YOKOGAWA.

Yokogawa Middle East Training Center

FOUNDATION FIELDBUS
ORIENTATION COURSE TRAINING TEXT BOOK

TABLE OF CONTETS

TABLE OF CONTENTS
Welcome To YME Training Center A. Introduction to Fieldbus Technology technology A-1 A-1 A-1 A-3 protocol A-4 A-S B-1 B-2 B-3 B-4 8-4 C-1 C-1 C-3 C-3 C-5 C-6 C-6 C-7 C-7 C-7 C-10 C-11 a Fieldbus System

A.1. Evolution of signal transmission A.2. Fieldbus Foundation A.3. Definition of Fieldbus A.4. Comparasion with conventional A.S. Interoperability B. Fieldbus system hardware

B.1. Feldbus system hardware components B.2. Software for configuring B.3. Excersice B 8.3.1 Questions C. Fieldbus Communication C.1. Signaling method C.2. Communication model C.2.1 OSI Model C.2.2 Protocol Data Unit C.2.3 Communication through VCR C.2.4 Physical Layer C.2.5 Data Link Layer C.2.6 Medium Access Control C.3. Fieldbus Node Address C.3.1 Link Active Scheduler (LAS) C.3.2 Scheduled Communication C.3.3 Unscheduled Communication C.4. Application Layer C.4.1 Fieldbus access sublayer C.4.2 Client-Server Model C.4.3 Publisher-Subscriber Model C.4.4 Source-Sink Model C.4.5 Fieldbus Message Specification (FMS) C.S. Exercise C C.5.1 Questions

c-s

C-12 C-12 C-12 C-13 C-14 C-15 C-16 C-16

YME Training Center

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

D. Fleldbus Function

Blocks

D-1 D-1 D-1 0-1 0-2 0-3 0-3 D-5

D.1. Virtual Field Devices (VFD) D.2. Function Block VFD 0.2.1 Resource Block 0.2.2 Function Block 0.2.3 Transducer Block 0.2.4 Link and Schedule D.3. Exercise D 0.3.1 Questions E. Device Management E.1. Device Information files E.1.1 Device Description (~O) E.1.2 001 and DO E.1.3 Device Description Service E.1.4 Capabilities file E.2. Exercise E E.2.1 Questions F. Fieldbus Wiring F.1. Fieldbus Wiring topology F.1.1 Point-to-Point topology F.1.2 Bus with Spur topology F.1 .3 Daisy chain F.1.4 Tree topology F.2. Cable Length F.3. Exercise F F.3.1 Questions G. Segment Design Considerations G.1. FF Intrinsic Safety G.2. FISCO Model G.3. Cable Length G.3.1 For Intrinsic Safe Application G.3.2 For Non-Intrinsic Safe Application G.4. Fieldbus Voltage Drop G.4.1 For Intrinsic Safe Application G.4.2 For Non-Intrinsic Safe Application

0-5
E-1 E-1 E-1 E-2 E-3 E-4 E-5 E-5 F-1 F-1 F-1 F-2 F-2 F-2 F-3 F-4 F-4 G-1 G-1 G-2 G-2 G-2 G-3 G-4 G-4 G-4

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Fieldbus Power Capacity G.S.2.2 Setting the Output Scale H 04.TABLE DF CONTENTS G.1 Mode Transition H.1 Registering Fieldbus Devices 1. Fieldbus Engineering Flow. 1.2 For Non-Intrinsic Safe Application G.1 Signal Flow 1.1 System/Network Management VFD H.1.2 Function Block VFD H.3 Setting the Output Mode H.404 Setting the Output Signal Low Cut H.Controller in FCS 1.S.1 For Intrinsic Safe Application G.9.5.B.3.1 Questions H.3.4.6 Simulation H.3. Exercise G G.6.4.1 Questions I. Exercise H H.4.3.4. Feldbus Device (Yokogawa EJA) H.3. Setting And Change Of Basic Parameters Ho4. Fieldbus System Hardware.1 Setting the AI1 Function Block Ho4. Sample Segment Design G.4.5.2.204 Setting of tags and addresses H.5.2.? Other Considerations for Segment Design G.2 Indication of Alarm H. Fieldbus Data Access 1.3 Integration Of DO H. 1. Feldbus Engineering 1. In-Process Operation H. EJA Hardware H.5 Setting the Damping Time Constant H.4.9.3. Macro-Cycle Considerations G.2.3 Simulation Function H.1. Internal Structure Of EJA H.2.1Types of FF Faceplate Blocks 1.2.2 Saving Tuning Parameters YME Training Center G-6 G-6 G-6 G-7 G-B G-9 G-10 G-10 H-1 H-1 H-3 H-3 H-4 H-6 H-6 H-6 H-6 H-7 H-9 H-10 H-11 H-12 H-12 H-12 H-13 H-13 H-14 H-14 1-1 1-1 1-2 1-3 1-4 1-5 1-6 1-6 1-7 TOC-3 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 .

5 The NIFBUS Configurator Functions.2 PRM Client J.1 PRM Server J. Laboratory Exercise J JA. Device Management Tool J. Exercise I 1.1.5.1. Plant Resource Manager J.TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.1 Questions K.3. J.1 Fieldbus Configuration related to whole System Architecture J.3.3 Functional Overview of Device Management Tool J.2 Operating Environment of Device Management Tool J.4. NI Tool J.3.2.1 Questions 1-8 1-8 J-1 J-1 J-1 J-2 J-3 J-4 J-4 J-5 J-5 J-7 J-8 J-9 J-9 J-9 J-10 J-11 J-11 K-1 J.1. Fieldbus Tools J.3 Field Communications Server J.2.5.1 NIFBUS Conifgurator Operating Environment J.3.2.3 Installation J.1A Installation Of DO Files J.2 Fieldbus Network Link and Installation J.1.1. Notes \! YME Training Center TOC-4 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 .2.

Telephone Fax : +973358100 : +973 336 100 YME. To date this training center has trained more than 3. United Arab Emirates. We request you to feel free and approach the instructor for any assistance. YME Training center address YME. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and Abu Dhabi. Telephone Fax : +966 3 3472696 : +966 3 3473480 YME. Filed Instrumentation. Busaiteen 225. our training center has prompted an active environment in the filed of Instrument and Process Control. Maharraq. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. It offers a complete range of training courses on Yokogawa Distributed Control System.000 participants in the Middle East territory from various process control plants. (Lexus showroom) corner. AI-Jubail AI-Fanateer Mall. 10070. Manama. Abu Dhabi Telephone Fax : +971 26766526 : +971 2 6787307 YME Training Center YMEFBOR 1Sf Edition Jun 2002 . In order to strengthen our commitment to valued customers. Since its inception. Road 2516. This expansion allows us to be flexible to the needs of the customers in these regions. Bahrain PO Box. Abdulla Bin Darwish Building. We welcome you to this present course and trust that you will find the training session beneficial. we have also setup training centers in AI-Jubail. Bahrain.WELCOME TO YME TRAINING CENTER WELCOME TO YME TRAINING CENTER Yokogawa Middle East (YME) Bahrain established its training center in 1993. Industrial Safety System and Management Information System. Abu Dhabi 4th Floor. 3rd Floor. Corner of Salam and Hamdan Street. AI-Jubail. 577. Bahrain Bldg.

1530 Hrs.. Avoid entering into restricted premises in the office . .1230 Hrs.Factory acceptance test area and Staff offices. Be punctual for all the sessions...WELCOME TO YME TRAINING CENTER Course Timings Morning session: Afternoon session: 0830 . Smoking is strictly confined to smoking area only. General Rules and regulation We request the trainee to adhere to the following rules. . . 1330 . YME Training Center II YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 .

evolution of field signal transmission technology and definition of fieldbus. .. FIELDBUS FOUNDATION Driven by their customers' needs. The fieldbus foundation is an independent. FIELDBUS SYSTEM HARDWARE A.. EVOLUTION OF SIGNAL TRANSMISSION TECHNOLOGY Migration from pneumatic to digital transmission isa great change in the signal transmission technology.2. and interoperable fieldbus. process control and manufacturing automation companies formed the Fieldbus Foundation to complete development if a single. Fieldbus technology is an enabling technology technology. Pneumatic Analog 4-20mA Hybrid (smart) Fieldbus 1940 1960 1980 2000 Figure: Development of various field device technology A.B.. INTRODUCTION TO FIELDBUS TECHNOLOGY This chapter deals with the introduction to Foundation Fieldbus technology. The following figure indicates the evolution of signal transmission technology. and not a differentiating . These companies supply over 90% of the world's instrumentation and control products.1. international. Fieldbus technology is open and available to all parties. open. . The Fieldbus Foundation has over 130 member companies. non-profitable organization based on the following principles. A. Fieldbus technology is based on the work of International Electotechnical Commission (IEC) and ISA (the international society for measurements and control) YME Training Center A-1 YMEFBOR 1 ST Edition Jun 2002 .

supports the international unification of Fieldbus standards. ISP (Interoperable Systems Project) was organized by Yokogawa. In 1984. Many views were presented at the ISA SP50 Committee.. In 1985. and Siemens in August 1992. ISP became ISP Association. The standardization of Fieldbus will have a great effect upon industry. World FIP (Factory Instrumentation Protocol) was ST YME Training Center A-2 YMEFBOR 1 Edition Jun 2002 . IEC/TC65/SC65C recognized the digital communication protocol as a new standardization work item and named it Fieldbus. the standardization concept for next-generation digital communication protocol for field devices was first proposed to the IEC. Rosemount. Recently. and the Fieldbus Foundation. To make up lost time and promote Fieldbus production. delaying Fieldbus standardization. and the ISA SP50 Committee which has already commenced Fieldbus standardization discussion consented to jointly standardize Fieldbus. Fieldbus foundation committees. Fisher Control. members support and work in the standard ® Fi Idbus Foundation Figure: Foundation Fieldbus logo The international standards of Fieldbus are being unified by IEC/TC65/SC65C WG6 (International Electrotechnical Commission/Technical Committee 65/SubCommittee 65C/Working Group 6). the Fieldbus Foundation. a private organization formed to promote Fieldbus. IEC/TC65/SC65C WG6. ISA (The International Society for Measurement & Control) SP50 Committee (which defined 4 to 20 mA analog signal as the standard electronic instrumentation signal). which is to replace the 4 to 20 mA analog communication protocol. In February 1993. Fieldbus standardization has been promoted by IEC TC65 and the ISA SP50 Committee.B. FIELOBUS SYSTEM HARDWARE . In March 1993.

multi-drop communication system for instruments and other plant operation equipment. A. ISP Association and WorldFIP North America were combined into the Fieldbus Foundation. reducing the number of cables. CEGELEC.. enables devices from different manufacturers to be + A broad choice of devices from any manufacturer permits flexible system construction. FIELDBUS SYSTEM HARDWARE jointly created by Honeywell. + Wiring costs are reduced by minimizing the number of cables. A-B (Alien-Bradley). in accordance with this decision. After that. YME Training Center A-3 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 . Fieldbus has the following features: + Multiple devices can be connected with a single cable. + Communication between field devices allows truly distributed control. . Fieldbus technology drastically changes process control systems and is expected to replace the standard 4 to 20 mA analog communication protocol that most current field devices employ. DEFINITION OF FIELDBUS A fieldbus is a digital two-way. Some adjustments and inspections of field devices can be performed in the instrument room. and several other companies. + Interoperability combined. Fieldbus is a bi-directional digital communication protocol for field devices. + Multiplex communications allow other information as well as process variables (PVs) and manipulated variables (MVs) to be transmitted from field devices. a consensus was obtained amongst customers that Fieldbus should conform to the internationally unified standard. In September 1994. Telemichanique. protocol ensures high-accuracy information + High-accuracy information processing allows strict quality control.B. • A digital transmission processing.3.

