This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
IP protocol: forwarding packets between routers Between routers or between end system and router high speed link: ATM, POS (Packet over SONET), satellite links access network: Ethernet, modem, xDSL, HFC Network structure network edge:applications and hosts network core: routers network of networks access networks, physical media: communication links
A Network network layer of functions required to transport packets end-to-end set examples: IP, Appletalk, IPX intermediate system forwards data not destined to itself Modern networks have more than the physical and the data link layers. The network layer is a set of mechanisms that can be used to send packets from one
computer to another in the world. There are two types of networks: With packet switching, data packets can be carried together on the same link. They are differentiated by addressing information. Packet switching is the basis for all data networks today, including the Internet, public data networks such as Frame Relay or X.25, and even ATM. Packet switches have queues. Network topology Network topology is the layout pattern of interconnections of the various elements (links, nodes, etc.) of a computer or biological network. Network topologies may be physical or logical. Physical topology refers to the physical design of a network including the devices, location and cable installation. Logical topology refers to how data is actually transferred in a network as opposed to its physical design. In general physical topology relates to a core network whereas logical topology relates to basic network. Topology A topology describes the configuration of a communication network. The way in which the elements of a network are mapped or arranged is known as a network topology. A topology describes the physical and the logical interconnection between the different nodes of a network. Network topologies are classified as physical, logical and signal topologies. A physical topology describes the mapping of the network nodes and the physical connections between them. Signal topology describes the paths, which the signals take while they pass over the network. The mapping of the paths taken by data as they travel over the network is known as a logical topology. The terms, signal topology and logical topology are closely related. Let us see the different types of network topologies in detail. Types of Network Topologies Bus Topology: In this type of network topology, all the nodes of a network are connected to a common transmission medium having two endpoints. All the data that travels over the network is transmitted through a common transmission medium known as the bus or the backbone of the network. When the transmission medium has exactly two endpoints, the network topology is known by the name, 'linear bus topology'. In case the transmission medium, also called the network backbone, has more than two endpoints, the network is said to have a distributed bus topology. Bus topology is easy
the failure of a single station in the network can render the entire network inoperable. The data that are transmitted over the network pass through each of the nodes in the ring until they reach the destination node. the data and the signals that pass over the network travel in a single direction. thus limiting the performance to a less number of nodes. it becomes possible for a simultaneous transmission of signals from one node to several other nodes. The data flow along two directions in the two rings formed thereby. Mesh Topology: In a full mesh network. each network node is connected to every other node in the network. Changes and moves in the stations forming the network affect the network operation. But. Ring Topology: In a ring topology. Due to this arrangement of nodes. every node in the network is connected to two other nodes and the first and the last nodes are connected to each other. In a ring network. In a . But the downside of this topology is that the limited cable length limits the number of stations. The ring topology does not require a central server to manage connectivity between the nodes and facilitates an orderly network operation.to handle and implement and is best suited for small networks. The dual ring topology varies in having two connections between each of the network nodes.
partially connected mesh network. Network topologies are the physical arrangements of network nodes and wires. The nodes of a mesh network require possessing some kind of routing logic so that the signals and the data traveling over the network take the shortest path during each of the transmissions. What is interesting is that the inanimate nodes and wires turn 'live' for the transmission of information! Networking Architecture. Some hosts are also able to provide traffic control functions e. there are hybrid network topologies. each node in the network has a specific fixed number of nodes connected to those at a lower level. The failure of the central hub results renders the entire network inoperable. only some of the network nodes are connected to more than one node. A distributed star is formed by the interconnection of two or more individual star networks. These routers consist of two parts. Apart from these basic types of network topologies. each node of the network is connected to a central node. which are composed of a combination of two or more basic topologies. DS marking of the packets and traffic shaping. The IntServ over DiffServ architecture consists of the following elements: • Hosts The hosts use RSVP signaling to request a specific QOS level. These network mappings aim at harnessing the advantages of each of the basic topologies used in them. the disadvantage of a star topology is that the network transmission is largely dependent on the central hub. In a symmetrical hierarchy. The data that is transmitted between the network nodes passes across the central hub. The centralized nature of a star network provides a certain amount of simplicity while also achieving isolation of each device in the network. one part is RSVP capable and interacts with the Intserv network and the other is DiffServ . This is beneficial over a fully connected mesh in terms of redundancy caused by the point-to-point links between all the nodes. Star Topology: In this type of network topology. However.g. Tree Topology: It is also known as a hierarchical topology and has a central root node that is connected to one or more nodes of a lower hierarchy. • Edge routers The edge routers are located at the boundary between the RSVP/Intserv network and the DiffServ network. which is known as a hub.
