Development Experience of Nigeria

(Term Paper on Development Finance)

Submitted By:
A S M Rezaul Karim Syed Abdul Aziz Joyonta Kumar Mukh. ID#14022 ID#14041 ID#14042

EMBA Program Department Of Finance University Of Dhaka 14 December 2009

Development is perceived as a multidimensional process involving major changes in social structures, popular attitudes, and national institutions as well as acceleration of economic growth, the reduction of inequality, and the eradication of poverty. Development must encompass the changes by which the entire social system is tuned to the diverse basic needs and desires of individuals and social groups within that system. Nigeria, a low income (LIC) developing North African country as classified by UNDP in 2001 possesses all of the characteristics of a developing nations. Like all other developing nation the process of development is hindered here by excess inefficient population, improper health and hygienic condition, colonialism and autocracy, corruption and mismanagement, low income and low savings, dependence on the subsistence economy as well as on the external economic and political forces. The World Bank has said that almost nothing positive has happened in Nigeria in the past three decades. Though Nigeria reaped bountifully from oil resources, its performance in the economic sector had been startlingly poor; the country's per capita income witnessed major erosion since its peak in the early 1980s. With a successful implementation of the new reforms, the country stands a chance of reducing its external debts by 70 per cent through cancellation. Nigeria is the 10th largest oil producer in the world. The oil is the single most important sector in the country's economy, providing over 90 percent of its total exports.. Experts on Nigeria predict hard times, but the promise of democracy brings hope. The need to use IT as an avenue to speed up the poverty alleviation program is a major priority of the current democratic government in the country. Also to make the human capital in the country more relevant and participate successfully in the global economy driven by IT is another challenge for it. Official Name Federal Republic of Nigeria Capital Abuja Largest city Lagos Official languages English, Hausa, Igbo, Yoruba Recognised regional languages Languages of Nigeria Name of the nationality Nigerian Independence From the United Kingdom ,1914 Unification of Southern and Northern Nigeria 1914 Declared and recognized October 1, 1960 Republic declared October 1, 1963 Area Total 923,768 km2 (32nd) 356,667 sq mi Water (%) 1.4 Population 2009 estimate 154,729,000 (8th)

0 HISTORY 2. However. Chad and Cameroon in the east.450 43. who trace their lineages back to the patriarchal king-figure. with the International Monetary Fund projecting a growth of 9% in 2008 and 8. in the south. and with a population of over 150 million it is the most populous 'black' country in the world. It is a regional power. The kingdoms of Ifẹ and Oyo in the western block of Nigeria became prominent about 700–900 and 1400 respectively. and Niger in the north. 2. Ifẹ produced the terra cotta and bronze heads. Nri and Aguleri. later named Lagos by the Portuguese. the Yoruba mythology believes that Ile-Ife is the source of the human race and that it predates any other civilization. Benin and Togo to about 8500 BC. Its coast lies on the Gulf of Guinea. Their dominance reached as far as the well known city of Eko. Eri. the Ọyọ extended as far as modern Togo.1 Early History The Yoruba people date their presence in the area of modern republics of Nigeria.8/sq mi 2008 estimate $315. In southeastern Nigeria the Kingdom of Nri of the Igbo people flourished from the controversial date of around the 10th century until 1911. The economy of Nigeria is one of the fastest growing in the world. .3% in 2009. The three largest and most influential ethnic groups in Nigeria are the Hausa.Density GDP (PPP) Total Per capita GDP (nominal) Total Per capita Gini (2003) HDI (2007) Currency 167. Igbo and Yorbua.401 billion (2006 Estimate) $2. The capital city is Abuja. The Nri Kingdom was ruled by the Eze Nri. Another prominent kingdom in south western Nigeria was the Kingdom of Benin whose power lasted between the 15th and 19th century. officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria. and is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations.403 billion 2008 estimate $1.134 (2005) $214.5/km2 (71st) 433. where the Igbo creation myth originates. a part of the Atlantic Ocean. is listed among the "Next Eleven" economies. is a federal constitutional republic comprising thirty-six states and one Federal Capital Territory. are in the territory of the Umeuri clan. The city of Nri is considered to be the foundation of Igbo culture.499 (low) (154th) Nigerian naira (₦) (NGN) Nigeria. Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa and the eighth most populous country in the world.7 (medium) 0. The country is located in West Africa and shares land borders with the Republic of Benin in the west.