Therefore. With the Yokogawa BRAIN system or the hybrid communication systems of other manufacturers.B. allows only one field device to be connected to a single cable. This allows more types and a larger amount of data to be transmitted in comparison to analog and hybrid communication protocols. and the other to transmit control signals to the field device. In addition to analog communication protocol capabilities. Hybrid Communication Protocol Hybrid communication protocol is a communication techniaue in which field device information is superimposed as digital signals on the conventional 4 to 20 mA analog signal. Hybrid communication protocols were developed independently by each manufacturer. Also. transmission speed. including the ability to communicate between connected devices and to communicate bidirectionally. Analog Communication Protocol Analog communication protocol is an information transmission technique using analog signals with a direct current of 4 to 20 mAo The topology. In addition. Multiple field YME Training Center A-4 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 . The digital data communication speed through the hybrid communication protocol is slower than that through the Fieldbus communication protocol. COMPARASION WITH CONVENTIONAL PROTOCOL Fieldbus communication protocol has the advantage over analog communication protocol and hybrid communication protocol in information accuracy.4. This protocol removes the restriction which allows only one field device to be connected to a single cable in an analog communication system. supports a perfect digital signal communication system. In additien. the Fieldbus communication protocol supports bi-directional communication. and transmission amount. which is a oneto-one system. The hybrid communication protocol mainly supports 4 to 20 mA analog communication. it is superior to those protocols in functionality. the self-diagnostics information cannot be exchanged between field devices from different manufacturers. Fieldbus Communication Protocol Fieldbus communication protocol. though it allows digital data communication. which is different from analog or hybrid communication protocols. The transmission direction is one-way. two different cables must be prepared: one to acquire information from the field device. devices from different manufacturers cannot communicate with each other. FIELDBUS SYSTEM HARDWARE A. maintenance information such as self-diagnostics of the field device can be obtained using a dedicated terminal. Therefore. it is possible to remotely set up the field device range and zero-point adjustment.

FAs. This increases flexibility in process control system configurations. bidirectional (digital signal) Partially multi plex signal Differs depending on man ufacturers One-way Type or signal 1'.j One-to-one A11JIO(. motor drives. Various systems. and analyzers can be integrated. the problems of hybrid communication protocols. In other words. interoperability ensures that users can select devices from various suppliers to build an integrated fieldbus system with full functionality. Conventional hybrid communications can transmit digital signals. Fieldbus solves. Protocols Table: Comparison of Communication A.us Topology Transmission method Multi-drop Hytori.jt. interoperability of field devices will be guaranteed. since international standardization of this protocol is being promoted... it allows a combination of devices from different manufacturers.1 ultiplex signal Under Sinele slanal ~ " Standard stan dardiza lion (X I) S tandard ized * 1: Foundation Fieldbus Specifications are completed. ~As.to-o ne -+ 1020 Digital signal mADe analog signal -t- -+ to 20 mADe analog signal digital signa] One-WJV T ransm issi on direction Bidirectional (analog si211:. Also. Process control system configuration freedom increases since there is no need to choose one device manufacturer. FIELOBUS SYSTEM HARDWARE devices can be connected to a single Fieldbus cable. but information exchange between devices of different manufacturers is difficult because each device uses its manufacturer's protocol. Interoperability has the following benefits: . INTEROPERABILITY Interoperabi!ity is the capability of a device from one manufacturer to interact with that of another manufacturer on a fieldbus network without loss of functionality. Fiel. Fieldbus-ready devices allow exchange of digital data between devices from different manufacturers.11). . YME Training Center A-5 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 .1 One. BAs.S. International standardization of the Fieldbus communication protocol being promoted ensures interoperability between devices. such as slow digital transmission speeds and lack of interoperability. including instruments.B.

Foundation Fieldbus is in accordance with the Fieldbus standard called H1. The H1 standard is capable of supporting intrinsically safe explosion-proof.. a Fieldbus connected through an ALF111 module (H1 card) mounted on a KFCS (Field control station) in the system.-----------. . Figure: Example of Fieldbus System Configuration YME Training Center 8-1 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 . Ethemet r------a---J. : Cannot be used for the Fieldbus devices that are operating on the H 1 Fieldbus.-----------Vnet i r------------------.B. • System Buitlers • Operation and Mon itoring ! DGvio::l Manag . and Fieldbus devices. A Fieldbus system consists of a Host system (Yokogawa's CS 3000 R3 system has been considered)..uppl~· i l-----i Filiilcbu5 device ·_--------Islwe-pc ! Support Tool ! i HIS KFCS FCU ESB bus SB401 ALF111 Device Management Tool Fieldbus support tool : Human Interface Station : Control station : Field control unit : Extended SB bus : ESB bus interface (I/O nest side) : Foundation Fieldbus communication module : Can be used for the purpose of supplementing operation and monitoring. FIELDBUS SYSTEM HARDWARE B.mont i iMaster PC 1. ! Fieldtus ALF111 Fielcbus ex:temal power s. but can be used for the purpose of performing Fieldbus device engineering prior to installation. FIELDBUS SYSTEM HARDWARE This chapter describes various system components of field bus system.. .---a-------i : Tools .

the number of Fieldbus devices that can be connected to each side will vary slightly depending on the consumption current of the Fieldbus devices to be connected to the dangerous side and the specifications of the barrier to be installed. Fieldbus Power Supply This power supply is used exclusively for ~hG Fieldbus that supplies power to Fieldbus devices. and the opposite side is called the dangerous side. the bus power supply side of the Fieldbus is called the safe side. FELDBUS SYSTEM HARDWARE COMPONENTS + Host system It includes configuration and human-machine controller and power supply. A device from any manufacturer can be connected as long as it is compatible with the Fieldbus and conforms to the Foundation Fieldbus specifications. However. It is installed when intrinsically safe explosion-proof is required.Type 0 (twisted from the following wire material types according to the environment: pair wire with individual shield) pair wire with bundle shield) non-pair wire with bundle shield) ') + Barrier The barrier is a device that shuts down the power supply so that excessive electric power is not supplied to the Fieldbus. fieldbus + Fieldbus Communication Module (ALF111) . Using the barrier as a boundary.. + Fleldbus Device This is a Fieldbus device such as a transmitter or positioning unit. and manages the communication schedule of the Fieldbus.B. FIELDBUS SYSTEM HARDWARE B. + Cable Select the cable cable installation • Type A (twisted • Type B (twisted . and up to two units in the safe side. + + Terminating Resistor The terminating resistor is a device that reshapes the waveforms of the communication signals.~t1 card The ALF111 operates as a link active scheduler (LAS).1. the ALF111 transfers data between the Field control station (FCS) and the Fieldbus devices. YME Training Center B-2 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 . In addition. The number of Fieldbus devices that can be connected when the barrier is installed is about up to four units in the dangerous side. interface software.

system builders and FCS control software is required. SOFTWARE FOR CONFIGURING A FIELDBUS SYSTEM In order to configure a Fieldbus system. YME Training Center B-3 YMEFBOR 1 5T Edition Jun 2002 . FIELDBUS SYSTEM HARDWARE B.B. The Foundation Fieldbus communication package (for ALF111) is also required. each of operation and monitoring.2.

Define fieldbus and interoperability? What is a host system? YME Training Center B-4 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 .3.B. FIELDBUS SYSTEM HARDWARE B.3. EXCERSICE B 8. Q2.1 QUESTIONS Q1.

These symbols are used to make an 8-bit start delimiter that shows where real data starts and an 8-bit end delimiter that shows where data transmission stops. A pair of wires carries not only communication signals but also electric power to the devices as you do in 420mA transmission.. a set of technologies is developed for effective communication. YME Training Center C-1 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 .. FIELDBUS COMMUNICATION This chapter provides communication. each cell is 32 microseconds long.1 Preamble I 1 o 1 o 1 o 1 o I I---. The digital data. which was selected to make fieldbus operational under an Intrinsic Safe regulation. SIGNALING METHOD Digital data is sent on the Fieldbus at a rate of 31. -'11. Thus. C. it puts out a preamble.25 kbitls data transmission rate. Since this data rate is not fast enough. a sequence of 8 bits with alternating ones and zeros.JI This pattern is used by the receiving devices to get synchronized to bit cell boundaries. FIELDBUS COMMUNICATION C. an introduction to fundamental concepts of fieldbus Fieldbus devices communicate each other through FOUNDATION Fieldbus of 31.that is a low during the whole bit cell.C. ones and zeros.1. A sequence Manchester encoded ones and zeros would look like this: bit as bit of --)-+ 1-0 ")2 us +(-- 101111 10 Ul___jLfL_J When a device begins transmitting.25 kbits/second. a one is a negative transition in the middle of a bit cell. is represented a Manchester signal..-----. These are N+ that is a high level during the whole bit cell and N. There are also two non-data symbols. A zero is a positive signal transition in the middle of a cell..

a single transmission looks like this: from a device. YME Training Center C-2 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 . measurement values._____. FIELDBUS COMMUNICA TlON 1 N+ I N- I 1 o N- I N+ I 0 Start Delimiter I 1 I N+ N- N+ N- I 1 o 1 LJ I . etc. The delimiters are very different from any signal pattern that might be in the Data portion of the frame..C. identification of the type of frame. a frame.j Enel Delimiter L Combining the different parts. The Data portion of a frame can be up to 266 bytes long. This feature makes Fieldbus much more robust than other control networks. ~~--P-r-ea-m--bl-e--~S-t-ar-t-D-el-ir-nl-'te-r-r-~pat~~~--Er-ld-D-e-l-im-i-te-r~~ The Data portion of the frame contains information such as the address of the device for which the frame is intended.n. This allows the Data portion of the frame to be unambiguously identified and allows Data corrupted by noise to be detected..____.

2.2. OSI Reference Mode" Fieldbus Model Application Layer Comrnunication "Stack" • The user application is not defined in OSI model Figure: OSI Model YME Training Center C-3 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 . consisting of three (3) layers: Physical Layer (PHL). See Figure below for OSI model. which use FOUNDATION fieldbus communication.C. COMMUNICATION C. though OSI model does not specify any user application. FOUNDATION fieldbus is specified according to the simplified OSI model.1 OSI Model MODEL Communication specifications are often explained with reference to the Open System Interconnect (OSI) layered model. Layers from 2 to 7 are implemented mostly by software and therefore often called as "communication stack. FIELDBUS COMMUNICA TlON C." Fieldbus Foundation specifies not only communication but also some user applications. Data Link Layer (DLL) and Application Layer (APL).

.ith their own semantlcs. FIELDBUS COMMUNICATION Application Layer of Foundation fieldbus consists of two sublayers: Fieldbus Access sublayer (FAS) and Fieldbus Message Specification (FMS). r ""I'j-_.. Application System Manaosrnent Application Layer Information :::::..laintenance '2 :::::..IIII. Users disCLJSS business the v.C.. ~. Figure: Architecture of Foundation Fieldbus YME Training Center C-4 YMEFBOR 15T Edition Jun 2002 .al 1! .r1 Physic.!1 Layer transfers signal regarclless its content . ~ Data Link Layer Physical Layer Data Signal :3 <D . FAS is a "glue" to map FMS services to Data Link Layer.

." A PDU may contain an optional data called "iervice Data Unit (SDU). User Data FMS Su b-Layer FMS encoded datn 0-251 FAS SOU" Physical Layer 1+ • " ." which is a PDU of the next higher layer. A data unit exchanged between the same layers is called "Protocol Data Unit (PDU). A communication layer exchanges other PDUs without SDU to perform its functionality.. Each layer appends layer-control information called Protocol Control Information (PCI) and more information to the message of the higher layer.2 Protocol data unit Figure below shows how a user data is transferred over the FOUNDATION field bus. PDU SOU PCI Protocol Data Unit Service Dota Unit Protocol Control Inforrretion 8-273 1 FCS Frame Check Sequence Figure: User data transfer in Foundation Fieldbus Messages are exchanged between applications sitting on the FOUNDATION fieldbus. YME Training Center C-5 YMEFBOR 1sr Edition Jun 2002 . it goes down through a channel called Virtual Communication Relationship (VCR) to add PCI before it goes to the wire. At the destination. When a message is transferred. FIELOBUS COMMUNICA TlON C. it goes up through the partner VCR to the receiving application.C.2. PCls are appended and removed when a message goes through VCRs to allow layers perform their specific functionality.

