kg) generated by one kg of fuel during the combustion process, and

with H = weight percent of Hydrogen in the fuel xH2O = weight percent of physically bound water in the fuel. It is assumed that all water is evaporated at 25C (the temperature of the systemboundary). A fuel contains physically and chemically bound water. Drying the fuel can drive off the physically bound water, while the chemically bound water is formed through the reaction of Oxygen with the atomic Hydrogen of the fuel. Contrary to common believe and the notation in the American norm, there is no molecular Hydrogen (H2) or Oxygen (O2) in the fuel. The LHV is always smaller than the HHV.Table 1 gives an overview of how much LHV and HHV differ. See Table 1. Table 1. FUEL TYPE Light fuel oil Coal A Wood, very dry (10% H2O) 44.003 21.693 17.739 HHV LHV % CHANGE 41.255 20.236 16.308 3.808 46.256 34.095 7.974 6.24 6.72 8.07 35.61 7.95 0 19.08 MJ/kg MJ/kg

Wood, freshly cut (70% H2O) 5.913 LPG (90% Propane) Carbon, C Bagasse (50% H2O) 50.250 34.095 9.855

It should be noted that the adsorbed heat is a measured value and does not depend on the fuel energy input (LHV or HHV). How much heat the feed water can adsorb is a matter of boiler design and operation. For example, assume 1 ton of light fuel oil is fired in a boiler and the adsorbed heat has been measured as 36,500 MJ. Using either the HHV or LHV as energy input we have

This boiler if tested by the German norm will be advertised with a design efficiency of about = 88% because this norm uses the LHV for calculation, while the same boiler sold by an American company would have an = 83% because the American norm uses the HHV as a basis for the energy input. Due to the large difference, internationally known boiler manufacturers report both efficiencies in sales brochures. Another method to avoid any misunderstanding is to report the rated capacity in MW and the associated fuel consumption based on a given HHV or LHV of the fuel. NOTE 1: Calculating the thermal efficiency directly as suggested in equation (1) and (2) would require to

simultaneously measure the fuel flow, the steam flow, and the feed water flow. The procedure does not only involve measuring flows (kg/h or m3/h) but also to record the fuel temperature and pressure of the steam and feed water. With solid fuel fired boilers it is impossible to measure the fuel flow correctly. The direct method is therefore used very seldom to determine the efficiency of a boiler in the field. It is used as confirmation of the measured losses if fuel, feed water and steam meters are installed. NOTE 2: Most performance testing and commissioning of smaller and medium sized boilers is done by the indirect method measuring the losses and calculating the efficiency as

This is the preferred choice, because the method is based on the measurement of losses and shows opportunities to reduce them.The HHV of the fuel is used as the relevant energy input. NOTE 3: In case of a performance contract, verification of fuel cost reduction should be done by the direct method. This implies that performance contracting of solid fuel fired boilers is complicated due to difficulties in measuring fuel flow. NOTE 4: The correct derivation of the efficiency equation for the indirect method is

In hot water boilers that may have stack gas temperatures below 90o C, we observe system efficiencies of larger 100% if the LHV is used as energy input in the direct method calculation. It is therefore recommended to avoid the LHV as energy input, because it would violate the Second Law of Thermodynamics which says the energy output of a system (boiler) cannot be larger than the energy input. In other words it is not possible to create energy in a boiler. The Losses Using the direct method one does not have to list losses because they dont enter into the calculation. With the indirect method an agreement of what we consider a loss must be reached. The most logical way to do this is to draw a system boundary around the boiler and declare all energy flows (except steam) that leave the boundary a loss. A sample list of losses is 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. The chemical energy of unburned carbon monoxide (CO) in the stack gas. The sensible and latent heat of the dry stack gas and the water in the stack gas. The radiation and convection losses from the boiler surface. The blow down losses (Optional. Some norms dont consider it). The sensible heat losses of the residue (ash). The unburned carbon losses (LOI) in the residue. All other combustible gases and solids in the stack gas such as Higher Hydrocarbons (Cn Hm), H2, and solid carbon (C).

7.

Only losses 1, 2, 4, 5, and 6 are measurable without too much effort and complications. One mainly tries to reduce losses 2 and 6. Loss 6 is important in solid fuel fired boilers. There are a few other losses, such as steam used for oil preheating and atomization in larger installations fired with "Bunker C" oil. Percentage fuel savings All our efforts to reduce energy consumption should be expressed in terms "percentage fuel saved". In case the efficiency of a boiler is determent and measures are recommended to increase efficiency from an "as is" situation to an new improved efficiency the percent savings of fuel consumption are given as

In the literature you may find all permutations of this equation such as

A definitely wrong but often used approximation is S = Note that S1 = -S4 and S2 = -S3 Let us assume that the as is situation is given as

new -

old

Reducing losses means for the same level of energy output Eout less energy input Ein is needed. Consequently

where

Ein is the amount of energy saved. A positive number. Applying equation S1 will lead to

Consequently S1 is the only correct equation. A positive number means fuel savings while a negative number means additional fuel consumption. In another issue it will be explained that the above equation cannot be used to calculate fuel savings from reduction of blow down or condensate return, since both are not considered losses.

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