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APPENDIX

MAJOR TECHNICAL SPECIFICATIONS


Item Body Type Vehicle Grade Model Code Length Overall Wheel Base Tread Major Dimensions & Vehicle Weights Front Rear Length Room Width Height Front Rear Width Height mm (in.) mm (in.) mm (in.) mm (in.) mm (in.) mm (in.) mm (in.) mm (in.) mm (in.) mm (in.) mm (in.) mm (in.) degrees Front Curb Weight Rear Total Front Rear Total Fuel Tank Capacity Luggage Compartment Capacity Max. Speed Max. Cruising Speed Acceleration Performance degrees kg (lb) kg (lb) kg (lb) kg (lb) kg (lb) kg (lb) (lmp.gal) m3 (cu.ft.) km / h (mph) JZS160L-BEAQFW 4805 (189.2) 1800 (70.9) 1445 (56.9) 2800 (110.2) 1535 (60.4) 1510 (59.4) 1975 (77.8) 1550 (61.0) 1180 (46.5), 1140 (44.9)*1 835 (32.9) 1170 (46.1) 155 (6.1) 16_ 16_ 885~915 (1951~2017) 780~805 (1720~1775) 1665~1720 (3671~3792) 1015 (2238) 1105 (2436) 2120 (4674) 75 (19.8, 16.5) 0.515 (18.2) 230 (142) 210 (130) 8.2 15.8 60 (37) 92 (57) 141 (88) 5.5 (18.0) 5.9 (19.4) 2JZ-GE 24-Valve, DOHC 86.0  86.0 (3.39  3.39) 2997 (182.9) 10.5 : 1 EFI 95 163/5800 (EEC) 298/3800 (EEC) 12 55 1200 1.4 A650E 3.357 2.180 1.424 1.000 0.753 3.431 3.615 8 Ventilated Disc Solid Disc Duo-Servo Hydraulic Double Wishbone Double Wishbone STD STD Rack and Pinion 17.2 Integral Type JZS160R-BEAQFW z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z z Area Europe 4-Door Sedan JZS160R-BEAQFQ z z z z z z z z z z z z z z 875~920 (1929~2028) 775~810 (1709~1786) 1650~1730 (3638~3814) 1005 (2216) 1135 (2502) 2140 (4718) z z z z 7.9 15.7 55 (34) 85 (53) 130 (81) z z z z z z z z 93 166/6000 (EEC) 298/4000 (EEC) z z 1.0 z z z z z z z 3.916 z z z z z z z z z z z z JZS160L-BEAQFV z z z z z 1515 (59.6) z z z z z z z z z z z 1020 (2249) 1110 (2447) 2130 (4696) z z z z 8.2 15.8 60 (37) 92 (57) 141 (88) z z z z z z z z z 178/6000 (SAE-GROSS) 312/4000 (SAE-GROSS) z z z z z z z z z z 3.615 z z z z z z z z z z z z 70 65 60 55 45 40 35 30 20 15 10 5 Australia G.C.C. Countries

Overhang

Min. Running Ground Clearance Angle of Approach Angle of Departure

Gross Vehicle Weight

25

km / h (mph) 0 to 100 km / h sec. 0 to 400 m sec. 1st Gear km / h (mph) 2nd Gear km / h (mph) 3rd Gear km / h (mph) 4th Gear km / h (mph) Tire m (ft.) Body m (ft.)

Max. Permissible Speed

Min. Turning Radius Engine Type Valve Mechanism Bore  Stroke Displacement Compression Ratio

Engine

mm (in.) cm3 (cu.in.)

Carburetor Type or Injection Pump Type (Diesel)

Engine Electrical

Research Octane No. or Cetane No. (Diesel) Max. Output kW / rpm Max. Torque N.m / rpm Battery Capacity (5HR) Voltage & Amp. hr. Alternator Output Starter Output Clutch Type Transmission Type In First Transmission Gear Ratio In Second In Third In Fourth In Fifth In Reverse Differential Gear Ratio Differential Gear Size in. Front Rear Watts kW

50

Chassis

Brake Type Parking Brake Type

Brake Booster Type Proportioning Valve Type Suspension Type Stabilizer Bar Front Rear Front

Rear Steering Gear Type Steering Gear Ratio (Overall) Power Steering Type *1: with Moon Roof

BODY ELECTRICAL LIGHTING

119

BODY ELECTRICAL
LIGHTING
JDESCRIPTION
The new GS300 has the following systems: System Outline Four sculptured multi-reflector type headlights, in which the low-beam and high-beam lights are mounted separately, have been adopted on all models. Also, Discharge headlights have been adopted to the low-beam headlights as optional equipment. This headlights provides a high level of visibility. The basic construction and operation of Discharge headlights are the same as in the LS400. An automatic headlight beam level control system has been adopted, which automatically maintains the headlight beams at a constant level in relation to the vehicle posture that is detected by sensors. The basic construction and operation are the same as in the LS400. Positioning the light control switch at AUTO turns the headlights and taillights on or off, depending on the light availability surrounding the vehicle, as detected by the automatic light control sensor. For details, see the next page. This system is designed to automatically activate the headlights during the daytime. This system is useful when entering the vehicle, fastening the seat belts and inserting the ignition key into the key cylinder in the dark. As in the previous model, when any of the doors is opened, the illuminated entry system turns on the illumination lights around the ignition key cylinder, dome light (only when the control switch is at DOOR position), footwell illuminations (for the driver and front passenger) simultaneously and fade out in about 15 seconds. Also, the control of this system is performed by the No. 2 body ECU.

Headlights

Automatic Headlight Beam Level Control System

Automatic Light Control System Daytime Running Light System

Illuminated Entry System

BE

120

BODY ELECTRICAL LIGHTING

JAUTOMATIC LIGHT CONTROL SYSTEM 1. General


When the light control switch is at the AUTO position, the automatic light control sensor detects the ambient light and automatically turns the taillight and headlight on or off accordingly. The automatic light control system of the new GS300 has the following features: D The function for judging the light of the vehicles surroundings and the function for controlling the taillight and headlight relays are enclosed in the No. 2 body ECU. D A light sensitivity adjustment function, which is implemented by the customized body electronics system, has been provided. D A control has been provided to reduce the instances in which the headlights are turned ON/OFF by this system.

2. Construction and Operation


Automatic Light Control Sensor D The control function of the automatic light control system has been integrated in the No. 2 body ECU. Accordingly, the automatic light control sensor now consists only of the light sensor that detects the illuminance of the vehicles surrounding light. The light sensor is comprised of a photo diode which senses the available light, power source circuit and frequency output circuit. D The brightness that is detected by this sensor is transmitted to the No. 2 body ECU in the form of signals based on the frequency output system. D The sensitivity of this sensor can be adjusted to 5 stages by the customized body electronics system. Filter Sensor

152BE01

" Specifications A Destination Item OFF ON/OFF D l Ti f th Delay Time for the Lights Europe*1 Approx. Approx Approx. Approx 4 sec sec. 6 sec sec. Australia G.C.C. Countries Taillight Headlight Taillight Headlight Headlight Approx. 2.0 sec. Approx. 4.0 sec. Approx. 0.15 sec. Approx. 1.0 sec. Approx. 0.25 sec.*2

ON

Approx. 0.25 sec.*2

*1: Headlights and taillights turn ON and OFF simultaneously. *2: Control to turn ON the lights immediately when driving in a tunnel.

BODY ELECTRICAL LIGHTING 1) Frequency Output Circuit

121

The frequency output circuit varies the frequency of the pulses that are output by the sensor in accordance with the illuminance that is detected by the automatic light control sensor.

1200 Hz Frequency Frequency Varies from 50 Hz According to Illuminance


152BE02

50 Hz 0 Lx Illuminance
152BE03

Bright

Output Pulse

Frenquency Characteristics Diagram

No. 2 Body ECU D The control functions of the automatic light control system, such as the function to judge the illuminance of the vehicles surroundings and the function to control the taillight and headlight relays, are integrated in the No. 2 body ECU. Accordingly, the body ECU performs system control based on the illuminance signal that is sent by the automatic light control sensor. D After the headlights are turned OFF, if the body ECU detects that the headlights are turned ON again within 10 seconds, the ECU changes the headlight OFF delay time from 4 seconds to 10 seconds. Accordingly, the ON/OFF operation of the headlights, which could occur while driving through a consecutive string of tunnels, can be minimized.

BE

122

BODY ELECTRICAL METER

METER
JCOMBINATION METER
The combination meter of new GS300 has the following features: D Sporty, triple-lens independent electronic analog meters that offer superb visibility and a high-tech look have been adopted.

143BE01

D In contrast to the meter used on the previous model in which the pointer and scale meter were illuminated, the new GS300 has adopted a system in which the pointer and scale are silhouetted against an illuminated dial plate.

152BE05

152BE06

New

Previous

BODY ELECTRICAL METER

123

D To ensure an optimal meter brightness continuously from dusk to night, an automatic light control system that uses an automatic light control sensor has been newly adopted. In addition, a rheostat switch has been provided to enable the driver to adjust the meter brightness as desired. " System Diagram A Meter Brightness Automatic Light Control Sensor
No. 2 Body ECU Multiplex Communication (Illuminance Data) Meter

Manual Light Control Range Illuminance


152BE07

(Light Control)
(Rotational Angle Signal)

Rheostat

152BE08

D To minimize the fluctuation of the fuel gauge needle while driving up or down hill or during cornering, the position of the fuel gauge needle of the new GS300 is determined by calculating the residual fuel data that is sent from the fuel sender to the meter, and the fuel consumption data that is sent from the engine ECU to the meter. " System Diagram A

Engine ECU

Multiplex Communication (Fuel Consumption Data)

Meter (Calculation/Display)

FUEL Sender

Residual Fuel Data

BE

152BE09

124

BODY ELECTRICAL METER

D A drive monitor has been adopted to show cruise information and warnings such as the average vehicle speed, average fuel consumption, etc., on the display of the Lexus navigation system. The drive monitor analyzes the various types of data that are sent from the engine ECU, ABS & TRC & VSC ECU, and fuel sender gauge to the meter and sends the results of the analysis to be shown on the display of the Lexus navigation system. The items that are shown on the display by this function are as follows. Item Details If more than 10 liters is refueled, the meter detects that refueling has occurred based on the signals received from the fuel sender gauge, and resets the driven distance data that is stored in memory. Following the resetting of the data, the meter calculates the cumulative driven distance and sends this information to be shown on the display. The indication on the display is updated at 0.1km intervals. If more than 10 liters is refueled, the meter detects that refueling has occurred based on the signals received from the fuel sender gauge and resets the average fuel consumption data that is stored in memory. Following the resetting of the data, the meter calculates the cumulative average fuel consumption and sends this information to be shown on the display. The indication on the display is updated at 10-second intervals. The meter resets the driven distance data that is stored in memory each time the engine is started. Following the resetting of the data, the meter calculates the cumulative driven distance and sends this information to be shown on the display. The indication on the display is updated at 0.1km intervals. The meter calculates the fuel consumption rate each time the engine makes 20 revolutions and sends this information to be shown on the display. The indication on the display is updated at 0.5-second intervals. When the reset switch is turned ON, the meter resets the average fuel consumption data that is stored in memory. Following the resetting of data, the meter calculates the cumulative average fuel consumption and sends this information to be shown on the display. The indication on the display is updated at 10-second intervals. When the reset switch is turned ON, the meter resets the average vehicle speed data that is stored in memory. Following the resetting of data, the meter calculates the cumulative average vehicle speed and sends this information to be shown on the display. The indication on the display is updated at 10-second intervals. The meter calculates the estimated continuous drivable distance (based on the residual fuel data that is sent from the fuel sender gauge to the meter and the fuel consumption data of the preceding ten and several km that is calculated by the meter and stored in memory) and sends this information to be shown on the display. The indication on the display is updated each time the estimated continuous drivable distance decreases by 1 km. Furthermore, if the fuel consumption rate for the preceding ten and several km changes suddenly, the data is updated and this information is sent to the display to update the indication on the display.

Driven Distance After Refueling

Average Fuel Consumption After Refueling

Driven Distance After Engine Starting

Instant Fuel Consumption

Average Fuel Consumption

Average Speed

Continuous Drivable Distance

BODY ELECTRICAL METER " System Diagram A


Multiplex Conmunication (Fuel Consumption Data)

125

Engine ECU
ABS & TRC & VSC ECU

Meter (Calculation)

Multiplex Communication (Indication Data) (Reset Switch Data) Lexus Navigation System
152BE11

Vehicle Speed Signal Residual Fuel Data

FUEL Sender

D The functions described below have been provided to enable the hand-held tester to be used for diagnosis in case a malfunction occurs in the meter.
1

Meters functions to output its internal data to the hand-held tester

The following types of data are output via the No. 1 body ECU to the hand-held tester that is connected to the data link connector: D Vehicle speed D Engine rpm D Signals input from the fuel sender gauge D Signals input from the rheostat adjust switch D Illumination light source (cold cathode tube) ambient temperature data
2

Hand-held testers functions for activating the various types of meters

The hand-held tester outputs the signals to activate the following types of meters for verifying their operation: D Speedometer D Tachometer D Fuel Gauge D Water Temperature Gauge D Warning Lights " System Diagram A

BE

Hand-Held Tester

Data Link Connector 3

No. 1 Body ECU


Multiplex Communication

Meter (Data Output/ Operation/Setting)

152BE12

126

BODY ELECTRICAL AIR CONDITIONING

AIR CONDITIONING
JDESCRIPTION 1. General
The air conditioning system in the new GS300 has the following features: D A fully automatic controlled type air conditioning system is used on all models. D A semi-center location air conditioning unit, in which the evaporator and heater core are placed in the center of the vehicle, has been newly adopted. D The construction of the evaporation, heater core, and blower fan has been changed. D A left/right independent temperature control system, in which the temperature for the driver and the front passenger can be controlled independently, has been newly adopted. D A 2-dimensional dome-type solar sensor which detects the amount of left/right solar radiation have been newly adopted. D Shower ducts, which guide warm air to the entire footwell area, have been adopted. D A variable-capacity compressor, in which the capacity of the compressor varies in accordance with the cooling load, has been adopted on models except G.C.C. Countries. D A sub-cool condenser, which cools the refrigerant twice, has been adopted. D As in the LS400, an automatic recirculation system that automatically switches the air inlet mode according to the level of concentration of exhaust gases in the outside air, has been adopted on models except G.C.C. Countries. D The water valve and the EPR (Evaporator Pressure Regulator) have been discontinued.

BODY ELECTRICAL AIR CONDITIONING " Performance A Model Item Heat Ouput Air Flow Volume Power Consumption Heat Ouput Air Flow Volume Power Consumption New W (Kcal/h) (m3/h) (W) W (Kcal/h) (m3/h) (W) 5200 (4470) 350 210 5600 (4820) 550 260 Previous 5400 (4640) 350* 195 z 560 z

127

Heater

Air Ai Conditioner

*: With side vent closed " Specifications A Model Item Type Size WHL Fin Pitch Motor Type Fan Type Fan Size Dia.  H Type Air Cond oner C dition Condenser Size WHL Fin Pitch Type Size WHL Fin Pitch Type mm (in.) mm (in.) New Multi-Flow Type 100  264.1  27 (3.9  10.4  1.1) 1.8 (0.07) S80Fs 12T Radial Fan 180  70 (7.1  2.8) Multi-Flow Type (Sub-Cool Type) 670  397.3  16 (26.4  15.6  0.6) 3.2 (0.13)*, 4.0 (0.16) Drawn Cup Type 291.6  215  58 (11.4  8.5  2.3) 3.5 (0.14) 7SB16, 10PA20* Previous Dimpled Tube Type 177.8  200  32 (7.0  7.9  1.3) 2.0 (0.08) S80Fs 12.5T Sirocco Fan 150  85 (5.9  3.4) 3-Passage Type 706  382.4  22 (27.8  15.1  0.9) 3.5 (0.14) z 278.3  200  105 (10.9  7.9  4.1) 4.0 (0.16) 10PA20

Ve ilatio an Ventil on and H ter Heate

Heater Core

mm (in.) mm (in.)

Blower

mm (in.)

BE

Evaporator

mm (in.) mm (in.)

Compressor

*: Models for G.C.C. Countries

128

BODY ELECTRICAL AIR CONDITIONING

JCONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION 1. Heater Control Panel


Two types of heater control panels are provided. D The models without a Lexus navigation system have adopted an easy-to-use push-button type heater control panel. This control panel uses an LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) panel to show the set temperature, air outlet mode, blower speed, and outside temperature to ensure excellent visibility. D The models with a Lexus navigation system (European models only) have adopted a heater control panel, which consists of push switches located around the navigation system display and a touch switch that is operated by touching the display panel. D The touch switch is used to turn the air conditioner ON/OFF and to select the air outlet modes and blower speeds. This control panel shows the set temperature and outside temperature on the display. The outside temperature can be shown on the display in two manners: continuous, or only in the air conditioner control screen. D To ensure the ease of operation of the left/right independent control, a passenger temperature control switch is provided on the passenger side of the heater control panel. A DUAL switch is also provided to change from the left/right independent control to the linked control. D An indicator is provided in the air inlet control switch to indicate that the automatic recirculation system is in operation.

152BE13

Models without Lexus Navigation System

143BE05

Models with Lexus Navigation System (European Models Only)

BODY ELECTRICAL AIR CONDITIONING

129

2. Air Conditioning Unit


A semi-center location air conditioning unit, in which the evaporator and heater core are placed in the vehicles longitudinal direction, has been newly adopted. As a result, the air conditioning unit has been made more compact and lightweight than that of the previous model. In addition, a left/right independent temperature control system has been adopted to improve comfort. Evaporator

Heater Core

Heater Core New

Evaporator
152BE16 152BE15

Previous

Blower Fan A radial fan that has a larger diameter and narrower width than the sirocco fan of the previous model has been newly adopted to realize a more compact blower unit. In addition, the previous dual suction blower has been discontinued.

BE

Radial Fan New


152BE18

Sirocco Fan Previous Blower Unit


152BE17

Radial Fan

Sirocco Fan

152BE20

152BE19

New Fan Configuration

Previous

130 Heater Core

BODY ELECTRICAL AIR CONDITIONING

The flow of the heater water in the heater core has been changed from the previous U-turn flow to a full-path flow. Due to the resulting improvement in the heat exchanging efficiency of the heater core, the heater core itself could be made thinner. In addition, the heater core material has been changed from copper to aluminum.

152BE21

152BE22

New Evaporator

Previous

By placing the tanks at the top and the bottom of the evaporator unit and by adopting an inner fin construction, the heat exchanging efficiency has been improved and the evaporator units temperature distribution has been made more uniform. As a result, it has become possible to realize a thinner evaporator construction.

Inner Fin

Tanks

152BE23 152BE24

New

Cross Rib

152BE25

152BE26

Previous

BODY ELECTRICAL AIR CONDITIONING

131

3. Condenser
The new model has newly adopted a sub-cool condenser in which a multi-flow condenser (consisting of two cooling portions: a condensing portion and a super-cooling portion) and a gas-liquid separator (modulator) have been integrated. This condenser has adopted the sub-cool cycle for its cooling cycle system to improve the heat exchanging efficiency. Sub-Cool Cycle The receiver cycle of the previous condenser could not convert the gaseous refrigerant that was sent by the compressor into a completely liquefied state in the condenser. Thus, a portion of the refrigerant remained in the gaseous state as it was sent to the evaporator. In the sub-cool cycle of the sub-cool condenser that has been adopted on the new model, after the refrigerant passes through the condensing portion of the condenser, both the liquid refrigerant and the gaseous refrigerant that could not be liquefied are cooled again in the super-cooling portion. Thus, the refrigerant is sent to the evaporator in an almost completely liquefied state.

Multi-Flow Condenser

Condensing Portion

Modulator Gaseous Refrigerant

Liquid Refrigerant

BE

Super-Cooling Portion
152BE28

132 NOTE:

BODY ELECTRICAL AIR CONDITIONING The point at which the air bubbles disappear in the refrigerant of the sub-cool cycle is lower than the proper amount of refrigerant with which the system must be filled. Therefore, if the system is recharged with refrigerant based on the point at which the air bubbles disappear, the amount of refrigerant would be insufficient. As a result, the cooling performance of the system will be affected. For the proper method of verifying the amount of the refrigerant and to recharge the system with refrigerant, see the GS300 Repair Manual (Pub. No. RM588E). High Pressure

Properly Recharged Amount

Point in which Bubbles Disappear Amount of Refrigerant


152BE40

4. Compressor
A continuously variable capacity compressor that varies the capacity of the compressor according to the cooling load of the air conditioner has been adopted on models except G.C.C. Countries. Construction When the magnetic clutch is turned ON and the shaft rotates, this movement is transmitted via the lug plate that is connected to the shaft to rotate the swash plate. This rotational movement of the swash plate is transmitted via the shoe to the reciprocal movement of the piston in the cylinder, which performs the suction, compression, and discharge of the refrigerant. The control for varying the compressor capacity is effected in the following manner: Based on the changes in pressure that occur in the low-pressure side in accordance with the cooling load, the control valve regulates the swash plate chambers internal pressure to vary within the low- to medium pressure range. This change of pressure changes the swash plate angle, varies the piston stroke, and changes the amount of refrigerant that is discharged. Swash Plate Low Pressure Chamber Swash Plate Chamber Piston (Crankshaft Chamber) Guide Pin Lug Plate Discharge Valve High Pressure Chamber Control Valve

Shaft Shoe Suction Valve

Low Pressure Chamber


152BE29

BODY ELECTRICAL AIR CONDITIONING Operation

133

1) When the cooling load is large (interior temperature is high), operating at 100% capacity When the cooling load becomes large and the pressure in the low-pressure side increases, the bellows in the control valve contracts, causing the valve to close between the high-pressure chamber and the swash plate chamber. As a result, the internal pressure in the swash plate decreases gradually, causing the internal pressure in the swash plate and the pressure of the low-pressure side to ultimately reach equilibrium. At this time, the compound force (consisting of the pressure of the low-pressure side, the reaction force from the lug plate, and the force of the spring) that is applied to the left side of the piston becomes lower than the internal pressure of the cylinder that is applied to the right side of the piston. Therefore, the piston moves towards the left, causing the tilt of the swash plate to increase. Accordingly, the amount of piston stroke increases, and when the piston stroke is at its maximum (when the tilt of the swash plate is at its maximum), the compressor operates at its 100% capacity.

