LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE USE OF GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION AND TECHNOLOGY IN MAPPING UNTIL RT/RW LEVEL FROM TWO CITIES

(YOGYAKARTA AND SOLO)
Aji Putra Perdana 1 *
1

Staff of Pusat Pemetaan Dasar Rupabumi-BAKOSURTANAL; GIS Consultant for SOLOKOTAKITA, GIS & Data Management Assistant of TAHIJA Foundation Yogyakarta Dengue Project Phase-2 Office: Jln. Raya Jakarta-Bogor Km. 46, Cibinong 16911. INDONESIA. Emails: ajiputrap@gmail.com, aji.perdana@bakosurtanal.go.id

Abstract Geospatial Information and Technology are really helpful and challenging in supporting Dengue Project in Yogyakarta and Participatory Planning in Solo (Solo Kota Kita Project). Two different projects supported by different Organization and different purposes. In other side, both projects were starting with the same simple idea and basic needs; the detailed geospatial information until RT/RW level for supporting their projects. Involving local peoples have made both projects introduced geospatial information and technology to the peoples and directly or indirectly invited them to think geospatially in solving their problems in dengue control project activities in Yogyakarta and village planning in Solo. Geospatial Information and Technology in Dengue Project Yogyakarta was used in collecting data, monitoring, mapping and analyzing information related dengue project, while in Solo Kota Kita project using geospatial information for mapping and analyzing environmental and resources in village level packaged into miniatlases. This paper describes how lessons learned from the use of geospatial information and technology in mapping until level of RT/RW in two different things based on experiences and observations of the writer when joined in the projects. Key words: Geospatial, Mapping, Solo Kota Kita, Dengue Control Yogyakarta

* Corresponding author.

ASIA GEOSPATIAL FORUM 2011

Introduction 1.1.Background Over the past 20 years, researchers have been developing automated tools for the efficient storage, analysis, and presentation of geographic data (Aronoff 1989). This rapidly developing technology has come to be known as "geographic information systems" (GIS). It is a constellation of computer hardware and software that integrates maps and graphics with a database related to a defined geographical space. GIS also can be defined as an integrated set of tools within an automated system capable of collecting, storing, handling, analyzing, and displaying geographically referenced information. Geospatial information and technology are the starting point to understand scope and area of research/project in two different projects; for dengue control and planning. Dengue cannot be spread directly from person to person, but the spread of disease is unavoidably spatial (Holmes, 1997). Source reduction is still the main emphasis in the control of Dengue Fever/Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever. A pilot project Combating Dengue Fever/Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever Project Phase II study site in The City of Yogyakarta conducted by the Tahija Foundation (Indonesia) collaborated with Gadjah Mada University with targeted source reduction strategy. This strategy targets only the most epidemiological important types of breeding containers using the insect growth regulator (IGR). This project involved 262 field workers for distributing and monitoring the IGR called Pemantau DBD was recruited from 2523 Jumantik’s RT by Dinas Kesehatan Kota Yogyakarta and 32 surveyors from Faculty of Medicine, Gadjah Mada University. Distribution and monitoring of the presence the insect growth regulator data will be compiled by GIS and Data Management Unit. To be able to effectively use information from the field (spatial and non-spatial), manage, analyze and disseminate them, dengue control project in Yogyakarta City need GIS (Perdana and Zarodi, 2009, Perdana et.al., 2009). Pemantau DBD and surveyors are the main actors in collecting data from the field to be linked into geospatial data. They were learning how to get the right coding in field-collected data, which will be linked into the Map Layers in GIS. Geospatial learning of the field workers and surveyors in this project helps us in combating dengue fever in the City of Yogyakarta. Dengue control project Yogyakarta fully supported with geospatial data and technology such as Ikonos/Quickbird satellite images, digital orthophotos, and base map of Yogyakarta until Village Level (Municipality, Villages, Administrative Boundaries, River, Roads). In the other hand, neighborhoods planning in Solo City (Solo Kota Kita) start from studying on the GIS and Data Management processes in dengue project then try to implement those steps in different way for participatory urban

ASIA GEOSPATIAL FORUM 2011

planning. This project was using images from Google and Bing as the base map for drawing the RT/RW boundaries from local peoples in villages.