and called the port Lagos after the Portuguese town of Lagos.3 Post-independence On October 1. the area was formally united as the Colony and Protectorate of Nigeria. which was largely dominated by Yoruba people and led by Obafemi Awolowo. with consequences felt in Nigeria's political life ever since.2. Following the Napoleonic Wars. Nigeria gained its independence from the United Kingdom. In 1914. The Europeans traded with the ethnicities of the coast and also established a trade in slaves which affected many Nigerian ethnicities. Newly independent Nigeria's government was a coalition of conservative parties: the Nigerian People's Congress (NPC). Forming the opposition was the comparatively liberal Action Group (AG). the Federal Government soon became the centre of political struggle and the centre became the threshold of power in the country. the British expanded trade with the Nigerian interior. 1960. the great wave for independence was sweeping across Africa. in response to the growth of Nigerian nationalism and demands for independence. Western education and the development of a modern economy proceeded more rapidly in the south than in the north. As oil production and revenue rose. On January 1. a party dominated by Northerners and those of the Islamic faith. Nigeria remained divided into the northern and southern provinces and Lagos colony. Administratively. The northern military clique benefited immensely from the oil boom to the detriment of the Nigerian people and economy. the foremost world power at the time. part of the British Empire. in Algarve. In 1900 the company's territory came under the control of the British government. 2. increasing corruption and graft at all levels of government misappropriated most of these earnings. who became Nigeria's maiden Governor-General in 1960.4 Military Era During the oil boom of the 1970s.2 Colonial Era Portuguese were the first Europeans to begin trade in Nigeria. In 1885 British claims to a West African sphere of influence received international recognition and in the following year the Royal Niger Company was chartered under the leadership of Sir George Taubman Goldie. Following World War II. the Nigerian government created a dangerous situation as it became increasingly . By the middle of the 20th century. 2. 1901 Nigeria became a British protectorate. and the Igbo and Christian dominated National Council of Nigeria and the Cameroons (NCNC) led by Nnamdi Azikiwe. successive constitutions legislated by the British Government moved Nigeria toward self-government on a representative and increasingly federal basis. The new republic incorporated a number of people with aspirations of their own sovereign nations. However. Slavery was not finally outlawed in northern Nigeria until 1936. Nigeria joined OPEC and billions of dollars generated by production in the oil-rich Niger Delta flowed into the coffers of the Nigerian state. As oil revenues fuelled the rise of federal subsidies to states and precariously to individuals. This name stuck on with more European trade with the region. which moved to consolidate its hold over the area of modern Nigeria.

Abacha's death yielded an opportunity for return to civilian rule. Buhari promised major reforms but his government fared little better than its predecessor.dependent on oil revenues and the international commodity markets for budgetary and economic concerns abstaining from economic stability.5 Recent History Nigeria re-achieved democracy in 1999 when it elected Olusegun Obasanjo. 2. Free and fair elections were finally held on the 12th of June. Abacha proved to be perhaps Nigeria's most brutal ruler and employed violence on a wide scale to suppress the continuing pandemic of civilian unrest. Ibrahim Babangida. it was generally viewed as a positive development by most of the population. The regime would come to an end in 1998 when the dictator was found dead amid dubious circumstances. he was accused by others of the same. Nigerians participated in a brief return to democracy when Obasanjo transferred power to the civilian regime of Shehu Shagari. which most federal revenue was dedicated to servicing. The Shagari government was viewed as corrupt and incompetent by virtually all sectors of Nigerian society. a Yoruba and former military head of state. Nigeria has shown marked improvements in attempts to tackle government corruption and to hasten development. Babangida's tenure was marked as a sudden burst of political activity: he instituted the International Monetary Fund's Structural Adjustment Program (SAP) to aid in the repayment of the country's crushing international debt. Beginning in 1979. The new head of state. Babangida's caretaker regime headed by Ernest Shonekan survived only until late 1993 when General Sani Abacha took power in another military coup. . After Babangida survived an abortive coup. Babangida was foced to relinquish office to a civilian run government. Although the elections which brought Obasanjo to power in 1999 and again in 2003 were condemned as unfree and unfair. That spelled a major condemnation to federalism in Nigeria. and his regime was overthrown by yet another military coup in 1985. While Obasanjo showed willingness to fight corruption. He also inflamed religious tensions in the nation and particularly the south by enrolling Nigeria in the Organization of the Islamic Conference. as the new President ending almost thirty three-years of military rule (from 1966 until 1999) excluding the short-lived second republic (between 1979 and 1983). Babangida's regime was adjudged to be at the apogee of corruption in the history of the nation as it was during his time that corruption became officially diluted in Nigeria. He avoided coup plots by bribing army generals. promptly declared himself President and Commander in chief of the Armed Forces and the ruling Supreme Military Council and also set 1990 as the official deadline for a return to democratic governance. Money had been found in various western European countries banks traced to him. 1993. so when the regime was overthrown by the military coup of Mohammadu Buhari shortly after the regime's fraudulent reelection in 1984. Several hundred millions dollars in accounts traced to him were unearthed in 1999.