the boundary routers communicate with so-called bandwidth brokers (BB). These routers provide traffic conditioning functions to ensure that the traffic conforms to the SLA (Service Level Agreement) negotiated between IntServ (customer) and DiffServ (ISP) networks. • Transit network The transit network can provide different QoS levels by applying appropriate per-hopbehaviors (PHBs). The stub networks may also use DiffServ mechanisms such as BBs for providing QoS to the end users. with the main difference that they perform non-statistical multiplexing (see later). • Boundary Routers Boundary routers are located at the ingress and egress points of the DiffServ network. A circuit emulates the physical signals of a direct end-to-end cable. To implement traffic conditioning and to manage the resource allocation on the transit network. they establish a direct data link over the circuit.capable and interacts with the DiffServ admission control component to provide admission control feedback to the hosts generated RSVP signaling. The transit network is not able for RSVP signaling. These stub networks contain Intserv capable hosts and a mesh of leaf routers which are not explicitly required to be Intserv capable. A network has intermediate systems (ISs): those are systems that send data to next ISs or to the destination. Switching is the way telephone networks operate. Leaf routers which are not Intserv capable act as a non-RSVP clouds. When computers are connected by a circuit switched network. Using interconnected ISs saves cable and . The transit network could consist of several autonomous administrative domains. Modern circuit switches are based on byte multiplexing and are thus similar to packet switches. • Stub networks The stub networks are the sender's or the receiver's local access network. This is used today for modem access to a data network. but it is able to carry the RSVP messages transparently.
Application Layer Application layer supports network application applications that are distributed over the network applications that communicates through the network Many known protocols FTP: file transfer SMTP: email protocol HTTP:web protocol An application uses UDP or TCP. and many other popular applications adopt the client/server model. a client program running on one end system requests and receives information from a server running on another end system. A typical example of peer-to-peer application is the teleconferencing. port number) The Application Layer is responsible for supporting network applications. Telnet). In this model the two hosts takes the same role and run the same programs. In the so-called client/server model. The application layer . communication controllers (SNA). The other model used in computer networks is referred to as peer-to-peer model. Frame Relay. They are also referred to as end systems because they sit at the edge of the network. it is a designer’s choice Interface with the transport layer use for example the socket API: a library of C functions socket also means (IP address. Informally. or an e-mail program.…). telephone). Intermediate systems are known under various terms depending on the context: routers (TCP/IP. ATM. Hosts are sometimes further divided into two categories: clients and servers. remote login (for example. clients often tend to be desktop PCs or workstations. file transfer. The Web. AppleTalk. But there is a more precise meaning of a client and a server in computer networking. switches (X. whereas servers are more powerful machines.25. This client/server model is undoubtedly the most prevalent structure for Internet applications. the computers that we use on a daily basis are often referred to as hosts or end systems. They are referred to as hosts because they host (run) application-level programs such as a Web browser or server program. newsgroups. e-mail. network nodes (APPN) In computer networking jargon.bandwidth.
you do not handle packets. We shall see in Chapter 2 that it is very easy to create our own new application-layer protocols Transport Layer Why a transport layer ? transport layer = makes network service available to programs is end-to-end only. including HTTP to support the Web. The unreliable variety simply sends packets. The primary goal of the transport layer is to provide the programmer with an interface to the network. The transport layer exists in two varieties: unreliable and reliable.includes many protocols. and does not attempt to guarantee any delivery. but data. and FTP to support file transfer. Second. the transport layer uses the concept of port. However. The reliable variety. When you write a lowlevel program which uses the network (as we will do in this lecture). . not in routers In TCP/IP there are two transport protocols UDP (user datagram protocol) unreliable offers a datagram service to the application (unit of information is a message) TCP (transmisssion control protocol) reliable offers a stream service (unit of information is a byte) Physical. this is not enough for the programmer. SMTP to support electronic mail. A port is a number which is used locally (on one machine) and identifies the source and destination of the packet inside the machine. data link and network layers are sufficient to build a packet transport system between computers. in contrast. We will come back to the concept of ports later in this chapter.