It is the responsibility of network configuration to give correct information of index and DL-address as well as other operating information to VCRs through Network Management.2. FIELOBUS COMMUNICATION C.3 Communication through VCR A fieldbus device has many VCRs so that it can communicate with various devices or applications at the same time. and others all related to electricity and optics. Physical Layer interests are wires. A VCR has a queue (fastin. It is also identified from other devices with DL-address specified in Data Link Layer.~ith device-local identifier called "index" specified in Application Layer. It is possible because the VCR guarantees the message goes to the correct partner without risks of losing information. YME Training Center C-6 YMEFBOR 1 ST Edition Jun 2002 . waveform. A VCR is identified by an application . signals. voltage. Receiver PHL Figure: Communication through VCR C. fast-out memory) or a buffer (memory to store data) to save messages.2.4 Physical layer Physical Layer is a mechanism to transmit and receive electric or optic signals to/from medium so that a data consisting of ones and zeros is transmitted from one node to the others.C.

" In other words. Link field consists of 16 bits and identifies a "link.25kbps was chosen for those applications. it has mechanisms to use medium in an effective way. Link Active Scheduler (LAS) is the role to control the medium access. This field is necessary when a message is going to other links through bridges. Its functionality is explained in the following sections." When the communication is within a link. this field is often omitted.2.C. FIELDBUS NODE ADDRESS Communication partners in Data Link Layer are identified with DL-address. Node and Selector. FIELOBUS COMMUNICA TlON 31. Token is then returned to the LAS for further medium access control. Link (16 bit) Figure :Address fields Node (8 bit) Selector (8 bit) YME Training Center C-7 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 . Link.25kbps Physical Layer is the most common since IEC and ISA approved it in 1992. MAC is the method to achieve this goal. only one of them is allowed to transmit signal at a time. Since all devices on the same cable receive the same Physical Layer signal.3. Data Link Layer interests are data. A field device can draw electric current from the medium to feed energy to its electronics. address. medium control. C. It also manages the priority and order of such transfer requests.25kbps sounds not fast enough compared with the latest telecommunication technologies. It is called a "bus-powered" device and a fieldbus equivalent of twowire installation. and others all related to message transfer. Transmission in 31. which consists of three components.5 Data Link Layer Data Link Layer is a mechanism to transfer data from a node to the others that need the data. The right to send a PDU is called "token." The LAS possesses the token and gives it to another device to allow it to send messages. Many users want to enjoy simple installation of twowired transmitters. C. C.6 Medium Access Control The most important functionality of Data Link Layer is Medium Access Control (MAC) of the fieldbus. Though 31. and explosive gases prevent high-performance electronics in the hazardous area of the plant. only one device on a link is allowed to use medium (Physical Layer) at a time. it is necessary to replace traditional 4-20mA analog transmission. which demand devices of very 10\111 power consumption. priority.2. Since Data Link Layer operates on the low speed Physical Layer. It is intended to apply to field devices for various environments of industries. The domain of devices sharing the same Physical Layer signal is called "link.

. it is identified with DLSAP (Data Link Service Access Point) shown in this field.. Usually devices are in LM or BASIC range according to its device class..OxFC OxFD ... 1. it communicates using one address in default range. which is classified into LM range. When a device loses node address. V(FUN) and V(NUN) are parameters you can have an access through Network management.OxFF Address for Link Master class devices Address for Basic class devices Default address for devices with cleared address Address for temporary devices like a handheld communicator 0\00 0\ III Not used Llvl Class Devices . 1i'. A Foundation device has a node address in the ranges between Ox10 and OxFF. Ox10 ~ V(FUN) V(FUN)+V(NUN) ~ OxF7 OxF8 .. Figure Qelow shows the address range used in a fieldbus link. BASIC range. it is identified with DLCEP (Data Link Connection End Point) shown in this field.!'C O\I[) DeC'mIt Address Temporary Dev ices 0\1'1 Figure: Fieldbus Addressing Selector field gives a device-internal address of 8 bits to identify a VCR. There is an address gap of size V(NUN). When a VCR is not connected to any others but open to send/receive messages. If a device has an address in this gap. it will never join the link. Link Active Scheduler has another node address of Ox04.C.'.. DLCEP and DLSAP have different YME Training Center C-8 YMEFBOR 1S7 Edition Jun 2002 .. When a VCR is connected to another VCR. A temporary device such as a handheld communicator has node address in temporary range. Not used V{FLN)+\-(NUNI . default range and temporary range.I~ V(FUN) . FIELDBUS COMMUNICA TlON Node field gives the node address of 8 bits. . \-iNUl\1 BASIC Class Devices Ox I"' 0\1'.

'{ME Training Center C-9 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 . LM device with the least node address wins this contention. in addition to LM capability. C. (1) Fieldbus starts up BASIC (2) A Link Master claims BASIC BASIC BASIC BASIC BASIC (3) A Link Master becomes LAS BASIC BASIC BASIC Figure: Link Master and Link Active Scheduler (LAS) Note that the LAS is an additional functionality to basic communication.1 Link Active Scheduler (LAS) Link Active Scheduler (LAS) is the role to control the medium access. Therefore at least one LM (or Bridge) class device is needed in a link. Link Master (LM) and Bridge. Other LM devices observe the LAS activity and take over its role when LAS goes away.C.3. Foundation devices are classified with device classes: BASIC. functionality to connect links. Several DLaddresses are reserved for specific purposes. LM devices try to acquire LAS role when no LAS exists in the start up or when the current LAS fails. Bridge class device has. One and the only one device in a link works as the LAS. A LM class device has a capability to work as the LAS. Therefore it has different OL-address (Ox04) as well as the node address. FIELDBUS COMMUNICA TlON ranges. For example. devices can share the same "global" DLSAP for alarm reception. while BASIC class devices do not. Figure below shows the procedure through which a Link Master class device becomes the LAS.

3. A Function Block of output parameter is a "Publisher" of data and other Function Blocks that receive this dataare called "Subscribers. Received data is stored in the buffer of Subscribers.C. they presume the next data transfer comes from the Publisher. Function Blocks are distributed applications operating in a synchronized manner." The LAS controls periodic data transfer from a Publisher to Subscribers using Network Schedule. The LAS takes the communication part of the synchronized data transfer. When Subscribers receive CD to the Publisher. LAS sends Compel Data (CD) PDU to the Publisher DLCEP. A CD PDU is a token for a Publisher and the LAS interprets the publishing DT PDU as the returned token. YME Training Center C-10 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 . which is necessary to link Function Blocks.2 Scheduled Communication The LAS is responsible for scheduled communication. I Suffer! Device Device Device Device (2) The Publisher publishes data and the Subscribers get data Token is returned to LAS. When the time of scheduled communication comes. I Buffer] Device Device Device I Buffer! Device Figure: Scheduled Communication Data Link Layer appends "freshness" information as PCI to the data so that the Subscribers know whether data is updated since the last publish. (1) LAS issues CD (Compel Data) with token to the Publisher. FIELOBUS COMMUNICA TlON C. Publisher is expected to transmit Data Transfer (DT) PDU stored in the data buffer of the DLCEP immediately.

Device Figure: Unscheduled Communication The LAS controls the message transfer by updating the priority. A device must return the token within the time interval given in the PT PDU. Device (2) The device holding token sends data to other devices.C. This is necessary to finish the unscheduled communication before the next scheduled communication. it returns token as Return Token (RT) PDU. The LAS gives a token by sending Pass Token (PT) PDU to a node. Device (3) Device returns token to LAS when it has no further data or given time expires. When the token is given to all devices in a short time interval. When the token does not go to all devices within a "target token rotation time" network parameter. When the node does not have messages of the given or higher priority to be sent. the LAS gives more time to the nodes by lowering the priority. A PT PDU contains priority and time interval information. FIELDBUS COMMUNICATION C.3.3 Unscheduled Communication Other communications take place in an asynchronous way. or the given time interval is expired. the LAS increases the priority so that the token is given to all devices in a desired time interval. The LAS is responsible to give a chance to send messages to all nodes on a link. (1) LAS issues PT(Pass Token) to a device. YME Training Center C-11 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 .

4. FAS directly maps APL requests to DLL services.2 Client-Server Mode! DLL Queued Buffered Queued Schedule by User Network User Direction Bi-direction Uni-direction Uni-direction Client-Server model is universal and used in many communication technologies. Fieldbus Access Sublayer (FAS) manages data transfer while Fieldbus Message Specification (FMS) encodes and decodes user data. Once configured. C. FAS provides communication facility according to these models. The Client sends a Read request to the Server and YME Training Center C-12 YMEFBOR 157 Edition Jun 2002 . An application called "Client" requests another application called "Server" to do a specific action through FMS. This is the most important part of VCR management. FIELDBUS COMMUNICATION The third role of LAS is to maintain the link. When a new device is added to the network.1 Fieldbus Access Sublayer Fieldbus Access Sublayer (FAS) is a part of secure communication. APPLICATION LAYER Application Layer consists of two sublayers. Since field bus does not have layers (4 to 6) between DLL and APL. They are explained below and summarized in Table A-4. It is expected a network manager configure correct VCRs according to the models communicating each other. The LAS sends a Probe Node (PN) PDU to node addresses where a device was not found before. This activation procedure is beyond the scope of this textbook. When a device goes away from the link. The LAS gives token to all devices detected by the LAS. C. it must be recognized by the LAS and entered to the token rotation list called "Live List". When the Server finishes the requested action. The FAS provides three communication models for applications. This probing is repeated in a given interval.Jisdevice to the Live List after activating the full DLL functionality of the device. Then the LAS adds tt. Typical example is a human-machine interface (Client) to read a data of a Function Block (Server).4. The LAS detects it and deletes the device from the Live List. It is a one-to-one two-way communication using DLCEP.4. its result is transferred to the Client. A new device waits until it receives PN to it and returns Probe Response (PR) PDU to the LAS. Model Client-Server Publisher-Subscriber Source-Sink C. it does not respond to PT any more.C.

Maintenance Client • Response time depends on . FIELDBUS COMMUNICATION then Server sends back the data to the Client. Subscriber VCRs receive this PDU and gives the data to subscribing Function Blocks. This communication takes place at any moment.C.. Then the LAS sends CD to the VCR to force it transfer the data in DT PDU.Download configuration . Universal communication ..3 Publisher-Subscriber model Publisher-Subscriber model is designed to link Function Blocks. One-to-one two-way connected communication . Typical example is a linkage from output of an Analog Input (AI) block to process value input of PID control block. A flow-control mechanism is available to manage error recovery and Server's processing power.Bus traffic Request: Give me current pressure Server Response: It's 10. This mechanism is important because Data Link Layer transfers data as scheduled regardless the publishing Function Block updates the data in the buffer. Publisher-Subscriber model is one-to-many one-way communication using DLCEP. .Manual operation . Client-Server VCR has a queue to store those requests and sends requests one by one when the node have a token. Subscribers are able to know whether data is updated since the last publish. A Client may want to issue many requests at a time.4.3 kPa. 15T Edition Jun 2002 . When a publishing Function Block runs. Figure: Client-server Communication C. its output data is stored in the buffer of the Publisher VCR. YME Training Center C-13 YMEFBOP.Device throughput .