Nigeria made the liberation and restoration of the dignity of Africa the centrepiece of its foreign policy and played a leading role in the fight against the apartheid regime in South Africa.s foreign relation. has fuelled corruption and graft.Umaru Yar'Adua. Due to the above issues. sectarianism (especially religious). Like in many other African societies. Upon gaining independence in 1960. Ethnocentricism. The immediate past president. Kin-selective altruism has made its way into Nigerian politics and has spurned various attempts by tribalists to concentrate Federal power to a particular region of their interests. with the latter country sponsoring and overseeing the construction of Nigeria's parliament buildings. and prebendalism have played a visible role in Nigerian politics both prior and subsequent to independence in 1960. as vote rigging and other means of coercion are practised by all major parties in order to remain competitive. Nationalist movements such as Oodua Peoples Congress. came into power in the general election of 2007 – an election that was witnessed and condemned by the international community as being massively flawed. prebendalism and extremely excessive corruption continue to constitute major challenges to Nigeria. tribalism. Movement for the Emancipation of the Niger Delta and a civil war. Nigeria's current political parties are pan-national and irreligious in character (though this does not preclude the continuing preeminence of the dominant ethnicities). . it was adjudged by the policy institute at Kuru that only the 1959 and 1979 elections witnessed minimal rigging. Nationalism has also led to active secessionist movements such as MASSOB. Nigeria's three largest ethnic groups have maintained historical preeminence in Nigerian politics. Olusegun Obasanjo. Yoruba. with executive power exercised by the president and with overtones of the Westminster System model in the composition and management of the upper and lower houses of the bicameral legislature. 3. the Hausa. and Igbo. 3. of the People's Democratic Party. acknowledged fraud and other electoral "lapses" but said the result reflected opinion polls. competition amongst these three groups. In 1983.1 Foreign Relations Relations with and dependebnce on the developed nations is a major side of Nigeria. One notable exception to the African focus of Nigeria's foreign policy was the close relationship the country enjoyed with Israel throughout the 1960s.0 GOVERNMENT Nigeria is a Federal Republic modelled after the United States. Ethnic violence over the oil producing Niger Delta region and inadequate infrastructures are some of the current issues in the country.

and in late November 2006 organized an Africa-South America Summit in Abuja to promote what some attendees termed "South-South" linkages on a variety of fronts.. contain the world's largest diversity of butterflies. . Millions of Nigerians have emigrated at times of economic hardship to Europe.0 GEOGRAPHY Nigeria is located in western Africa on the Gulf of Guinea and has a total area of 923. Jamaica and Kenya. notably the United States and more recently China and developing countries. and is about twice the size of California. Nigeria was also a founding member of the Organization for African Unity (now the African Union). making it the world's 32nd-largest country (after Tanzania). Nigeria readily sent troops to the Congo at the behest of the United Nations shortly after independence (and has maintained membership since that time)... From the Obudu Hills in the southeast through the beaches in the south. and has tremendous influence in West Africa and Africa on the whole. It shares a 4047 km (2515-mile) border with Benin (773 km). After returning in their own nation these Nigerians try to formulate the development program for their country in developed world style which sometimes proves to be ineffective. North America and Australia among others. the Lagos estuary and savannah in the middle and southwest of the country and the Sahel to the encroaching Sahara in the extreme north. Chad (87 km). and maintains membership in Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries OPEC which it joined in July. It is comparable in size to Venezuela. Nigeria is also an important centre for biodiversity. the rainforest. Nigeria has additionally founded regional cooperative efforts in West Africa. It is widely believed that the areas surrounding Calabar.Nigeria's foreign policy was soon tested in the 1970s after its own civil war and quickly committed itself to the liberation struggles going on in the Southern Africa sub-region. and has a coastline of at least 853 km.669 mi²). 4.[39] Nigeria has a varied landscape.768 km² (356. With this African-centred stance. 1971. notably Ghana. The drill monkey is only found in the wild in Southeast Nigeria and neighboring Cameroon. Cameroon (1690 km). Nigeria retains membership in the Non-Aligned Movement. Niger (1497 km). Its status as a major petroleum producer figures prominently in its sometimes vicissitudinous international relations with both developed countries. Nigeria has remained a key player in the international oil industry since the 1970s. It is estimated that over a million Nigerians have immigrated to the United States and constitute the Nigerian American populace. Cross River State.

The rest of the country. resulting in untreated waste being dumped in places where it can pollute waterways and groundwater. is savannah. legal. and Conflict in the Niger Delta about strife has arisen in connection with those issues. population growth and the inability of municipal councils to manage the resulting rise in industrial and domestic waste. It is perceived by many climate change experts that food production and security in the northern Sahel region of the country will suffer as semi-arid areas will have more dry periods in the future.Nigeria's most expansive topographical region is that of the valleys of the Niger and Benue River valleys (which merge into each other and form a "y" shape). Some of the 'solutions' have been disastrous to the environment. and is rapidly approaching middle income status . When dividing Nigeria by climatic regions. savannah (insignificant tree cover. and the rest of the country emerge. home of the large oil industry. and is part of the Cameroonian Highlands forests ecoregion. the far north. experiences serious oil spills and other environmental problems. 5. The far north is defined by its almost desert-like climate. Waste management including sewage treatment. 4. well-developed financial. the linked processes of deforestation and soil degradation.with its abundant supply of resources. increased urbanization. and rainfall is between 20 and 60 inches per year. Nigeria is covered by three types of vegetation: forests (where there is significant tree cover). is mainly found in the mountains near the Cameroonian border. The latter is the least common. Waste management presents problems in a mega city like Lagos and other major Nigerian cities which are linked with economic development. three regions. and climate change or global warming are the major environmental problems in Nigeria. the far south. communications. The far south is defined by its tropical rainforest climate.0 ECONOMY Nigeria is classified as an emerging market. poverty and lack of competence of the municipal government are seen as the major reasons for high levels of waste pollution in major Nigerian cities. where annual rainfall is 60 to 80 inches a year. Africans contribute only about one metric ton of carbon dioxide per person per year. Plains rise to the north of the valleys. and montane land. with grasses and flowers located between trees).1 Environment Nigeria's Delta region. everything in between the far south and the far north. transport sectors and stock exchange (the Nigerian Stock Exchange). In terms of global warming. which is the second largest . Environmental issue in the Niger Delta is a major concern for this country. Haphazard industrial planning. where rain is less than 20 inches per year.