In the Internet there are two transport protocols. The UDP protocol provides its applications a connectionless service.need for intermediate systems . either of which can transport application-layer messages. TCP and UDP. TCP also segments long messages into shorter segments and provides a congestion control mechanism. Network Layer Set of functions required to transfer packets end-to-end (from host to host) hosts are not directly connected . which is very much a no-frills service. even if some packets may be lost from time to time. sender/receiver speed matching). This service includes guaranteed delivery of application-layer messages to the destination and flow control (that is. so that a source throttles its transmission rate when the network is congested. TCP provides a connection-oriented service to its applications.makes sure that data does reach the destination.
A circuit emulates the physical signals of a direct end-to-end cable. data packets can be carried together on the same link.25. AppleTalk. Frame Relay. There are two types of networks: With Packet switching. Circuit Switching is the way telephone networks operate. Appletalk. Modern circuit switches are based on byte multiplexing and are thus similar to packet switches. or ATM. ISs are known under various terms depending on the context: routers (TCP/IP. Using interconnected ISs saves cable and bandwidth. This is used today for modem access to a data network. public data networks such as Frame Relay. switches (X. They are differentiated by addressing information. X. with the main difference that they perform non-statistical multiplexing (see later in this chapter).25. including the Internet.examples: IP. A network has Intermediate systems (ISs): those are systems that send data to next ISs or to the destination. . The network layer is the set of mechanisms that can be used to send packets from one computer to another in the world. Packet switching is the basis for all data networks today.…). When computers are connected by a circuit switched network. they establish a direct data link over the circuit. IPX Intermediate systems routers: forward packets to the final destinationinterconnection devices Modern networks have more than physical and data link.
The Internet has many routing protocols. telephone). The network layer is the set of mechanisms that can be used to send packets from one computer to . It has a protocol that defines the fields in the IP datagram as well as how the end systems and routers act on these fields. and all Internet components that have a network layer must run the IP protocol. The Internet's network layer has two principle components. communication controllers (SNA). There is only one IP protocol. network nodes (APPN). This protocol is the celebrated IP protocol. The Internet's network layer also contains routing protocols that determine the routes that datagrams take between sources and destinations.ATM. TCP/IP Modern networks have more than physical and data link.
public data networks such as Frame Relay.25. and all Internet components that have a network layer must run the IP protocol. including the Internet. They are differentiated by addressing information. It has a protocol that defines the fields in the IP datagram as well as how the end systems and routers act on these fields. telephone). X. switches (X. Using interconnected ISs saves cable and bandwidth. When computers are connected by a circuit switched network. Switching is the way telephone networks operate. data packets can be carried together on the same link. Frame Relay. with the main difference that they perform non-statistical multiplexing (see later in this chapter). network nodes (APPN). The Internet's network layer has two principle components.25. A network has Intermediate systems (ISs): those are systems that send data to next ISs or to the destination.…). Packet switching is the basis for all data networks today. communication controllers (SNA). they establish a direct data link over the circuit. This protocol is the celebrated IP protocol. There is only one IP protocol. ATM. AppleTalk. or ATM. There are two types of networks: With Packet switching. This is used today for modem access to a data network. Modern circuit switches are based on byte multiplexing and are thus similar to packet switches. The Internet's network layer also contains routing .another in the world. ISs are known under various terms depending on the context: routers (TCP/IP. A circuit emulates the physical signals of a direct end-to-end cable.
send data multiplexing/demultiplexing construction/analysis of PDUs execution of procedures Protocol unit (PDU) header: control functions opaque data Procedures actions to perform protocol functions: e. lost packet Retransmission .protocols that determine the routes that datagrams take between sources and destinations.g. connect. Protocol entity provides a set of services. The Internet has many routing protocols. eg.
SMTP. Ethernet Physical: bits “on the wire” . UDP Network: routing of datagrams from source to destination IP Link: data transfer between neighboring network elements PPP. OSPF.Internet protocol stack Application: supporting network applications FTP. RIP Transport: host-host data transfer TCP. HTTP.