ASIA GEOSPATIAL FORUM 2011

Geospatial information and technology used in Solo Kota Kita as tools to help peoples in Surakarta (Solo) for the annual participatory budgeting process – known locally as musrenbang. Solo Kota Kita brings together designers, urban planners, GIS people, NGO-workers, and architecture students from around the world who share a common interest in the development of neighborhoods and growth of cities. This project is different in the peoples who involved in, a lot of come from student volunteers from Sebelas Maret University; Harvard University; Cornell University and web designers. 1.2. Aims This paper describes lesson learned from the use of Geospatial information and technology in mapping until RT/RW level for two different projects in different cities (Yogyakarta and Solo). Geospatial in Dengue Control Project-Yogyakarta City GIS and Data Management Unit in Dengue Control Project-Yogyakarta City has the responsibility to create and maintain the repository of all project data that is spatially explicit, conversion of paper-based data from the other Units into digital data or data entry (Figure 1b) and also summarizing data and creating maps. In this case, GIS play role for the management of spatial and non-spatial data that will be linked and mapped, so will be helpful for analysis. Before starting this project, base mapping until RT/RW level was conducted by Faculty of Geography-Gadjah Mada University. The method of RT/RW boundaries mapping with ground checking by tracking used GPS Handheld. Because of the limitation of time and the project should running faster so it cannot be finished for all RT/RW in the City. The alternative way, surveyors were supported with GPS Handheld to help them marking the visited houses in coded number(Figure 1a). Even though, all surveyors were trained in using GPS usually only one or two persons that used the GPS. Without surveyor' participation in the application GPS in mapping the visited houses, the accuracy cannot always be assured on the one hand, while on the other, the information cannot be properly utilized (Perdana et al, 2009; Perdana, 2009).

ASIA GEOSPATIAL FORUM 2011

© Dengue Project Documentations Copyright 2008

Figure 1. Surveyor marked house location with GPS (left) and Data Entry (right)

The use of participatory mapping with the first aim was in order to get RT/RW level boundaries from 45 Kelurahan in the City of Yogyakarta. Printed Quickbird images were distributed for Pemantau DBD and also 45 Kelurahan. Since participatory mapping was new method in combating dengue fever, the reactions of the peoples involved from the field are an important part. They were learned to see images that captured houses from the sky, to know their own location, survey and try to delineate the boundaries until RW/RT level, the roads, and rivers (Fig. 2). Their results then digitized by GIS and Data Management Unit into several layers (Fig. 2) and edited using GIS software to be display, visualize and also for analysis needs.

Figure 2. Participatory Mapping processes and Administrative Map (RT Boundaries) of Kelurahan Terban, the City of Yogyakarta (Perdana, 2009)

Tables and relationships play a key role in dengue project geodatabase because all dengue project data are in tables. All data then to be summarized and tied to a GIS where they can be spatially correlated and analyzed (Perdana et.al., 2009). Geodatabase for Dengue Control Project was important. The geodatabase is a collection of geographic datasets of various types and stored in an MDBformatted database management system (DBMS) which is readable by Microsoft Access. Designing a geodatabase is a critical process that requires the necessary planning and revision to reach a design that meets an organization’s requirements (Baker, 2006). A key geodatabase concept is the dataset. The geodatabase contains three primary dataset types are shown below:

ASIA GEOSPATIAL FORUM 2011

  

Feature classes: Base Map Layers; Municipality, Villages, Administrative Boundaries, River, Roads, Survey Location (GPS measurements), etc. Raster datasets: Quickbird Imagery, Ikonos Imagery, digital aerial photos Tables: Dengue Cases Report, Demographic Data, IGR Distribution and Monitoring Data, pupal counts and emergence, adult aspirations, pupal/demographic surveys, serology surveys

Based on lesson learned from the use of geospatial information and technology in dengue control, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Remotely Sensed data has been used effectively to get the information needed for the project goal. The GIS needs assessment was a critical initial step in the capacity-planning process. Even though mapping the Yogyakarta City until RT/RW level cannot be maintained fully and continued until whole City due to complicated situation and huge data to be handled. Geospatial in Solo Kota Kita Project-Solo City Learning from what happened in dengue control project, it’s really helpful for Solo Mapping processes to start the project of Solo Kota Kita at the first time. This pilot project need satellite images with high resolution such as Quickbird or Ikonos, but limited funding then this project starts with using free images from Google and Bing to complete each other and have good images to be printed (Figure 4). These limitation did not stop the project to keep running with a small pilot project. The initiative began in March 2009 as a pilot project. A small group of dedicated architecture students from Universitas Sebelas Maret surveyed a handful of Solo neighborhoods. These early efforts gained the support of Mayor Joko Widodo to survey and map all 51 neighborhoods in Solo. Since then, the Solo Kota Kita team of Community Facilitators has collected data and listened to residents in every neighborhood. The survey was completed in June 2010 and the information has been compiled into 51 mini atlases (http://solokotakita.org/en/about/history/).