Bellows Valve High-Pressure Side Pressure

Low-Pressure Side Pressure (Internal Pressure of Swash Plate Chamber) Spring

Piston

Low-Pressure Side Pressure

Internal Pressure of Swash Plate Chamber


152BE30

Low-Pressure Side Pressure (Internal Pressure of Swash Plate Chamber) Large Stroke
152BE31

BE

134

BODY ELECTRICAL AIR CONDITIONING 2) When the cooling load is small (interior temperature is low) When the cooling load becomes small and the pressure of the low-pressure side decreases, the bellows in the control valve expands, causing the valve between the high-pressure chamber and the swash plate chamber to open. As a result, the pressure of the high-pressure side is introduced into the swash plate chamber, causing the pressure in the swash plate chamber to increase. Therefore, the compound force (consisting of the pressure in the swash plate chamber, the reaction force from the lug plate, and the spring force) that is applied to the left side of the piston becomes higher than the internal pressure of the cylinder that is applied to the right side of the piston. Then, the piston moves to the right, causing the tilt of the swash plate to decrease. As a result, the piston stroke becomes shorter and the amount of refrigerant that is discharged becomes smaller. As the rotational resistance decreases in this manner, the engine load is reduced and fuel economy is improved.

Piston Bellows Valve High-Pressure Side Pressure Internal Pressure of Swash Plate Chamber Spring

Low-Pressure Side Pressure

Internal Pressure of Swash Plate Chamber


152BE32

Internal Pressure of Swash Plate Chamber Small Stroke


152BE33

5. Automatic Recirculation System (Models except G.C.C. Countries)


The automatic recirculation system uses an exhaust gas sensor, which detects CO and HC, to measure the amount of concentration of harmful elements such as CO and HC that are present in the air outside of the vehicle. This system automatically changes the air inlet mode based on the level of concentration of those gases. The basic construction and operation of this system are the same as in the LS400. For details, see the Lexus New Car Features Supplement (Pub. No. NCF144E).

BODY ELECTRICAL ACCESSORIES

135

ACCESSORIES
JDESCRIPTION
The new GS300 includes the accessory systems shown in the following table. System Outline This system includes one-touch auto up-and-down, key-linked alldoor up-and-down, jam protection and key-off operation functions. The basic construction and operation of these functions are the same as in the LS400. This system has a key-linked lock and unlock, key-confine prevention and manual unlock prohibition functions. The basic operation of key-linked lock and unlock and key-confine prevention functions are the same as in the LS400. For details of the manual unlock prevention function, see page 147. As in the LS400, the multi-function type wireless door lock remote control system has been adopted. This system uses a transmitter that can be used to lock and unlock all the doors, open the power windows, etc. Also, the construction of the system has been changed to enable the system to be controlled by the body ECU. The basic construction and operation are the same as in the LS400. As in the previous model, when an attempt is made to forcibly enter the vehicle or open the hood or trunk lid without a key, or when the battery terminals are removed and reconnected, this system sounds the horn and flashes the headlights, taillights and turn signal lights for about 1 minute to alert the owner. On the new GS300, in conjunction with the adoption of the engine immobiliser system, the illuminating pattern of the indicator light has been changed and the starter cutoff function has been discontinued. The basic construction and operation are the same as in the LS400. This is a theft-deterrent system which disables the engine unless the ignition key used to start the engine has an ID code that matches the pre-registered code in the vehicle. As in the previous model, the front seats are power assisted by electric motors so that the seat positions can be adjusted easily by a simple switch operation. The seat heater system improves the comfort of the driver and the front passenger in a cold weather by heating the surface of the seats. It is a 2-mode control type system that provides a switch to turn the heater ON and OFF. On the new GS300, the seat heater wire is placed directly underneath the seat cover to increase the heat rising speed.

Power Window System

Door Lock Control System

Wireless Door Lock Remote Control System

Theft Deterrent System

BE

Engine Immobiliser System

Power Seat

Seat Heater

136 System

BODY ELECTRICAL ACCESSORIES Outline As in the previous model, electrical remote control type mirrors provided with an internal heater, which operates in conjunction with the rear window defogger, have been adopted. In addition, the new model has newly adopted EC (electrochromic) mirrors which can automatically vary their reflection rate. This system automatically reduces the reflection rate of the inner and outside mirrors by using an EC (electrochromic) element to dampen the bright glare of the headlights of the vehicle driving behind. The basic construction and operation are the same as in the LS400. However, on the new GS300, the reflection rate of outside mirror varies steplessly. The SRS (Supplemental Restraint System) airbag is provided for the driver and front passenger. The SRS airbag has been designed to lessen the shock to the head and chest of the driver and front passenger in the event of a frontal impact collision as a supplement to the seat belt. A 3-sensor type airbag system is used in which the detection of deceleration during a collision as well as control of the airbag system is accomplished by the front airbag sensor and airbag sensor assembly. For details, see page 138. The SRS side airbag is provided for the outer side of the front seat back, SRS side airbag has been designed to help reducting the impact energy that is transmitted to the driver and front passenger in the event of a side collision. The basic construction and operation are the same as in the LS400. Once it has been set at desired vehicle speed, this system automatically adjusts the engine throttle position to maintain the vehicle speed at the desired speed without operating the acceleration pedal. On the new GS300, in conjunction with the adoption of the ETCS-i in the engine, a cruise control system that uses the throttle control motor, which is a part of the ETCS-i, has been adopted. Also, the cruise control ECU has been integrated with the ECM. The basic construction and operation are the same as in the LS400. The moon roof is a tilt-up and sliding type the same as in the previous model. This system includes one-touch slide open and close (models except for Australia), one-touch slide open (models for Australia) key-linked slide open and close, jam-protection and key-off operation functions. The basic operation of those functions are the same as in the LS400. To determine the jamming of the moon roof, the moon roof jam protection function uses a hall IC and magnets that are enclosed in the moon roof drive motor to detect any changes in the rotation of the motor. The desired seat postion can be stored (as well as tilt and telescopic steering and outside rear view mirror positions) in memory. 2 different driving positions can be memorized in the power seat ECU. The basic operation of this system is the same as in the LS400. However, on the GS300, the position of the drivers shoulder belt anchor cannot be stored in memory.

Outside Rear View Mirror

Automatic Glare-Resistant EC Mirror System

SRS

Airbag

SRS

Side Airbag

Cruise Control System

Moon Roof

Memory System

BODY ELECTRICAL ACCESSORIES System Outline

137

Seat Belt Warning System

If the driver or the front passenger has not buckled the respective seat belt when the ignition switch is turned ON, the seat belt warning system illuminates the warning light and sounds the buzzer to inform the driver and the front passenger that their seat belts have not been buckled. The basic construction and operation are the same as in the LS400. It sounds a buzzer to warn the driver that the ignition key is still in the key cylinder. This helps to prevent the driver from getting locked out. The basic operation is the same as in the previous model.

Key Reminder System

BE

138

BODY ELECTRICAL ACCESSORIES

J SRS AIRBAG 1. General


The SRS (Supplemental Restraint System) airbag is designed to help lessen the shock to the driver and front passenger as a supplement to the seat belt. This system in the new GS300 has the following features: D The inflator for driver and front passenger has been changed. D Front airbag sensors have been newly adopted. D The construction of airbag sensor assembly has been changed. D The airbag sensor assembly controls the SRS airbag and the seat belt pretensioner.

143BE03

"

System Diagram A The activation processes of the SRS airbag is as illustrated below. Inflator
Initiator

Airbag Sensor Assembly Power Source


Safing Sensor

Gas Generator

Gas

Bag (For Driver) Airbag Sensor Collision Impact


Front Airbag Sensors (RH. LH)
Gas

Inflator Squib

Gas

To Seat Belt Pretensioner

Bag For Front Passenger


152BE41

BODY ELECTRICAL ACCESSORIES

139

2. Layout of Components
The major function parts of the airbag system are shown below.
SRS

Warning Light

Right Side Front Airbag Sensor Assembly

Inflator and Bag for Front Passenger (Above the Glove Box) Right Side Airbag Assembly Right Side Airbag Sensor Assembly

Left Side Front Airbag Sensor Assembly Inflator and Bag for Driver (In Steering Wheel Pad) Airbag Sensor Assembly Left Side Airbag Assembly Left Side Airbag Sensor Assembly

143BE04

3. Wiring Diagram

SRS Warning Light


IG SW ACC IG2 IGN
SRS-

Back-Up Power Source


DC-DC Converter

ACC

Check Connector

BE

Safing Sensor Drive Circuit Drive Circuit

Front Airbag Sensor (RH) Battery

Initiator (For Driver)

CPU
Drive Circuit Drive Circuit

Squib For Front Passenger

Front Airbag Sensor (LH)

Airbag Sensor

Spiral Cable To Seat Belt Pretensioner

Airbag Sensor Assembly

Side Airbag Sensor Assembly (RH)

Side Airbag Assembly (RH)

Side Airbag Sensor Assembly (LH)

Side Airbag Assembly (LH)


152BE43

140

BODY ELECTRICAL ACCESSORIES

4. Construction and Operation


Front Airbag Sensor The front airbag sensor consists of rotor, movable contact point and a stationary contact point. The rotor is fixed by the initial set load of the movable contact point. At the same time, the movable contact point restrains the movement of the rotor which is generated during vehicle deceleration. If a sudden deceleration that exceeds a predetermined value occurs due to a collision of the vehicle, the rotor will rotate. The rotational movement of the rotor pushes the movable contact point and causes the movable and stationary contact points to come into contact. As a result, an ON signal is generated and transmitted to the airbag sensor assembly. Deceleration Rotor Movable Contact Point Stationary Contact Point

152BE44

152BE45

Normal Condition Airbag Sensor Assembly 1) Description

Activated Condition

The airbag sensor assembly is mounted on the center floor under the instrument panel. It receives signals from the airbag sensor enclosed in the airbag sensor assembly and front airbag sensor and judges whether the airbag and seat belt pretensioner must be activated or not, and then diagnoses system malfunctions. 2) Construction and Operation The airbag sensor assembly consists of airbag sensor, safing sensor, ignition control circuit, diagnosis circuit, etc. a. Airbag Sensor, Ignition Control Circuit D The airbag sensor is enclosed in the airbag sensor assembly. Based on the deceleration of the vehicle that occurs during a collision, the distortion that is created in the sensor is converted into an electric signal. This signal is a linear representation of the deceleration rate. D The ignition control circuit performs a prescribed calculation based on the signal output by the airbag sensor and the front airbag sensor. If these calculated values are larger than a predetermined value, it activates the ignition operation.

BODY ELECTRICAL ACCESSORIES b. Safing Sensor

141

The safing sensor is enclosed in the airbag sensor assembly. The sensor turns ON and outputs an ON signal to the airbag sensor assembly if a deceleration force that is higher than a predetermined value is applied to the safing sensor as a result of a frontal collision. c. Back-Up Power Source The back-up power source consists of a power supply capacitor and a DC-DC converter. In case of a power system failure during a collision, the power supply capacitor discharges and supplies electric power to the system. The DC-DC converter is a boosting transformer when the battery voltage drops below a certain level. d. Diagnosis Circuit This circuit constantly diagnoses the system for any malfunction. When a malfunction is detected, it lights up the SRS warning light on the combination meter to alert the driver. e. Memory Circuit When a malfunction is detected by the diagnosis circuit, it is coded and stored in this memory circuit.

BE

142 Inflator 1) For Driver

BODY ELECTRICAL ACCESSORIES

The inflator for driver is compraised of an initiator, enhancer, propellant grain, etc. If the airbag sensor is activated by deceleration due to frontal collision, electric current then ignites the initiator located in the inflator. The flame spreads instantaneously to the propellant grain, and a large amount of nitrogen gas is generated from the propellant grain. The gas flows through the filter where cinders are removed and the gas is cooled before filling the bag. Then, as it expands, the drivers bag tears open the wheel pad outer layer to expand further and to help to restrain the impact applied to the head and chest of the driver. Initiator Enhancer Propellant Grain

Filter

To the Bag

To the Bag

: Propagation of Fire : Flow of Nitrogen Gas 2) For Front Passenger

152BE46

The inflator for front passenger is comprised of a squib, projecrtile, burst disk, propellant, high pressure argon gas and etc. If the airbag sensor is turned on by deceleration due to frontal collision, electric current then ignites the squib located in the inflator. The projectile which fired by the ignition of the squib pierces through the burst disk and collides with the actuator, which causes the primer to ignite. The flame of the primer spreads instantaneously to the ignition booster and to the propellant. The gas which expanded by the heat of the ignition of the propellant flows into the airbag via the gas release hole, thus inflating the airbag. " Construction A Squib Primer Ignition Booster

Projectile

Gas Release Hole Burst Disk

Actuator Propellant

Gas
152BE34

BODY ELECTRICAL ACCESSORIES " Operation A

143

Squib

Projectile

Burst Disk

Actuator
152BE35

Actuator

Ignition Booster

Projectile

Primer

Propellant

152BE36

BE
Gas Release Hole

Gas

Propellant

152BE37

: Propagation of Fire : Flow of Argon Gas

144
SRS

BODY ELECTRICAL ACCESSORIES Warning Light

The SRS warning light is located on the combination meter. It comes on to alert the driver about the system trouble when a malfunction is detected in selfdiagnosis of the airbag sensor assembly and side airbag sensor assembly. In normal operating conditions when the ignition switch is truned to the ACC or ON position, the light comes on for about 6 seconds and then goes off.
143BE02

SRS

Warning Light

5. System Operation
Ignition Judgement and Condition D When the vehicle collides in the hatched area (Fig. 1) and the shock is larger than a predetermined level, the airbag and the seat belt pretensioner are activated automatically. The airbag sensor is characteristically turned in such a way that it can judge the need for ignition in collisions within the hatched area. D The safing sensor is designed to be activated by a smaller deceleration rate than that of the airbag sensor. As illustrated in Fig. 2 below, ignition is operated when current flows to the squib. This happens when a safing sensor and the airbag sensor go on simultaneously. D Airbag sensor assembly judges whether or not to inflate the airbag in accordance with ON/OFF of the front airbag sensor and the deceleration detected by the airbag sensor.

Front Airbag Sensor ON/OFF

Safing Sensor ON
AND

Ignition

Airbag Sensor ON

Range of Operation
152BE48 152BE49

Fig. 1

Fig. 2

BODY ELECTRICAL MULTIPLEX COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

145

MULTIPLEX COMMUNICATION SYSTEM


JDESCRIPTION
A multiplex communication system has been adopted for the body electrical system control, including the power window system and the door lock control system, etc. This system has the follwing characteristics. D As in the LS400, this systems functionality as well as its expandability have been improved through the adoption of the large-scale multiplex communication system. D Along with the adoption of the large-scale multiplex communication system, the BEAN (Body Electronics Area Network), which excels in communication capability, has been adopted for the communication system. D A customized body electronics system, which improves the malfunction diagnostic function, enables the functions to be changed according to customer needs, and reduces the types of parts, has been adopted.

JSYSTEM CONSTRUCTION
The functions of the multiplex communication system on the new GS300 has the following characteristics. D In addition to the communication that is implemented between ECUs Multiplex communication has been adopted in the transfer of signals between systems and parts such as the engine ECU, combination meter, air conditioner, etc. D Certain control functions of the system, such as automatic light control, wireless door lock control, etc., have been integrated into this system. D If a malfunction occurs in the communication bus that transfers the signals between parts and ECUs, a bus switch is provided in the No. 1 and 2 body ECUs to separate the instrument panel bus (which links the meter, engine ECU, etc. with the No. 1 and 2 body ECUs) from the door bus (which links the door switches, seat ECU, etc. with the No. 1 and 2 body ECUs). " System Diagram A

BE

Front Passenger Door ECU

Rear Right Door ECU

No. 2 Body ECU

Engine ECU

Bus Switch
Meter ECU
Power Seat ECU Moon Roof ECU

Tilt and Telescopic ECU Air Conditioner ECU

Multimedia ECU No. 1 Body ECU

Bus Switch

Driver Door ECU

Rear Left Door ECU

152BE38

146

BODY ELECTRICAL MULTIPLEX COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

JSYSTEM OPERATION 1. General


The corresponding chart below illustrates the relationship between the body electrical system and the ECUs under the control of the multiplex communication system.
Door Bus Components Front Passenger Door ECU Instrument Panel Bus Tilt and Telescopic ECU

Rear Right Door ECU

Air Conditioner ECU f

Rear Left Door ECU

System

Power Window Door Lock Control Wireless Door Lock Remote Control Light Auto Turn-Off Automatic Light Control Theft Deterrent Illuminated Entry Key Reminder Buzzer Trunk Lid Open Mirror Control Shift Lock System Front and Rear Fog Lights Control Customized Body Electronics Diagnosis Memory Adjust Seat Belt Warning ECT Signal Processing Air Conditioner Control Displays of Various Meters Displays of Various Types of Vehicle Information f f f f f f f f f f f f

f f f f f

f: Master control (The ECU, which has a central role in controlling each system, outputs the signals

: Sub control

to other ECUs to activate motors or other applicable components.) (The ECU which has a supporting role in controlling each system, outputs control signals to the master control, or receives signals from the master control to activate motors or other applicable components.)

Multi Media ECU

Driver Door ECU

No. 2 Body ECU

No. 1 Body ECU

Moon Roof ECU

Engine ECU

Meter ECU

Seat ECU

BODY ELECTRICAL MULTIPLEX COMMUNICATION SYSTEM Power Window System The power window system provides the following function: D Jam protection function D One-touch auto up-and-down function D One-touch auto up-and-down remote control function D Transmitter-linked up-and-down function D Key-linked up-and-down function The operation of these functions are basically the same as those of the LS400. Door Lock Control System The door lock control system provides the following functions: D Key-linked lock and unlock function D Key-confine prevention function D Manual unlock prevention function

147

The operation of the functions are basically the same as those of the LS400, except for the manual unlock prevention function. 1) Manual Unlock Prevention Function When the doors are locked through the operation of the door key cylinder, the transmitter, or through the key-less lock operation, this function prohibits the unlock operation to be effected through the door lock control switch until the doors are unlocked by turning the ignition ON or operating the door key cylinder, or through the unlock operation of the transmitter.

BE

148

BODY ELECTRICAL MULTIPLEX COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

Wireless Door Lock Remote Control System The wireless door lock remote control system provides the following functions: D All doors lock/unlock operation D Trunk lid open operation D Auto lock function D Transmitter switch misoperation prevention function D Repeat function D Interior light function D Security function D Operation verification beeper function D Door ajar warning function The operation of these functions are basically the same as those of the LS400. Light Auto Turn-Off System The light auto turn-off system provides the following functions: D Light auto turn-off function (When the taillights are ON.) D Headlight off delay control function (When the headlights and taillights are ON.) The operation of these functions are basically the same as those of the LS400. Automatic Light Control System The automatic light control system controls the headlights and taillights to turn ON and OFF in accordance with the light availability surrounding the vehicle. The operation of this system are basically the same as those of the LS400. Theft Deterrent System A theft deterrent system is used to prevent vehicle theft. When the system is set, the horn and headlights, taillights and turn signal lights operate if the door, hood or trunk lid is forcibly opened. The operation of this system is basically the same as those of the LS400. Illuminated Entry System The system operation of this system is basically the same as in the LS400. However, the new GS300 is not provided with a seat belt inner buckle illumination. Also, the length of time during which the ignition key cylinder light and the dome light remain illuminated can be changed in the Customized Body Electronics System.

BODY ELECTRICAL MULTIPLEX COMMUNICATION SYSTEM Warning System The warning system provides the following systems: D Key reminder system D Seat belt warning buzzer and light system The system operation of these system are basically the same as in the LS400. Trunk Lid Open System

149

The No. 1 body ECU detects the output signal from the trunk lid opener switch. When the trunk lid opener switch is turned ON, the No. 1 body ECU activates the trunk lid opener. Fog Light Control System The No. 2 body ECU detects the output signal from the fog light switch. When the fog light switch is turned ON, the No. 2 body ECU activates the fog light relay to illuminate the fog lights.

BE

150

BODY ELECTRICAL MULTIPLEX COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

Customized Body Electronics System 1) General The customized body electronics system can change the specification of functions (by changing their settings) according to customer preferences by a hand-held tester to overwrite the EEPROM that is enclosed in the body ECU. " System Diagram A

Connector
Engine ECU
Air Conditioning Doors

Software Card

Body ECU
Tool Connecting Circuit EEPROM Gateway Software

Hand-Held Tester

Moon Roof

152BE39

2) Operation The specifications of the systems and functions that can be changed by operating a hand-held tester are listed next page.