The United States is the country's largest foreign investor. Petroleum plays a large role in the Nigerian economy.754 per person in 2007. Nigeria accumulated a significant foreign debt to finance major infrastructural investments. has led to disruptions in oil production and currently prevents the country from exporting at 100% capacity. . The bulk of economic activity is centred in 4 main cities: Lagos. The government has recently begun expanding this infrastructure to space based communications.1 Resource Endowments . Nigeria has a space satellite which is monitored at the Nigerian National Space Research and Development Agency Headquarters in Abuja. Kaduna. agitation for better resource control in the Niger Delta.6 billion in 2007. limiting repayment to the interest portion of the loans. of any country worldwide.S. Nigeria is currently the 50th-largest export market for U. It has the seventh-largest trade surplus with the U.S. Port Harcourt. Nigeria used part of its oil profits to pay the residual 40%. Nigeria made history in April 2006 by becoming the first African Country to completely pay off its debt (estimated $30 billion) owed to the Paris Club. Etisalat. Previously. corruption.Key Sectors in the Economic Development Nigeria is the 12th largest producer of petroleum in the world and the 8th largest exporter. Nigeria is ranked 37th in the world in terms of GDP (PPP) as of 2007. goods and the 14th-largest exporter of goods to the U. Arrears and penalty interest accumulated on the unpaid principal which increased the size of the debt. economic development had been hindered by years of military rule. Nigeria is the United States' largest trading partner in sub-Saharan Africa and supplies a fifth of its oil (11% of oil imports). 5. However.15 billion annually for poverty reduction programmes. after negotiations by the Nigeria authorities. and Abuja. freeing up at least $1. major emerging market operators (like MTN. With the fall of oil prices during the 1980s oil glut Nigeria struggled to keep up with its loan payments and eventually defaulted on its principal debt repayments. During the oil boom of the 1970s. and has the 10th largest proven reserves. Zain and Globacom) basing their largest and most profitable centres in the country. However. The restoration of democracy and subsequent economic reforms have successfully put Nigeria back on track towards achieving its full economic potential as one of the Major Economies in Africa. (The country joined OPEC in 1971). development is marginal.7 billion in 2005 to 292. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit and the World Bank. Nigerian GDP at purchasing power parity has nearly doubled from $170. The GDP per head has jumped from $692 per person in 2006 to $1. and mismanagement. Beyond these three economic centers. its main oil producing Africa. in October 2005 Nigeria and its Paris Club creditors reached an agreement in which Nigeria repurchased its debt at a discount of approximately 60%.S. Nigeria has one of the fastest growing telecommunications markets in the world. accounting for 40% of GDP and 80% of Government earnings.

the private entrepreneur and also the foreign investor. These movies are popular in other African countries and some parts of Europe. inefficient and corrupted that is a major hinderence to the development. The only breakdown available was by gender: males numbered 71. and palm oil and a significant producer of coconuts. tantalite. Inspite of these promising factors for development Nigeria’s human resource gives a gloomy picture that is mostly uneducated. . females numbered 68. now a subsidiary of General Motors). It also has a manufacturing industry which includes leather and textiles (centred Kano. lead and zinc. National census results in the past few decades have been disputed. and Lagos). the mining industry in Nigeria is still in it infancy. citrus fruits. private equity funds and investment banks. iron ore. plastics and processed food.7% rural and 48. tin. The United Nations estimates that the population in 2009 was at 154.293. Agriculture used to be the principal foreign exchange earner of Nigeria. limestone. asset management companies.2 Relative Importance of Public and Private Sector The country is highly rich with regard to oil. yams and sugar cane. maize. Abeokuta. brokerage houses. coal. At one time.859. The extraction and management of oil resource is fully under control of the government which employs foreign companies in its extraction. insurance companies and brokers.The country has a highly developed financial services sector.003. distributed as 51. with a mix of local and international banks.542.000. The country has recently made considerable amount of revenue from home made Nigerian Movies which are sold locally and internationally. Apoart from its oil industry the countries business and industries are shared among the Government.5 people per square kilometer.729. With the growing economy the importance of the private sector is increasing. niobium.08. and Nigeria has vast areas of underutilized arable land. Nigeria also has a wide array of underexploited mineral resources which include natural gas. cocoa. cassava. bauxite. About 60% of Nigerians work in the agricultural sector. pearl millet. 6. gold. car manufacturing (for the French car manufacturer Peugeot as well as for the English truck manufacturer Bedford.3% urban. The results of the most recent census were released in December 2006 and gave a population of 140.0 DEMOGRAPHICS Nigeria is the most populous country in Africa but exactly how populous is a subject of speculation. Nigeria was the world's largest exporter of groundnuts. and with a population density of 167. Onitsha. tshirts.709. 5. Despite huge deposits of these natural resources.