A Sink can identify Source with its DLSAP address. Sink VCRs have the same global address and receive the same message from a Source. Alarms are acknowledged through Client-Server VCR. Periodic schedule with highest priority Server I Information Report: Pressure is 10.C. This model is sometimes called "Report Distribution ModeL" A Source VCR transfers a message in the queue to an assigned global DLSAP address when the device has token. YME Training Center C-14 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 .. One is to report alarms or events detected in the Source.4. It is desirable for an alarm logger to receive alarms from devices with one VCR. FIELOBUS COMMUNICA TlON • One-to-many one-way connected communication if Data transfer for instrumentation .4 Source-Sink model Source-Sink model is designed to broadcast messages.3 kPa. A Sink can receive messages from many Sources if the Sources are configured to send messages to the same global address. It is one-to-many oneway communication without schedule. Subscriber Subscriber Figure: Publisher-Subscriber Communication C. and the other is to transmit trend of Source Function Block. Foundation devices use this model for two specific purposes.Connect Function Blocks .

This communication consists of two parts. When a service is requested. A special procedure is installed in fieldbus communication to handle this.C. it encodes request to transfer it to the other applications. One-to-many one-way connection-less communication . Any device can ask the fieldbus for the device that have a specific Tag.5 Fieldbus Message Specification (FMS) Fieldbus Message Specification (FMS) is a service interface for user applications to use fieldbus services. There is a chance to receive more than one responses to one request because of duplicated tag. FIELOBUS COMMUNICA nON .On-demand aperiod IC communication Sink ~~ Source Sink I Event Report: My hardware failed. This communication type uses a different protocol from others and is called SMKP (System Management Kernel Protocol) C. a requester broadcasts request to the fieldbus because all devices must to listen to it. YME Training Center C-15 YMEFBOR 1sr Edition Jun 2002 ..4. A system manager can set or clear the PO Tag or node address of a device. Figure: Source-Sink Communication This communication is special for system management. Receiving FMS decodes the request to notify it to the application. Then device(s) can send response to the requester. First.Event reporting • Device or process alarms • Trending .

07. How is bit 0 and bit 1 represented in Manchester signal? What is VCR? What are the functions of Link Master? What is Link active scheduler segment? and how many LAS are available in a 05.S. YME Training Center C-16 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 .1 QUESTIONS 01. 06. 03.C.S. FIELDBUS COMMUNICA TlON C. 04. What is scheduled communication? What is unscheduled communication? Define publisher-subscriber type of communication. EXERCISE C C. 02.

The other is a Function Block VFO where Function Blocks exist.2. Status of hardware is also visible. FUNCTION BLOCK VFD Function Block is a functional model common in measurement and control. FIELDBUS FUNCTION BLOCKS This part explains Function Blocks and other applications running over FOUNDATION fieldbus. which are independent from each other and do not interact.D. It gives you the manufacturer's name. VFDs can be seen as different field devices from application point of view. 0. device name. VIRTUAL FIELD DEVICES (VFD) A fieldbus device may have user applications. 0. Communication services guarantee their independence.1. This part gives you the knowledge on how measurement and control applications are implemented on FOUNDATION fieldbus. A FOUNDATION fieldbus device has at least two VFDs. Communication technologies supporting those applications are explained. Function Block and Transducer Block. A Function Block may reside in virtually any device on the network and a set of Function Blocks connected each other to form an application can reside in one device or be distributed among devices.1 RESOURCE BLOCK A Resource Block shows what are in the VFD. DO and so on. Resource Block shows how much resource (memory and CPU time) is available. It is used to configure network parameters including VCRs as well as to manage devices in a fieldbus system. FIELDBUS FUNCTION BLOCKS D. Function Block VFD contains three classes of blocks: Resource Block. 0. A fieldbus device consists of Virtual Field Devices (VFDs) for such individual applications. One is Management VFD where network and system management applications reside. Function Block VFD contains three classes of blocks: Resource Block. It is a generalized concept of functionality you have in field instruments and control system such as analog input and output as well as PID control. It is possible for a field device to have two or more Function Block VFDs.2. Resource Block controls overall device hardware and Function Blocks within the VFD. Function Block and Transducer Block. If the VFD allows you to create or download a Function Block. YME Training Center 0-1 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 .

Gain.. etc.O.2 FUNCTION BLOCK A Function Block is a generalized model of measurement and control. Inputs Algorithm Example: PID Outputs Standard Block Block Parameters • Mode. A Function Block has input. and (3) an Open Block or a Vendorspecific Block designed by individual vendors. FIELDBUS FUNCTION BLOCKS D.2. Data generated in a block is exposed in an output parameter. AI block conditions raw data from transducer(s) and provides measured value in a common format. Function Blocks are classified into three classes: (1) a Standard Block as specified by the Fieldbus Foundation (2) an Enhanced Block with additional parameters and algorithm. which can be linked to input parameter of other Function Blocks. For example. Specific Parameters . Figure: Function Block YME Training Center 0-2 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 . etc. output and contained parameters.

For example. Common part is modeled as an Analog Input (AI) block. They are connected through "Link Objects" in Function Block VFO.3 TRANSDUCER BLOCK A Transducer Block is a model of sensors and actuators. A Link Object connects two Function Block within a device. Feedforward Capability in Control Override Control Ratio Control Cascade Control Split Range Control Figure: Typical examples of Function Blocks 0. It is modeled to give a similar expression to Function Blocks.2. Function Block is a general idea while Transducer Block is dependent of its hardware and principles of measurement.2. FIELOBUS FUNCTION BLOCKS Output Manual Control Feedback Control Track. Figure below shows an example of PIO control consisting of AI. 0. A Function Block must get input parameters before its algorithm is executed.O. Traditional sensors like pressure transmitters can be mapped to a Transducer Block. or a Function Block to a VCR for Publisher or Subscriber. pressure transmitter and magnetic flowmeter have different measurement principles but provide an analog measured value. Its output parameters must be YME Training Center 0-3 YMEFBOR 15T Edition Jun 2002 . PIO and AO blocks. The difference is modeled as Transducer Blocks that gives you the information on measurement principle. A Transducer Block is linked to a Function Block through CHANNEL parameter of the Function Block.4 Link and Schedule A measurement or control application consists of Function Blocks connected each other.

" and must be configured to schedule Function Blocks and communication in a desired order. System Management in a field device starts Function. Blocks according to the Function Block schedule. FIELDBUS FUNCTION BLOCKS published after the algorithm execution.O. Therefore algorithm execution and Publisher. The LAS transmits Compel Data (CD) PDU to publishing device to force the output data transmitted. System Management and Data Link Layer cooperate to achieve this by using the Link Scheduling (LS) time distributed and synchronized by the Link Active Scheduler (LAS). These two schedules (Function Block Schedule and LAS schedule) are defined as offsets in the control period called "macro cycle. Application Schedule Device #1 Device #2 Communication Scheduled communication For other communications Figure: Scheduling of a PIO Function Blocks YME Training Center 0-4 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 . according to the LAS schedule.Subscriber communication must be orchestrated even when blocks are distributed among devices.

EXERCISE D D. What is the purpose of Resource block? What is the purpose of Transducer block? YME Training Center 0-5 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 .D. 02.3. FIELDBUS FUNCTION BLOCKS D.3.1 QUESTIONS 01.

. Device 10 starts with "594543". This is very useful in handling enumerated parameter. It is used to identify a device for specific application purpose in the plant. Since Device 10 and PO Tag is very long (32 bytes). Services to correlate those three identifiers are provided. Whenever you get a new device.1 Device Description (DO) Device Description (DO) gives you information of blocks. It is a text of 32 characters long. DEVICE MANAGEMENT E. Node Address is used to identify devices in communication.1. PO Tag is assigned by user to identify usage of the device in the plant.. It is burnt in the device and will never change. Instead. DEVICE INFORMATION FILES Several applications such as human-machine interface and fieldbus configuration need more information of devices. E. You can run DO Method for a YME Training Center E-1 YMEFBOR 1S1 Edition Jun 2002 . especially in 31. In case of Yokogawa. . assigned by the user. it is not good to use them in the daily communication. you have only to tell "psi" instead of its value 1042.1.25kbps low speed network. you are able to use its full functionality simply installing its DO without updating host software. Several files are standardized by the Fieldbus Foundation to make devices interoperable and help your engineers. For example. It is a common practice to give the same PO Tag to a new device replacing old broken device. E. a Yokogawa pressure transmitter (EJA) is shipped with a permanent Device 10 "59454300031999DEC22001102344" and configured to have PO Tag "FI1001" and node address OxF5. . Physical Device (PO) Tag: A unique name inthe plant or a set of fieldbus segments. (Physical) Node Address: A number of eight-bit length. DEVICE MANAGEMENT A device on a FOUNDATION fieldbus can be identified from others by using one of three identifiers: . You can read a function block parameter by name and display it properly according to its data type and display specification. unique in a field bus segment assigned by the user through network configuration..E. For example. Device Identifier (10): A text string unique to the device in the world given by manufacturer.

It is not a good idea for device vendors to write its full information individually. for calibration. DD binary files can be small by this convention. DEVICE MANAGEMENT dedicated procedure (sequence of communications) and so on.sym" . • Gives information on parameters especially non-standard parameters . DO binary consists of two files. which gives common DD and dictionary. Instead. you will have a full access of the device. Once they are installed in your machine. diagnosis human-machine interface and the system You can control process without the help of DD.2 DDL and DD DDL is the specification of "Device Description Language. A device vendor has only to describe its special part with DOL. This text is then compiled with "tokenizer" software to generate "DO binary" files. etc. DD is useful for configuration/maintenance. YME Training Center E-2 YMEFBOR 15T Edition Jun 2002 . • Enables a standard screen show a new device Number of digits to display Engineering Unit Label of the value Device Descriptions are provided from vendors Figure: Device Descriptor (DO) file E.1. Fieldbus Foundation provides DD Library. DD Menu shows a list of DD Methods..ffo" while the other is DD symbol list with extension ". Name and explanation " Data structure and attribute • Access right " Help menu * Calibration methods.E." with which a device designer can describe the device functionality and data semantics. One is DD binary with extension ".

DD binary files are stored in the following directory structure: <DD home directory> +.E." Device type identifies device from the manufacturer with two byte data or fourcharacter hexadecimal. which stands for "YEe.Device type Manufacturer ID is a unique code given to the manufacturer by Fieldbus Foundation. Yokogawa's manufacturer ID is 594543. DEVICE MANAGEMENT Fieldbus Foundation specifies standard part of blocks and provides DD "library. Block Formal Model AI Individual DO Figure: Hierarchical structure of DD E.3 Device Description Service Device Description Service (DDS) is software for your human-machine interface.1.Manufacturer ID +--. Yokogawa's EJA has device type 0003. It retrieves information in DD binary by using a key DD Item ID stored in FMS Object Description of a parameter. YME Training Center E-3 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 ." Device "profiles" are under development to define a common part of various devices such as temperature transmitter and flow meter. Vendor-specific part is specified in their individual DD files. It is thee byte in length and shown in hexadecimal expression with six characters. You can identify the manufacturer of the device from this ID.

Figure B-9 shows how common files are used during the system design and maintenance."." which stands for Common File Format.4 Capabilities File Capabilities File gives you information of device capability of both Network/System Management and Function Block. Capabilities tiJe is often called "CFF. '\I. this file is useful for offline configuration where you can configure a fieldbus system without having real devices. DEVICEMANAGEMENT E.E.eff.1.lltlifartlll"rl" Si Figure: Capability file YME Training Center E-4 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 . A Capabilities file has an extension ". Though certain part of the information resides in the device itself.

E. 04.1 QUESTIONS 01. Define PD tag? What is the bit length of a Node address? What is the purpose of Device descriptor? What is the function of capability file? YME Training Center E-5 YMEFBOR 1 ST Edition Jun 2002 .2. DEVICE MANAGEMENT E. 02.2. 03. EXERCISE E E.