BODY ELECTRICAL MULTIPLEX COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

151

BE

152

BODY ELECTRICAL MULTIPLEX COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

BODY ELECTRICAL MULTIPLEX COMMUNICATION SYSTEM

153

BE

154

BODY ELECTRICAL LEXUS NAVIGATION SYSTEM

LEXUS NAVIGATION SYSTEM (European Models Only)


JDESCRIPTION
The Lexus navigation system displays the operating conditions of the air conditioner and of the audio system, trip information that is enclosed in the center cluster. Furthermore, based on the GPS (Global Positioning System) voice navigation function, it analyzes the position of the vehicle and indicates that position on the map that is displayed on the screen, and provides voice instructions to guide the driver through the route to reach around the destination that has been selected. The basic construction and operation of this system are the same as in the LS400. However, in the Lexus navigation system of the new GS300, the air conditioner temperature that is set for the driver, the temperature that is set for the front passenger, and the outside air temperature are displayed on the screen. Listed below are the main functions of the Lexus Navigation system. Function D D D D D D D Navigation Function D D D D D D Audio Screen Display Function Air Conditioner Screen Display Function Outline Displays the present location and the direction of travel. Zooms in and out, rotates, and moves the map. Measures and corrects the present location. Sets and displays the route. Sets the destination. Zooms in at intersections and gives voice guidance. Displays the remaining distance to the destination and the expected time of arrival. Automatically resumes a route search. Searches for facilities in the vicinity of the present location. Registers, corrects, deletes, and displays Marked Points and Avoid Area. Enables or disables the display of the locus of travel. Corrects of coefficient of distance. Adjusts the voice guidance volume.

Displays the operating condition of audio system. Displays the operating condition of the air conditioner. D D D D D Displays trip information/memory. Displays screen quality adjustment. Changes the units. Displays the possible continuous travel distance. Switches between day and night display.

On-Board Computer Screen Display Function

On-Screen Display Function Diagnosis Screen Display Function

D Displays the operating condition of audio system. D Displays the outside temperature. D Displays system diagnosis. D Displays various types of coefficient settings.

104

BODY LIGHTWEIGHT AND HIGHLY RIGID BODY

BODY
LIGHTWEIGHT AND HIGHLY RIGID BODY
The body of the GS300 has been made lightweight and highly rigid through the refinement of the shape and construction of each part, optimized allocation of reinforcements and members, and use of high strength sheet steel.

JHIGH STRENGTH SHEET STEEL


High strength sheet steel is used for the hood, door panels and members.

: High Strength Sheet Steel

152BO01

BODY LIGHTWEIGHT AND HIGHLY RIGID BODY

105

JBODY SHELL
D The body of the new GS300 has been made highly rigid through the optimal allocation of materials and the revision of the joining construction of the pillars, reinforcements, members, etc., which helped realize excellent joint rigidity.

152BO02

BO

106

BODY LIGHTWEIGHT AND HIGHLY RIGID BODY

JDOORS
D A pipe type side impact protection beams are mounted at the bottom of the front and rear doors.

Side Impact Protection Beams

152BO04

D A variable door frame construction has been adopted, in which the cross section of the door frame is expanded gradually along the belt line.

A A A A B B B B A A B B

152BO05

152BO06

152BO07

A A Cross Section

B B Cross Section

BODY LIGHTWEIGHT AND HIGHLY RIGID BODY

107

JIMPACT ABSORBING STRUCTURE 1. General


The impact absorbing structure of the new GS300 provides a body construction that can effectively absorb the energy of impact in the event of a front, rear, or side collision. Also, it realizes an excellent occupant protection performance through the use of reinforcements and members that help minimize cabin deformation.

2. Construction
Impact Absorbing Structure for Front/Rear Collision In conjunction with the excellent impact absorbing structure for a front or rear collision, the underbody members, the reinforcements and members that surround the cabin have been optimally allocated. Accordingly, the underbody and cabin framework help absorb and dissipate the impact energy efficiently in case of a front or rear collision, thus realizing a body structure to minimize cabin deformation. " Impact Absorbing Structure for Front Collision A

BO
Front Impact Energy

152BO08

108

BODY LIGHTWEIGHT AND HIGHLY RIGID BODY

Impact Absorbing Structure for Side Collision Impact energy of a side collision directed to the cabin area is dispersed throughout the body via pillar reinforcements, side impact protection beams, floor cross members, etc. This dispersion of energy keeps the energy directed to the cabin to a minimum level. In addition, the body construction has been optimized by providing the center pillar reinforcement with a vertical two-split construction, enlarging the cross section of the roof side rail, and by using front floor cross members with higher rigidity. And, in order to make the door energy absorbent, a closed cross section configuration is provided at the belt line area of the front and rear doors and side impact protection beams are optimally allocated. Also, a Head Impact Protection Structure has been adopted. With this type of construction, if the occupants head hits against the roof side rail and pillar in reaction to a collision, the inner ribs of the roof side rail and aluminum pipe of front pillar collapses to help reduce the impact. " Impact Absorbing Structure for Side Collision A

Impact Energy
152BO09

" Head Impact Protection Structure A

: Head Impact Protection Structure

152BO10

BODY RUST-RESISTANT BODY

109

RUST-RESISTANT BODY
Rust-resistant performance is enhanced by extensive use of anti-corrosion sheet steel, applying the wax, sealer and under coat and adopting outside moulding and rocker panel moulding.

JANTI-CORROSION SHEET STEEL


Anti-corrosion sheet steel is used in all areas other than the roof and interior parts.

: Anti-Corrosion Sheet Steel

BO

152BO11

110

BODY RUST-RESISTANT BODY

JWAX AND SEALER


Wax and sealer are applied to the hemmed portions of the hood, door panels and luggage compartment door to improve rust-resistant performance.

JUNDER COAT
PVC (Polyvinyl Chloride) coating is applied to the under side of the body. A thick coating to improve rust resistant performance is applied to the bottom side of the fender apron and other parts which are subject to damage by flying stones, etc. : PVC Coating Area : PVC Coating Area (Thick Coating)

152BO12

JANTI-CHIPPING APPLICATION
Soft-chip primer is applied to the hood. : Soft-Chip Primer

143BO07

BODY RUST-RESISTANT BODY

111

JOUTSIDE MOULDING
Outside mouldings made of TSOP (The Super Olefin Polymer) have been provided to protect the bottom of the doors from chipping by flying stones.

A Outside Moulding Outside Moulding


143BO08

Door Panel

152BO15

A A Cross Section

JROCKER PANEL MOULDING


A rocker panel moulding has been provided to protect the rocker panels from chipping by flying stones. This moulding is a fore-aft integrated type that offers a seamless, attractive design.

BO
A

A
143BO08

Rocker Panel Rocker Panel Moulding

Rocker Panel

Rocker Panel Moulding


152BO16

152BO17

New A A Cross Section

Previous

112

BODY LOW VIBRATION, LOW NOISE BODY

LOW VIBRATION, LOW NOISE BODY


Effective application of vibration damping and noise suppressant materials reduces engine and road noise.

JSOUND ABSORBING AND VIBRATION DAMPING MATERIALS


D The floor panel construction has been revised, the asphalt sheet material has been changed, and the allocation of the asphalt sheet has been optimized to reduce noise and vibration and to improve the vehicles quietness. At the same time, the amount of asphalt sheet that is used has been reduced.

Asphalt Sheet

152BO18

D Asphalt sheet is affixed to the quarter panel to reduce the droning noise during driving.

Asphalt Sheet
152BO19

BODY LOW VIBRATION, LOW NOISE BODY

113

D Foamed material is provided inside the pillar and the roof rail and resin formed hollow foamed material is provided at the bottom of the pillars. As a result, the wind noise and the road noise that are transmitted to the rockers and the pillars have been reduced.

: Foamed Material

152BO20

BO

114

BODY LOW VIBRATION, LOW NOISE BODY

JROOF MOULDING
The new model has adopted a roof moulding in which the windshield side moulding and the back window side moulding are integrated. This moulding ensures a smooth airflow from the windshield to the roof to reduce wind noise. In addition, a rain gutter is provided along the side of the windshield to prevent the rainwater or the washer fluid on the windshield from flowing to the side window.

B A A B C C

152BO21

Windshield Side Moulding Windshield Glass Roof Panel

Roof Moulding Back Window Glass

Back Window SideMoulding

Rain Gutter
152BO22 152BO23 152BO24

A A Cross Section

B B Cross Section

C C Cross Section

BODY AERODYNAMICS

115

AERODYNAMICS
To improve aerodynamic performance, the following measures have been taken.
1

A rain gutter that is integrated with the roof moulding has been adopted to ensure a smooth airflow from the front to the roof. The front edge of the hood and the area around the headlights offers a smooth shape with minimal level differences for smooth airflow characteristics. The under shape of the front bumper collects the flow of air under the floor. The shape of the door mirror has been improved to minimize the wind noise that is generated in the vicinity of the door mirror. A back window moulding that is integrated with a fin-shaped roof moulding and a stepped quarter pillar construction restrains the airflow turbulence to ensure a smooth airflow along the side of the body. The flattened underbody smoothly guides the under-the-car air flow towards the rear.

3 4

BO

143BO01

143BO02

116

BODY AERODYNAMICS

JENGINE UNDER COVER


The bottom edge of the bumper and the front edge of the engine undercover have been rounded. As a result, the separation of the airflow at the front edge of the bumper has been restrained to reduce the air resistance. Furthermore, by ensuring the smooth airflow under the floor, the vehicles fuel economy has been improved and a high level of high-speed straightline performance has been achieved.

Front New

Airflow (New) Previous

A A Previous Airflow (Previous)


143BO03 152BO28

New

A A Cross Section

JFAIRING
A fairing has been provided ahead of the front and rear tires to rectify the airflow around the tires in order to reduce air resistance and wind noise.

Fairing

Fairing

143BO04

143BO05

Front Tire

Rear Tire

BODY AERODYNAMICS

117

JUNDER-FLOOR AIRFLOW RECTIFIER ITEMS


The under-floor airflow rectifier items described in the following table are provided by destination. Together with the engine undercover and the fairings that are located ahead of the front and rear tires, the under-floor airflow rectifier items guide the airflow smoothly under the floor. As a result, the air resistance and the under-floor wind noise have been reduced, thus improving the comfort during high-speed driving.

No. 2 Engine Under Cover

Front Floor Cover

Fuel Tank Side Cover

Lower Arm No. 2 Cover

Engine Under Cover

Front Floor Cover

Fuel Tank Side Cover

Lower Arm No. 2 Cover


143BO06

BO

Destination Item No. 2 Engine Under Cover Fuel Tank Side Cover Front Floor Cover Lower Arm No. 2 Cover

Europe f f f f

Australia f

G.C.C. G C C Countries f f f f

118

BODY ENHANCEMENT OF PRODUCT APPEAL

ENHANCEMENT OF PRODUCT APPEAL


JSEAT BELT 1. General
D The front seats are provided with an electrical sensing type seat belt pretensioner and a seat belt force limiter. In the beginning of a collision, the seat belt pretensioner instantly takes up the seat belt, thus providing the excellent belts effectiveness in restraining the occupant. When the impact of a collision causes the tension of the seat belt applied to the occupant to reach a predetermined level, the force limiter restrains the tension, thus controlling the force that is applied to the occupants chest area. D According to the ignition signal from the airbag sensor assembly, the seat belt pretensioner activates simultaneously with the deployment of SRS airbags for the driver and front passenger. The basic construction and operation are the same as in the LS400.

60

CHASSIS A650E AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION

CHASSIS
A650E AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION
JDESCRIPTION
The A650E is a newly adopted 5-speed automatic transmission [Super ECT (Electronically Controlled Transmission)]. The basic construction and operation are the same as those of the LS400s A650E. For details, see the LS400 New Car Features Supplement (Pub. No. NCF144E). The A650E automatic transmission differs from the A343E automatic transmission of the previous model in the following areas: D 4 planetary gear units are adopted. D The throttle valve and throttle cable have been discontinued, and the line pressure is controlled by a linear solenoid valve. D The flex lock-up clutch control is adopted. D High response shift control is adopted. D AI (Artificial Intelligence) - SHIFT control is adopted. D A newly developed ATF type T- , which offers superior friction characteristics, has been adopted. D The gate type shift lever is used.

143CH01

CHASSIS A650E AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION " Specifications A Model Transmission Type Item 1st 2nd Gear Ratio 3rd 4th 5th Reverse Fluid Capacity Liters (US qts, Imp. qts) Fluid Type A650E 3.357 2.180 1.424 1.000 0.753 3.431 7.45 (7.9, 6.6) ATF Type T- or Equivalent A343E 2.804 1.531 1.000 0.753 2.393 7.9 (8.4, 7.0) ATF Type T-II or Equivalent A650E 3.357 2.180 1.424 1.000 0.753 3.431 8.5 (9.0, 7.5) ATF Type T- or Equivalent New Previous LS400

61

JTORQUE CONVERTER
The torque converter supports flex lock-up clutch control, thus improving the fuel economy.

CH

JPLANETARY GEAR UNIT 1. General


A new gear train construction, which uses 4 sets of planetary gear units, has been adopted. Also, the 5-speed configuration has been achieved without increasing the number of one-way clutches, thus creating a 5-speed automatic transmission with practically the same size as the previous 4-speed automatic transmission. For the purpose of improving dynamic performance and fuel economy, the gear ratio from the 1st to the 5th gear has been changed from a wide to a close gear ratio. The 1st gear ratio has been increased to improve the acceleration performance during the startoff and in the low-to medium-speed range. Also, the close gear ratio made shifting smoother to realize a smooth ride.

CHASSIS A650E AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION " Specifications A Model Transmission Type Item 1st 2nd Gear Ratio 3rd 4th 5th Reverse Fluid Capacity Liters (US qts, Imp. qts) Fluid Type A650E 3.357 2.180 1.424 1.000 0.753 3.431 7.45 (7.9, 6.6) ATF Type T- or Equivalent A343E 2.804 1.531 1.000 0.753 2.393 7.9 (8.4, 7.0) ATF Type T-II or Equivalent A650E 3.357 2.180 1.424 1.000 0.753 3.431 8.5 (9.0, 7.5) ATF Type T- or Equivalent New Previous LS400

61

JTORQUE CONVERTER
The torque converter supports flex lock-up clutch control, thus improving the fuel economy.

CH

JPLANETARY GEAR UNIT 1. General


A new gear train construction, which uses 4 sets of planetary gear units, has been adopted. Also, the 5-speed configuration has been achieved without increasing the number of one-way clutches, thus creating a 5-speed automatic transmission with practically the same size as the previous 4-speed automatic transmission. For the purpose of improving dynamic performance and fuel economy, the gear ratio from the 1st to the 5th gear has been changed from a wide to a close gear ratio. The 1st gear ratio has been increased to improve the acceleration performance during the startoff and in the low-to medium-speed range. Also, the close gear ratio made shifting smoother to realize a smooth ride.

62 " SpecificationsA

CHASSIS A650E AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION

Model Transmission Type Item C0 C1 C2 B0 B1 B2 B3 B4 F0 F1 F2 OD Direct Clutch Forward Clutch The No. of Discs No Direct Clutch OD Brake 3rd Coast Brake 2nd Coast Brake* 3rd Brake 2nd Brake* 2nd Brake 1st & Reverse Brake* 1st & Reverse Brake OD One-Way Clutch No. 1 One-Way Clutch No. 2 One-Way Clutch The No. of Sun Gear Teeth OD Planetary Gear The No. of Pinion Gear Teeth The No. of Ring Gear Teeth The No. of Sun Gear Teeth Front Planetary Gear The No. of Pinion Gear Teeth The No. of Ring Gear Teeth The No. of Sun Gear Teeth Center Planetary Gear The No. of Pinion Gear Teeth The No. of Ring Gear Teeth The No. of Sun Gear Teeth Rear Planetary Gear The No. of Pinion Gear Teeth The No. of Ring Gear Teeth *: A343E Automatic Transmission The No. of Sprags The No. of Discs Band Width mm (in.)

New A650E 2 5 4 3 40 (1.57) 4 5 5 20 16 24 31 32 95 41 16 73 31 21 73 28 19 66

Previous A343E z 5 3 z z 5 6 24 18 28 z z z 42 19 79 33 23 79

LS400 A650E z 6 5 4 z z 5 6 z 20 24 z z z 41 16 73 31 21 73 28 19 66

CHASSIS A650E AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION

63

JELECTRONIC CONTROL SYSTEM 1. General


A new electronic control has been adopted to improve the acceleration feeling, shift feeling, drivability, and fuel economy. The electronic control system of the new models A650E, previous models A343E and LS400s A650E automatic transmissions are compared below. System Function The optimum shift pattern is selected from 2 shift patterns in the engine ECU by the pattern select switch. The engine ECU sends current to the No. 1, No. 2 and/or No. 3* solenoid valves based on signals from each sensor and shifts the gear. The optimum lock-up pattern is selected from 2 lock-up patterns in the engine ECU by the pattern select switch. The engine ECU sends current to the solenoid valve SLU based on signals from each sensor and engages or disengages the lock-up clutch. Controls the solenoid valve SLU, provides an intermediate mode between the ON/OFF operation of the lock-up clutch, and increases the operating range of the lock-up clutch to improve fuel economy. Based on the throttle opening angle and various signals, the engine ECU sends a signal to solenoid valve SLT to generate line pressure according to the engine output and to effect a smooth gear shift change. To achieve smooth shifting, the solenoid valve SLN controls the accumulator back pressure in order to finely regulate the hydraulic pressure that is applied to the clutch. Uses the solenoid valve SLU to directly control the hydraulic pressure that is applied to the clutch. Retards the engine ignition timing temporarily to improve shift feeling during up or down shifting. Through the cooperative control with the ETCS-i (Electronic Throttle Control System-intelligent), and the electronic control of supply and discharge speed of the clutch and brake hydraulic pressure, excellent response has been realized. Based on the signals from various sensors, the engine ECU determines the road conditions and the intention of the driver. Thus, the shift pattern is automatically regulated to an optimal level, thus improving drivability. New A650E f Previous A343E f LS400 A650E f

Shift Timing Control

Lock-Up Timing Control Flex Lock-Up Clutch Control Line Pressure Optimal Control

CH

Clutch Pressure Control Engine Torque Control High Response Shift Control

f f f

f f f

AI (Artificial Intelligence) SHIFT

*: Only for the A650E automatic transmission

(Continued)

64 System

CHASSIS A650E AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION Function Causes the O/D OFF indicator light to turn on to inform the driver if the electrical circuit malfunction. D Causes the pattern indicator light to turn on to inform the driver if the electrical circuit malfunction. D The diagnostic code can be checked by the pattern indicator light and the hand-held tester. D The hand-held tester can be used to perform an active test. Controls other normally operating components, permitting continued driving if malfunctions occur in the electrical circuit. New A650E Previous A343E f LS400 A650E

SelfDiagnosis

Fail-Safe

CHASSIS A650E AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION

65

2. Block Diagram
AIR FLOW METER VG S1 SOLENOID VALVE NO. 1

CRANKSHAFT POSITION SENSOR

D Engine Speed Signal D Crankshaft Angle Signal


CAMSHAFT POSITION SENSOR

NE

S2

SOLENOID VALVE NO. 2

S3 G2 S4

SOLENOID VALVE NO. 3

D Crankshaft Angle Signal


THROTTLE POSITION SENSOR

SOLENOID VALVE NO. 4

D Throttle Position Signal


ACCELERATOR PEDAL POSITION SENSOR

VTA VTA2

SLU+ SLU SLN+ SLN Engine ECU SLT+ SLT

SOLENOID VALVE SLU

D Accelerator Pedal Position Signal


NEUTRAL START SWITCH TRANSMISSION CONTROL SWITCH TRANSMISSION CONTROL SWITCH

VPA VPA2 P, R, N D, 3, 2 4

SOLENOID VALVE SLN

SOLENOID VALVE SLT

CH
ETCS-i THROTTLE CONTROL MOTOR

M+, M L SP2 NC0 IGT1~3 STP THW OIL IGF NEO ENG TRC MPX1 ABS & TAC & VSC ECU ESA IGNITERS CL+,CL MAGNETIC CLUTCH VEHICLE SPEED SENSOR
O/D DIRECT CLUTCH SPEED SENSOR

STOP LIGHT SWITCH WATER TEMP. SENSOR

FLUID TEMP. SENSOR

AIR CONDITIONING ECU

KICK DOWN SWITCH*

KD MPX2 PWR BODY ECU

SIL TC

DATA LINK CONNECTOR 3

PATTERN SELECT SWITCH

METER ECU

PATTERN INDICATOR LIGHT

*: Models for Europe

66

CHASSIS PROPELLER SHAFT AND DIFFERENTIAL

PROPELLER SHAFT
JDESCRIPTION
A 3-joint type propeller shaft is used as in the previous model. Flexible Coupling

Flexible Coupling

Transmission Side

Differential Side

Center Bearing

Hookes Joint
152CH05

DIFFERENTIAL
JDESCRIPTION
The differential with an 8-inch ring gear continues to be used. However, the differential gear ratio has been changed.