6%. Retaining these expensively trained professionals has been identified as one of the goals of the government. which about the same as the number of doctors working in the Nigerian public service. and general living conditions in Nigeria are poor.1 Medical & Health Care Health.4 and 16.3% of the population is between 0–14 years of age. the birth rate is significantly higher than the death rate. spearheaded by the W.000 Nigerian doctors were practicing in the United States alone. In 1995.9 per 1000 people respectively. and the Nigerian government estimates that city will have expanded to 25 million residents by 2015. As of 2004.According to the United Nations. like many developing countries. with subsequent improvement in the health care indicators and improvement in health care efficiency and cost.6% is between 15–65. to combat polio and malaria that has been met with controversy in some regions. Nigeria has been undergoing explosive population growth and one of the highest growth and fertility rates in the world. . It was estimated that 21.H. in part by implementing user fees. malaria. and even conservative estimates conclude that more than 20% of the world's black population lives in Nigeria. 6. A comprehensive approach strategy was extended to all areas of health care.O. Life expectancy is 47 years (average male/female) and just over half the population has access to potable water and appropriate sanitation. Nigeria has been reorganizing its health system since the Bamako Initiative of 1987 formally promoted community-based methods of increasing accessibility of drugs and health care services to the an estimated 15 million today. HIV/AIDS rate in Nigeria is much lower compared to the other African nations such as Kenya or South Africa whose prevalence (percentage) rates are in the double digits. at 40. By their projections. one out of every four Africans is Nigerian Presently.1 deaths per 1000 live births. The Nigerian health care system is continuously faced with a shortage of doctors known as 'brain drain' due to the fact that many highly skilled Nigerian doctors emigrate to North America and Europe. Lagos has grown from 300. while 54. In 2003.000 in 1950. there has been a vaccination drive. According to current data. the percentage is of children under five has gone up rather than down between 1990 and 2003 and infant mortality is 97. Nigeria is the eighth most populous country in the world. About Nigeria. suffers from a polio crisis as well as periodic outbreaks of cholera. the HIV prevalence rate among 20 to 29 year-olds was 5. resulting in more efficient and equitable provision of services. Nigeria will be one of the countries in the world that will account for most of the world's total population increase by 2050. 2006 estimates claim 42. and sleeping sickness.. Nigeria's largest city is Lagos. The new strategy dramatically increased accessibility through community-based healthcare reform. health care.

Ibibio. tertiary education was improved so that it would reach every subregion of Nigeria. In 2004 the Nigerian National Planning Commission described the country’s education system as “disfunctional. Many of the immigrants. but the attendance rate for secondary education is only 29% (32% for males. These minorities mostly reside in major cities such as Lagos and Abuja. 27% for females). and certain groups. Greeks.3. or in the Niger Delta as employees for the major oil companies. three years of junior secondary school. Ijaw. Ebira Nupe and Tiv comprise 27%.[6] The majority of the Yoruba speak the Yoruba language (Yoruba: èdèe Yorùbá. Americans. The rate of secondary school attendance is 32 percent for males and 27 percent for females. and four years of university education leading to a bachelor’s degree.7%) is higher than that for women (60. Education is provided free by the government.000). government-supported education. Nigeria provides free. such as nomads and the handicapped. sometimes called Saros (immigrants from Sierra Leone) and Amaro (ex-slaves from Brazil) later became prominent merchants and missionaries in Lagos and Abeokuta.1. but attendance is not compulsory at any level. The Yoruba constitute around 120 million individuals throughout West Africa[7] and are found predominantly in Nigeria with approximately 21 percent of its total population. Igbo.” Reasons for this characterization included decaying institutions and ill-prepared graduates. while the Edo. 6. 68% of the population is literate. The largest ethnic groups are the Fulani/Hausa. are under-served. Many ex-slaves came to Nigeria following the emancipation of slaves in Latin America. èdè). East Indians. and Kofyar. accounting for 68% of population. a number of ex-slaves of Afro-Cuban and Afro-Brazilian descent and emigrants from Sierra Leone established communities in Lagos. Ibadan and other regions of Nigeria. including the Pyem. The middle belt of Nigeria is known for its diversity of ethnic groups. There are small minorities of British. A number of Cubans settled Nigeria as political refugees following the Cuban Revolution. After the 1970s oil boom.[8] . Yoruba.6%). Chinese (est.6. 6. Kanuri.2 Education Education is also in a state of neglect. creating a country of rich ethnic diversity. and the rate for men (75. three years of senior secondary school. The education system has been described as "dysfunctional" largely due to decaying institutional infrastructure. Yoruba Yoruba people (Yorùbá in Yoruba orthography) are one of the largest ethno-linguistic or ethnic groups in west Africa. with varying languages and customs. white Zimbabweans. other minorities make up the remaining 7 percent.3 Ethno-linguistic Groups Nigeria has more than 250 ethnic groups. Japanese. Goemai. The education system consists of six years of primary school. In the middle of the nineteenth century. Lebanese and refugees and immigrants from other West African or East African nations. Syrian. 50.