.F.. ~ !"~ . ~ ~. actuators and control devices to one another._.e. ~ ~ t:·z(" .Junction Box . would probably not be often used as it has only one measurement or control device per segment (as in 4-20mA)....g. FIELDBUS WIRING TOPOLOGY F. with no connection beyond the two). F. YME Training Center F-1 YMEFBOR 1 ST Edition Jun 2002 . t:-~ZIiO ~ ~ D C:~iO Point to Point Bus with Spur Daisy Chain Tree Figure: Fieldbus wiring topology.. Simple point-to-point (host and one device per bus segment)..:. FIELOBUS WIRING F.. This segment could be entirely in the filed (a slave and host device operating independently) .1 Point-to-Point Topology This topology consists of a segment having only two devices..1. or it could be a filed device (transmitter) connected to a host system (doing control or monitoring). A common type of Fieldbus configuration is shown below: Control bus Fieldbus 1/0 . FIELDBUS WIRING Fieldbus is a process control network used for interconnecting sensors. As a result it does not take advantage of the multi-device-per-bussegment capability.1.. a transmitter and a valve.

A combination of the above topologies can also be used but this must follow all the rules for the maximum segment length.1.1. It is practical if the devices on the same segment are well separated. but in the general area of the same junction box. the maximum spur length must be taken into consideration. F.1. A spur can vary in length for 1mts to 120 mts. This topology can be used at the end of a home run cable (or sometime s called the trunk cable). Installation using such that disconnection continuity of the whole YME Training Center F-2 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 . marshaling panel or I/O card (sometimes called "Chicken foot").3 Daisy Chain With this topology. . the filedbus devices are connected to the bus segment through a length of cable called the spur.F. device t device on this device. F. the fieldbus cable is routed from segment. FIELDBUS WIRING F.4 Tree Topology With this topology. and is interconnected at the terminals of each this topology should use connectors or wiring practices of a single device is possible without disrupting the segment. terminal.2 Bus with Spur topology With this topology. devices on a single fieldbus segment are connected via individual twisted wire pairs to a common junction box. When using this topology.

14 2 .12 Table: Max. dB/km '3 Description Each twisted pair has a shield Multiple twisted pairs with overall shield 56 5 Type C Type D 400 200 (1320) Unknown Unknown 132 20 8 8 Multiple twisted pairs. FIELDBUS WIRING F. Total max spur length 1m 30 m 60 m 90 m 120 m YME Training Center F-3 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 . Spur length. No.2. Table: Cable Types. of Devices 25 . CABLE LENGTH Cable Type Type A (Standard Fieldbus) Type B 1200 (960) 100 Distance.18 13 . no shield Multiple conductor cable.24 15 .F. Ohms/km 22 Atten. meters (feet) 1900 (6270) Characteristic Impedance 100 Resistance. no pairing of wires (660) The above lengths are for Non-IS applications.32 19 .

F. FIELDBUS WIRING

F.3. EXERCISE F
F.3.1 QUESTIONS
01. 02. Discuss the different wiring topologies in Fieldbus. What are the specifications of a Type A cable?

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G. SEGMENT DESIGN CONSIDERA TlONS

G. SEGMENT DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
The following are the major criteria for FF segment design

+ FF intrinsic safety
• • • • • FISCO model Cable Length Fieldbus Voltage drop Fieldbus power capacity Macro-cycle considerations

G.1. FF INTRINSIC SAFETY
In some plants, the atmosphere may be explosive because of volatile gasses or liquids, grain dust, coal dust, etc. In these situations, all equipment has to be such that it is not hot enough to ignite the atmosphere and that electrical equipment is such that under no condition can it produce sparks that can ignite the atmosphere. These requirements also apply to Fieldbus if it is used in a hazardous area. An Intrinsic Safety barrier limits the available power to the Fieldbus to provide this protection. It should be noted that generally no more than 4 devices can be used on a segment with an IS barrier and the segment will be reduced in length because the IS barrier reduces the available power and attenuates the signal.

-;

:

: Host FF

IS

::'

U
'······················S·~ife·························
Figure: FF intrinsic safe application

,

Hazardous Area

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G. SEGMENT DESIGN CONSIDERA TlONS

G.2. FISCO MODEL
Explosion-proofed systems, devices whose electrical signals are effectively shielded in order to prevent fires or explosions, playa critical role in the process manufacturing of combustibles, especially petroleum and petrochemical products, for obvious reasons. About 50 percent of Yokogawa's field equipment exports explosion-proofed as a result. Especially in Europe, Intrinsic Safety System is the most widely accepted and employed among the explosion-proof systems. FISCO, or Fieldbus Intrinsic Safety Concept, is an engineering standard established by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), a national institute for science and technology of the Federal Republic of Germany. The FISCO model is considered to be the world's most stringent explosion-proof rating for field bus technology, a digital communications link that connects measurement and control devices and serves as a local area network (LAN) for process control and factory automation applications. With the CENELEC safety certification, up to ten devices conforming to FISCO can be interconnected and cable length extended. Yokogawa's certified field devices conform to FISCO standards, and are designed to support next- generation digital fieldbus networks.

G.3. CABLE LENGTH
G.3,1 For Intrinsic safe application

Intrinsic safety barrier Hi FIELDBUS

Terminator

Figure: Intrinsic safe FF cable connection.

Maximum cable length shall be approximate 500 meters Terminator length). This is applicable with Type A cable.

(Terminator

to

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SEGMENT DESIGN CONSIDERA TJONS G.G. The table in section F2 describes the cable length limitation.2 For Non-Intrinsic safe application The cable length limitations are based on the type of cable used. YME Training Center G-3 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 .3.

if the minimum power supply output voltage is 18. Minimum Power Supply Voltage > =(resistance of Barrier) * current For MTL5053. 11.4. General formula (inequality to be satisfied) Minimum Power Supply Voltage > =(resistance per unit length * cable length) * device current + minimum operating voltage This calculation must be performed for each fieldbus device. SEGMENT OES1GN CONSIOERA TlONS G. less the voltage drop in the cable resistance.4. so no problem. 105 Ohms dc impedance and 105 mA at max operating voltage. current. Note: Field terminator shall not be considered in the calculation G. less the voltage drop in the cable resistance.1 For Intrinsic safe application The voltage drop limits are set so that the minimum output voltage of the power supply.105 i. no twist. with outer shield) 440hm/km t t z obm/km 400hm/km The voltage drop limits are set so that the minimum output voltage of the power supply. with outer shield) Type 0 (multi-pair cable.025 V. YME Training Center G-4 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 .4.4 V then: 18. FIELDBUS VOLTAGE DROP G.e. is not less that the minimum operating voltage of the device.G.4 >= (105 ohms) * 0. In case on IS configuration please ensure that voltage drop across the barrier is also calculated in addition to individual devices. is not less that the minimum operating voltage of the device.2 For Non-Intrinsic safe application The resistances per unit length of the various cable types that can be used in field bus are shown below: Type A (individually shielded twisted-pair cable) Type B (multi-pair twisted-pair cable.

020Amps) current consumption and minimum operating voltage of 9 V. if 1 km of Type A cable is used to corfnect a device with 20mA (0. SEGMENT DESIGN CONSIDERA T/ONS General formula (inequality to be satisfied) Minimum Power Supply Voltage > =(resistance per unit length * cable length) * device current + minimum operating voltage This calculation must be performed for each fieldbus device. YME Training Center G-5 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 .e. 9.G.88 V. For example.020 + 9 i. so no problem. if the minimum power supply output voltage is 21 V then: 21 >= (44 ohms/km * 1 km) * 0.

Number of field devices = Power supply current supply capacity (mA) / N (field device currentconsumption) When field device types are not decided. Note: MTL5053 (Isolation barrier): 200 rnA When calculating current required from (external) power supply.G.S.1 For Intrinsic safe application The sum of the current consumption of field devices cbnnected to one fieldbus segment cannot exceed the current supply capacityof the power supply. a.5.5.2 For Non-Intrinsic safe application The same criteria applies as in the IS above. you can perform an approximate calculation as follows: A current consumption of average 20 rnA ( Actually Yokogawa's YVP current consumption is around 17mA) EJA / YTA / -I I I For MTL5053 80mA 20mA J <1_14 I - units See Note below. a. SEGMENT DESIGN CONSIOERA T/ONS G. For MTL5095 350mA 20mA See Note below. Hence the calculation is based on 80 mAo G. MTL5053 can supply 200 mA but it is limited in maximum 80 mA as intrinsic safety requirements. Note: For external power supply MTL5995: 350 mA YME Training Center G-6 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 . FIELDBUS POWER CAPACITY G.

An example of fieldbus communications between host system and field devices is shown below.G. For a monitoring loop Periodic communications per field device =1 1< Number of field devices 2 1 3 __ -__ Macrocycle >1 Communcanor. 1 time = = = ~ FB block execution time cornrnuncatons Non-~noqlC Periodic communications communications Non-~nodlC Periodic communications is the communications of scheduled field devices. we do a simple check to determine the possible number of field devices per H1 segment. The same principles apply for communications between fieldbus devices. Normally must keep at least 30% (of macrocycle) free. MACRO-CYCLE CONSIDERATIONS Deciding number of field devices that can be connected to Hi segment Macrocycle and Communications Communication (Periodic Communication) Schedule Publisher/Subscriber Using values derived from experience for macrocycle and communications schedule. SEGMENT DESIGN CONSIDERA TlONS G. Non-periodic communications are used to read parameters and communicate events and alarms.G. to allow for non-periodic communications. YME Training Center G-7 YMEFBOR 1 ST Edition Jun 2002 . FB block execution time is not included.

A Fieldbus segment in a hazardous area shall consist only of the type and number of devices which will not cause the segment current draw to exceed the rating of the IS barrier or IS power supply.. be designed for spare capacity to allow for future . When multiple measurement signals for process parameter are available. The P&IO's. SEGMENT DESIGN CONSIDERA T/ONS Example of calculation of number of field devices per Hi segment. process value on the same segment with its .. measurements should be distributed to reside on separate segments . the PIO function block shall reside in the Valve device.000 x 0... . . = 1.. Instrument location drawing and Plot plans are needed to effectively design fieldbus segments. If PIO of Fieldbus is used. MTL5053 supplies 80 mA.7 msec 40 msec x 1 = 700 40 = 17 units Conditions Assumed Macrocycle: 1000 msec (1 sec) FB block execution time: More than 50 msec (this is not communications Periodic communications: 700 msec Field device communications time: 40msec Number of periodic communications (in macrocycle) per field device: 1 time) G. . A general rule to remember is that "shorter is better" when it comes to designing spurs. Segment shall expansion ..G. Include the Primary associated valve.? OTHER CONSIDERATIONS FOR SEGMENT DESIGN Major portion of the system design should be well understood before the segment design is started. YME Training Center G-8 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 . .

~rr' I"'~ Figure: Sample Segment design YME Training Center G-9 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 .I ~ : BASIC 1 BASIC I I i j DOCUMENT i I I DESIGN No 10" CH APP <>. DOMAIN STATION NODE J I MARSHALLING BOARD 1101 RACK I I FIELD : I AEF9D I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 1 CABINET i ! I 1 MTL5053 1101 1CABINET 021 .()()4 [LM I i I AELDBUS ~ PY-004A OX F5 BASIC 1 NODE ADDJ 0 X 16 i TYPE I !.1 . LAYOUT ! .G. PIT. SEGMENT DESIGN CONSIDERA T/ONS G. SAMPLE SEGMENT DESIGN i FCS AFL111 CARD 01 I .B.£V SEOMENT INST.~ DeSCR"'Tooo< 1)o1l'_ e~ 1 P_. 01 01 01 1 LOCATION I !: : I SEGMENT NAME: FF .001 1 I F1 01 1LOCATION 1 Rl-l BOARD NO·1 I SLOT I PORT 1 I F I '-- I I r- 9 + T 1 I 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 I 1 1 1 I ~ II II II ~ ~ 8- t7r 24 VDC '- I I I 1 1 1 1 I + I 275 Mts I FFJB-001 I I 2 a bl d 1C .Link Master NUMBER I !.:::: ~~ J P & 10 e 25Mts 20Mts f 15Mls 10 MIS '- (/< 1 PDTAG Q9 LlT-004 6 OX F7 Em! Terminator LM .