152CH06

" Specifications A Model Destination Item Differential Gear Ratio Drive Pinion No. of Teeth Size mm (in.) Ring Gear No. of Teeth No. of Differential Pinion Oil Capacity Oil Viscosity Oil Grade *1: *2: Above 18_C (0_F) Below 18_C (0_F) Liters (US qts, Imp. qts) New Europe G.C.C. Countries 3.615 13 200 (8) 47 2 1.35 (1.42, 1.19) SAE80*1, SAE80W or SAE80W-90*2 API GL-5 Australia 3.916 12 z z z z z z Previous Europe G.C.C. Countries 4.083 z z 49 z z z z

CHASSIS DRIVE SHAFT AND AXLES

67

DRIVE SHAFT
JDESCRIPTION
The cross-groove type CVJ (Constant-Velocity Joint) is used both the wheel and differential side as in the previous model.

Differential Side

Wheel Side

Cross-Groove Type CVJ


152CH07

AXLES
JDESCRIPTION
The double-row angular ball bearing is used both front and rear axles as in the previous model. The size of the rear axle bearing has been changed for this new model.

CH

Double-Row Angular Ball Bearing

Double-Row Angular Ball Bearing

152CH08

152CH09

Front Axle

Rear Axle

68

CHASSIS BRAKES

BRAKES
JDESCRIPTION
The brakes of the new model provide the following features: D The ventilated disc brake and the 2-piston type caliper are used for the front brakes as in the previous model. D The solid disc brake and the 2-piston opposed type caliper are used for the rear brakes. D The drum in disc duo servo brake is used for the parking brake as in the previous model. D A mechanism that helps to prevent the brake pedal from retracting during a collision has been adopted. D A friction-type lock mechanism is used for the lock mechanism of the parking brake pedal. D The center port type single master cylinder is used. D A hydraulic brake booster, in which the brake actuator and master cylinder are integrated, is used. D ABS and TRC system are standard equipment on all models. D A new VSC (Vehicle Stability Control) system is standard equipment on all models. D The brake control valve has been discontinued.

152CH30

LHD Model

CHASSIS BRAKES " Specifications A Model Item Type Diameter Brake Booster Type Type Master Cylinder Pad Area Front Brake Wheel Cylinder Dia. Rotor Size (D  T)*2 Type Pad Area Rear Brake Wheel Cylinder Dia. Rotor Size (D  T)*2 Brake Control Valve Type Type Parking P ki Size Brake Lever Type ABS (Anti-Lock Brake System) TRC (Traction Control) VSC (Vehicle Stability Control) *1: *2: *3: *4: Models for General Countries D: Outer Diameter, T: Thickness
Included in VSC system

69

New Single 22.2 (0.87) Hydraulic Ventilated Disc 57.6 (8.93), 59 (9.15)*1 44.4 (1.75)  2 296  32 (11.65  1.26) Solid Disc 21 (3.26) 40.4 (1.59), 34.9 (1.38)*1 307  12 (12.09  0.47) Duo-Servo 190 (7.48) Pedal STD*3 STD*3 STD

Previous Tandem 27.0 (1.06) Vacuum z z z z Ventilated Disc 33 (5.12) 40.4 (1.59) 307  16 (12.09  0.63) P & B Valve z z z STD STD*4

mm (in.)

cm2 (in.2) mm (in.) mm (in.)

cm2

(in.2)

mm (in.) mm (in.)

CH

mm (in.)

LHD Model

JREAR BRAKE
D A compact and lightweight opposed type caliper is used. D A brake caliper, in which the brake pads can be replaced by removing the pad springs and pad pins, has been adopted for improved serviceability. Rotor

Opposed Type Caliper


152CH13

CHASSIS BRAKES " Specifications A Model Item Type Diameter Brake Booster Type Type Master Cylinder Pad Area Front Brake Wheel Cylinder Dia. Rotor Size (D  T)*2 Type Pad Area Rear Brake Wheel Cylinder Dia. Rotor Size (D  T)*2 Brake Control Valve Type Type Parking P ki Size Brake Lever Type ABS (Anti-Lock Brake System) TRC (Traction Control) VSC (Vehicle Stability Control) *1: *2: *3: *4: Models for General Countries D: Outer Diameter, T: Thickness
Included in VSC system

69

New Single 22.2 (0.87) Hydraulic Ventilated Disc 57.6 (8.93), 59 (9.15)*1 44.4 (1.75)  2 296  32 (11.65  1.26) Solid Disc 21 (3.26) 40.4 (1.59), 34.9 (1.38)*1 307  12 (12.09  0.47) Duo-Servo 190 (7.48) Pedal STD*3 STD*3 STD

Previous Tandem 27.0 (1.06) Vacuum z z z z Ventilated Disc 33 (5.12) 40.4 (1.59) 307  16 (12.09  0.63) P & B Valve z z z STD STD*4

mm (in.)

cm2 (in.2) mm (in.) mm (in.)

cm2

(in.2)

mm (in.) mm (in.)

CH

mm (in.)

LHD Model

JREAR BRAKE
D A compact and lightweight opposed type caliper is used. D A brake caliper, in which the brake pads can be replaced by removing the pad springs and pad pins, has been adopted for improved serviceability. Rotor

Opposed Type Caliper


152CH13

70

CHASSIS BRAKES

JBRAKE PEDAL
A brake pedal retract prevention mechanism has been adopted to be able to secure the drivers footwell space during a collision. The brake pedal retract prevention mechanism consists of a brake pedal bracket, a guide plate attached to the instrument panel reinforcement, a bracket attached to the cowl panel, etc. If the dash panel deforms rearward in a collision, the brake pedal bracket detaches from the bracket of the cowl panel. Furthermore, the brake pedal bracket moves rearward and downward along the guide plate of the instrument panel reinforcement. Consequently, the step surface of the brake pedal moves forward and downward.

Brake Pedal Bracket Cowl Panel Bracket Instrument Panel Reinforcement

Collision

Guid Plate

Dash Panel

Brake Pedal

152CH31

CHASSIS BRAKES

71

JPARKING BRAKE PEDAL 1. General


D The parking brake pedals lock mechanism has been changed to a coil spring and drum friction type in place of the pawl and sector gear meshing type that was used on the previous model. Also, the pedal return absorber has been discontinued. D The parking brake adjust mechanism has been relocated from under the floor to the parking brake pedal assembly to improve serviceability.

Parking Brake Adjuster

Coil Spring LHD Model

152CH18

2. Lock Mechanism
Construction D The lock mechanism consists of a drum that is integrated with the pedal, a coil spring with one end fixed to the bracket, an intermediate release lever, etc.

Drum

CH
Coil Spring

Center of Pedal Rotation

Release Intermediate Lever

152CH19

Operation 1) During Applying The contact between the drum and the coil spring is slight because the direction of the drum rotation is opposite to the direction in which the coil spring is wound. This allows the drum to rotate smoothly.

Direction of Drum Rotation

152CH20

72 2) Locked State

CHASSIS BRAKES

The reaction force of the parking brake applies a force to the drum in the releasing direction. Because that force has the same direction as the direction in which the coil spring is wound, it creates a tighter contact between the drum and the coil spring. As a result, a large friction resistance is generated between the drum and coil spring. This friction resistance causes the pedal to lock. Large Friction Resistance

Reaction Force of Parking Brake

152CH21

3) During Releasing When the release lever is operated to push and expand the free end of the coil spring, the contact between the drum and the coil spring loosens. Then, the friction resistance between the drum and the coil spring decreases, which releases the lock and allows the drum to rotate. At this time, the friction resistance between the drum and coil spring is not completely eliminated and restrains the pedal return speed (to create a dampening effect).

Direction of Drum Rotation

Release Operation

Small Friction Resistance

152CH22

NOTICE D Do not disassemble the portions other than the parking brake cable and the parking brake switch because the parking brake pedal assembly contains a precision-fitted mechanism. D The parking pedal locks due to the friction resistance that is created by the drum and coil spring. As such, make sure that the drum and coil spring are not exposed to oil other than that which is provided.

CHASSIS BRAKES

73

JVSC SYSTEM 1. General


D In addition to the ABS and TRC systems, the VSC system has been adopted on all models. D The hydraulic brake booster is adopted on all models. D The brake actuator (ABS, TRC and VSC) and the hydraulic brake boosters have been integrated to form a compact actuator. D In case the vehicles behavior becomes unstable during an emergency avoidance maneuver, the VSC system generates a yaw moment that applies a braking force to the appropriate wheel in order to stabilize the vehicle. D The hydraulic brake booster uses the brake fluid that has been stored under high pressure to provide a power assist to the pedal effort that is applied to the brake pedal. Furthermore, the brake fluid that has been stored under high pressure is also used as the hydraulic pressure for controlling the ABS, TRC and VSC systems.

2. System Diagram

CH
Steering Angle Sensor Hydraulic Brake Booster Brake Fluid Level Warning Switch Master Cylinder Pressure Sensor
Switching Solenoid Valves Control Solenoid Valves

Combination Meter
Brake Warning Light ABS Warning Light VSC Warning Light Slip Indicator Light VSC OFF Indicator Light Stop Light Switch

VSC Warning Buzzer


Solenoid Relay Pump Motor Relay Pump Motor Relay

Pump Motor

Pressure Switches (High and Low)


ETCS-i

ABS&TRC & VSC ECU

VSC OFF Switch Yaw Rate Sensor Deceleration Sensor

Engine ECU

Front Speed Sensor

Front Wheel

Rear Speed Sensor

Rear Wheel
152CH14

74

CHASSIS BRAKES

3. Outline of Control Performance


General The followings are two examples that can be considered as circumstances in which the tires overcome their lateral grip limit. D When the front wheels lose grip in relation to the rear wheels (strong understeer tendency). D When the rear wheels lose grip in relation to the front wheels (strong oversteer tendency).

Strong Understeer Tendency


151CH17

Strong Oversteer Tendency


151CH16

Method for Determining the Vehicle Condition To determine the condition of the vehicle, sensors detect the steering angle, vehicle speed, vehicles yaw rate, and the vehicles lateral acceleration, which are then calculated by the ABS & TRC & VSC ECU. 1) Determining Understeer Whether or not the vehicle is in the state of understeer is determined by the difference between the target yaw rate and the vehicles actual yaw rate. If the vehicles actual yaw rate is smaller than the yaw rate (a target yaw rate that is determined by the vehicle speed and steering angle) that should be rightfully generated when the driver operates the steering wheel, it means that the vehicle is making a smaller turn. Thus, the ECU determines that there is a large tendency to understeer. Actual Locus of Travel Locus of Travel Based on the Target Yaw Rate

151CH19

CHASSIS BRAKES 2) Determining Oversteer Whether or not the vehicle is in the state of oversteer is determined by the values of the vehicles slip angle and the vehicles slip angular velocity (time-dependent changes in the vehicles slip angle). When the vehicles slip angle is large, and the slip angular velocity is also large, the ECU determines that the vehicle has a large oversteer tendency. Direction of Travel of the Vehicles Center of Gravity Movement of Vehicle Slip Angle

75

151CH18

Method of VSC Operation When the ABS & TRC & VSC ECU determines that the vehicle exhibits a strong tendency to understeer or oversteer, it decreases the engine output and applies the brake of a front or rear wheel to control the vehicles yaw moment, thus dampening the effects that are not desirable for the vehicle. 1) Dampening a Strong Understeer When the ABS & TRC & VSC ECU determines that the vehicle exhibits a strong tendency to understeer, depending on the extent of that tendency, it controls the engine output and applies the brakes of the rear wheels, thus providing the vehicle with an understeer control moment, which helps dampen its tendency to understeer. Braking Force . Braking Force Making a Right Turn
151CH21

CH
Understeering Control Moment

2) Dampening a Strong Oversteer When the ABS & TRC & VSC ECU determines that the vehicle exhibits a strong tendency to oversteer, depending on the extent of that tendency, it controls the engine output and applies the brake of the front wheel of the outside of the turn, thus generating an inertial moment in the vehicles outward direction, which helps dampen its tendency to oversteer. Also, there are instances in which the brake is applied to the rear wheels. Oversteering Control Moment Braking Force

151CH20

Making a Right Turn

76 System Cooperative Control

CHASSIS BRAKES

In order to bring the effectiveness of the VSC system control into full play, the methods for controlling other control systems are changed when the VSC is active. System Throttle Valve Control ABS Control TRC Control Description of Control Controls the throttle valve opening angle and the engine output so that the engine drive force and the braking force of the VSC system do not interfere with each other. Gives priority to VSC control control.

4. Layout of Components
Hydraulic Brake Booster Brake Fluid Level Warning Switch Master Cylinder Pressure Sensor ABS Warning Light Brake Warning Light VSC Warning Light Slip Indicator Light VSC OFF Indicator Light Stop Light Switch Throttle Body Engine ECU

Steering Angle Sensor Speed Sensor Yaw Rate Sensor Deceleration Sensor

Speed Sensor VSC OFF Switch VSC Warning Buzzer Speed Sensors ABS & TRC & VSC ECU Solenoid Relay Pump Motor Relays

LHD Model
152CH45

CHASSIS BRAKES

77

5. Function of Components
Components Speed Sensors Yaw Rate Sensor Deceleration Sensor Steering Angle Sensor ABS & TRC & VSC ECU Brake Fluid Level Warning Switch Function Detect the wheel speed of each of four wheels. Detects the vehicles yaw rate. Detects the vehicles acceleration in the longitudinal and lateral directions. Detects the steering direction and angle of the steering wheel. Judges the vehicle driving condition based on signals from each sensor, and sends brake control signal to the hydraulic brake booster. Also, sends the throttle opening angle demand signal and other control signals to the engine ECU. Detects the brake fluid level. D Assists with the pedal effort applied to the brake pedal. D Changes the fluid path based on the signals from the ABS & TRC & VSC ECU during the operation of the ABS & TRC & VSC system, in order to control the fluid pressure that is applied to the wheel cylinders. Assembled in the hydraulic brake booster and detects the master cylinder pressure. Control the pump motor operation in the hydraulic brake booster. Supply power to the solenoid valves in the hydraulic brake booster. Lights up to alert the driver when the ECU detects the malfunction in the ABS. Alert the driver when the ECU detects the malfunction in the TRC system and VSC system. Blinks to inform the driver when the TRC system or the VSC system, is operated. Lights up to alert the driver when the accumulator pressure is low. D Emits an intermittent sound to inform the driver that the ECU detects a strong understeer or oversteer tendency. D Emits a continuous sound to inform the driver that the ECU detects a malfunction in the hydraulic brake booster. Controls the throttle valve opening angle based on the signals received from the ABS & TRC & VSC ECU, in order to control the engine output. Also, sends the throttle valve opening angle signal, accelerator pedal position signal, etc., to the ABS & TRC & VSC ECU. Controls the throttle valve to control the engine output. Turns the TRC and VSC system inoperative. Lights to inform the driver when the TRC and VSC system is turned OFF by the VSC OFF switch. Detects the brake signal.

Hydraulic Brake Booster

Master Cylinder Pressure Sensor Pump Motor Relays Solenoid Relay ABS Warning Light VSC Warning Light Slip Indicator Light Brake Warning Light VSC Warning Buzzer

CH

Engine ECU Throttle Body VSC OFF Switch VSC OFF Indicator Light Stop Light Switch

78

CHASSIS BRAKES

6. Construction and Operation of Components


Deceleration Sensor Located behind the shift lever, the deceleration sensor detects the acceleration, and sends this signal to the ABS & TRC & VSC ECU. The deceleration sensor consists of 2 semi-conductor sensors. These semi-conductor sensors are opposed 90_ to each other, and installed so that each has an angle of 455 in the longitudinal direction. Each semi-conductor sensor is provided with a weight which is moved by the deceleration force applied to the vehicle. The semi-conductor sensor itself converts the weights movement into electronic signals, and outputs them to the ABS & TRC & VSC ECU. These electronic signals have linear output characteristics; and the ABS & TRC & VSC ECU combines the signals received from both of these semi-conductor sensors to calculate the acceleration of all horizontal movements. This makes it possible to provide detailed each control in accordance with various road surface conditions.

45_ Front

45_

Semi-Conductor Sensors

151CH25

Steering Angle Sensor To accommodate the VSC, a high-precision steering angle sensor has been adopted. The steering angle sensor consists of a microcomputer and three photo interrupters (SS1, SS2 and SSC). The slotted disc passes the dent of the photo interrupters. The signals that are detected by the SS1 and SS2 photo interrupters are converted by the micro computer into serial signals that are output to the ABS & TRC & VSC ECU. The SSC photo interrupters are used for detecting the neutral position of the steering wheel and for performing a self-check of the steering angle sensor. Steering Angle Sensor Microcomputer
SSC

SS1- t

i SS1+ A To ABS & TRC & VSC ECU

SS2

SS1

Photo Interrupters Slotted Disc

151CH24

CHASSIS BRAKES Yaw Rate Sensor

79

The yaw rate sensor is mounted behind the shift lever. The yaw rate sensor uses a tuning-fork shaped vibration type rate gyro. Each resonator consists of a vibrating portion and a detecting portion that are shifted 90 degrees to form one unit. A piezoelectric ceramic piece is affixed to both the vibration and detection portions. The characteristic of the piezoelectric ceramic piece is to become distorted when voltage is applied to it, and to generate voltage when an external force is applied to distort the ceramic piece. To detect the yaw rate, alternating current voltage is applied to the vibration portion, which causes it to vibrate. Then, the yaw rate is detected from the detection portion according to the amount and direction of distortion of the piezoelectric ceramic piece, which is caused by the coriolis force that is generated around the resonator.
Side-to-Side Movement Coriolis Force Straightline Movement

Detection Portion Resonator Vibration Portion w Coriolis Force

CH

w Coriolis Force

w=0

151CH48

Output Voltage =
151CH22

Left Turn

Yaw Rate

Right Turn

151CH49

80 Hydraulic Brake Booster

CHASSIS BRAKES

The hydraulic brake booster consists of the following components: Components Pump and Pump Motor Accumulator Function Draws up the brake fluid from the reservoir tank and provides high hydraulic pressure to the accumulator. Stores the hydraulic pressure that was generated by the pump. The accumulator is filled with high-pressure nitrogen gas. Monitors the hydraulic pressure of the accumulator and outputs control signals for the pump motor. There are two types: the pressure switch PH for controlling the pump, and the pressure switch PL for giving a warning when the pressure is low. Returns the brake fluid to the reservoir tank to prevent excessive pressure if the pump operates continuously due to a malfunction of the pressure switch. Stores the brake fluid. Detects the brake fluid level. Generates the hydraulic pressure that is provided to the wheel cylinders during normal braking. Regulates the accumulator pressure in accordance with the pedal effort that is applied to the brake pedal and introduces this pressure to the booster chamber in order to provide a power assist to the brakes. Detects the hydraulic pressure that is generated in accordance with the pedal effort applied to the brake pedal and outputs the signals to the ABS & TRC & VSC ECU. Switches the brake hydraulic path when the ABS, TRC or VSC is activated, or normal braking is applied. Controls the hydraulic pressure that is applied to the wheel cylinders during ABS, TRC and VSC control.

Pressure Switches

Relief Valve Reservoir Tank Brake Fluid Level Warning Switch Master Cylinder Brake Booster Master Cylinder Pressure Sensor Switching Solenoid Valves (SA1, SA2, SA3, STR) Control Solenoid Valves Pressure Holding Valves Pressure Reduction Valves

CHASSIS BRAKES

81

Brake Fluid Level Warning Switch Reservoir Tank


Accumulator

High Pressure Nitrogen Gas Check Valve Pump & Pump Motor Pressure Switch (High Pressure)

Relief Valve

Pressure Switch (Low Pressure)

Master Cylinder Pressure Sensor

Master Cylinder & Brake Booster N SA2 i Switching Solenoid Valves <

CH

STR

SA3

SA1

Pressure Holding Valve N M M i Control Solenoid Valves M M < Pressure Reduction Valve

Rear Brake Wheel Cylinder

Front Brake Wheel Cylinder


152CH15

Hydraulic Circuit

82

CHASSIS BRAKES 1) Pump, Pump Motor, Accumulator, Pressure Switches and Relief Valve If the accumulator pressure becomes lower than the pressure that is specified in the pressure switch PH, which is used for detecting high pressure, the pressure switch PH turns OFF. Then, the ABS & TRC & VSC ECU turns ON the pump motor relays to operate the pump motor and the pump. The brake fluid that is discharged by the pump passes through the check valve and is stored in the accumulator. The hydraulic pressure that is stored in the accumulator is used for providing the hydraulic pressure that is needed for normal braking and for operating the ABS, TRC and VSC systems. If the accumulator pressure becomes higher than the pressure that is specified in the pressure switch PH, the pressure switch PH turns ON. Then, after several seconds, the ABS & TRC & VSC ECU turns OFF the pump. At this time, if the pressure switch PH malfunctions and causes the pump to operate continuously, the relief valve opens to prevent excessive pressure from being generated. Moreover, if the accumulator pressure becomes lower than the pressure that is specified in the pressure switch PL, which is used for detecting low pressure, the pressure switch PL turns OFF. As a result, the brake warning light turns ON and the VSC warning buzzer activates. At this time, the ABS, TRC and VSC systems are prohibited from operating.