Ghana and Togo. Mandé and Tuareg as well as other Afro-Asiatic and Nilo-Saharan groups further East in Chad and Sudan. Fon. and other Gbe-speaking peoples in the southwest. Antigua and Barbuda. With the decline of the Nok and Sokoto. and the Ẹsan and Afemai to the southeast. 6. as well as to countries such as Libya. Many Hausa have moved to large coastal cities in West Africa such as Lagos. Cote d'Ivoire. There are also significant numbers found in regions of Sudan. the Hausa are culturally and historically close to the Fulani. Bahamas. a majority of them speak English alongside Igbo as a result of British colonialism Igbo people are among the largest and most influential ethnic groups in Nigeria Due to the effects of migration and the Atlantic slave trade. While the majority of the Yoruba live in western Nigeria. Kumasi and Cotonou. Trinidad and Tobago. USA. established a number of strong states in what is now Northern and Central Nigeria and Eastern Niger. In terms of cultural relations to other peoples of West Africa.The Yoruba share borders with the Borgu (variously called Bariba and Borgawa) in the northwest.3. In rural areas in Africa.Barbados. Ghana. Puerto Rico. and Chad and smaller communities scattered throughout West Africa and on the traditional Hajj route across the Sahara Desert and Sahel. Dominica. Jamaica. Nigeria is considered the center of Hausa trade and culture.[9] 6. Songhai. Accra. Their most important crop is the yam. also referred to as the Ibo(e). the Hausa aristocracy adopted Islam in the 11th century. Their exact population outside Africa is unknown. and taro. Between 500 and 700 Hausa people. Igbo Igbo people. who had been slowly moving west from Nubia and mixing in with the local Northern and Central Nigerian population. Cameroon. which includes various Igboid languages and dialects today. and the Egun. Other staple crops include cassava. Ebo(e] Eboansor Heebo (Igbo: Ndị Igbọ) are an ethnic group living chiefly in southeastern and south Nigeria. Haiti. there are Igbo populations in countries such as Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea.3.3. The Igala and other related groups are found in the northeast. the Nupe (whom they often call. They speak Igbo. who had previously controlled Central and Northern Nigeria between 800 BC and AD 200. there are also substantial indigenous Yoruba communities in the Republic of Benin. the Edo who are also known as Bini or Benin people (unrelated to the people of the 'Republic of Benin').2. Grenada. celebrations are held annually to celebrate its harvesting. Hausa The Hausa are a Sahelian people chiefly located in the West African regions of northern Nigeria and southeastern Niger. the Hausa were able to emerge as the new power in the region. . the Igbo are mostly farmers. 'Tapa') and Ebira in the north. but today many African Americans and Afro Caribbeans are of Igbo descent. as well as outside Africa. Kano.Guyana. Brazil. Cuba. Closely linked with the Kanuri people of Kanem-Bornu (Lake Chad).

Togo). but Nigeria's recent development in Football certainly acknowledged the country in the International arena. Christian Nigerians are about evenly split between Roman Catholicism and Protestantism. The majority of Nigerian Muslims are Sunni (95%). Some northern states have incorporated Sharia law into their previously secular legal systems. enlighthens / triumphs). In September 2007. becoming the first African nation to have achieved that feat and the second nation (after Brazil) to do so.0 SPORT Like many nations. 1998. which has brought about some controversy. They won the gold medal for football in the 1996 Summer Olympics (in which they beat Argentina) and have reached the finals of the U-20 World Championship in 2005. and also hosted the Junior World Cup. Though Football is not a major issue regarding the economic development of a country. known as the Super Eagles. Other minority religious and spiritual groups in Nigeria include Hinduism. Leading Protestant churches are the Church of Nigeria. The main religions are Islam. many people are adherents to Yorubo/Irunmole spirituality with its philosophy of divine destiny that all can become Orisha (ori. This name & fame in Football can be utilized properly in earning foreign currency. Nigeria had previously won the very first U-17 tournament in 1985 (China '85). spiritual head. . Nigeria is home to a variety of religions which tend to vary regionally. Nigeria has become an African hub for the Grail Movement. and indigenous religions. won the African Cup of Nations in 1980 and 1994. has made the World Cup on three occasions 1994. of the Anglican communion.4 Religion and eligious composition. The Bahá’í Faith. while Igboland is predominantly Catholic. There is also a local Premier League of football. football is Nigeria's national sport. The Yoruba area contains a large Anglican population. central regions tend to be religiously divided. ma re. and 2002. and Chrislam (a syncretic faith melding elements of Christianity and Islam). and the Nigerian Baptist Convention. This situation accentuates regional and ethnic distinctions and has often been seen as a source of sectarian conflict amongst the population. Kano State has sought to incorporate Sharia law into its constitution. Christianity.6. the Rosicrucian order (AMORC). Christianity is concentrated in the south while Islam dominates in the north. most notably Yoruba Orisha or Orisa veneration and Ifá and Igbo Odinani. but a significant Shia minority exists (see Shia in Nigeria). Benin. Nigeria won the U-17 World cup for the third time. 1993 (Japan '93) and in 2007 (Korea '07). Nigeria's national football team. and the Hare Krishnas. Further. Across Yorubaland (western Nigeria. 7. the God source of all energy. sha. is chosen: to be one with Olodumare (oni odu. Judaism.