EXERCISE G G. Discuss the various considerations for fieldbus segment design.9.g.1 QUESTIONS Q1. SEGMENT DESIGN CONSIDERA TlONS G. YME Training Center G-10 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 .G.

EJA HARDWARE. Yokogawa's EJA differential pressure transmitter is considered. FELDBUS DEVICE (YOKOGAWA EJA) H. H.H. FELDBUS DEVICE (YOKOGAWA EJA) In this chapter the one fieldbus device functions are discussed.1. Figure: Yokogawa's Fieldbus EJA differential pressure transmitter. YME Training Center H-1 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 .

.~: EEPROM Capsule .. ~ ~ " " " " . ~.......H..... '"8~~.""8 . . " g Pressure (L) Sensor Pressure (H) Capsule .." ~ :. :: ......." ....~"~. ..: EEPROM . : Fieldbus cornrnunica+o DRIVER Communication controller MAU DRIVER board CPU board ....... . FELDBUS DEVICE (YOKOGAWA EJA) Figure: Parts of Fieldbus EJA differential pressure transmitter ... • ~ ~ . ~""~"""".... .... .. Figure: Fieldbus EJA hardware block diagram..... YME Training Center H-2 YMEFBOR 157 Edition Jun 2002 . " " ..... ~e Rg "''''''' g" ~"".... .

I . Manages operation parameters and communication resources (Virtual Communication Relationship VCR)...2. Sets node addresses and Physical Device tag§ (PO Tag) necessary for .f Optional -' . I I Analog input block Scaling filter. LCD display . Controls the execution of function blocks. calculation Fieldbus communication nsducer Calculation of differential and stati I \ I I I Sensor \ I 1---- ......... . communication.. INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF EJA H...... YME Training Center H-3 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 .oI.1 System/network Management VFD . _ I ----------- III . Analog input block Scaling filter.H. FELOBUS DEVICE (YOKOGAWA EJA) H.2...... square root t./ -_ .. ./ Figure: Fieldbus EJA Function blocks.--------.III:'ltinn Fieldbus communication Network management System management Resource Device information Memory I I \ ... square root ..

+ Automatically informs the host of any detected faults or other problems. based on the deviation of the EJA Fieldbus Bleck mg Parameters Figure: Logical Structure of Each Block YME Training Center H-4 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 . + Outputs differential pressure signals. PID function block + Performs the PID control computation measured value from the set point. damping and square root AI2 function block + Outputs static pressure signals. FELOBUS OE'IlICE (YOKOGAWA EJA) H.H. AI1 function block + Conditions raw data from the Transducer block.2. + Carries out scaling. Transducer block + Converts sensor output to pressure signals and transfers to AI function block.2 Function Block VFD Resource block + Manages the status of EJA hardware.

FELDBUS DEVICE (YOKOGAWA EJA) Inp ut fro m sen sor Transducer block AI bl ock . SV Figure: Transducer block CHANN OUT Figure: AI block YME Training Center H-5 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 . Capsule temperature I--- 100% point adjustment 0% point adjustment ...".H. Compensation calculation Adjustment Unit Limit . Pv LCDdisplay Display Static pressure r-- External zero adjustment Limit check Static pressure _. Pressure _.

To set the PO Tag.) and If this directory is not found.sym) (m. the function block suspends updating of output values. The device 10 of the EJA is 5945430003xxxxxxxx. Note that no parameter status can be changed. first clear the node address and clear the PO Tag.1 Mode Transition When the function block mode is changed to Out_Of_Service. Create the above directory and copy the DO file (OmOn.) H.OmOn. or hexadecimal F5) that are set upon shipment from the factory unless otherwise specified. Off-line configuration is possible by using Capability file (CFF).yokogawa. n is a numeral) into the directory. then set the PO Tag and node address again. (The xxxxxxxx at the end of the above device 10 is a total of 8 alphanumeric characters. H.2. http://www. In this case alone.4 Setting of Tags and Addresses EJA has a PO Tag (PT1 001) and node address (245. If you do not have the DO file. IN-PROCESS OPERATION This chapter describes the procedure performed when changing the operation of the function block of the EJA in process.H. Devices whose node address was cleared will await the default address (randomly chosen from a range of 248 to 251. DO of EJA has not been included. H.com/fi/fieldbus/download. 0003 is the EJA device number.3. or from hexadecimal F8 to FB). the DO of the EJA needs to be installed. When the function block mode is changed to Manual. it is necessary to specify the device 10 in order to correctly specify the device. 594543\0003 (594543 is the manufacturer number of Yokogawa Electric Corporation.3. YME Training Center H-6 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 . you can download it from our web site. To change only the node address. Check if host has the following directory under its default DO directory. it is possible to write a value to the OUT parameter of the block for output. FELDBUS DEVICE (YOKOGAWA EJA) H.3 Integration of DD If the host supports DO (Device Description).ffo. the function block pauses and a block alarm is issued.htm Once the DO is installed in the directory.2. Visit the following web site. At the same time. respectively. clear the address once and then set a new node address. the name and attribute of all parameters of the EJA are displayed.

2 Indication of Alarm When the self-diagnostics function indicates that a device is faulty. If two ormore alarms are issued.H.Iun 2002 . Figure: Error Identification on Indicator YME Training Center H-7 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition . )OKOGAWA+ I" ". an alarm (device alarm) is issued from the resource block.3. If an LCD indicator is installed. When an error (block error) is detected in each function block or an error in the process value (process alarm) is detected. the error number is displayed as AL. " 11l. multiple error numbers are displayed in 2-second intervals. an alarm is issued from each block.l1 IL .XX. FELDBUS DEVfCE (YOKOGAWA EJA) H. I / -.

EJA is not pmlicipating in Fieldbus network.. Analog Alerts (Generated when a process value exceeds threshold) By AI1 Block Hi-Hi Alarm.0. Out of the ranee of tile built-in indicator display. The static pressure is out of the range of the maximum operating pressure . An alarm is issu ed when the differenti31 pressure exceeds tile range of LRL-1 (.lJvlP module failure (1. FELDBUS DEVICE (YOKOGAWA EJA) LCD AL.AL.03 AL. AL. All function blocks are in Simulate mode. Hi Alarm. An alarm is lssued out of the rDn98 of LRL-10% to URL+10%.62 AL.G1 AL. Write Alarm By Transducer Block Block Alarm By AI1 Block Block Alarm By AI2 Block Block Alarm Update Alerts (Generated when a important (restorable) parameter is updated) By Resource Block Update Event By Transducer Block Update Event By AI1 Block Update Event YME Training Center H-8 YMEFBOR 1 5T Edition Jun 2002 .- Table: List of Error Messages Following alarm or event can be reported by EJA as an alert if allowed. Low-Low Alarm Discrete Alerts (Generated when an abnormal condition is detected) By Resource Block Block Alarm.01 AU}2 AL. The resource block is in OiS mode .43 AL. Low Alarm.42 AL.AfvlP module failure (h Ali block is not scheduled. . Low Alarm. Hi Alarm. Zero-point adjustment is abnormal.23 ALAi Content of Alarms Capsule module failure.H.)e .' to URL + 10%. Low-Low Alarm By AI2 Block Hi-Hi Alarm." . Ali function block me in r'.'lan mode. Temperature is abnormal.20 . The transducer block is in OiS mode.63 AU34 - -.. An alarm is issued when tile temperature is out of the range of -50 to 130'C. An alarm is issued when the static pressure exceeds 110-=/0 of the maximum operatinc pressure. Ali or AI2 function block is in OiS mode Tile differentiJI pressure is out of the rneas urem e nt ra nl.21 AL22 AL.

3 Simulation Function The simulation function simulates the input of a function block and lets it operate as if the data was received from the transducer block. an alarm is generated from the resource block. Displays the data value from the transducer block.H.) To initiate the same action from a remote terminal. H. ENABLE . if REMOTE LOOP TEST SWITCH is written to the SIM_ENABLE_MSG parameter (index 1044) of the resource block. It is possible to conduct testing for the downstream function blocks or alarm processes. and other device alarms will be masked. Note that this parameter value is lost when the power is turned OFF. for this reason the simulation must be disabled immediately after using this function. simulation is enabled. 2'. and other device alarms will be masked. II cannot be changed.3 below. and as an operation test for trailing blocks. This is to prevent the accidental operation of this function. FELDBUS DEVICE (YOKOGAWA EJA) By AI2 Block Update Event from the resource block. It cannot be chanced. 1: Simulotioll dls ableo (standarc) 2: strnuranon started 4 Transducer Value ~. " Simulale En/Disable "OFF" (Iurill'~ operauon ___.2. (See Figure 6. When Simulate En/Disable is set to 2. Displays the data status from tile transducer block. Sets Ihe value of the data to be simulated. 12 I Figure: SIMULATE_ENABLE Switch Position YME Training Center H-9 YMEFBOR 1 ST Edition Jun 2002 . the resulting action is the same as is taken when the above switch is on. Slr'. ~~otill USE: 1'. for this reason the simulation must be disabled immediately after using this function..3.. In simulation-enabled status. the applicable function block uses the simulation value set in this parameter instead of the data from the transducer block. Sub- index 1 2 3 Parameters Simulate St:Jtus Simulate V31ue Transducer Stllus I Description Sets the data status to be simulated. When this is switched on. generation of a process alarm.1. Controls the simulation fun eli 0 n of ttl is block. A SIMULATE_ENABLE switch is mounted in the EJA amplifier. The SIMULATE parameter of AI block consists of the elements listed in Table 6. This setting can be used for propagation of the status to the trailing blocks.

changed parameters are not saved and may return to their original values. Normal: Indicates the operating condition that the block will usually take.. Access the block mode Uvl0DE_BLK) block.H. the redundant processing is executed for an improvement of reliability. Target: Sets the operating condition of the block. J. FELDBUS DEVICE (YOKOGAWA EJA) H.. which the individual blocks will take. Set the Target of block mode U'. Should the power be turned OFF within 60 seconds after setting of parameters.. Note 2: The following are the operating conditions. ~ Make setting or change in accordance with each parameter. according to the Write Mode of the parameter to be set or changed.. YME Training Center H-10 YMEFBOR 157 Edition Jun 2002 . + + Access the parameter to be set or changed.10DE_BLK) back to Auto (ONote 2). of each Set the Target (-Note 1 ) of block mode (MODE_BLK) to Auto. SETTING AND CHANGE OF BASIC PARAMETERS This section describes the procedure taken to set and change the parameters for each block.4. Obtaining access to each parameter differs depending on the configuration system used. Permit: Indicates the operating condition that the block is allowed to take. 11an or OiS n\Jote 2) . Actual: Indicates the current operating condition. Do not turn the power OFF immediately after parameter setting. When the parameters are saved to the EEPROM. Note 1: Block mode consists of the following four modes that are controlled by the universal parameter that displays the running condition of each block.

Note 2: Consider the following precautions when selecting each unit. FELDBUS DEVICE (YOKOGAWA EJA) Automatic (Auto! "_·1DflU81(I'. Example: To measure 0 to 100kPa. Set 100 to EU at 100% on XD_SCALE.1 Setting the AI1 Function Block The AI1 function block outputs the differential pressure signals. Make setting or change in accordance with each parameter.~on XD_SCALE.18fl) AI Function Transducer Block 810ck Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Resource Block Yes Yes Out of Service rOIS) Table: Block modes H. Set the neCeSSEH)' nit to Units Index. Set the higher range value to EU at 100% on XD_SCALE. + Do not select the unit in abs for a gauging pressure gauge (EJA430. u Set the decimal position of 2 to Decimtll Point.4. Set the Target of block mode (MODE_BLK) back to Auto (*Note 2). and Set 1133 to Units Index on XD_SCALE (*Note). Set 0 to EU at 0% on XD_SCALE.H. YME Training Center H-11 YMEFBOR 15T Edition Jun 2002 . Note 1: Each unit is expressed using a 4-digit numeric code. Setting the calibration range Access the XD_SCALE parameter. + Do not select a unit in gauge for an absolute pressure gauge (EJA31 0). EJA438). Set the lower ranee value to EU at Oc.