Reservoir Tank Accumulator Pressure Pressure ON Switch PH OFF Pressure Switch PL OFF Time Pressure Switch PL Pressure Switch PH Pump and Pump Motor Pump ON Motor OFF
ABS & TRC & VSC ECU Pump Motor Relays

Accumulator

To Master Cylinder and Solenoid Valves

Relief Valve

Check Valve

Brake Warning Light VSC Warning Buzzer


152CH16

Relief Open Valve Close

Brake Warning Light ON and VSC Warning Buzzer OFF

152CH17

CHASSIS BRAKES 2) Master Cylinder and Brake Booster a. Construction

83

D This construction enables the hydraulic pressure that is generated by the brake booster to be applied directly to the rear brakes. D The master cylinder is the center port type single master cylinder, which is used for the front brakes only. D The brake booster is integrated with the master cylinder. The operating portion, master cylinder, and regulator are positioned coaxially to achieve a simple and compact construction. D The master cylinder and brake booster consists of an operating rod, a power piston, a master cylinder piston, a regulator piston, a spool valve, a reaction rod and a rubber reaction disc. D The operating rod and the power piston are linked directly to transmit the pedal effort that is applied to the brake pedal. D The regulator piston and the spool valve are linked directly. A forward (leftward) force generated by the master cylinder pressure and a rearward (rightward) force generated by the power assist of the booster are applied to the regulator piston. Both forces maintain a balance. D A return spring is provided for the regulator piston to ensure the return of the spool valve in case there is no pressure. " Cross-Sectional Drawing A Return Spring Spool Valve Regulator Piston Reaction Rod Master Cylinder Piston Power Piston Operating Rod

CH

Rubber Reaction Disc F Y Y G Y Y H F Y Y Y G Y Y Y H F Y Y Y G Y Y Y H Regulator " Simplified Drawing A Reaction Rod Regulator Piston To From Power Piston Reservoir Accumulator From Reservoir Operating Rod Master Cylinder Operating Portion
152CH23

Rubber Reaction Disc Spool Valve Rear Brake Front Brake Master Cylinder Piston
152CH24

84 b. Operation

CHASSIS BRAKES

i) Pressure Increase (Low Pressure) The pedal effort that is applied to the brake pedal is transmitted via the operating rod, power piston, and master cylinder piston. However, because the load setting of the master cylinders return spring is lower than that of the regulator pistons return spring, the regulator piston gets pushed before the volume in the master cylinder becomes compressed. As a result, the spool valve moves forward. The spool valve closes the path A between the reservoir and the booster chamber (behind the power piston) and opens the path B between the accumulator and the booster chamber. Then, the pressurized brake fluid is introduced into the booster chamber to provide a power assist to the pedal effort. When the pressure is introduced into the booster chamber, the power assist overcomes the force of the master cylinders return spring. This causes the volume in the master cylinder to become compressed and increases the pressure that is applied to the front brakes. At the same time, the pressure in the booster chamber increases the pressure that is applied to the rear brakes. During the initial stage of the brake operation, the booster pressure that is applied to the rubber reaction disc is small. Therefore, a return force in the rightward direction does not apply to the spool valve via the reaction rod. From To Reservoir From Accumulator Power Piston Reservoir Regulator Piston Reaction Rod Spool Valve Operating Rod Rubber Reaction Disc

Return A B Spring

Return Spring

Booster Chamber

To Rear Brake To Front Brake ii) Pressure Increase (High Pressure)

Master Cylinder Piston


152CH25

In contrast to the time when the pressure is low, when the pressure is high, the booster pressure that is applied to the rubber reaction disc increases. Accordingly, the rubber reaction disc deforms and causes a return force in the rightward direction to be applied to the spool valve via the reaction rod. Therefore, in contrast to the time when the pressure is low, a greater reaction force is transmitted to the brake pedal. As a result, a variable servo mechanism is realized, in which the servo ratio is lower during high pressure than during low pressure. To Reservoir From Accumulator Reaction Rod From Reservoir Regulator Piston Power Piston

Rubber Reaction Disc

Spool Valve

Booster Chamber Master Cylinder Piston 152CH26 To Rear Brake To Front Brake

CHASSIS BRAKES iii) Holding

85

This is a state in which the force that is applied via the brake pedal and the master cylinder pressure are in balance. The forces that are applied to the front and the rear of the regulator piston, in other words, forces that are generated by the master cylinder pressure and the regulator pressure become balanced. This causes the spool valve to close both path B from the booster chamber to the accumulator and path A to the reservoir. As a result, the brake system is in the holding state. To From Reservoir Accumulator From Reservoir Regulator Piston

Spool A B Valve To Rear Brake iv) Pressure Reduce When the pressure that is applied to the brake pedal is relaxed, the master cylinder pressure decreases. Then, the regulator pistons return (rightward) force becomes relatively greater, causing the regulator piston to retract and the spool valve to also retract. As a result, the path A between the reservoir and the booster chamber opens. The booster pressure becomes reduced in this state, creating a balance that corresponds to the force that is newly applied via the brake pedal. This process is performed repetitively to reduce the booster pressure and the master cylinder pressure in accordance with the force that is applied via the brake pedal. To From Reservoir Accumulator From Reservoir To Front Brake
152CH27

CH

Regulator Piston

A From Rear Brake Spool Valve From Front Brake

Booster Chamber

152CH28

86

CHASSIS BRAKES v) During Power Supply Malfunction If the accumulator pressure is affected due to some type of malfunction, no pressure will be supplied by the regulator. Then, a power assist cannot be provided to the force that is applied via the brake pedal and the pressure to the rear brakes cannot be increased. The pressure to the front brakes will be increased by the master cylinder in accordance with the pedal effort applied to the brake pedal. From Reservoir

To Front Brake

152CH29

3) Solenoid Valves a. Switching Solenoid Valves Four switching solenoid valves (SA1, SA2, SA3, and STR) are provided. The control signals from the ABS & TRC & VSC ECU open and close the switching solenoid valves to switch the brake fluid paths. The solenoid valves SA1 and SA2 switch during normal braking of the front brakes and during the activation of the ABS and VSC. During normal braking, the path to the master cylinder side is opened, and the path to the hydraulic pressure supply side is opened during the activation of the ABS and VSC. The solenoid valve SA3 is switched during normal braking of the rear brakes, during the activation of the ABS, and during the activation of the TRC and VSC. The path to the booster side is opened during normal braking and during the activation of the ABS, and the path is closed during the activation of the TRC and VSC. The solenoid valve STR opens the path to the accumulator side during the activation of the TRC and VSC. b. Control Solenoid Valves The control solenoid valve consists of 4 pressure holding valves and 4 pressure reduction valves. Each of the brake circuits consists of a pressure holding valve and a pressure reduction valve. The valves are turned ON and OFF during the activation of the ABS, TRC, and VSC. The pressure increase mode, the pressure holding mode, and the pressure reduction mode are effected based on the combination of these valves that are turned ON and OFF, in order to control the hydraulic pressure that is applied to each of the wheel cylinders.

CHASSIS BRAKES c. System Operation i) Normal Braking During normal braking, all solenoid valves are turned OFF.

87

CH
Solenoid Valve STR OFF

Solenoid Valve SA3 OFF Solenoid Valve SA1 OFF

Solenoid Valve SA2 OFF

Pressure Holding Valve OFF

Pressure Reduction Valve OFF

Rear Brake

Front Brake
152CH32

88 ii) ABS Operation

CHASSIS BRAKES

The solenoid valves are turned ON and OFF as described below to switch the fluid paths in order to control the brakes. At this time, the hydraulic path between the master cylinder and the front brakes is shut off to prevent the brake pedal from vibrating and to improve the feeling during brake application.

Pressure Increas Mode

Normal Braking

3 1 2 3

Pressure Reduction Mode

Pressure Holding Mode

Rear Brake Mode Solenoid Valves


1 Solenoid Valve STR 3 Solenoid Valves SA1 and SA2 5 Pressure Holding Valve 7 Pressure Reduction Valve

Front Brake
Normal Braking OFF OFF OFF OFF Increase OFF OFF OFF Increase ABS Activated Pressure Increase Mode OFF ON OFF OFF Increase OFF OFF OFF Increase Pressure Holding Mode OFF ON ON OFF Hold OFF ON OFF Hold

152CH33

Pressure Reduction Mode OFF ON ON ON Reduction OFF ON ON Reduction

Front Brake

Wheel Cylinder Pressure


2 Solenoid Valve SA3

Rear Brake

4 Pressure Holding Valve 6 Pressure Reduction Valve

Wheel Cylinder Pressure

CHASSIS BRAKES iii) TRC Operation

89

The TRC system control consists of an engine output control and a brake hydraulic control. As described below, this system turns the solenoid valves ON and OFF to switch the fluid paths in order to control the rear brakes.

CH

Pressure Increase Mode

Pressure Reduction Mode

Rear Brake

Front Brake
TRC Activated Pressure Increase Mode ON OFF OFF OFF ON OFF OFF Increase Pressure Holding Mode ON OFF OFF OFF ON ON OFF Hold

152CH34

Mode Solenoid Valves


1 Solenoid Valve STR 3 Solenoid Valves SA1 and SA2 5 Pressure Holding Valve 7 Pressure Reduction Valve

TRC Not Activated

Pressure Reduction Mode ON OFF OFF OFF ON ON ON Reduction

OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF

Front Brake

Wheel Cylinder Pressure


2 Solenoid Valve SA3

Rear Brake

4 Pressure Holding Valve 6 Pressure Reduction Valve

Wheel Cylinder Pressure

90 iv) VSC Operation

CHASSIS BRAKES

D The VSC system control consists of an engine output control and a brake hydraulic control. D When the system activates to restrain oversteer, it controls the front brake of the outer wheel in the turn. It also regulates the rear brakes as needed. D When the system activates to restrain understeer, it controls the rear brakes.

Pressure Increase Mode

Pressure Reduction Mode

Pressure Holding Mode

Rear Brake Mode Solenoid Valves


1 Solenoid Valve STR 3 Solenoid Valves SA1 and SA2 5 Pressure Holding Valve 7 Pressure Reduction Valve

Front Brake
VSC Not Activated OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF OFF VSC Activated Pressure Increase Mode ON ON OFF OFF Increase ON OFF OFF Increase Pressure Holding Mode ON ON ON OFF Hold ON ON OFF Hold

152CH35

Pressure Reduction Mode ON ON ON ON Reduction ON ON ON Reduction

Front Brake

Wheel Cylinder Pressure


2 Solenoid Valve SA3

Rear Brake

4 Pressure Holding Valve 6 Pressure Reduction Valve

Wheel Cylinder Pressure

CHASSIS BRAKES ABS & TRC & VSC ECU 1) Vehicle Stability Control

91

Based on the 4 types of sensor signals received from the speed sensors, yaw rate sensor, deceleration sensor, and steering angle sensor, the ABS & TRC & VSC ECU calculates the amount of vehicle condition. If a strong understeer or oversteer tendency is created during an emergency avoidance maneuver or cornering, and the ABS & TRC & VSC ECU determines that the amount of vehicle condition exceeds a prescribed value, it controls the throttle valve opening angle and the brake fluid pressure according to the amount of the vehicle condition.

Start to Brake Control Start to Throttle Control Level of Strong Understeer or Oversteer = Amount of Vehicle Condition Brake Control Completed Throttle Control Completed

CH

Open Throttle Valve Opening Angle

Close High Brake Wheel Cylinder Fluid Pressure*

e =

" Time

151CH31

*: The wheel cylinder that activates varies depending on the condition of the vehicle.

92 2) Initial Check

CHASSIS BRAKES

After the ignition is turned ON and only at the initial time, ABS & TRC & VSC ECU performs an initial check when the vehicle attains an approximate speed of 6 km/h (4 mph) and more or when the stop light switch is turned OFF from ON. The functions of each solenoid valve in the hydrulic brake booster are checked in order. 3) Self-Diagnosis If the ABS & TRC & VSC ECU detects a malfunction in the hydraulic brake booster, ABS, TRC and/or VSC system, it turns on the ABS warning light and the VSC warning light to alert the driver the malfunction. The ECU will also store the codes of the malfunctions. The diagnostic code can be accessed from the ABS warning light and the VSC warning light. A hand-held tester can be used to access the diagnostic code and to perform an active test. See the GS300 Repair Manual (Pub. No. RM588E) for the diagnostic code check method, diagnostic code and diagnostic code clearance. 4) Fail Safe In the event of a malfunction in the ABS, TRC or VSC system, the ABS & TRC & VSC ECU prohibits the ABS, TRC and VSC system. Thus, the brake and throttle valve opening angle control will be operated in the same conditions as those without the ABS, TRC and VSC system.

CHASSIS SUSPENSION

93

SUSPENSION
JDESCRIPTION
D The double-wishbone type independent suspension is used for the front as in the previous model. D A double-wishbone type independent suspension, in which coil springs are located underneath, has been adopted for the rear.

CH

150CH10

" Specifications A Suspension Item Tread Caster* Camber* Toe-In* King Pin Inclination* mm (in.) degrees degrees mm (in.) degrees Front 1535 (60.43) 75284 05184 1.5 (0.06) 85544 Rear 1510 (59.45) 05304 0.5 (0.02)

*: Unloaded Vehicle Condition

94

CHASSIS SUSPENSION

JFRONT SUSPENSION 1. General


A double-wishbone type independent suspension with high-mount upper arm has been adopted as in the previous model. The basic construction and operation are the same as those of the previous model. However, to match optimally with the newly designed rear suspension, the location of the suspension arms has been revised, thus achieving an optimal suspension geometry. In addition, shock absorbers in which a rebound spring is enclosed have been adopted.

152CH11

2. Geometry
D The suspension arms have been optimally located and the roll center height has been finely tuned to minimize the vertical fluctuation of the vehicles center-of-gravity height during cornering. As a result, excellent riding comfort and stability have been realized. D The steering gear and tie rods have been optimally located so that the toe angle changes in the toe-out direction during braking. As a result, excellent stability has been achieved, even in instances in which the brakes are applied suddenly during cornering.

3. Shock Absorber
A rebound spring that operates in the entire rebound stroke range is provided in the shock absorber. This feature helps to restrain the body lift on the inner wheel side of the turn. As a result, excellent riding comfort and stability are realized.

Rebound Spring Piston Valve

Base Valve

152CH41

CHASSIS SUSPENSION

95

JREAR SUSPENSION 1. General


A double-wishbone type independent suspension has been adopted. It consists of coil springs that are located underneath, A-shaped upper arms, 2 non-parallel lower arms that are unequal in length, and toe control arms that determine the toe angle. A larger luggage compartment has been achieved by locating the coil springs underneath. By optimizing the location of the suspension arms, the roll center height has been finely tuned to minimize the vertical fluctuation of the vehicles center-of-gravity height during cornering. As a result, excellent riding comfort and stability have been realized. Upper Arm Stabilizer Bar Shock Absorber and Coil Spring

Toe Control Arm

CH
No. 2 Lower Arm No. 1 Lower Arm
152CH12

2. Virtual King Pin Axis


The upper arm and the 2 lower arms form a virtual kingpin axis, which provides the following characteristics: D The caster trail has been brought to the negative side to achieve a toe-in tendency in relation to the lateral force that is applied to the tire-to-ground contact point. D The king pin offset has been brought to the negative side to achieve a toe-in tendency during braking. D The distance between points A and B illustrated below has been minimized in order to minimize the fluctuation of the toe angle that is associated with the changes in the drive force.

A B Front

Caster Trail
152CH49

King Pin Offset


152CH50

96

CHASSIS SUSPENSION

3. Longitudinal Compliance
When a resistance created by the bumps on the road is encountered, this suspension system relieves the wheels longitudinally to improve the riding comfort on rough roads. The longitudinal compliance is the amount of movement of the axle center per given load. Increasing this amount generally results in a soft ride. The methods for achieving longitudinal compliance are broadly divided into the following two types: With the same amount of longitudinal compliance, the lower side compliance A results in a greater amount of movement of the tire-to-ground contact point than the upper side compliance B. If this situation occurred during actual driving, it will cause the tires rotational speed to fluctuate frequently and affect the riding comfort. The new model has adopted the upper side compliance B to improve the vehicles riding comfort on rough roads. Longitudinal Compliance Spring Rate Large Spring Rate Large Spring Rate Small Longitudinal Compliance Spring Rate Small

Front Spring Rate Small

Front Spring Rate Large

Spring Rate Small Amount of Movement at Tire-to-ground Contact Point

Spring Rate Large

Amount of Movement at Tire-to-ground Contact Point


152CH51 152CH52

A. Lower Side Compliance

B. Upper Side Compliance

CHASSIS SUSPENSION

97

4. Toe Change
During braking, a braking force that pulls the tire-to-ground contact point rearward is generated as illustrated below. This causes the rear axle carrier to rotate and changes the angle in which the toe control arms and the like are mounted. If the suspension is moved vertically in this state, the line graph of the change of the toe angle will differ from that of the normal operation. Therefore, the suspension of the new model has increased the torsional rigidity in relation to the braking force to minimize the toe angle fluctuations during braking. As a result, excellent rear suspension stability has been realized when the brakes are applied during cornering. Bound Toe Control Arm Normal Condition

Braking Condition Front Out In

Braking Force
152CH53

CH
Rebound Toe Change
152CH46

5. Upper Arm
The upper arm is an A-shaped arm made of forged aluminum to reduce the weight.

152CH54

6. No. 1 Lower Arm


The No. 1 lower arm is made of hollow bar to reduce the weight and to realize excellent rigidity.

152CH55

98

CHASSIS SUSPENSION

7. No. 2 Lower Arm


The No. 2 lower arm is made of pressed sheet steel to reduce the weight and to realize excellent rigidity.

152CH56

8. Toe Control Arm


The toe control arm is made of hollow bar to reduce the weight and to realize excellent rigidity.

152CH57

9. Coil Spring and Shock Absorber


No matter how precisely the coil spring is constructed, a lateral force is created in the coil spring due to the contraction and the elongation of the spring, which differs from the vertical force for which the coil spring was originally intended. When the lateral force is great, it prevents the smooth travel of the shock absorber and affects the riding comfort. As illustrated below, the amount of bending moment that is applied to the shock absorber varies according to the position of the spring seat. On the new model, to reduce the amount of bending moment that is applied to the shock absorber, the spring seat has been located at the bottom. As a result, the smooth travel of the shock absorber has been realized.

Lateral Force

Lateral Force

152CH47

152CH48

New

Previous

CHASSIS STEERING

99

STEERING
JDESCRIPTION
D Newly developed vehicle-speed sensing flow control type electoronically-controlled PPS (Progressive Power Steering) is adopted. D A power tilt and power telescopic mechanism with memory function is used. D The steering column has adopted an energy absorbing mechanism that uses energy absorbing plate.

Power Steering Pump and Reservoir Tank

Steering Column

Power Steering ECU

CH

Steering Gear Box LHD Model

143CH03

" Specifications A Model Item Power Steering Type Steering Gear Type Gear Ratio (Overall) No. of Turns Lock to Lock Rack Stroke mm (in.) Fluid Type New Flow Control Type PPS Rack and Pinion 17.2 3.38 145.4 (5.72) ATF Type DEXRONr or Previous Hydraulic Reaction Type PPS u 16.5 3.23 139 (5.47) u

100

CHASSIS STEERING

JVEHICLE SPEED SENSING FLOW CONTROL TYPE PPS 1. General


On the previous model, the PPS controls the hydraulic pressure that is applied to the steering gears hydraulic reaction chamber according to vehicle speed. However, on the new model, the PPS has been changed to the type that controls the amount of fluid in the power steering pump according to vehicle speed. This function is carried out by the solenoid valve that has been added to the power steering pumps flow control portion, which is based on the engine revolution sensing type power steering.

2. System Diagram
Vane Pump

Power Steering Pump


Power Steering ECU Vehicle Speed Sensor
Solenoid Valve

Flow Control Valve Reservoir Tank

Relief Valve

Steering Gear Box

Rotary Valve

Power Cylinder
152CH42

New Vane Pump Flow Control Valve Reservoir Tank


Relief Valve

Power Steering Pump

Hydraulic Reaction Chamber


Solenoid Valve Rotary Valve

Steering Gear Box

Power Steering ECU

Vehicle Speed Sensor

152CH43

Previous

CHASSIS STEERING

101

3. Operation
The pump flow volume is reduced as the vehicle speed increases in order to increase the steering effort. Moreover, the engine load is reduced due to the reduction in the pump flow volume. As a result, fuel economy is improved.

Previous Pump flow volume

New

Vehicle Speed
152CH44

JSTEERING GEAR
Excellent steering feeling has been realized through the adoption of the roller type rack guide, the cutting processing of the pinion gear, and the adoption of the rubber bushings to mount the steering gear box.

JENERGY ABSORBING MECHANISM


The energy absorbing mechanism in the steering column consists of a lower bracket, breakaway bracket, energy absorbing plate and a contractile main shaft. The steering column is mounted onto the instrument panel reinforcement via a lower bracket and breakaway bracket which is supported via a capsule and energy absorbing plate. The steering column and the steering gear box are connected with a contractile intermediate shaft. When the steering gear box moves during a collision (primary collision), the main shaft and the intermediate shaft contract, thus reduce the chance that the steering column and the steering wheel protrude into the cabin. When an impact is transmitted to the steering wheel in a collision (secondary collision), the steering wheel and the steering wheel pad help absorb the impact. In addition, the breakaway bracket and the lower bracket separate, causing the entire steering column to move forward. At this time, the energy absorbing plate becomes deformed to help absorb the impact of the secondary collision.

CH

Instrument Panel Reinforcement

Energy Absorbing Plate

Deform

Lower Bracket Detach

Secondary Collision

Breakaway Bracket Main Shaft Intermediate Shaft Contract Primary Collision


152CH58

Befor Collision

After Collision

CHASSIS STEERING

101

3. Operation
The pump flow volume is reduced as the vehicle speed increases in order to increase the steering effort. Moreover, the engine load is reduced due to the reduction in the pump flow volume. As a result, fuel economy is improved.