Nigeria is faced by a number of societal issues due primarily to a history of inefficiency in its governance. Fraud and corruption still scare businesses away from Nigeria. arbitrary arrests.Some of the nation's players are internationally wellknown and earning a lot playing in different foreign club. societal violence and vigilante killings. bad roads and wretched sanitation. stoning and long prison terms.1 Human Rights Nigeria's human rights record remains poor and government officials at all levels continue to commit serious abuses. the most significant human rights problems are: extrajudicial killings and use of excessive force by security forces. torture and other cruel. child labor. rape. restrictions on freedom of assembly. with its violent crime. judicial corruption and executive influence on the judiciary. According to the official September 2007 FIFA World Rankings. press. In a recent report.S. Nigeria is also involved in other sports such as basketball. cricket and track and field. female genital mutilation (FGM). .0 SOCIETAL ISSUES Despite its vast government revenue from the mining of petroleum. Nigeria was the top-ranked football nation in Africa and the 19th highest in the world. So with regard to human right. offenses such as alcohol consumption. and the abridgement of the right of citizens to change the government. Boxing is also an important sport in Nigeria. as the world’s worst place for expatriates to live in. inhuman or degrading treatment of prisoners. a consultancy. the condition of this country provides a gloomy and distressed picture. even though its market of 140m people is Africa’s largest. child abuse and child sexual exploitation. region and religion. discrimination based on sex. 8. Department of State. Dick Tiger and Samuel Peter are both former World Champions. domestic violence. 8. a critical factor while considering development. ORC Worldwide. listed Lagos. infidelity and theft carry harsh sentences. Under the Shari'a penal code that applies to Muslims in twelve northern states. infringement of privacy rights. homosexuality. prolonged pretrial detention. ethnicity. According to the U. movement. human trafficking for the purpose of prostitution and forced labor. including amputation. speech and religion. lashing. detainees and suspects. harsh and life-threatening prison and detention center conditions. impunity for abuses by security forces.

though it is now used in other places. The research was reported by one of the world's top science magazines. Nigeria prior to independence has been faced with sectarian tensions and violence. 8.8. In 2003. In 2002. some ethnic violence has persisted. New Scientist. The rioting erupted after Muslims in the country reacted in anger to comments made by a newspaper reporter. and children with a further 521 injured taken to hospital. The report considered that the country's family life and culture were more important than its problems and material wealth in determining happiness. sometimes competing ethno-linguistic groups. the Nigerian Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (or EFCC) was created to combat this and other forms of organized financial crime. where both state and civilian forces employ varying methods of coercion in attempts gain control over regional petroleum resources. It has succeeded in bringing several "419" crime bosses to justice and in some cases has been able to return the stolen money to victims. Nigerians were reported to be the happiest people in a scientific survey carried out in 65 nations in 1999–2001. Rioters in Kaduna killed an estimated 105 men. Abuja. Some of the ethnic groups like the Ogoni have experienced severe environmental degradation due to petroleum extraction. women. Though .3 Happiness Survey In 2003. 9.4 Crime A type of advance fee fraud known as "419" (named after Section 419 of the Nigerian Penal Code) and the "Nigerian scam" is a form of confidence trick practiced by individuals and criminal syndicates (organized crime) that is commonly associated with Nigeria. The confidence man persuades the target to advance relatively small sums of money (the advance fee) in the hope of realizing a much larger gain (usually touted as millions).2 Strife and Sectarian Violence Due to its multitude of diverse. to London in the wake of violent protests in the Northern part of the country that left more than 100 people dead and over 500 injured. 8.0 COMPARISON WITH BANLAGDESH From the above discussion about the experience of development of Nigeria it is very clear that the country holds all of the criteria of a least developed or broadly a developing country. There has subsequently been a period of relative harmony since the Federal Government introduced tough new measures against religious violence in all affected parts of the country. This is particularly a major issue in the oil-producing Niger Delta region. See Nigeria tops happiness survey. Since the end of the civil war in 1970. organizers of the Miss World Pageant were forced to move the pageant from the Nigerian capital. and was picked up by a number of news outlets.

sea level rising. corruption. Bangladesh is another example of least developed coutry in the south Asia. relative lack of civill strife. Food for Work Program (FFWP). Natural calamities like cyclone. On the otherhand. World Bank financed Structural Adjustment programmes has increased public food distribution system. Though it is not oil rich countr like Nigeria but it is struggling to keep its head above water. Geographical area of NIgeria is six point five times (923768 km2) than that of Bangladesh (143988 km2) implying that Bangladesh is more densely populated than Nigeria. location in the Asia. Onthe otherhand Bangladesh had a per capita income of $380 (2000) which was about $1650 PPP income. drought. man made calamities like political instability. In light of above discussion the common and diverse characteristics of development between Nigeria and Bangladesh are discussed below. world growth center. family planing and small scale credit. Moreover it can be argued that Bangladesh enjoys a a special advantages in population homogenious in ethnicity. and thus helps in reducing the gap. Grain price stabilization program has assisted the absolutely poor. healthcare. Bangladesh has a population of 130 million (2000) whereas Nigeria’s population was 127 million. basic education. Size and Income Though the size and income of the developing nations may be different from one another.6%) than that of Nigeria (2. hartal.its present perfomance with respect to growth of GDP indicating that it is quite a developing nation and may secure a place in the middle income group if it can secure its recent developing trend. and river erosion are the major constraint of the development. The recent improvement of Bangladesh has been dramatic. Instead of all of these obstacles some of the policy and programmes taken by the government in the recent years have not only developed the country as a whole but also contributed towards improving the condition of severely poverty stricking people. religion and language.8%) With rspect to national income Nigeria had a per capita income of $260(2000) which was about $790 PPP income. autocratic government.Public agricultural extension and rural credit services have improved the storage and distribution infrastructure. Microcredit by Grameen Bank model and other other independent NGOs like BRAC focussing on the needs of woman assisted the poor a lot providing basic nutrition. but in case of Bangladesh and Nigeria these two criteria fall in the same range. flood. .1. The different development criteria of Bangladesh and Nigeria have been shown below (upto 2000). skill development. And in recennt days it has succeeded to achieve some of its development goal. But with respect to growth rate of population Bangladesh is so far in a better position (1. tornado. and rich soil compared to Nigeria. 9. layoff are the other hindrance to development.