H. Set 1342 to Units Index on OUT_SCALE OUT_SCALE. 1: Direct 2: Indirect 3: IndirectSORT (Sensor output value) (Linear output value) (Square root extraction output value) .4 Setting the output signal Low Cut Access the LOI.4. Set an output value corresponding to the lower range value to EU 8t 0% on OUT_SCALE. Set the output mode. FELDBUS DEVICE (YOKOGAWA EJA) H..3 Setting the output mode Access the L_ TYPE parameter. If Low cutoff is turned OFF. Set the decimal position to Decimal Point Example: To set the output to 0.2 Setting the output scale Access the OUT_SCALE parameter. Set the necessary unit of output to Units Index. _ Set the value subject to LOll/V_CUT. Set an output value corresponding to the higher ranqe value to EU at 100c. Set 100 to EU at 100% on OUT_SCALE.'y' CUT parameter. + Access the 10_ OPTS parameter. LO'N cut function is released.4. Turn Low cutoff ON.4. and Set 2 to Decimal Points on H.00 to 100. Set 0 to EU at 0% on OUT_SCALE. YME Training Center H-12 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 . H.~ on OUT SCALE.00%.

4.H. Access the Si rnu ICl te Status parameter. 2: Enabled 1: Disabled If simulation is enabled. H. Set whether Simulation is enabled or disabled. AI block uses Simulate Status and Simulate Value as the input. the AI block uses Transducer Status and Transducer Value as input.1E parameter. Set an optional input value. FELDBUS DEVICE (YOKOGAWA EJA) H. Set the status code.4. Set the damping time (in seconds).6 Simulation By optionally setting the input value to the calibration range and status. and if disabled. YME Training Center H-13 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 . perform simulation of the AI function block. ~ Access the Simulate En/Disable parameter. f Access the Simulate Value parameter.5 Setting the damping time constant Access the PV_FTIr\.

FELOBUS DEvICE (YOKOGAWA EJA) H.S.1 QUESTIONS 01. 03. EXERCISE H H. 02.5. Discuss the error message for an EJA transmitter? Discuss the procedure for calibration of an EJA transmitter? How is the simulate mode enabled in an EJA transmitter? YME Training Center H-14 YMEFBOR 1 ST Edition Jun 2002 .H.

J. FIELDBUS TOOLS

L FELDBUS ENGINEERING
In this chapter the Fieldbus system engineering is discussed.

1.1. FIELDBUS SYSTEM HARDWARE
A Fieldbus system consists of a Host system (Yokogawa's CS 3000 R3 system has been considered), a Fieldbus connected through an ALF111 module (H1 card) mounted on a KFCS (Field control station) in the system, and Fieldbus devices.

, • 'syo;lem Buit1ers • Operation and Monitoring
r----------l----------- • : Devial Manag8mgnti

i

L

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-,-

_

1

! 1,,1astgr

PC

vnst

rFi~,d~;-s;;-p;;ni
ALF111

!

··-------Ts~ie·pc

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:

Fielcbus sxtemal pOIYE'r supply

Fielcbus dgv'ice

Fi..lcbus device

HIS KFCS FCU ESB bus SB401 ALF111 Device Management Tool Fieldbus support tool

: Human Interface Station : Control station : Field control unit : Extended SB bus : ESB bus interface (1/0 nest side) : Foundation Fieldbus communication module : Can be used for the purpose of supplementing operation and monitoring. : Cannot be used for the Fieldbus devices that are operating on the H1 Fieldbus, but can be used for the purpose of performing Fieldbus device engineering prior to installation.

Figure: Example of Fieldbus System Configuration

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J. FIELDBUS TOOLS

1.2. FIELDBUS ENGINEERING FLOW.
The Fieldbus devices are registered with Fieldbus Builder first, after which the control loops are created with Control Drawing Builder. The flow of the engineering is as follows in this procedure:

Start

Creation of .t-.LF111 Copera lion In System View

Registration of a device (manual registration or auto registration)

Ope ra lion in Fiel,jbus Builder {device registration,

TI,ere are the following two rnethods fOI' crea ling FF faceplate blocks . • Draq and drop from Fisldbus Block List DiaJoCI. • spec~i a typ", in order to create an FF faceplate block. and tllen specltv tl,e Fieldbus tdock to t,e connected it

tt,,,.

to

The configuration IS downloaded to ALF 11 I. field devices. and FCS: the communication becomes possible. Note: Tile connection between an FF faceplate block and a Fieldbus block is explained In S",clion A3.2 of this manual

.

..

,

Connection and Delail",d definition

Operation in Control Drawinp Builder (control loop reqistra nom

Offline-download to Fieldbus devices

Figure: FF engineering

flow

YME Training Center

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J. FIELDBUS TOOLS

1.2.1 Registering

Fieldbus devices Fieldbus

The following flowchart shows the flow of operation for registering devices.
( Stort

Start up Fisldtus Builder from Systgm View.

Yes --~

A:;eF~~ evicce to 00 registered connct~Jo to 1118 Fialdtus via ~____

~~

Automatic

resislrabon

Manual rseistration

j

Download ('1 ;,

(

End

*1: Updates to the configuration are detected and only the updated information is downloaded. If a Fieldbus device that has been manually registered is not connected to the Fieldbus, a warning is generated while downloading. In this case, execute off-line downloading to the Fieldbus device.
Figure: Registering Fieldbus devices

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this function accesses the data on the Fieldbus via the assigned Fieldbus 1/0. ~J .. With the Fieldbus data access function. ~ R8adback data . Then.A./nllnqdata Reading data Input data U I'~ i aq" u m ~"'. INritinSl data ES8 bus I . FIELDBUS DATA ACCESS The Fieldbus data access function references and sets data on the Fieldbus device via the Foundation Fieldbus (FF-H1) communication module (ALF111).~ 'y'.--.. The following figure shows a mechanism of data access on the Fieldbus device from the FCS: FCS FCU FF-AI rc It'>J PID C'UT ~SET FF-.A..-. FIELDBUS TOOLS 1.O Fi".ldbus device Figure: Mechanism of Fieldbus Data Access YME Training Center /-4 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 .A.3./'" / »< ALF111 instantaneous type da ta area Input data Readback data I Writing data Fieldbus I I -] - I . I q- U .J..O Tracking . FCS Fieldbus I~P (%Z) is assigned to the I/O terminals and the block parameters that are contained in the Fieldbus block within the Fieldbus device.

are shown in the following table..J. I Controller RA (Rario Station Bleck) AO (Analog Output Block) DO (Discrete Output Block) OS (Output Splitter) Block SC (Signal Characterizer) IT (Integrator) IS (Input Selector) MOl U"'luhipI8 Discrete Input) MOO (Multiple Discrete Output) MAl (Multiple Analog Input) MAO (I"'lultiple Analog Output) Block) Foundation Fieldbus Discrots Input Block Foundation Fieldbus Control Selector Block Foundation Foundation Foundation Fieldbus PIO Control Block Fieldbus Analog Output Blo::k Fieldbus Discrete Output Block Foundation Fioldbus Ratio Block Foundation Fieldbus Output Splitter Block Foundation Fieldbus Signal Characterizor Foundation Foundation Foundation Foundation Fieldbus Input S81ector Block Fi81dbus Multiple Discret8 Input Block Fioldbus Multiple Discrete Output Block Fieldbus Fou ndatio n Fi81dbus Integrator (Total izer) Block t. Use normal faceplate blocks in order to monitor these ijIocks with the HIS. FIELDBUS TOOLS 1. Type FF-AI FF-DI FF-CS FF-PID FF-RA FF-AO FF-DO FF-OS FF-SC FF-IT FF-IS FF-MOI FF-MDO FF-MAI FF-rvlAO Foundation Name Fieldbus Analog Input Block Corresponding Fleldbus function blOCK AI (Analcg Input Block) DI (Discrete Input Block) CS (Control Selector Block) PID (PID. for which corresponding FF faceplate blocks are provided. PI. The FF specification furthermore defines resource blocks and transducer blocks.1Types of FF Faceplate Blocks Those of the Fieldbus blocks prescribed in the FF specification.-1ulople Analog Input Bled Foundation Fieldbus r-"lultiple Analog Output Block Figure: Types of FF faceplate blocks YME Training Center /-5 YMEFBOR 15T Edition Jun 2002 .3.

and the result is output to a Fieldbus block via a second FF faceplate block. Fieldbus input/output (%Z) is automatically assigned to a terminal for performing input/output at corresponding high speed.4. IN PIO OUT OUT FF-AI SET FF-AO Figure: Control Loop for Performing Cascade Control in the FCS 1. Using this connection with %Z. the FF faceplate block exchanges the process data used for control with the Fieldbus block at high speed. the control computation is performed by a regulatory control block in FCS.4. In this connection. YME Training Center /-6 YMEFBOR 1 5T Edition Jun 2002 .1 Signal Flow If it is defined to connect a block other than an FF faceplate block to a connection terminal of an FF faceplate block. CONTROLLER IN FCS The following explains an example of a control loop where Fieldbus blocks are used for input/output and the control loop is implemented on an FCS.J. When such connection is used. the process input is obtained via an FF taceplate block. in this example a PIO controller. FIELOBUS TOOLS 1. so OUT _V can be used for control. the OUT_V terminal of FF-Al will have the same value as the internal parameter of the actual Fieldbus block.

In order to save internal parameters of Fieldbus blocks. when saving the tuning parameters of FF faceplate blocks.'0 ne-shot \~ niling t ------------------[ ~:-sZ t CD A 1--- FCS side Fi02ldbus sid8 Update trrouqh %Z Update b y View ()bject .4.. The following table lists the kinds of data that can be saved in each operation. Data saved in this way is . which are listed in the table below. User operation Saving tuning parameter Data saved • UAID:SAID • Operation • MV index Data items dedicated mark to FeS function blocks only'. a parameter upload must be performed by Fieldbus Builder. FI ELDBUS TOOLS IN PID OUT C)UT SET ~ ( FF-AI CSV FF-.j'v'Qn attar replacing Fi"ldbus dovicss Table: Operation and Data Saved YME Training Center /-7 YMEFBOR 1 5T Edition Jun 2002 .A.J.. For example: Uploading bv Fiflldbus Build~1 lnternal parameters of Fisldbus de·vices. Therefore. ) Figure: Signal Flow when Performing Cascade Control in the FCS 1. it is only possible to save certain data items dedicated to FCS function blocks.td A.O ""\ ZC'UT ZSET --- C.ff"c1rv" '.'Fieldbus blocks C1Il be saved.(J JI.Z Update tllrougll c/2Updat8 by Vie 'N Object .2 Saving Tuning Parameters Data items in FF faceplate blocks are always overwritten by the internal parameters of the corresponding Fieldbus blocks.on8-s notwrrti n9 0 \ S") J-' r-r- r c » (fj Z r =l ~ .

Discuss the Fieldbus Engineering flow? List the various FF blocks available in the Yokogawa CS3000 R3 system? YME Training Center /-8 YMEFBOR 157 Edition Jun 2002 .1 QUESTIONS 01. EXERCISE I 1. FIELDBUS TOOLS 1.5.J.5. 02.