Previous Pump flow volume

New

Vehicle Speed
152CH44

JSTEERING GEAR
Excellent steering feeling has been realized through the adoption of the roller type rack guide, the cutting processing of the pinion gear, and the adoption of the rubber bushings to mount the steering gear box.

JENERGY ABSORBING MECHANISM


The energy absorbing mechanism in the steering column consists of a lower bracket, breakaway bracket, energy absorbing plate and a contractile main shaft. The steering column is mounted onto the instrument panel reinforcement via a lower bracket and breakaway bracket which is supported via a capsule and energy absorbing plate. The steering column and the steering gear box are connected with a contractile intermediate shaft. When the steering gear box moves during a collision (primary collision), the main shaft and the intermediate shaft contract, thus reduce the chance that the steering column and the steering wheel protrude into the cabin. When an impact is transmitted to the steering wheel in a collision (secondary collision), the steering wheel and the steering wheel pad help absorb the impact. In addition, the breakaway bracket and the lower bracket separate, causing the entire steering column to move forward. At this time, the energy absorbing plate becomes deformed to help absorb the impact of the secondary collision.

CH

Instrument Panel Reinforcement

Energy Absorbing Plate

Deform

Lower Bracket Detach

Secondary Collision

Breakaway Bracket Main Shaft Intermediate Shaft Contract Primary Collision


152CH58

Befor Collision

After Collision

102

CHASSIS STEERING

JPOWER TILT AND POWER TELESCOPIC STEERING COLUMN 1. General


D A compact and lightweight power tilt and telescopic steering column is used on all models. D The auto set function has been adopted as on the previous model. D The steering column can be set to 2 positions in conjunction with the driving position memory function.

2. System Diagram

Driving Position Memory Switches Body ECU

Unlock Warning Switch (Ignition Switch)

Tilt and Telescopic Manual Switch Tilt Motor with Gear Multiplex Tilt and Telescopic ECU

Tilt Position Sensor Telescopic Motor with Gear Telescopic Position Sensor
152CH36

3. Construction
The power tilt and power telescopic steering column consists of the multiplex tilt and telescopic ECU, a tilt motor, telescopic motor and gears. The multiplex tilt and telescopic ECU contains position sensors that use hall elements.

Telescopic Motor with Gear

Tilt Motor with Gear

Multiplex Tilt and Telescopic ECU


152CH59

CHASSIS STEERING

103

4. Operation
Tilt Operation The signals from the multiplex tilt and telescopic ECU cause the tilt motor to rotate, and this rotational movement is transmitted via the gear, shaft and etc. to move the steering wheel vertically. Telescopic Operation The signals from the multiplex tilt and telescopic ECU cause the telescopic motor to rotate, and this rotational movement is transmitted via the gears to contract or to extend the column tube. Auto Set Function When the ignition key is removed, the steering column moves forward away from the driver and also tilts up for easy exit and entry. When the ignition key is inserted in the ignition switch, the steering column returns to the previously set position. Driving Position Memory Function The steering column moves to the previously set position by pressing the driving position memory switches that are located on the drivers door. Position Detection To detect the position of the tilt and telescopic steering column, a position sensor that utilizes a hall element is located in the ECU and is used to detect the changes in the magnetic field of the magnets, which are attached to the shafts of the motors.

CH

26

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE

ENGINE
2JZ-GE ENGINE
JDESCRIPTION
The 2JZ-GE engine has adopted the VVT-i (Variable Valve Timing-intelligent) system and a long exhaust manifold to improve engine performance and fuel economy, and reduce exhaust emissions. In addition, it has adopted the ETCS-i (Electronic Throttle Control System-intelligent) to ensure excellent vehicle controllability and improve its comfort.

143EG01

143EG02

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE

27

JENGINE SPECIFICATIONS AND PERFORMANCE CURVES


2JZ-GE Engine Item No. of Cyls. & Arrangement Valve Mechanism Combustion Chamber Manifold Fuel System Displacement Bore  Stroke Compression Ratio Europe Max. Output p Australia G.C.C. Countries Europe Max. Torque q Australia G.C.C. Countries IN. IN Valve Timing EX. EX Fuel Octane Number Oil Grade Open Close Open Close (RON) cm3 (cu. in.) mm (in.) New 6-Cylinder, In-Line 24-Valve, DOHC, Belt Drive Pentroof Type Cross-Flow EFI 2997 (182.9) 86.0  86.0 (3.39  3.39) 10.5 : 1 163 kW @ 5800 rpm (EEC) 166 kW @ 6000 rpm (EEC)
178 kW @ 6000 rpm (SAE-GROSS)

Previous z z z z z z z 10.0 : 1 156 kW @ 5800 rpm (EEC)


173 kW @ 6000 rpm (SAE-GROSS)

EG

298 Nm @ 3800 rpm (EEC) 298 Nm @ 4000 rpm (EEC)
312 Nm @ 4000 rpm (SAE-GROSS)

275 Nm @ 4800 rpm (EEC)


287 Nm @ 4800 rpm (SAE-GROSS)

12_~48_ BTDC 65_~5_ ABDC 40_ BBDC 6_ ATDC 95*1, 93*2


API SH EC-II, SJ EC or ILSAC

3_ BTDC 50_ BTDC 53_ BBDC 3_ ATDC z API SH EC-II or ILSAC

*1: For Europe Model *2: For Australia and G.C.C. Countries Model

28

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE " Europe A

: New : Previous

kW 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0

Nm 300 280 260 240 220 200

Torque

1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000

Output

Engine Speed (rpm)

143EG03

" Australia A

" G.C.C. Countries A : New : Previous

kW 180 Nm 300 280 260 240 220 160 Nm 320 300 280 260 240 220

kW 180 160 140 120

Torque

120 100

Torque

140

Output

80 60 40 20 0
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000

80 60 40 20 0
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000

Engine Speed (rpm)


143EG04

Engine Speed (rpm)


143EG05

Output

100

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE

29

JMAJOR DIFFERENCES
The following changes have been made to the 2JZ-GE engine. System Features D The cylinder head water jacket has been modified to improve the cooling performance around the spark plugs, thus increasing the compression ratio. D The cylinder head intake port has adopted a smaller diameter to improve the intake airflow velocity, thus increasing the torque in the low- to medium-speed range. D The piston and connecting rod are lightweight to reduce the noise and vibration. D The VVT-i system is used to improve engine performance, fuel economy and reduce exhaust emissions. D The spring tension of the valve springs has been decreased to reduce friction. An electric cooling fan has been adopted. The fan speed is controlled in 3 steps to improve cooling performance and reduce cooling fan noise. D A thermostat is installed in the throttle body in order to restrain the rise in the intake air temperature, thus improving the intake charging efficiency. D A long port exhaust manifold made of stainless steel is used to improve the engines torque in the low- to medium-speed range. D A long tail muffler is used to ensure quietar operation during idling. D The injector has been made more compact and the injection nozzle has been modified to improve the atomization of the fuel. D An air assist fuel injection system is used to promote atomizing of the fuel for improved fuel economy.*1 D A fuel returnless system has been adopted to reduce evaporative emissions. D A jet pump has been adopted to use the fuel in the fuel tank effectively. The DIS (Direct Ignition System) is used to enhance the reliability of the ignition system. D The ETCS-i has been adopted to realize excellent vehicle controllability and comfort. D A 3-step control type fuel pump speed control has been adopted. D M-OBD (Multiplex On-Board Diagnosis) system is adopted. D The cruise control system and the engine immobiliser system have been integrated with the engine ECU. D The engine ECU has been installed in the engine compartment. D EGR system has been discontinued.*2 D The 2 TWCs (Three-Way Catalytic Converters) have been integrated with the exhaust manifold and the TWC under the floor has been discontinued.*2

Engine Proper

Valve Mechanism

Cooling System

EG

Intake and Exhaust System

Fuel System

Ignition System

Engine Control System

Emission Control System

*1: On the model for Europe, adopted since the previous model. *2: Only for Europe and Australia model.

30

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE

JENGINE PROPER 1. Piston


The valve recess has been reduced to improve combustion efficiency and the skirt portion has been reduced for weight reduction, that resulted in reducing noise and vibration.

New

Previous
150EG10

2. Connecting Rod
The connecting rod is made of high-strength vanadium steel to realize weight reduction and high strength. In addition to reducing noise and vibration, it accommodates the high power output of the engine.

New

Previous
150EG43

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE

31

JVALVE MECHANISM 1. Intake Camshaft


D In conjunction with the adoption of the VVT-i system, an oil passage is provided in the intake camshft in order to supply engine oil to the VVT-i system. D In conjunction with the use of the DIS, the intake camshaft is provided with timing rotor to trigger the camshaft position sensor. Advance Side Oil Passage A Timing Rotor

EG
T S G S U

Retard Side Oil Passage

No.1 Bearing Journal

A-A Cross Section

150EG15

150EG24

JLUBRICATION SYSTEM 1. General


D An oil pipe is provided between the intake camshaft bearing cap No.3 and the cylinder block in order to supply oil to the VVT-i system. D A check valve is enclosed inside the union bolt on the side of the cylinder block. Intake Camshaft Bearing Cap No.3 Union Bolt

Oil Filter

Oil Pipe Cylinder Block

Union Bolt (Check Valve)


150EG16

32

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE

2. Check Valve
The function of the check valve is to prevent the fall of the oil pressure on the VVT-i system side when the engine is stopped. a. Engine is operated. The oil that flows from the main oil hole in the cylinder block overcomes the spring pressure, pushes the valve down and flows into the oil valve. b. Engine is stopped. If there is no oil pressure applied by the main oil hole, the valve is pressed against the valve seat by the spring, thus preventing the oil from flowing down from the VVT-i system. As a result of this function, the initial VVT-i system operation is properly ensured during engine starting. : Oil Flow Spring To VVT-i System

From Main Oil Hole

Valve Seat

Valve Union Bolt Engine is Stopped


150EG18

Engine is Operated
150EG17

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE

33

JCOOLING SYSTEM 1. Cooling Fan System


The cooling system has been changed from the previous temperature controlled cupling fan system to an electric cooling fan system. The cooling fan controls the fan speed in 3 steps (OFF, Low, High) by using the water temperature switch in accordance with the engine coolant temperature and the operating condition of the air conditioner and by turning the 3 fan relays ON and OFF and connecting 2 fan motors in a series or parallel circuit. " Wiring Diagram A

Ignition Switch

Fan Main Relay

EG

Condenser Fan Motor Fan No. 2 Relay To A/C Magnetic Clutch Relay Battery Fan No. 3 Relay Radiator Fan Motor Fan No. 1 Relay 1.2 MPa (12.5 kgf/cm2)

ON

OFF 1.5 MPa (15.5 kgf/cm2) A/C Pressure Switch Water Temp. Switch 83_C (181_F) ON

OFF 90_C (194_F)

152EG03

" Cooling Fan Operation A Engine Coolant Temperature Air Conditioning Condition Compressor Refrigerant Pressure OFF 1.2 MPa (12.5kgf/cm2) or Lower 1.2 MPa (12.5kgf/cm2) or Lower ON 1.5 MPa (15.5kgf/cm2) or Higher 835C (1815F) or Lower OFF Low High 905C (1945F) or Higher High High High

34

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE

JINTAKE AND EXHAUST SYSTEM 1. Intake Manifold Gasket


A heat-barrier gasket made of phenol resin is used between the cylinder head and the intake manifold to restrain the rise in the intake air temperature, thus improving the intake charging efficiency. Intake Manifold Gasket

A A

Rubber Resin

A-A Cross Section


150EG19

2. Throttle Body
D The ETCS-i has been adopted to realize excellent throttle control. D The ETCS-i comprehensively controls the ISC system, TRC system, and the cruise control system. As a result, the ISC valve and the sub-throttle valve have been discontinued. D A thermostat is installed in the throttle body to restrain the rise in the intake air temperature.

Thermostat
150EG54

D The throttle body is supported by a vibration Vibration Damping Gasket damping gasket and a vibration damping bracket Throttle in order to reduce throttle body vibration. As a Body result, the vibration that is transmitted from the throttle body to the vehicle via the accelerator cable has been reduced.

Intake Air Connector

Vibration Damping Bracket Heat-Barrier Gasket

Intake Manifold
150EG25

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE Thermostat

35

The thermostat uses the termal expansion of the wax to open and close the valve to shut off the flow of warm coolant when the coolant temperature is high in the throttle bodys warm coolant passage. This prevents the throttle body temperature from rising more than the needed level, thus restraining the rise in the intake air temperature. Throttle Body Wax Valve

Thermostat

To Throttle Body Coolant Flow Thermostat


150EG20

From Water Outlet

EG
150EG21

3. Exhaust Manifold
D A dual exhaust manifold has been adopted. Its branch portion is made long to utilize the exhaust pulsation. Thus, the flow of the exhaust gas is optimized to improve torque in the low- to mid-speed range. D On the models for Europe and Australia, 2 TWCs (Three-Way Catalytic Converters) have been integrated with the exhaust manifold. On the models for the G.C.C. countries, the sub-mufflers have been integrated. D The branch portion adopts a double-wall construction to reduce the amount of heat that is radiated from the branch portion. As a result, the insulators have been discontinued. Outer Pipe

Inner Pipe

TWC or Sub Muffler Exhaust Manifold


150EG35

Cross Section of the Branch Portion


150EG51

36

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE

4. Exhaust Pipe
D The front exhaust pipe of the exhaust pipe has adopted a dual pipe construction to improve engine performance. D The center exhaust pipe has adopted a larger diameter and a straight muffler to reduce the exhaust pressure and to improve engine performance. D The main muffler has adopted a long tail pipe construction forquieter operation.

Straight Muffler

Tail Pipe

Exhaust Gas Front Exhaust Pipe Main Muffler


152EG04 152EG05

JFUEL SYSTEM 1. Air Assist Fuel Injection System


This system is designed to regulate air intake (atmospheric side) using the throttle valve, and direct it to the nozzle of the fuel injector inside the intake manifold (negative pressure side). This promotes atomization of the fuel while reducing emissions and improving fuel economy and idle stability.

Throttle Valve

Air Pipe

Air Cleaner

Injector

150EG55

36

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE

4. Exhaust Pipe
D The front exhaust pipe of the exhaust pipe has adopted a dual pipe construction to improve engine performance. D The center exhaust pipe has adopted a larger diameter and a straight muffler to reduce the exhaust pressure and to improve engine performance. D The main muffler has adopted a long tail pipe construction forquieter operation.

Straight Muffler

Tail Pipe

Exhaust Gas Front Exhaust Pipe Main Muffler


152EG04 152EG05

JFUEL SYSTEM 1. Air Assist Fuel Injection System


This system is designed to regulate air intake (atmospheric side) using the throttle valve, and direct it to the nozzle of the fuel injector inside the intake manifold (negative pressure side). This promotes atomization of the fuel while reducing emissions and improving fuel economy and idle stability.

Throttle Valve

Air Pipe

Air Cleaner

Injector

150EG55

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE

37

2. Fuel Injector
D A compact 4-hole type fuel injector has been adopted. D Air introduced from the throttle body, air pipe and air gallery flows through the air chamber formed by the o-ring and insulator under the fuel injector and then is mixed with the fuel. This design promotes atomization of the fuel.

EG
150EG53

3. Fuel Returnless System


D The new GS300 has adopted a fuel returnless system to reduce evaporative emissions. With the pressure regulator housed inside the fuel tank, this system eliminates the return of fuel from the engine area. In addition, a jet pump has been adopted to use the fuel in the fuel tank effectively. D The fuel filter is installed in the fuel tank. Injectors Pulsation Dumper Delivery Pipe Pressure Regulator Fuel Filter Fuel Pump Jet Pump New Previous
143EG06

Injectors Pressure Regulator Pulsation Dumper Delivery Pipe Fuel Return Pipe

Fuel Filter

Fuel Tank

Fuel Tank

Fuel Pump

38

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE

4. Jet Pump
A jet pump is adopted in the fuel tank. Since the propeller shaft is located below its center bottom, the fuel tank of the GS300 is shaped as indicated below. A fuel tank with such a shape tends to cause the fuel to be dispersed into both chamber A and chamber B when the fuel level is low, stopping the fuel in chamber B from being pumped out. To prevent this from occurring, a jet pump has been provided to transfer the fuel from chamber B to chamber A. This is accomplished by utilizing the flow of the fuel, so that the vacuum created by the fuel, as it passes through the venturi is used to suck the fuel out of chamber B and send it to chamber A. Engine Fuel Filter Pressure Regulator

From Fuel Pump Fuel Pump Jet Pump Chamber A Chamber B


152EG06

From Chamber B To Chamber A


152EG07

Jet Pump

JIGNITION SYSTEM 1. General


A DIS (Direct Ignition System) has been adopted in the new 2JZ-GE engine. The DIS improves the ignition timing accuracy, reduces high-voltage loss and enhances the overall reliability of the ignition system by eliminating the distributor. The DIS in new 2JZ-GE engine is a 2-cylinder simultaneous ignition system which ignites 2-cylinders simultaneously with one ignition coil. +B
Camshaft Position Sensor

+B IGC1

G2

IGT1

Ignition Coil

No.6 Cylinder No.1 Cylinder

IGT2
Crankshaft Position Sensor

NE

Engine ECU IGT3

Igniter

IGC2

High-Tension Cord
Ignition Coil

No.2 Cylinder No.5 Cylinder

IGC3

High-Tension Cord
Ignition Coil

No.4 Cylinder No.3 Cylinder

Various Sensors

IGF
High-Tension Cord

GND
150EG11

38

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE

4. Jet Pump
A jet pump is adopted in the fuel tank. Since the propeller shaft is located below its center bottom, the fuel tank of the GS300 is shaped as indicated below. A fuel tank with such a shape tends to cause the fuel to be dispersed into both chamber A and chamber B when the fuel level is low, stopping the fuel in chamber B from being pumped out. To prevent this from occurring, a jet pump has been provided to transfer the fuel from chamber B to chamber A. This is accomplished by utilizing the flow of the fuel, so that the vacuum created by the fuel, as it passes through the venturi is used to suck the fuel out of chamber B and send it to chamber A. Engine Fuel Filter Pressure Regulator

From Fuel Pump Fuel Pump Jet Pump Chamber A Chamber B


152EG06

From Chamber B To Chamber A


152EG07

Jet Pump

JIGNITION SYSTEM 1. General


A DIS (Direct Ignition System) has been adopted in the new 2JZ-GE engine. The DIS improves the ignition timing accuracy, reduces high-voltage loss and enhances the overall reliability of the ignition system by eliminating the distributor. The DIS in new 2JZ-GE engine is a 2-cylinder simultaneous ignition system which ignites 2-cylinders simultaneously with one ignition coil. +B
Camshaft Position Sensor

+B IGC1

G2

IGT1

Ignition Coil

No.6 Cylinder No.1 Cylinder

IGT2
Crankshaft Position Sensor

NE

Engine ECU IGT3

Igniter

IGC2

High-Tension Cord
Ignition Coil

No.2 Cylinder No.5 Cylinder

IGC3

High-Tension Cord
Ignition Coil

No.4 Cylinder No.3 Cylinder

Various Sensors

IGF
High-Tension Cord

GND
150EG11

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE

39

2. Igniter
The internal system diagram of the igniter is shown below. A characteristic of this igniter is that it contains the 3 power transistors as illustrated. Based on the IGT signals input for each cylinder the drive circuit activates the respective power transistors to control the primary ignition current (IGC) for all the ignition coils. At the same time, the igniter also sends an ignition confirmation signal (IGF) as a fail-safe function to the engine ECU.

From Engine ECU IGT1 IGT2 IGT3 Input Circuit

Igniter To Ignition Coil IGC1 Drive Circuit IGC2 IGC3


1

EG

IGF TACH (Tachometer) 2 3

1 4

2 3 4

: Lock Prevention Circuit : IGF Signal Output Circuit : Ignition Detection Circuit : Overcurrent Prevention Circuit
150EG12

3. Ignition Coil
The DIS system of the 2JZ-GE engine consists of 3 sets of ignition coils integrated with plug caps and with the high-tension cords attached directly onto the ignition coil. To High Tension Cord Secondary Coil Iron Core

Primary Coil Plug Cap


150EG22

Ignition Coil Cross Section

40

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE

4. Spark Plug
Along with the adoption of the DIS, twin-ground electrode spark plugs have been adopted. The models for Europe and Australia have adopted the platinum-tipped spark plugs. " Platinum Tipped Spark Plugs A DENSO NGK

Platinum

Platinum
143EG09

Ground Electrode

" Recommended Spark Plugs A Europe and Australia DENSO NGK Plug Gap PK20TR11 BKR6EKPB11 G.C.C. Countries K20TR11 BKR6EKB11

1.0 1.1 mm (0.039 0.043 in.)