ASIA GEOSPATIAL FORUM 2011

(a) Surakarta in Google Maps

(b) Surakarta in Bing Maps

Figure 3. Image from Google and Bing as Base Images (Source: http://geospatialinfo.blogspot.com/2010/08/google-maps-vs-bing-maps.html
accessed on Sept 10th 2011)

Problems came out with the geometric accuration; images georeferencing step was ignored by several volunteer and creating spatial feature class without considering coordinate system. The way of captured images from Google or Bing sometimes, they were only considering for image to be printed out as map in hard copy. These problems solved later on, after whole City finished to be mapped until RT/RW level.

ASIA GEOSPATIAL FORUM 2011

Solo Kota Kita combines a decentralized survey approach with simple technology to illustrate the assets and issues in each of Solo’s neighborhoods. The process has four steps: 1) data collection, 2) mapping, 3) analysis, and 4) distribution (Figure 4). Data collection (demography, education, sanitation, water, housing, etc) was conducted by 12 Community Facilitators over 2,700 RTs in Solo. They work to collect data from Ketua RT and spent their time in the neighborhoods. This approach allows the team to cover a lot of area and gain onthe-ground knowledge of what’s happening in the neighborhoods. Next, those data should be cleaned to be input the survey data into Geographic Information Systems (GIS). In GIS process, each RT has their own feature code to help us in join table with tabular data from field survey. The team then works together to analyze how each neighborhood is developing. Tabular data and maps used to understand how each neighborhood compares to the rest of the city and how each indicator is distributed within the neighborhood. Everyone on the team brings a different perspective – since the Community Facilitators spent so much time in the field, they were aware of what residents perceive are assets and issues. The ideas of the analysis documented in a mini atlas (http://solokotakita.org/en/about/methodology/). Lastly, the mini atlas distributed to residents so people can use it in participatory budgeting. The mini atlases were printed and distributed to neighborhood leaders.

Figure 4. Solo Kota Kita Mapping Processes (Photos Source: http://solokotakita.org/ and Map/Figure source: Aji Putra Perdana)

ASIA GEOSPATIAL FORUM 2011

Simple spatial database was applied in Solo Kota Kita mapping until RT/RW. It’s different with building geodatabase in dengue control project because spatial and non-spatial data in this project is not huge/big enough such as in Dengue Control Project Yogyakarta. The final result from this project documented in Mini-Atlases for each Kelurahan are downloadable or can be access directly from the website to see or analyzed condition for Solo City (Figure 5). In Mini-Atlases, we can see What’s happening in the Joyotakan (for example); What’s are the assets and potential issues, in the middle there is a neighborhood map visualize the buildings, area of flood, mosque or other public facilities; and in the lower part there are six aspect related to the area such as education, water, sanitation, housing, economy/poverty and health. For more detailed mini-atlases can be obtained from solokotakita.org on the right side of the website. Lesson learned in Solo Kota Kita described clearly by Students and Volunteerism in the website, all of them start to think spatially to help people solving their environmental problems in neighborhood planning.

ASIA GEOSPATIAL FORUM 2011

(a) Mini-Atlases

(b) Solo City in website

Figure 5. Solo Kota Kita Tools Conclusions Mapping the cities until RT/RW level is the starting point in both projects; Dengue Control Project Yogyakarta City and Neighborhood Planning Solo City. Different existing data and project purposes make them have different results. The result of Dengue Control Project publish their maps for peoples/agency/government related to the project works, but do not share the maps into web-based because it’s not their main concern. But in Solo Kota Kita project, geospatial information is the main process and result to be used in planning the City from RT/RW level. Lesson learned from both project that thinking spatially will help us solving problems and understanding the situation more comprehensive. The first thing when facing with tabular data and should be tied in spatial, so the concept of spatial database design is need to be the main concern. It is complex and requires a substantial amount of work to tie GIS products, middle ware and relational databases together. To effectively implement a GIS using the spatial database or geodatabase approach, a solid database design must be put in place. A database design must include data that will benefit the organization the most and identify what data can and will be stored. The database design process must take into account current business processes, the project goals and the ultimate plan for streamlining these existing functions. Discussion concerning the effectiveness of using appropriate geospatial information and technology is very important. Acknowledgements

