1) INTRODUCTION 2) HAMILTON
TO BIOMOLECULAR COMPUTING 4
PATH PROBLEM 5
2.1 Possible flight routes between seven cities________________________________6 2.2 Connecting Block___________________________________________________7 2.3 Double Helics______________________________________________________ 7 2.4 Long Chain________________________________________________________7 2.5 Different Colour___________________________________________________ 7
3) PROGRAMMING OF PROBLEM USING 4) WORKING OF DNA 5) APPLICATION
6) EFFICIENCY___________________________________________________ 7) ADVANTAGES-DISADVANTAGES 8) FUTURE
1. though. Chip makers need a new material to produce faster computing speeds. They are nothing else but Bio-Molecules itself.
You won’t believe where scientists have found the new material they need to build the next generation of microprocessors. Especially DNA. INTRODUCTION TO BIO-MOLECULAR COMPUTING
Computer chip manufactures are furiously racing to make the next microprocessor that will topple speed records. Amino acids…
. Lipids. The other Bio-Molecules like Nucleotides. Sooner or later. DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) molecules. Millions of natural supercomputers exist inside living organisms. the material our genes are made of. have the potential to perform calculations many faster than the world’s most powerful human-built computers. Nuclesoides. including your living body. Lignin. this competition is bound to hit a wall. Microprocessor made of silicon will eventually reach their limits of speed and miniaturization. Saccharides.
Although the feasibility of molecular computers remains in doubt. In 1994. But the general sense of such a computational device is to use the DNA molecule as a model for its construction. and didn’t exist as concept before a decade. the field has opened new horizons and important new research problems.
. DNA is more similar to computer. DNA computer can’t be still found at your local electronics store yet. the techniques of DNA manipulation developed for computational purposes could also find applications in genetic engineering. computer scientist at the university of Southern California. Adelman. both for computer scientists and biologists.not because the DNA strands are smarter. DNA is very similar to a computer hard drive in how it stores permanent information about your genes. but because they can make many tries at once.What is a DNA Computer?
Research in the development of DNA computers is really only at its beginning stages. who co-discovered the structure of DNA in 1953. Also. LEONARD ADELMAN introduced the idea of using DNA to solve complex mathematical problems. came to the conclusion that DNA had computational potential after reading the book “MOLECULAR BIOLOGY OF THE GENE” written by JAMES WASTON.In fact. The massive parallelism of DNA strands may help to deal with computational problems that are beyond the reach of ordinary digital computers -. the 2 unexpected results in DNA computing indicate that models of DNA computers could be significant for the study of important biological problems such as evolution. so a specific answer isn't yet available. It's the parallel nature of the beast. The computer scientist and mathematician are looking for new models of computation to replace with acting in a test tube. For the biologist. The technology is still in their development.
The objective is to find a path from start to end going through all the points only once. Keep only those paths that enter all cities at least once. going through each city 3 only once. but poor at “key into lock” problems. The following algorithm solves the Hamilton Path Problem. called the “Directed Hamilton Path problem”.1
Figure showing the possible flight routes between the seven cities. regardless of the type computers used. 2. The Hamilton path problem was chosen because every keyintolock problem can be solved as a Hamilton Path Problem.2
DNA likes to form long double helices:
Figure 2. Generate random paths through the graph. 3. The goal of the problem is to find the shortest route between a numbers of cities. Because the graph has 7 cities. 5. These interconnecting blocks can be used to model DNA:
Figure 2. Any remaining paths are solutions. DNA based computers can try all the keys at the same time (massively parallel) and thus are very good at key into lock problems. It is like having a whole bunch of keys and trying to see which fits into the lock. The key to solving the problem was using DNA to perform the five steps in solving the above algorithm.1 shows a diagram of the Hamilton path problem.
Figure 2. HAMILTON PATH PROBLEM
Adelman is often called the inventor of the DNA computers. Figure 2. 1. His article in a 1994 issue of Journal Science outlined how to use DNA to solve a wellknown mathematical problem. which will be represented by coloured blocks. Conventional computers are very good at math.2.
The two helices are joined by “bases”. This problem is difficult for the conventional (serial logic) computers because they try must try each path one at a time. keep only those paths with 7 cities. Keep only those paths that begin with the start city (A) and conclude with the end city (G). also known as the “Traveling Salesman Problem”. As you add more cities the problem becomes more difficult. In our
. but much slower at simple mathematical problems like multiplication. Each base binds only to one other specific base.
example. they would form a long chain like this:
. if we only had red coloured blocks. we will say that each coloured block will bind only with the block of same colour. For example.