Encapsulation LAN Management: e.11 (Wi-Fi) Physical: bits “on the wire” .g. 802.3 (Ethernet).5 (Token Bus). constructforwarding tables SNAP: Spanning Tree protocol LLC: multiplex different protocols IP.4 (Token Ring). 802. SNAP MAC: medium access 802. 802. IPX.
and repeaters together form a LAN segment. The area within which broadcasts and multicasts are confined is called a broadcast domain or LAN.What are VLAN's? In a traditional LAN. These devices will not forward collisions. but will allow broadcasts (to every user in the network) and multicasts (to a pre-specified group of users) to pass through. if two people attempt to send information at the same time. A router may be used to prevent broadcasts and multicasts from traveling through the network. switches. The workstations. Once the collision has occurred. The original information will therefore need to be resent after waiting for the collision to be resolved. This means that everyone on a LAN must be located in the same area . However. Defining broadcast and collision domains in a LAN depends on how the workstations. hubs. a bridge or a switch can be used. it will continue to be propagated throughout the network by hubs and repeaters. thereby incurring a significant wastage of time and resources. Thus a LAN can consist of one or more LAN segments. workstations are connected to each other by means of a hub or a repeater. a collision will occur and all the transmitted data will be lost. A LAN segment is also known as a collision domain since collisions remain within the segment. hubs. To prevent collisions from traveling through all the workstations in the network. These devices propagate any incoming data throughout the network. and routers are physically connected together.
In most of these cases. the end-user device . Mid-to-large sized LANs contain a number of linked managed switches. Switches that additionally process data at the network layer (Layer 3) and above are often referred to as Layer 3 switches or multilayer switches The network switch plays an integral part in most modern Ethernet local area networks (LANs). The term commonly refers to a multi-port network bridge that processes and routes data at the data link layer (layer 2) of the OSI model. or an all-purpose converged device such as a residential gateway to access small office/home broadband services such as DSL or cable internet.Network switch A network switch or switching hub is a computer networking device that connects network segments. Small office/home office (SOHO) applications typically use a single switch.
Routers are physical devices that join multiple wired or wireless networks together. An IP router such as a DSL or cable modem broadband router joins the home's local area network (LAN) to the wide-area network (WAN) of the Internet. a wired or wireless router is a Layer 3 gateway. IP being the most common OSI network layer protocol. . Some routers allow the home networker to update the routing table from a Web browser interface. and a DHCP server. wired or wireless routers also have the ability to filter traffic. Broadband routers are designed for convenience in setting up home . By maintaining configuration information in a piece of storage called the routing table. a firewall. Technically. Home networkers often use an Internet Protocol (IP) wired or wireless router. Broadband routers combine the functions of a router with those of a network switch and a firewall in a single unit. and that the router operates at the network layer of the OSI model.contains a router and components that interface to the particular physical broadband technology. A broadband router combines the features of a traditional network switch. either incoming or outgoing. based on the IP addresses of senders and receivers. User devices may also include a telephone interface for VoIP. meaning that the wired/wireless router connects networks (as gateways do).
two bits are always automatically assigned. inspects each incoming Ethernet frame . support one network boundary. Switches are sometimes called "multi-port bridges" for this reason. Traditional bridges.networks. that also operate at Layer 2. For . BRIDGE A bridge device filters data traffic at a network boundary. Bridges reduce the amount of traffic on a LAN by dividing it into two segments. Netmask A netmask is a 32-bit mask used to divide an IP address into subnets and specify the networks available hosts. In a netmask. and home LAN gaming. whereas switches usually offer four or more hardware ports. Traditional broadband routers required Ethernet cables be run between the router. A bridge works at the data-link (physical network) level of a network. Bridges operate at the data link layer (Layer 2) of the OSI model. though. For this reason. particularly for homes with high-speed cable modem or DSL Internet service. ridging networks are generally always interconnected local area networks since broadcasting every message to all possible destinations would flood a larger network with unnecessary traffic. The newer wireless routers also support broadband Internet access and the Ethernet standard without the need for cabling. and sometimes the frame size .in making individual forwarding decisions. the broadband modem. Bridges serve a similar function as switches. and each computer on the home LAN. copying a data frame from one network to the next network along the communications path. Bridges inspect incoming traffic and decide whether to forward or discard it. A broadband router supports file sharing. A broadband router follow the Ethernet standard for home networking. router networks such as the Internet use a scheme that assigns addresses to nodes so that a message or packet can be forwarded only in one general direction rather than forwarded in all directions. for example. Internet connection sharing. An Ethernet bridge.including the source and destination MAC addresses.