ASIA GEOSPATIAL FORUM 2011

This paper is derived from my experiences in two different projects, first experience in implementation of Research and Pilot Project in Yogyakarta to control dengue haemorrhagic fever in Indonesia and secondly experience in building new project start from simple idea from dengue project Jogja, the use of geospatial data for participatory urban planning with John Taylor, now kalready known as SOLOKOTAKITA Project. We would like to express my sincere thanks to Tahija Foundation of Jakarta, Indonesia and The Claire and Scobie MacKinnon Trust of Melbourne, Australia also Dengue Project Team Yogyakarta for the supports in two previously Conferences (Map World Forum 2009 in Hyderabad, India and SEASC 2009 in Bali, Indonesia); also thanks to Joyo, John Mendelson, Rifai, Mike, Brendan Nee-BlinkTag, Emily Lesk, and Solo Kota Kita team that built Solo Kota Kita Mapping more better, meaningful and useful for neighborhood planning in Solo City and hopefully the method can be implemented in another cities.

ASIA GEOSPATIAL FORUM 2011

References Aronoff, S. (1989). Geographical information systems. Management perspective. WDL Publications, Canada. Baker Jr., Michael (2006). Updated GIS Database Design: Geodatabase Model. City of Suffolk, Virginia. Virginia Beach, Virginia Focks, Dana A. (2007). Combating Dengue Fever in Indonesia Phase II Project Description. Tahija Foundation, Indonesia (unpublished). Holmes EE. 1997. Basic epidemiological concepts in a spatial context. In: Tilman D, Kareiva P, eds. Spatial Ecology: The Role of Space in Population Dynamics and Interspecific Interactions. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press; pp. 111-136. Perdana, Aji P., and Zarodi, H. (2009), The Use of GIS (Geodatabase) in Combating Dengue Fever in Indonesia Phase II Project (Study Site: The City of Yogyakarta), paper presented at Map World Forum 2009 -'Converge Ideas and Expand Horizons for Sustainable Planet Earth', HICC, Hyderabad International Convention Center, Hyderabad, India, 10-13 February 2009. Perdana, Aji P., Ardiansyah, H., and Zarodi, H. (2009), Geospatial Learning in Combating Dengue Fever Project Study Site: The City of Yogyakarta, paper presented at South East Asian Survey Congress 2009 -- 'Integrating Geo-information Islands', BICC, Bali International Convention Center, Nusa Dua, Bali, Indonesia, 4-7 August 2009. Perdana, Aji P. (2009), Peranan Informasi dan Teknologi Geospasial dalam Proyek Pengendalian Demam Berdarah Dengue Kota Yogyakarta Fase II, paper presented at Simposium Nasional Sains Geoinformasi I 2009 -‘Meningkatkan Peran dan Kualitas Data Spasial Untuk Melayani Masyarakat’, Gedung PascaSarjana, Gadjah Mada University, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, 17-18 November 2009. Websites: http://solokotakita.org accessed on Sept 10th 2011 http://geospatialinfo.blogspot.com/2010/08/google-maps-vs-bing-maps.html accessed on Sept 10th 2011

ASIA GEOSPATIAL FORUM 2011

Paper Reference No. : PN-73 Title of the paper : LESSONS LEARNED FROM THE USE OF GEOSPATIAL INFORMATION AND TECHNOLOGY IN MAPPING UNTIL RT/RW LEVEL FROM TWI CITIES (YOGYAKARTA AND SOLO) Name of the Presenter : Aji Putra Perdana Author (s) Affiliation : PUSAT PEMETAAN DASAR RUPABUMI BAKOSURTANAL GIS Consultant for SOLOKOTAKITA Mailing Address : Jln, Raya Jakarta-Bogor Km. 46, Cibinong 16911. INDONESIA Email Address : ajiputrap@gmail.com Telephone numbers : +62-856 430 225 49 Fax number : +62-21-87901254

Brief Biography Name : Aji Putra Perdana Place of Birth : Pemalang (Central Java), 9 September 1983 Education : S1 Degree Geography Field of Study Cartography and Remote Sensing, Faculty of Geography Gadjah Mada University (2006) Master of Science Candidate from Program of MSc for Planning and Management of Coastal Area and Watershed (2009-2011) Position : I have been worked as Staff of GIS Laboratory Faculty of Geography Gadjah Mada University (November 2006 – 2008), GIS and Data Management in Dengue Project Tahija Foundation (2008-2009), GIS Consultant for SOLOKOTAKITA (2009-until now). Now I’m working in

ASIA GEOSPATIAL FORUM 2011

Pusat Pemetaan Dasar Rupabumi-BAKOSURTANAL since December 2010 till now.

ASIA GEOSPATIAL FORUM 2011

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful