Distillation is probably the most widely used separation process in the chemical and allied industries; it’s application ranging from the rectification of alcohol, which has been practiced since antiquity to the fractionation of crude oil. DISTILLATION COLUMN DESIGN 1. The design of a distillation column can be divided into the following steps,specify the degree of separation required: set product specification. 2. Select the operating conditions: batch or continuous; operating pressure 3. Select the type of contenting device: plates or packing. 4. Determine the stage and reflux requirements: the number of equilibrium stages. 5. Size the column: diameter, number of real stages 6. Design the column internals: plates, distributors, packing supports. 7. Mechanical design: vessel and internal fittings The principal step will be to determine the stage and reflux requirements. This is a relatively simple procedure when the feed is a binary mixture, but a complex and difficult task when the feed is a binary mixture, but a complex and difficult task when the feed contains more than two components (multicomponent systems). CONTINUOUS DISTILLATION PROCESS DESCRIPTION: The separation of liquid mixtures by distillation depends on differences in volatility between the components. The greater the relative volatilities, the easier the separation. Vapors flows up the column and liquid counter-currently down the column. The vapors and liquid are brought into contact on plates, or packing. Part of the condensate from the condenser is returned to the top of the column to provide liquid

If the process requirement is to strip a volatile component from a relatively nonvolatile solvent. Above the feed. and part of the liquid from the base of the column is vaporized in the re-boiler and returned to provide the vapors flow. Close spacing is used with small- . either from the top or bottom of the column. The spacing chosen will depend on the column diameter and operating conditions.15m (6 in. the rectifying section may be omitted. APROXIMATE COLUMN SIZING An approximate estimate of the overall column size can be made once the number of real stages required for the separation is known. Plate spacings from 0. or more commonly. PLATE SPACING The overall height of the column will depend on the plate spacing. Several columns will be needed to separate a multicomponent feed into its constituent parts.) to I m (36 in. the liquid returned to the column will have the same composition as the top product. the concentration of the more volatile components is increased and this is called the enrichment.) arc normally used. where the top product is required as a vapor. This is often needed to make a rough estimate of the capital cost for project evaluation. the more volatile components are stripped from the liquid and this is known as the stripping section. Virtually pure top and bottom products can be obtained in a single column from a binary feed. and the column would then be called a stripping column. only sufficient liquid is condensed to provide the reflux flow to the column. the rectifying section. but where the feed contains more than two components. In the section below the feed. only a single "pure" product can he produced. and the condenser is referred to as a partial condenser.flow above the feed point (reflux). In a partial condenser the reflux will be in in equilibrium with the vapor leaving the condenser. In some operations. When the liquid is totally condensed.

and 0. For columns above I m diameter. when the detailed plate design is made. valve plates can operate efficiently at lower flow-rates than sieve plates.6 m will normally be used. This would be revised. A larger spacing will be needed between certain plates to accommodate feed and side-streams arrangements. DISTILLATION COLUMN DESIGN (Gas Concentration Unit) Temperature = T avg = 130˚C = 726 R . and for man-ways.5 m (18 in. They are essentially sieve plates with largediameter holes covered covered by movable flaps. Bubble-caps should only be used where very low vapor (gas) rates have to be handled and a positive liquid seal is essential at all flow-rates.diameter columns. and where head room is restricted. The vapour velocity must be below that which would cause excessive liquid entrainment or a high pressure drop. SELECTION OF PLATE Sieve plates are the cheapest and are satisfactory for most applications. plate spacing to 0. the valves closing as low vapor rates. As the area for vapor flow varies with the flow-rate. VALVE PLATES (FLOATING CAP PLATES) Valve plates are are proprietary designs. as necessary. which lift as the vapor flow increases. COLUMN DIAMETER The principal factor that determines the column diameter is the vapor flow-rate. as it will a column is installed in a building. Valve plates should be considered if the specified turn-down ratio cannot cannot be rnet with sieve plates.) can be taken as an initial estimate.

(avg) = 52. of trays = 40 Space below the bottom plate and above the top plate = 8ft Tray spacing = 30 in = 2.65 ft No.mole Specific gravity of liquid = 0.345 atm Moleculer wt.Pressure = Pavg = 12.7 kg/kg.89 ft/sec A = 29.58 Density of gas at standard conditions ℓG = ℓG = 1.143 atm ∆P = 0.78 ft 2 Dia of tower = = A D = 1.35 (from plant design by Timmerhaus) Vm = Vm = 1.24 lb/ft3 VM = Kv = 30 inches (for tray spacing) Kv = 0.5 ft .

78 (2x 3.78 ft2 AD = Down comer area = 0.31 coulson vol.276 ft 2 AN = Net area = Ac – Ad = 26. 11.1 x 23. of units : .5 Ft2 Active Area = Aa = AC – 2Ad = 29.5 x (40+8) = 108 ft Height = 33 m Reflux ratio = Ln/D =5 Plate Design DC = column diameter = 6.23 ft 2 Hole area = Ah =10% Aa =0.11 x 29. 6) Iw / Dc = 0.551 ft Assuming weir height = lw =5mm Hole diameter = 5mm Plate thickness = 5 mm No.Total height = 2.11 (From fig.78 = 3.15 ft AC = Area of column = 29.15 Iw = 4.78 = 0.74 Iw = 0.32ft2 At (Ad/AC) = 3.276) = 23.23 = 2.74 x 6.276 / 29.

13 = 320 No.32 lb / ft3 Vol. of drum = 535.32 lb = 6426.568.55 Density = 34. of units = 150 x 2.22 ft3 .12 ft3 Giving 20% allowance for variation in liquid rate Allowance = 1071. Flow rate = 22.82 ft3/ hr Assuming holdup time = 5 min (mostly) For 1 hr operation the drum handel: For 5 min drum handle = = 535.23 ft2 = 2.12 × 0.7 lb/hr x ft3/34.7 lb/ hr Specific gravity = 0.2 = 214.13 m2 For atandard we have 150 units /m2 No.56 x 2 = 1071. of units = 320 DEBUTANIZER OVERHEAD REFLUX DRUM DESIGN: FEED = 100122 Kg/hr = 220568.Active area = Aa = 23.56 ft3 Assuming separator is half filled with liquid Total vol.

Actual vol. of drum = 1071.17 ft L=3xD L = 24.12 +214.75 D= D= Dia of drum = 8.11 Kg/cm2 P = 158 Psi Radius = R = 49.02 inch Material of construction = KCS .5 ft Length of drum = 24.5 ft Thickness of wall Pressure = 11. = D3 x 0.34 ft3 Volume = Area × Length Volume = × L Volume = × 3D (L = 3D) Vol.22 = 1285.

85 Corrosion allowance = Cc = 0.125 in t= t= t = 0.66 inch Page 141 .Tensile strength = = 13750 Psi Efficiency of Joint = EJ = 0.

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