255. However. internetworking and telecommunications functions tightly integrated with a multitasking operating system. The IOS CLI provides a fixed set of multiple-word commands — the set available is determined by the "mode" and the privilege level of the current user. 11111111 24 0 00000000 -- Using a 24-bit netmask the network would be capable of 2. This is commonly plenty of addresses for one network. Below is an example of a netmask and an example of its binary conversion. In the above example you have an example of a 32-bit address.223.255. 11111111 24 255 11111111 32 Counting out the bits in the binary conversion allows you to determine the netmask length.x. "255" is the assigned broadcast address. "0" is the assigned network address.) IOS is a package of routing.097. Cisco Internetwork Operating System ‘Cisco IOS (originally Internetwork Operating System) is the software used on the vast majority of Cisco Systems routers and current Cisco network switches.255. this address is a broadcast address and does not allow any hosts (computers or other network devices) to be connected to it. 11111111 16 255.254. 11111111 16 255. "Global . Netmask: Binary: Netmask length 255.1.255. 11111111 8 255. switching. (Earlier switches ran CatOS. in 255.x . 11111111 8 255. Netmask: Binary: Netmask length 255.example.0. A commonly used netmask is a 24-bit netmask as seen below.0.150 networks or 254 different hosts with an IP range of 192.255.225. The 0 and 255 are always assigned and cannot be used. and in 255.
the card's read-only memory. and "interface configuration mode" provides commands to change the configuration of a specific interface A Media Access Control address (MAC address) is a unique identifier assigned to network interfaces for communications on the physical network segment. or some other firmware mechanism. a MAC address usually encodes the manufacturer's registered identification number and may be referred to as the burned-in address. since the user would simply use a different login into PPP. It may also be known as an Ethernet hardware address (EHA). MAC addresses are most often assigned by the manufacturer of a network interface card (NIC) and are stored in its hardware. Redback Networks and RouterWare (now Wind River Systems)  and is available as an informational RFC 2516. By using PPPoE.configuration mode" provides commands to change the system's configuration. users can virtually "dial" from one machine to another over an Ethernet network. since PPPoE is easily integrated with legacy dial-up AAA systems and fits perfectly into the ATM backbones. then the ATM circuit would be routed to the user's ISP. It was developed by UUNET. Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet The Point-to-Point Protocol over Ethernet (PPPoE) is a network protocol for encapsulating Pointto-Point Protocol (PPP) frames inside Ethernet frames. It is mainly used by telephone companies. MAC addresses are used for numerous network technologies and most IEEE 802 network technologies including Ethernet. establish a point to point connection between them and then securely transport data packets over the connection. hardware address or physical address. Ethernet networks are packet-based and have no concept of a connection or circuit and also lack basic security features to protect against IP and MAC conflicts and rogue DHCP servers. The protocol also permits very easy unbundling of DSLAMs where required by regulators. Logically. A network node may have multiple NICs and will then have one unique MAC address per NIC. Also pre-paid traffic bucket business models can be created with PPPoE more easily than with DHCP or multiplexing multiple users with different . MAC addresses are used in the Media Access Control protocol sub-layer of the OSI reference model. It is used mainly with DSL services where individual users connect to the DSL modem over Ethernet and in plain Metro Ethernet networks. If assigned by the manufacturer.
PPPoE faces a difficult future. MPLS/IP backbones and IP-DSLAMs are considered the norm and the circuit switched family technologies (ATM/PDH) are being called legacy technologies.speed tiers or QoS through 1 DSL modem or by creating a different login for each static IP purchased by customers. the overhead is only 0. say 1492 bytes. . The amount of overhead added by PPPoE depends on the packet size because PPPoE adds 8 bytes to each packet. PPPoE has the highest overhead DSL delivery method.54 % ((1500-1492)/1492). If packets are large. Pseudowire and VoIP can be used to deal with legacy customers and equipment.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.