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE

41

JENGINE CONTROL SYSTEM 1. General


The engine control system has newly adopted the ETCS-i and VVT-i systems and a function to communicate with the multiplex communication system. In addition, the fuel pump control systems fuel pump speed control has been changed from the 2-step to the 3-step type. Furthermore, the engine Immobiliser system and the cruise control system have been enclosed in the engine ECU. The engine control systems of the new 2JZ-GE engine and previous 2JZ-GE engine are compared below. Outline A L-type EFI system directly detects the intake air EFI mass with a hot wire type air flow meter. Electronic Fuel The fuel injection system is a sequential multiport Injection fuel injection system. Ignition timing is determined by the engine ECU based on signals from various sensors. The engine ECU corrects ignition timing in response to engine ESA knocking. Electronic Spark Advance 2 knock sensors are used to improve knock detection. The torque control correction during gear shifting has been used to minimize the shift shock. ISC A step motor type ISC valve controls the fast idle and (Idle Speed Control) idle speeds. VVT-i Controls the intake camshaft to an optimal valve timValiable Valve Timing-intelligent ing in accordance with the engine condition. System ETCS-i Electronic Throttle Control System-intelligent ACIS Acoustic Control Induction System Fuel Pump Control Fuel Pressure Control Oxygen Sensor Heater Control Air Conditioning Cut-Off Control EGR Cut-Off Control Optimally controls the throttle valve opening in accordance with the amount of accelerator pedal effort and the condition of the engine and the vehicle. In addition, comprehensively controls the ISC, cruise control, and TRC systems. The intake air passages are switched according to the engine speed and throttle valve angle to increase performance in all speed ranges. Under light engine loads, 2-Step Control pump speed is low to rere duce electric power loss. 3-Step Control In hot engine conditions, the fuel pressure is increased to improve restartability. Maintains the temperature of the oxygen sensor at an appropriate level to increase accuracy of detection of the oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas. By controlling the air conditioning compressor ON or OFF in accordance with the engine condition, drivability is maintained. Cuts off EGR according to the engine condition to maintain drivability of the vehicle and durability of the EGR components. New f f f f f f Previous f f f f f f

EG

f f f*1 f

f f f f*2 f f*2 (Continued)

42 System Evaporative Emission Control Engine Immobiliser

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE Outline The engine ECU controls the purge flow of evaporative emissions (HC) in the charcoal canister in accordance with engine conditions. Prohibits fuel delivery and ignition if an attempt is made to start the engine with an invalid ignition key. New f f f Previous f f*2

Function to communicate with multiCommunicates with the body ECU, A/C ECU, etc., plex communication on the body side, to input/output necessary signals. system When the engine ECU detects a malfunction, the engine ECU diagnoses and memorizes the failed section. Diagnosis A newly developed diagnostic system which utilizes a high speed bi-directional communication line to provide extended diagnostic capabilities and features. When the engine ECU detects a malfunction, the engine ECU stops or controls the engine according to Fail-Safe the data already stored in the memory. *1: Models for Europe and Australia *2: Models for Europe

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE

43

2. Construction
The configuration of the engine control system in the 2JZ-GE engine of the new GS300 is as shown in differ from the 2JZ-GE engine of the previous GS300. the following chart. Shaded portions SENSORS
VG AIR FLOW METER #10
CRANKSHAFT POSITION SENSOR

ACTUATORS
SFI NE #20 #30 #40 #50 #60 No. 1 INJECTOR No. 2 INJECTOR No. 3 INJECTOR No. 4 INJECTOR No. 5 INJECTOR No. 6 INJECTOR

D Engine Speed Signal D Crankshaft Angle Signal


CAMSHAFT POSITION SENSOR

D Crankshaft Angle Signal D Camshaft Angle Signal


THROTTLE POSITION SENSOR

G2

D Throttle Position Signal


ACCELERATOR PADAL POSITION SENSOR

VTA VTA2 VPA VPA2 THW THA

IGT1~ IGT3

ESA IGNITER

EG

IGF IGNITION COILS SPARK PLUGS

D Accelerator Pedal Position Signal


WATER TEMP. SENSOR

INTAKE AIR TEMP. SENSOR


HEATED OXYGEN SENSOR (Bank 1, Sensor 1)*1 HEATED OXYGEN SENSOR (Bank 2, Sensor 1)*1 HEATED OXYGEN SENSOR (Bank 1, Sensor 2)*1 HEATED OXYGEN SENSOR (Bank 2, Sensor 2)*1

ETCS-i OX1A OX2A OX1B OX2B VAF KNK1 KNK2 SP2 ACIS ACIS VSV Engine ECU OCV M CL THROTTLE CONTROL MOTOR MAGNETIC CLUTCH

VVT-i
CAMSHAFT TIMING OIL CONTROL VALVE

VARIABLE RESISTOR*2 KNOCK SENSORS VEHICLE SPEED SENSOR IGNITION SWITCH D Starting Signal (ST Terminal) D Ignition Signal (IG Terminal)
NEUTRAL START SWITCH

STA IGSW

FPC DI

FUEL PUMP CONTROL


FUEL PUMP ECU FUEL PUMP

OXYGEN SENSOR HEATER CONTROL*1

D Neutral Start Signal D Shift Lever Position Signal AIR CONDITIONING ECU BODY ECU
POWER STEERING OIL PRESSURE SWITCH

P,N
R,D,4,3,2,L

HT1A HT2A

HEATED OXYGEN SENSOR HEATER (Bank 1, Sensor 1) HEATED OXYGEN SENSOR HEATER (Bank 2, Sensor 1) HEATED OXYGEN SENSOR HEATER (Bank 1, Sensor 2) HEATED OXYGEN SENSOR HEATER (Bank 2, Sensor 2)

MPX1 HT1B MPX2 PS HT2B

(Continued)

44

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE

STOP LIGHT SWITCH

STP ACMG

AIR CONDITIONING CONTROL


MAGNETIC CLUTCH RELAY

ABS & TRAC & VSC ECU

TRC ENG EVAP CONTROL TXCT RXCK CODE KSW PRG VSV

TRANSPONDER KEY AMPLIFIER

IMLD MREL W

THEFT DETERRENT INDICATOR LIGHT

UNLOCK WARNING SWITCH

EFI MAIN RELAY CHECK ENGINE LAMP

DATA LINK CONNECTOR 3

SIL TC

+B EFI MAIN RELAY

BATT, BM BATTERY

*1: Only for Europe and Australia Model *2: Only for G.C.C. Countries Model

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE

45

3. Engine Control System Diagram


Variable Resister*4 Fuel Pump ECU Fuel Pump Engine ECU

Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor

Mass Air Flow Meter VSV (for EVAP)

Charcoal Canister

EG
Throttle Control Motor

Intake Air Temp. Sensor Heated Oxygen Sensors*3

Igniter

Throttle Position Sensor *2

Ignition Coil *1

Vaccum Tank

Injector
TWC* 3 TWC* 3

VSV (for ACIS) Knock Sensors Water Temp. Sensor Heated Oxygen Sensors*3 Crankshaft Position Sensor

*1: Camshaft Position Sensor *2: Camshaft Timing Oil Control Valve *3: Only for Europe and Australia Model *4: Only for G.C.C. Countries Model

143EG07

46

Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor DLC 3

VSV (for EVAP)

Heated Oxygen Sensors*1 Neutral Start Switch

Throttle Position Sensor Fuel Pump ECU

4. Layout of Components

Throttle Control Motor

Air Flow Meter

Ignition Coil

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE

Crankshaft Position Sensor Camshaft Position Sensor Igniter

Camshaft Timing Oil Control Valve

Water Temp. Sensor Engine ECU Knock Sensor Injector Knock Sensor VSV (for ACIS)

Variable Resister*2

*1: Only for Europe and Australia *2: Only for G.C.C. Countries

143EG08

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE

47

5. Main Components of Engine Control System


General The following table compares the main components of the 2JZ-GE engine in the new and previous models. 2JZ-GE Engine Component Mass Air Flow Meter Throttle Position Sensor Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor Crankshaft Position Sensor Camshaft Position Sensor Crankshaft Position Sensor Distributor Camshaft Position Sensor Knock Sensor New Hot-Wire Type Linear Type, 2 Linear Type, 2 Pick-Up Coil Type, 1 Pick-Up Coil Type, 1 Built-In Piezoelectric Element Type, 2 Heated Oxygen Sensor (Bank 1, Sensor 1) (Bank 1, Sensor 2) (Bank 2, Sensor 1) (Bank 2, Sensor 2) 4-Hole Type with Air Assist Previous z Linear Type, 1 z Pick-Up Coils Type, 1 Pick-Up Coil Type, 2 z Heated Oxygen Sensor (Bank 1, Sensor 1) (Bank 1, Sensor 2) (Bank 2, Sensor 1) 2-Hole Type with Air Assist*1 2-Hole Type without Air Assist*2 Step Motor Type

EG

Oxygen Sensor*1

Injector ISC Valve *1: Only for Europe *2: Only for G.C.C. Countries Air Flow Meter The hot wire type air flow meter has been changed to the plug-in type. Its basic operation is the same as that of the previous type.

Hot-Wire Intake Air Temp. Sensor Thermistor


150EG29

48 Camshaft Position Sensor

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE

The camshaft position sensor is mounted on the intake side of the cylinder head. The timing rotor is integrated with the intake camshaft. The camshaft position sensor outputs 3 pulses for every 2 crankshaft revolutions.

Cylinder Head Front

Camshaft Position Sensor Engine ECU

150EG23

D On the previous model, the engine ECU was installed on the passengers floor. However, on the new GS300, the engine ECU is installed in the ECU box in the engine compartment. As a result, the wiring harness has been shortened, thus realizing weight reduction. D Utilizing the vacuum that is generated by the radiator coolingfan, airflow is introduced through the ECU box to restrain theincrease in the temperature in the ECU box.

Radiator Intake Duct

ECU Box Exhaust Duct Engine ECU

Cooling Fan Exhaust Duct Air Flow Engine ECU

Side Member Intake Duct ECU Box


152EG09 152EG10

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE

49

6. VVT-i (Variable Valve Timing-intelligent) System


General The VVT-i system is designed to control the intake camshaft within a wide range of 605 (of crankshaft angle) to provide a valve timing that is optimally suited to the engine condition, thus realizing improved torque in all the speed ranges and fuel economy, and reduce exhust emissions. Intake Camshaft Timing Pulley Camshaft Timing Oil Control Valve Camshaft Position Sensor

Crankshaft Position Sensor

EG

Engine ECU

Oil Pump Construction and Operation 1) Intake Camshaft Timing Pulley

150EG26

The intake camshaft timing pulley comprises the outer gear that is driven by the timing belt, the inner gear that is affixed to the camshaft and a movable piston that is placed between the outer gear and inner gear. Having helical splines (twisted, vertical grooves) on its inner and outer periphery, the piston moves in the axial direction to shift the phase of the outer gear and inner gear, thus causing the valve timing to change continuously. Timing Pulley Outer Gear Intake Camshaft Helical Spline (Inner Gear) Helical Spline

Inner Gear

Piston
150EG27

Piston
150EG28

50

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE 2) Camshaft Timing Oil Control Valve D The camshaft timing oil control valve controls Spool Valve To Timing Pulley the spool valve position in accordance with the command of the engine ECU thus allocating (Advanced Side) (Retard Side) the hydraulic pressure that is applied to the intake camshaft timing pulley to the advance and the retard side. When the engine is stopped, the camshaft timing oil control valve is in the Drain most retarded state. Drain Plunger Coil Spring Oil Pressure
150EG30

D By the command of the engine ECU, when the camshaft timing oil control valve is in the position given in Fig. 1, hydraulic pressure is applied from the left side of the piston, which causes the piston to move to the right. Because of the twist in the helical splines that are cut out in the piston, the intake camshaft rotates in the advance direction in relation to the camshaft timing pulley. When the camshaft timing oil control valve is in the position given in Fig. 2, the piston moves to the left and rotates in the retard direction. Furthermore, the camshaft timing oil control valve shuts off the oil passages to maintain the hydraulic pressure at both sides of the piston, thus maintaining the phase at that position. This enables the phase to be set to a desired position.

Exhaust Valve Valve Lift

Variable Angle (60_)

Intake Valve

Crankshaft Angle Valve Timing


150EG31

Piston

Camshaft Timing Oil Control Valve

Intake Camshaft Drain Timing Pulley Oil Pressure Drain Oil Pressure

Fig. 1
150EG32

Fig. 2
150EG33

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE 3) Engine ECU

51

In proportion to the engine speed, intake air volume, throttle position and coolant temperature, the engine ECU searches an optimal valve timing under each driving condition and control the camshaft timing oil control valve, in addition, the engine ECU uses signal from the camshaft position sensor and the crankshaft position sensor to detect the actual valve timing, thus performing feedback control to achieve the target valve timing. " Operation During Various Driving Conditions A Full Load Performance

Range 4 Engine Load

Range 5

EG
Range 2

Range 1 , 3 Engine Speed


150EG34

Range
1

Conditions Idle operation Medium load range Low load range High load, low- to medium-speed range High load, high speed range Engine started and stopped

Operation The valve timing is set to the advance angle 0_ (most retarded angle), and because of the lack of overlap, the idle rpm is stabilized. The valve timing is advanced to increase the amount valve overlap. Thus, the internal EGR rate is increased and the pumping loss is decreased resulting in improved fuel economy. The valve timing is retarded to decrease the amount of valve overlap, thus ensuring the engines stability. The valve timing is advanced to advance the timing of the closing of the intake valve. The volumetric efficiency is thus improved resulting in improved low- to medium-speed range torque. The valve timing is retarded to retard the timing of the closing of the intake valve resulting in improved volumetric in the high-speed range. When the engine is started and stopped, the valve timing is at the most retarded state. The valve timing is at the advance angle 0_ (most retarded angle) without any valve overlap. This prevents the fuel from flowing back and minimizes the need for transient increase of fuel. Furthermore, because the idle rpm is stabilized, the fast idle rpm can be lowered than that of the previous engine, thus improving fuel economy during low-temperature engine operation.

Low-temperature operation

52

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE

7. ETCS-i (Electronic Throttle Control System-intelligent)


General D The ETCS-i system, which realizes excellent throttle control in all the operating ranges, has been adopted. D In the conventional throttle body, the throttle valve opening is determined invariably by the amount of the accelerator pedal effort. In contrast, the ETCS-i uses the engine ECU to calculate the optimal throttle valve opening that is appropriate for the respective driving condition and uses a throttle control motor to control the opening. D The ETCS-i controls the ISC (Idle Speed Control) system, the cruise control system, and the VSC (Vehicle Stability Control). D A duplicate system is provided to ensure a high level of reliability, and the system shuts off in case of an abnormal condition. Even when the system is shut off, the accelerator pedal can be used to operate the vehicle in the limp mode.

Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor

Throttle Valve Throttle Position Sensor Throttle Control Motor Magnetic Clutch

Engine ECU

ABS & TRC & VSC ECU

150EG41

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE Construction

53

Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor Limp Mode Lever Throttle Valve

Magnetic Clutch Throttle Control Motor

EG
Throttle Position Sensor

150EG36

1) Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor The accelerator pedal position sensor, which is mounted on the throttle body, is integrated with the throttle lever, which is connected to the cable that extends from the accelerator pedal. The accelerator pedal position sensor converts the amount of accelerator pedal effort into two types of electrical signals with distinct output characteristics. The signals are then input into the engine ECU.

Output Voltage

Close Open

V 5 VPA2

VPA 0 Close Open


150EG39

E2 VPA2 VPA

VC
150EG40

Accelerator Pedal Depressed Angle 2) Throttle Position Sensor The throttle position sensor converts the throttle valve opening into an electrical signal and inputs into the engine ECU. The output characteristics are the same as those of the accelerator pedal position sensor. 3) Throttle Control Motor A DC motor with excellent response and minimal power consumption is used for the throttle control motor. The engine ECU performs the duty ratio control of the direction and the amperage of the current that flows to the throttle control motor in order to regulate the opening of the throttle valve.

54 4) Magnetic Clutch

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE

Ordinarily, the magnetic clutch engages the clutch to enable the throttle control motor to open and close the throttle valve. In case that a malfunction occurs in the system, this clutch is disengaged to prevent the throttle control motor to open and close the throttle valve. Operation The engine ECU drives the throttle control motor by determining the target throttle valve opening in accordance with the respective operating condition. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) Non-linear Control Idle Speed Control Shift Shock Reduction Control TRC Throttle Control VSC Coordination Control Cruise Control

1) Non-linear Control D Controls the throttle to an optimal throttle valve opening that is appropriate for the driving condition such as the amount of the accelerator pedal effort and the engine speed in order to realize excellent throttle control and comfort in all operating ranges. " Control Examples During Acceleration and Deceleration A : With Control : No Control = Vehicles Longitudinal G 0 Throttle Valve Opening Angle =

0 Ignition Timing = 0 Time "


150EG37

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE

55

D In situations in which low-m surface conditions can be anticipated, such as when driving in the snow, the throttle valve can be controlled to help vehicle stability while driving over the slippery surface. This is accomplished by turning ON the SNOW switch, which, in response to the amount of the accelerator pedal effort that is applied, reduces the engine output from that of the normal driving level.* " Control Example During Startoff Acceleration in 1st Gear on Packed Snow Surface (TRC OFF) A
Throttle Valve Opening Angle

Rear Wheel Throttle Valve

: Amount of Slippage : Actual Throttle Valve Opening Angle Front Wheel Amount of Accelerator Pedal Effort

Wheel Speed 0

0 Normal Mode Snow Mode


151EG40

EG

*: Except for the G.C.C. Countries Models 2) Idle Speed Control Previously, a step motor type ISC valve was used to perform idle speed control such as fast idle during cold operating conditions and idle-up. In conjunction with the adoption of the ETCS-i, idle speed control is now performed by the throttle control motor, which controls the throttle valve opening. 3) Shift Shock Reduction Control The throttle control is synchronized to the ECT (Electronically Controlled Transmission) control during the shifting of the transmission in order to reduce the shift shock. 4) TRC Throttle Control As part of the TRC system, the throttle valve is closed by a demand signal from the ABS & TRC & VSC ECU if an excessive amount of slippage is created at a driving wheel, thus facilitating the vehicle in ensuring stability and driving force. 5) VSC Coordination Control In order to bring the effectiveness of the VSC system control into full play, the throttle valve opening angle is controlled by effecting a coordination control with the ABS & TRC & VSC ECU. 6) Cruise Control Previously, the vehicle speed was controlled by the cruise control actuator, which opened and closed the throttle valve. Along with the adoption of the ETCS-i, the vehicle speed is now controlled by the throttle control motor, which controls the throttle valve.

56 Fail-Safe

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE

If an abnormal condition occurs with the ETCS-i, the Check Engine Lamp illuminates to alert the driver. At the same time, the current to the throttle control motor and magnetic clutch are cut off in order not to operate the ETCS-i. This enables the return spring to close the throttle valve. Even in this situation, the accelerator pedal can be used to operate the limp mode lever, which operates the throttle valve to enable the vehicle to be driven in the limp mode.

Limp Mode Lever

Open

Throttle Position Sensor

Throttle Control Motor Throttle Valve Magnetic Clutch

Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor

150EG42

Diagnosis If the diagnostic trouble code 89 is being output to the check engine lamp, it means that the engine ECU has detected a malfunction in the ETCS-i, and outputs the diagnostic trouble code of the ETCS-i to the Snow indicator light*. Also, the diagnostic trouble code can be output to a hand-held tester via the data link connector 3. For details, refer to the Lexus GS300 Repair Manual (Pub. No. RM588E). *: ETCS indicator light on the models for the G.C.C. countries.

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE

57

8. Fuel Pump Control


The fuel pump speed control has been changed from the 2-step type of the previous model to the 3-step type. " System Diagram A EFI Main Relay FPC Signal 5V Hi 0V 8.2 ms
Engine ECU

Fuel Pump Speed

+B FPC

5V Mid 0V

Fuel FP+ Pump ECU DI FP E

Fuel Pump

Battery

4.1 ms

5V Low 0V 5V 0V

EG
Stop
152EG12

152EG11

9. Engine Immobiliser System


The transponder key computer, which was previously separate, is now enclosed in the engine ECU. For details, see page 136.

10. Function to Communicate with Multiplex Communication System


The engine ECU communicates with the meter ECU, air conditioning ECU, body ECU, etc., of the multiplex communication system. The main output signals from the engine ECU are as follows: D Signals to the Indicator Lights in the Speedometer (Oil Pressure Signal, Oil Level Signal and Alternator L Terminal Signal) D Engine Coolant Temp. Signal D Engine Speed Signal D Signals related to the Air Conditioning System (Refrigerant Pressure Signal and Compressor Speed Signal) The main input signals to the engine ECU are as follows: D Air Conditioning Signal D Electrical Load Signal (Taillight and Rear Window Defogger System) D Pattern Select Switch Signal (Power, Snow)

58

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE

11. Diagnosis System


The M-OBD (Multiplex On-Board Diagnostic) system that has been adopted in the 2JZ-GE engine is a system that has been improved upon the previous diagnostic system in order to perform troubleshooting in a more efficient and accurate manner. The functions of the M-OBD system can be fully utilized through the use of a hand-held tester. The following table compares the diagnostic system fo the new and previous 2JZ-GE engine. Engine Item New Previous

The TDCL has been discontinued, and The check connector and TDCL are a DLC3 (Data Link Connector 3) has provided. been newly provided. In addition, the check connector terminals TE1, TE2, " Check Connector A and IG have been discontinued.
"

DLC3 A TC TAC

E1 TE1

TE2 IG

Check Connector and Data Link Connector SIL

VF1 CG
140EG127

VF2
140EG39

"

TDCL A

CG: Chassis Ground SIL: Provides communication between the engine ECU and the hand-held tester. TAC: Outputs the engine speed signal. TC: Provides the same function as the previous TE1 terminal. Diagnostic Trouble Code Check Method After connecting terminals TC and CG of the DLC3, displays the code on CHECK Engine Lamp in the combination meter. The engine ECUs control data can be output by connecting the hand-held tester to the DLC3. Output Data Speed: 9.6 kbps

E1 TE2 TE1
144EG05

After connecting terminals TE1 and E1 of the check connector or TDCL, displays the code on CHECK Engine Lamp in the combination meter. The engine ECUs control data can be output by connecting the hand-held tester to the check connector or TDCL. Output Data Speed: 125 bps

Output Engine ECU Data

ENGINE 2JZ-GE ENGINE

59

Furthermore, on the 2JZ-GE engine, the functions listed below can be utilized by connecting the hand-held tester to the DLC3. Function Details The system can output 5-digit diagnostic trouble codes to the tester, which are more detailed than the previous 2-digit diagnostic trouble codes, thus making it easier to identify the location of the problem. Diagnostic Trouble Code Example: Code 28 (Oxygen Sensor) P0130 (Oxygen Sensor) P0135 (Oxygen Sensor Heater)

Freeze-Frame Data

The system can output freeze-frame data to the tester. This data (which depicts the condition of the engine control system and the vehicle) is stored in the engine ECU at the very moment when the engine ECU has detected its last data of malfunction. Through the use of the tester, the actuators (VSV, fuel pump, VVT-i system, etc.) can be activated to a desired state. Through the use of the tester, trouble codes that are stored in the engine ECU can be cleared.

EG

Active Test Trouble Code Clear

D For details on the diagnostic trouble codes, active test, etc. described above, refer to the Lexus GS300 Repair Manual (Pub. No. RM588E). D For details of the hand-held tester, refer to the Hand-Held Tester Operators Manual.

EXTERIOR APPEARANCE

MODEL CODE AND MODEL LINE-UP


MODEL CODE

J Z S 1 6 0 L BEAQFW
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

IN

BASIC MODEL CODE JZS160: With 2JZ-GE Engine

GEARSHIFT TYPE A: 5-Speed Automatic, Floor

STEERING WHEEL POSITION L: Left-Hand Drive R: Right-Hand Drive

GRADE Q:

7 3
MODEL NAME B: GS300

ENGINE SPECIFICATION F: DOHC and EFI

DESTINATION BODY TYPE E: 4-Door Sedan

W: Europe Q: Australia V: G.C.C. Countries

MODEL LINE-UP
TRANSMISSION DESTINATION Europe Australia G.C.C. Countries ENGINE 2JZ-GE BODY TYPE 4-Door Sedan GRADE 5-Speed Automatic A650E
L JZS160 R -BEAQFW JZS160R-BEAQFQ JZS160L-BEAQFV

INTRODUCTION-DEVELOPMENT OBJECTIVE
2

NEW GS300 DEBUT!


In general performance, design and comfort, the New GS300 epitomizes quality.
First introduction in the Australian market.
The new GS300 was born out of the developmental concept of a highspeed sedan. This does not mean that this is merely a car capable of being driven fast. The idea was that the creation of an automobile with a high level of general performance (driving, turning and stopping) as well as optimal balance should be pursued tenaciously to the very end. As a result of these efforts the new GS300 incorporates several major innovative breakthroughs. These breakthroughs are explained in this booklet. We hope you find this information useful in preparing your sales presentations, and as a reference for service personnel.

Five Qualities That will Sell the GS300


A higher dimension of performance and comfort.

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Quality
A sleek beautiful design.

The entire package has been thought out with the comfort and convenience of the drivers and passengers in mind.

Quality

Quality

Quality

Quality

A new high-tech engine boosts performance.

The highest international safety standards have been provided with the advanced active and passive safety engineering.

NEW MODEL OUTLINE


4
QUALITY

New Concept Package

Both the interior and trunk space has been enlarged while the overall length has been reduced by 160 mm. The efficient utilization of space common in front wheel drive vehicles has been realized in a real wheel drive vehicle. Weight distribution has been optimized. This new package offers increased comfort together with a boost in driving performance.
Trunk room

Engine retracted 50 mm 30 Battery positioned in front of the dash.

410 " 515

Fuel tank positioned under the rear seat 20 20 15 45

E/G 50 835 140 mm

1795 +25 mm 2800 +20 mm 4805 160 mm 1170 40 mm

SALES POINT

Interior and trunk capacity have been increased while the overall length, has been decreas. Space utilization has been improved without sacrificing driver and passenger comfort.

J Comparison between the previous and new model and the competition
New GS300* Wheelbase Rear Overhang Front Tread Rear Tread Curb Weight mm (in.) mm (in.) mm (in.) mm (in.) (kg/lb.) ( ) 2800 (110.2) 835 (32.9) 1170 (46.1) 1535 (60.4) 1510 (59.4) 1665 (3671) 75 Front Overhang mm (in.) Previous GS300* 2780 (109.4) 975 (38.4) 1210 (47.6) u 1515 (59.6) 1680 (3700) 80 Benz E320/420 2833 (111.5) 833 (32.8) 1144 (45.0) 1530 (60.2) 1520 (59.8) 1635 (3605)/NA 80 BMW 528/540 2830 (111.4) 861 (33.9) 1084 (42.7) 1512 (59.5) 1516 (59.7) 1590 (3505)/ 1725 (3803) 70

Fuel Tank Capacity

*: The above specifications are for European models.

5
QUALITY

Styling

A New Design Standard in Luxury Sedans


The foundation of the new GS300 design is an extremely short overhang style which makes its presence felt. This sedans sleek fluid form exudes an air of individuality.
Improved aerodynamic properties for enhanced high speed cruising and a distinctive design form set new standards.
3

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Front Design

Distinctive lines enhanced by streamlined corners and the use of four independent headlights provide a distinctive and progressive appeal. The lowbeam headlights utilize (optional) Discharge Headlight lamps and the front turn signal lamps are housed inside the same lense casing. The bold convex lines one sees when viewing from the front suggest luxury. The distinctive vertical base frame inherited by the GS300 has been further enhanced with the inclusion of horizontal grooves, accentuating the visual impact of the front grill. The horizontal design of the front bumper gives it a sophisticated wide body look while the fog lamps enhance the appearance of a low center of gravity. A rounded shape with improved aerodynamic properties gives the bumper a futuristic appearance.

4 5

4 5

J Comparison between the previous and new model and the competition
New GS300* Overall length Overall width Overall height mm (in.) mm (in.) mm (in.) 4805 (189.2) 1800 (70.9) 1445 (56.9) Previous GS300* 4965 (195.5) 1795 (70.7) 1425 (56.1) Benz E320/420 4810 (189.4) 1800 (70.9) 1440 (56.7) BMW 528/540 4775 (188.0) 1800 (70.9) 1435 (56.5)

*: The above specifications are for European models.

NEW MODEL OUTLINE


6
QUALITY

Styling
A fluid design together with flush door section construction give the cabin and undercarriage an integrated appearance. An ultra long cabin conveys a high speed image.
1 2 3

Side Design

The elongated flush door section was designed as a single unit up to the cabin. The long cabin utilizes an new elliptical window design. The cladding panel strip is installed in a lower position to maintain a low center of gravity and to visually accentuate the long doors. The letter Z painted on the side conveys a feeling of moving forward movement; a front wheel flare is also featured. A shiny finish is applied in a semicircular pattern on the upper part of the front and rear wheel flares. The low positioning of the rocker molding improves its aerodynamic properties and enhances the sporty feel.

5 6

Rear Design

The rear end leaves a lasting impression on those who have been passed by the GS300.
1

The quarter pillar structure of the new buttress (stepped pillar construction) creates the impression of a long cabin. The roof molding is connected from the front pillar to the quarter pillar, helping achieve stability in cross winds. The rounded surfaces produce a materialistic beauty peculiar to the car itself. A distinctive three layer pattern in the rear lights identify this car, and the four independent rear lamps tighten up the look of the rear end. The high performance dual exhaust pipes enhance the bold and sporty rear end and accentuate the distinctive rear bumper. 1

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2 3

SALES POINT

The distinctive design of the new GS300 is recognizable at a glance from any angle. The new GS300 is in a class of its own. Its design hints at the refined taste of its owner.

NEW MODEL OUTLINE


8
QUALITY

New Engine & High Technology

A high performance engine and various applications of leading edge technology result in high level of driving pleasure.

2JZ-GE Engine function data based on European specifications.


The reputable 2JZ-GE engine has been further improved. Improved low and midrange torque and better fuel consumption have been realized as a result of the synergistic effect of the advanced systems introduced with the VVT-i system. Ease of handling in city driving, superior fuel economy and the available power during high speed driving have all been refined even further.

8%
Maximum torque has been improved by approximately 8%

(kW)
180

(Nm)
300 280 260 240 220 200

160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20

New Previous

(rpm)
1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000

0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 6000 7000

(rpm)

275Nm/4,800rpm

298Nm/3,800rpm

156kW/5,800rpm

163kW/5,800rpm

J Comparison of engine data with the competition


Item Total displacement Maximum output Maximum torque 0 to 100 km/h acceleration (Sec.) VVT
Go to 26 page for technical details.

New GS300 (cc) 2,997


163kW/5,800rpm 298Nm/3,800rpm

Previous GS300 u
156kW/5,800rpm 275Nm/4,800rpm

Benz E320 2833


162kW/5,500rpm 310Nm/3,750rpm

BMW 528i 2830


142kW/5,300rpm 280Nm/3,950rpm

8.2 VVT-i

8.8

7.7

8.8

Competitors data based on Japanese specs

VVT-i
The VVT-i high tech system reliably conveys the drivers intentions to the engine. Responsive driving in city traffic, smooth acceleration on the highway, and the highest fuel efficiency in class are all realized in a single package. What is VVT-i (Variable Valve Timing-intelligent) .....
The open/close timing of the valves is controlled by computer in accordance with driving conditions such as the engine speed and acceleration level. Smooth air intake and exhaust are achieved and there is significant improvement in the low and midrange torque band. The driver is able to experience the sensation of comfortable acceleration on demand since the engine responds faithfully as the driver presses down on the accelerator. VVT-i not only makes responsive handling possible but also makes a major contribution to improved fuel economy and cleaner exhaust emissions.

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J Effect of continuous valve timing changes


During idling During normaldriving
Acceleration for steep upgrade climbing and during high speed passing

Elimination of valve timing overlap Valve timing overlap is increased


TDC

Intake valve closes quickly


TDC

Focus attention here


IN EX

TDC

Focus attention here


IN EX

EX

IN

Focus attention here


BDC BDC BDC

No valve overlap
EX IN EX

Large overlap
IN EX

Closes quickly
IN

Exhaust Gas

Exhaust infiltration from the cylinder to the intake side is prevented by delaying the opening of the intake valve. A good air mixture is always fed inside the cylinder, combustion is stabilized and the rpm level during idling is reduced for improved fuel consumption.

As a result of increasing the timing overlap in which the exhaust valve and intake valve are both open, the exhaust gas is able to flow to the intake side. HC intake and combustion are then performed again which thereby reduces the combustion temperature as well as the level of NOx. Improved fuel consumption is also realized because of the further reduction in the intake resistance.

By early closing the intake valve the air fuel mixture taken into the cylinder is not discharged and the air intake is maximized to produce powerful acceleration.

SALES POINT

With the VVTi, the valve timing continuously changes to allow the engine to function like a low to moderate speed engine when driving at low to moderate speeds and to function like a high speed engine when driving at high speed. Increased torque is realized in all rpm ranges; improved fuel efficiency and cleaner exhaust emissions are achieved as well.

Go to 49 page for technical information

NEW MODEL OUTLINE


10
QUALITY

New Engine & High Technology

ETCS-i
An appropriate balance is maintained between the acceleration level and engine output, so stable driving performance is always achieved under all road conditions. What is ETCS-i (Electronic Throttle Control System-intelligent)
This system was designed to ensure superior vehicle operability by appropriately controlling the balance between the acceleration level and engine output at all times. For example from a stopped position even if the accelerator is punched hard when the car is not moving, a smooth acceleration is achieved; undesirable inertial effects are reduced. Even in potentially dangerous slippery snow conditions, stable driving can be maintained by setting the pattern select switch to snow mode. The driver is able to experience the sensation of excellent acceleration control and stability when driving through all types of operating conditions. Integrated control of the powertrain system also makes it possible to reduce shock during acceleration as well as automatic transmission shock attributable to changes in speed.

On road surfaces where tires can easily slip


By switching to snow mode, under slippery road conditions the throttle level can be integrated with the acceleration level to the suppress engine output. The automobile can thus be operated without the fear of unstable behavior. Snow mode specs not available in the G.C.C. Countries.

SALES POINT

Sensitive acceleration control is available on slippery road surfaces. With ETCS-i, the system automatically makes subtle control changes to give the driver a sense of security.

Go to 52 page for technical details.

11

AI-SHIFT
The computer anticipates the drivers wishes. This system results in various merits being afforded to the driver through the appropriate control of the automatic transmission. What is AI-SHIFT (Artificial Intelligence-shift)
With AI-SHIFT a computer is used to assess the drivers intentions and road conditions (upgrades and downgrades) to optimally control the speed change points of the automatic transmission. This computerized control of the automatic transmission is associated with the elimination of unnecessary acceleration and a reduction in the number of shifts which effectively results in improved fuel consumption. Furthermore, in the case of road conditions such as a downgrade the amount of time needed for braking is also reduced dramatically because the engine brake is exerted efficiently. The AI-SHIFT system is also helpful for the prevention of the fade phenomenon and maintaining stability as well.

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Upgrade
Uphill driving control Unnecessary upshifting is prevented by controlling acceleration during uphill driving.

Downgrade
Downhill driving control Overdrive (OD) is automatically canceled during downhill driving. The engine brake power is increased.

Without control With control

5th 5th

4th 4th

5th

3rd 3rd

5th

4th

5th 4th

Brake operation

5th

SALES POINT

Whether a driver wants to drive fast or whether he or she wants to give more importance to fuel efficiency the computer assesses the circumstances at that time and controls the automatic transmission accordingly. This is the role of the AI-SHIFT system.

Go to 60 page for technical details.

NEW MODEL OUTLINE


12
QUALITY

New Engine & High Technology

NEW 5-speed Automatic Transmission


A new 5-speed automatic transmission is utilized resulting in smooth shift. Numerous merits such as improved driving performance, comfort, and fuel efficiency are achieved simultaneously.
The newly adopted 5-speed automatic transmission is a next generation transmission which borrows freely from the latest technology on the Lexus. The performance of the automatic transmission has been improved as a result of such things as an improved time-lag that is on a world class level and a reduction in the time it takes to shift. It is not just the power performance of this transmission that has been raised; significant improvements in terms of driver comfort and fuel efficiency have also been realized.

Speed change direction Output engine torque

Previous four-speed automatic transmission New five-speed automatic transmission

Shift shock reduction Time lag reduction Shift time reduction

13
QUALITY

Safety
(Vehicle Stability Control)

A highly rigid body construction loaded with an assortment of the latest equipment insures a world class level of safety.

VSC

When the driver attempts to negotiate a turn too quickly, the computer senses that the behavior of the car has reached its limit and immediately decreases the engine output. And also, this control system supplies the active braking power and gives the driver the ability to smoothly control the behavior of the car. VSC is designed as a safety mechanism for the purpose of providing excellent stability during cornering. With TRC and ABS operation on the front and rear, this mechanism is used to ensure stable handling.

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Without VSC

With VSC

Outward facing moment

This illustration shows the image of VSC effect. Go to 73 page for technical details.

New Crashworthy Body


The utilization of a new collisionsafe body on the GS300 helps to protect the integrity of the cabin and to preserve the passenger escape routes. The excellent door beams also helps to minimize impact damage from side to collisions. This highly rigid body has passed international collision safety standards.

Go to 104 page for technical details.

NEW MODEL OUTLINE


14
QUALITY

Safety
Go to 138 page for technical details.

SRS Airbags
To minimize the impact during a collision to the passengers in the driver and front passenger side seats, the SRS airbags come as standard equipment on all GS300 models.

SRS Side Airbags


The side air bags are intended to protect passengers from the impact that occurs in the event of a collision from the side. This safety device has recently become standard equipment on all GS300 models.

Seat Belt Pre-tensioner with Force Limiter


At the initial stage of a collision the pre-tensioner winds up the belt to provide the passenger restraining effect. Immediately thereafter once the belt weight load reaches the prescribed value, the force limiter controls the belt load to the passenger. This mechanism mitigates the impact on the passengers upper torso.
Go to 137 page for technical details.

Seat belt without force limiter

Seat belt with force limiter


This illustration shows the image of Seat Belt Pretensioner effect.

15

Head Impact Protection Structure


A head impact protection structure is used in the pillar, garnish, and ceiling construction for the purpose of mitigating the impact to passengers heads in the event of a secondary collision. This new collision safe body has passed the standards set in the FMVSS201 regulations.
Go to 108 page for technical details.

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Discharge Headlight
High visibility is provided using a color and intensity that resembles sunlight and with a light beam intensity three times the power of a halogen light. In addition the Discharge Headlight (which consumes approximately 70% of the electric power of a halogen light) also reduces the burden on the battery.

NEW MODEL OUTLINE


16
QUALITY

Comfort
<Available only in Europe as option.>

This sedan is further enhanced with an array of equipment amenities.

Car Navigation

Equipped with a highly accurate car navigation system which utilizes a hybrid system
This hybrid car navigation system carries out automatic position search by means of GPS satellites and a built-in sensor. This highly accurate navigation function offers the driver multiple function support such as road map directions to an intended location, optimal route search, and estimated time of arrival. Even on roads traveled for the first time, this system promises peace of mind while driving.

Multi function Keyless entry


A wireless remote control key is employed not only to lock and unlock the doors as you would expect but also to open the windows, roof and trunk. This multi-function key is also linked to a security function as well.

Trunk Button Panic

Unlock Button

LED Lock Button

Transponder Chip (Included)

17

Other Qualitys
A well Thought-out Layout and Gromping of Equipment.

Customized Body Electronics System


Beginning with the power windows and wireless door locks, the newly equipped customized body electronics system allows the settings of several electronic components to be changed according to the personal preferences of the user.

Automatic Recirculating System


A new system is utilized whereby a sensor detects the level of exhaust gases (CO and HC) when the switch is open. It then automatically switches the interior/exterior air in accordance with the concentration of these gases and adjusts the amount of air to be circulated.

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These specs not available in the G.C.C. Countries. Ambient Air inlet Gas sensor Compressor Exhaust Emission Blower

Dumper Control

Air Conditioning ECU

Meter Panel
Three highly visible independent Optitron meters are utilized.
An an automatically activated light system and excellent visibility is featured. With a 3-meter panel layout that caters to the sports car enthusiast, driving pleasure is visually supported as well.

3 2 1 0

6 7 8

120 140160 100 180 80 200 60 km/h 220 40 240 20 260 0


TRIP ODO
A B

H 4 3 C 2

P R N D L

F E

1000RPM

NEW MODEL OUTLINE


18

Other Qualitys
Interior Design
High quality sporty cockpit design with builtin elegance and detail. The trim and lining boast a molded beauty that is supple and elastic. The highly operable switch layout is designed with ergonomics in mind as well. Together these features strive for a distinctive luxury feel integrated in a graceful design concept.

3-eye cluster meter panel Built-in CD changer inside the glove box

19

Electronic Inner/Outer Rear-View Mirror


An inner/outer mirror sensor perception system reduces glere from of the lights of the car following behind.
The two sensors installed on the inner mirror unit detect the difference between the peripheral light and the rear view light. By changing the degree of reflectivity of the mirror surface in accordance with this signal, during night time driving the glere from the headlights on the car following behind are automatically reduced.

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Sensor 2

Sensor 1
(Behind the mirror)

Inner Mirror

EC Mirror Cell LED Mode Selection Switch

Control

Control The reflection rate changes with fluctuations in the element built into the unit.

Front Arm Rest


The front center arm rest has been enlarged, increasing available storage space.
The enlarged front arm rest incorporates an integrated two stage console box. A power outlet has also been included.

Large size cup holder for 20 oz, bottle Shift lever arranged closer to the driver for improved operability

Two Stage Console Box

Wide console box of rich wood grain design

Power Outlet

NEW MODEL OUTLINE


20

Other Qualitys
Front Seat
High quality seat that strikes a balance between comfort and firmness while driving.
An 8-direction power seat comes as standard equipment on all vehicles. A comfortable rounded seat back shape wraps around the driver producing an outstanding fit.

The soft texture of genuine leather

Rear Seat
Head rest positioned in the center and an arm rest with attached cup holder are also provided.
The rear center head rest has been enlarged in consideration of the comfort of passengers sitting in the center. The rear arm rest also comes equipped with a built-in cup holder.

Rear Center Head Rest

21

Luggage Net
Hooks are set inside the trunk for use with a luggage net.
Luggage net hooks have also been set to keep luggage in place inside the trunk. This protects luggage during transit and also eliminates the unwanted noise caused by luggage moving around inside the trunk.

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HOOK

NEW MODEL OUTLINE


22

Other Qualitys
Equipment List
F : Standard Item ABS TRC/VSC Power tilt-up and sliding moon roof Colored rear spoiler equipped with high-mounted stop lamp Headlight g Headlight cleaner Fog light Optitron meter GPS Navigation System Cruise control Electric door locks with key confinement prevention function Wireless door lock remote control Seat upholstery p y Genuine leather Wool Fabric Driver and passenger side seats are equipped with an 8-way adjustable power seat Light Auto Tarn-off system Cup holder
*1: Part of Discharge Headlight set option. Also available separately. *3: Main protect smell.

OP : Option G.C.C. Countries F F OP OP F OP F F F F F OP F F F F

: No setting Australia F F OP OP F OP OP*2 F F F F F OP F F F F

Europe F F OP OP F OP OP*1 F F OP F F F OP F*3 F F F

Halogen headlamp Discharge Headlight

*2: Part of Discharge Headlight set option.