Though literacy rate is better in Nigeria but ratio of working female is higher in Bangladesh.336(1996) Latest n/a * n/a $480 (2006) $ 2085 (2006) n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 0. from its evolution as an independent country in 1960 was under military autocratic government for as long as 39 years whereas 130 m 143988 km2 380 $ $ 1650 3.2.470 (low) 0.2% (19902000) 26% 12% 61 89 56% 59% 42% 0.455 (low) 0.4% (19992000) 39% 17% 47 151 39% 37% 36% 0. Autocratic and Corrupt Government Both the coutry experienced the autocratic and corrupted government for a long time which was a major obstacle in their development process.506 (1996) Latest n/a n/a $640 $1945 (2006) n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a 0. Nigeria. Colonial Regime Both the countries were under colonial rule for a long period.With respect to the income distribution between porr and rich Bangladesh is in a better position because the GINI number is less in case of Bangladesh. 9.3 Military. Nigeria were unde Portugese and British colonial rule from 1901 to 1960 whereas Bangladesh was under the colonial rule of Britain from 1776 to 1947 and then was under Pakistanis autocratic government from 1947 to 1971.332(2006) Nigeria 2000 128 m 923768 km2 260 $ $790 -0.437(2003) . Annual Growth Agriculture as share of GDP Export as share of GDP Life Expectancy at birth Under age 5 mortality rate (in 1000 live birth) Child malnutrition (Underweight) Illiteracy rate Female as share of labour force HDI GINI * n/a: Not Available 9. Criteria Bangladesh 2000 Population Area GNP per capita GNP (PPP) Avg.

To reduce the dependency on external knowledge and resources. efficient population force. But in 2008 Nigeria’s GDP showed a 9% growth when the price of petroleum products jumped to 3 to 4 times worldwide.6. 9. 50. The most important things that Nigeria has to consider to smooth its development process are       To ensure better and universal education to build an effective. East Indians.Bangladesh being independent in 1971 was under a military nautocratic government from 1982 to 1990 and again from 2007 to 2008. Syrian. Japanese. CONCLUSION Though in the recent years the development of Nigeria has been accelerated to manifold due to the booming price of oil but it is a really a matter of consideration whether the fruit of development being shared among the people of all levels. ethncity and region have made it a place of conflicts and strifes. Greeks. creating a country of rich ethnic diversity. . Bangladesh on the otherside though doesn’t have such kind of resources. Degree of Dependence on External Economic and Political Forces Both the coutries are heavily dependent on external economic and political foces for the consultancy and funding in the process of development. 9. Chinese (est. with varying languages and customs. Nigeria’s economy and development activities mainly are dependent on Petroleum. Lebanese and refugees and immigrants from other West African or East African nations. 9. Bangladesh has not so many groups which gives it an advatages with this respect. by utilizing its vast population and fertile land. Americans. 10.5 Ethnic and Religious Composition Nigeria has more than 250 ethnic groups.4 Endowments of Physical and Human Resources With respect to physical resouces Nigeria is in far better position than Bangladesh as it is a Petroleum exporting country.There are small minorities of British. In the year 1980’s when the price of petroleum productswere falling it experienced a negative growth. To eliminate corruption and inefficiency from all sectors To ensure better health and hygeine for the next generation To involve all in the process of development To diminish rich-poor gap. As Gini number also decreases from 1996 to 2003 we can conclude that the country is also improving with regard to diminishing the differences between poor and rich. The differences in the religion. white Zimbabweans. tries hard todevelop by adopting different kind of policies and program.000).

http://www. Aminu. Palo Alto.imf. February 22. Table A.punchng. California: Annual Reviews 7. . http://www. 2. 1981. Current directions in West African prehistory. 2007. Thurstan. http://www. "The Punch: IMF predicts 9% GDP growth rate for Nigeria". 6. Ayodele. "IMF Survey: Nigeria Needs Sustained Reforms to Build on Success". http://allafrica. "IMF Survey: Nigeria Needs Sustained Reforms to Build on Success". 5. 2008 revision. http://www. Susan Keech. United Godwin.imf. 4. Shaw. "Africa: IMF Forecasts 9 Percent Growth for Nigeria” . 215–258 p 3.un.Bibliography: Nigeria: Its Archaeology and early history. Department of Economic and Social Affairs Population Division (2009) World Population Prospects.

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