FIELDBUS TOOLS This section explains the various tools available to access and set parameters from a Portable device to the Fieldbus devices.3.J. FIELDBUS TOOLS J. This slot shall allow a card that conforms to the PCMCIA (Release 2. Software Environment The following software environment configurator tool. operating environment. A PCMCIA Slot is required.1 NIFBUS conifgurator Operating Environment The following hardware environment tool. Revision : R2. card manufactured by National is necessary to use the NIFBUS support • Model : PCMCIA-FBUS. Interface Card: Fieldbus communication Instruments Co.1. This software is included with each PCMCIA-FBUS interface card. YME Training Center J-1 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 . • is required for implementing the NIFBUS Operating System Microsoft Windows NT Version Microsoft Windows 9x.DB9 male D-Sub connector and combicon-style pluggable screw terminals (these are supplied along with the interface card).0 with the latest Service Pack or + Application System Software NIFBUS Communication Manager. J.1) standard to be installed. This interface card runs as a Link Master (LM) or a basic device. This PCMCIA-FBUS connects to the fieldbus using a cable that provides two connectors to attach to the fieldbus network .1. 4. (or NIFBUS Configurator tool) software is developed by National Instruments Co. J. fieldbus device parameter setting and hardware connection to the PC.NITOOL This section describes the NIFBUS configurator. Hardware Environment • IBM PC/AT Compatible notebook Computer.

2 Fieldbus network link and Installation When H1 Fieldbus has not yet been connected into the upper level system.1.J. Figure below describes the schematic of the Fieldbus link to the PC with the PCMCIA-FBUS interface card. FIELDBUS TOOLS J. When using the interface card in the pew an independent fieldbus power supply and the bus terminator are required. using the Fieldbus NI Configurator (NI-FBUS communication manager software) in the notebook PC can configure the fieldbus device parameters. Hl tisldbus Fi91dbusd9Vioo Fi9tlbus d"'fia? Figure: Schematic of fieldbus link to PC PCMCIA-FBUS Block All Cables are Twisted Pair Transmitter 12+ 11- 9+ 8- 1314+ MTL5995 + Fieidbus Terminator + 24V DC Power supply Figure: PCMCIA-FBUS Interface card hardware connections to the Transmitter YME Training Center J-2 YMEFBOR 15T Edition Jun 2002 .

exe" file. The bus type is set as PCMCIA. It is recommended to install all the files into the directory same as "nifbus".1. FIELDBUS TOOLS J. of ports as 1 and Polled mode is left blank. YME Training Center J-3 YMEFBOR 15T Edition Jun 2002 .4 appears. the same can be done by highlighting "Board 0" and selecting "Edit". + Power on the computer and login to WinNT as Administrator + Set the "installation disk 1 of 3" of the NIBUS configurator into the floppy disk drive and run the "setup. + At the end of the setup. Change the information and click "Add" when completed. Click OK and the following display as in Figure 3.J.3 Installation Power down the computer and set the PCMCIA-FBUS interface card into the PCMCIA card slot. No. the NI-FBUS interface configuration display appears. + + Next. In most cases no changes to the initial settings is required. try with other combinations. Follow the instructions to complete the setup. The Base address and the IRQ settings are to be correctly set based on the computer used so that there is no conflict of the IRQ settings. If the interface card is not initialized with the set values. the port setting display appears. If any change in the previous setting is required. The following display appears.

At this stage the device driver for the NIFBUS is not started. Restart the computer. Setting physical device tag name (PO Tag) and node address This function is used to set the physical device tag name and node address selected from the device list. Select "Interface Config" in "nifbus" folder and choose ''~O Info". • To view the Fieldbus network and access the devices the NIFB configurator can be started from the start . A new directory named "dd" has to be created under "nifbus" directory. Open "devices" from the "control Panel".'· + Click "Ok" to complete the setup and restart the computer.J. a restart of the computer is necessary. Next select "start-up" and choose "automatic start" upon power on. FIEL[. Browse the dd file to be loaded from the floppy disk and select the *.programs menu. Insert the floppy containing the device descriptor files for the device. • Login to WinNT as Administrator. J. The installation procedure of the vendor device descriptor files is as below.1. + With this NIFB driver is activated.4 Installation of DD files Device description file contains the information that is unique to the device. • YME Training Center J-4 YMEFBOR 15T Edition Jun 2002 .)BUS TOOLS .5 The NIFBUS functions. J. It is necessary to keep this always active during the fieldbus operation.. This has to be started after power on.1. Specify the base directory where the DO files are located (lnifbus/dd) Then click "Import ~O''. The message appears that the import is successful. • Device list display Displays the devices connected to the H 1 fieldbus in a list. Note that whenever the device descriptor files are re-installed. Find the device named "NIFB" in the list and select "Start".ffo file.NI-FBUS Interface Configuration Uflh'y 23 13 The changes made in FBCONF only takes eHect after you start NI-FBUS process the nexuirrie.

YME Training Center J-5 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 . J. The Tool can run on a PC or an HIS (Human Interface station) to supplement the fieldbus operation and monitoring functions provided by the HIS and to support maintenance of fieldbus devices. The required calibration setting for the device can be set. The Device Management Tool can also run on the slave PC connected to the H1 fieldbus. Using the NIFBUS configurator. all the device parameters can be accessed and modified.J. the fieldbus devices can be monitored even when the fieldbus is not connected to the ACF11 or ALF111 module. It monitors the status of fieldbus devices and changes the parameters of fieldbus blocks if necessary. After the node address has been cleared.2. OXF8 through OxFB will be set as a temporary node address. Both HIS and master PC can collect fieldbus messages from the historical message file saved in the HIS via the OPC server or DDE server in the HIS. Tag clear feature clears the PD tag name currently set for the fieldbus device selected from the device list. It is to be noted that some parameters can be set only after placing the device block mode to out-of-service (O/S) mode. The node address is cleared at the same time.2. The instruction manual for the respective transmitter will provide the calibration parameter changes that can be done. The address clear feature clears the currently set for the fieldbus device selected. For example the zero adjust parameter is part of the Transducer block for the EJA series (Differential Pressure Transmitter). On the slave PC.1 Fieldbus Configuration Related to Whole System Architecture The Device Management Tool can run on the HIS or on the master PC connected to the control bus. The figure below shows field bus configuration related to the whole system architecture when implemented by Device Management Tool. FIELDBUS TOOLS + Tag assign features sets the PO tag name for the device selected. + Manually setting parameters. DEVICE MANAGEMENT TOOL The Device Management Tool provides functions needed to operate/monitor fieldbus devices. J. The address assign feature allows assigning the node address for the device selected from the device list.

.t. ALF111: Fieldbus communication module Figure: Example of Fieldbus System Configuration YME Training Center J-6 YMEFBOR 1 5T Edition Jun 2002 .. SFCS.----''----. KFCS: Field control station ACF11.1 runs on sla'. master PC Eth~rno?1 De.LFCS .J.e PC Fieldbus d ".Manaa. FIELDBUS TOOLS Runs on HIS or th".lanagement Tool runs on slavs PC D8-l/ice ManagE-moent Toe. LFCS..J'---. KFC S ..icE.'.iJiCE-Manaqernent runs on master PC Tool Control bus .-__.:ice Fieldbus device HIS: Human Interface Station Master PC: General-purpose Personal Computer (Connected on Control Bus) Slave PC: General-purpose Personal Computer (Connected on H1 Fieldbus) SFCS.CF11 Device r..m"nt Tool runs on HIS O.

Interface board: Ethernet board Control bus interface card (VF701) Hardware Environment (Slave PC) Main unit: IBM PCI AT compatible machine However it should be compatible with Fieldbus communication card for PCMCIA (Release 2. Provided together with PCMCIA-FBUS card. the Device Management Tool will be included. YME Training Center J-7 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 . Hardware Environment (Master PC) Main unit: IBM PCIAT compatible machine CPU: Pentium 300 MHz or higher Memory: 128 MB or more When running the Device management Tool on HIS.J. Co.) Software Environment (Slave PC) Windows NT4.2 Operating Environment of Device Management Tool The following explains the environment in which the Device Management Tool is used. Interface card: Fieldbus Communication Card National Instruments.0. FI ELDBUS TOOLS J.1) CPU: Pentium 300 MHz or higher Memory: 128 MB or more Free hard disk space: 120 MB or more When Fieldbus Support Tools is installed. the main memory of the HIS should be 96 MB or larger.2. Fieldbus Communication Card for PCMCIA Model: PCMCIA-FBUS Version: R2.3 as: as: Software Environment (Master PC) Windows 2000 Service Pack 2 (If DOE service is used for passing messages. (Service Pack 5 or later versions) NI-FBUS: NI-FBUS (Rev: R2.) Windows 2000 Service Pack 1 (If DOE service is not used. Free hard disk space: 120 MB or more (Fieldbus Engineering Tool requires 50 MB + Device Management Tool requires 50 MB + Control Bus Communication requires 10MB + Electronic online document requires 10MB).3) National Instruments Co.

J. I I I I I I I Reldb us device stauis display parameter display/seuing Melhod Message display I Fieldbus device I I I I I J I I I : History message display EV9n1display Sening Control BLJ& Environment sening Maimenana.2.. tag I is! display ------- ------.3 Functional Overview of Device Management Tool The functions provided by the Device Management Tool consist of the registering functions used to enter user names and device tags and the executing functions used to perform various operations of the Device Management Tool. Export Prim Help ! I I I I I I J I I L I L I I I L I Figure: Functional Overview of Device Management Tool YME Training Center J-8 YMEFBOR 15T Edition Jun 2002 . FIELDBUS TOOLS J.. The figure below shows the functional overview of the Device Marjaqernent Tool. REgis1ering funcnons I Execuring fu ncnons I User regislration D~vic~ lag lisl registrarion ------- -------~ S6Curi!y Devia.

3. . it can provide integrated management of both analog. HART and Foundation Fieldbus devices.g. Plant Resource Manager package Management System (AMS). alarms) on a continuous basis. monitors device status. with Explorer-like "Navigator" for selecting a specific device. industrial-strength Oracle 8 database. This Plant Resource Manager Package for the Fieldbus era efficiently handles field device management and maintenance work. Uses the popular.3. YME Training Center J-9 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 . Now that the bi-directional all-digital Foundation Fieldbus has been standardized. Thus you can continuously monitor the operating status of field devices. and saves them in the database..J. is more commonly know as Asset Plant Resource Manager (PRM) consists of the following three components: J. which support the Foundation Fieldbus. allows tuning of device parameters. alarms). and field devices have become more intelligent. . twenty-four hours per day. . .3.. This provides an easy-to-understand overview of device operating status. Yokogawa offers field devices as well as systems. . Automatically acquires device events (e..2 PRM Client User-friendly Windows-based operating environment. centralized device management. PLANT RESOURCE MANAGER Field networks have been developed in recent years. the era of digital communications is here. and performs device diagnosis (Methods). • Allows not merely Foundation Fieldbus-compliant devices but also conventional analog field devices and HART devices to be registered together for true. J. all-digital field networks such as Foundation Fieldbus. Uses bi-directional.1 PRM Server .g.. FIELDBUS TOOLS J. acquires device events (e.. Maintains a historical record of device parameters and maintenance records. Display color of device icon changes depending on device status. This tool also can support conventional analog devices and HART devices.. Performs automatic device recognition and registration (Plug and Play).

J. Thus field data can be used in operation support applications such as device diagnostics and equipment diagnostics.3. Ethernet PRM SERVER FIELD COMMUNICATION SERVER FCS Fieldbus Fieldbus Devices Figure: System Configuration indicating PRM YME Training Center J-10 YMEFBOR 1ST Edition Jun 2002 . and in data propessinq applications such as optimization. FIELDBUS TOOLS J.3 Field Communications Server Provides open interface functions of OLE for Process Control (OPC) that enable general-purpose software running on Windows 2000 to access field device data. The figure below shows a large-scale system configuration with the Plant Resource Manager and its interface to Fieldbus and HART devices.

4.J. Discuss various FF tools available? YME Training Center J-11 YMEFBOR 1 ST Edition Jun 2002 . LABORATORY EXERCISE J J.1 QUESTIONS Q1.4. FIELDBUS TOOLS J.

NOTES K.K.NOTES YME Training Center K-1 YMEFBOR 1sr Edition Jun 2002 .

I K. NOTES I YME Training Center K-2 YMEFBOR 1 ST Edition Jun 2002 .

NOTES YME Training Center K-3 YMEFBOR 1Sf Edition Jun 2002 .K.

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