Telepathy (from the Greek τηλε, tele meaning "distant" and πάθη, pathe meaning "affliction, experience"),[2] is the

induction of mental states from one mind to another. The term was coined in 1882 by the classical scholar Fredric W. H. Myers, a founder of the Society for Psychical Research,[1] and has remained more popular than the morecorrect expression thought-transference.[1][3] Many studies seeking to detect, understand, and utilize telepathy have been done within this field. The scientific community does not regard telepathy as a real phenomenon as actual telepathy has never been demonstrated to a greater degree than pure chance under controlled experimental conditions.[citation needed] Telepathy is a common theme in modern fiction and science fiction, with many superheroes and supervillains having telepathic abilities. In more recent times, neuroimaging has allowed researchers to actually perform early forms of mind reading.

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1 Origins of the concept 2 In parapsychology o 2.1 Types 3 Skepticism and controversy 4 In popular culture 5 Technologically enabled telepathy 6 See also 7 Notes 8 External links

[edit] Origins of the concept
According to Roger Luckhurst,[4] the origin of the concept of telepathy (not telepathy itself) in the Western civilization can be tracked to the late 19th century. In his view, science did not frequently concern itself with "the mind" prior to this. As the physical sciences made significant advances, scientific concepts were applied to mental phenomena (e.g., animal magnetism), with the hope that this would help understand paranormal phenomena. The modern concept of telepathy emerged in this historical context. The notion of telepathy is not dissimilar to two psychological concepts: delusions of thought insertion/removal and psychological symbiosis. This similarity might explain how some people have come up with the idea of telepathy. Thought insertion/removal is a symptom of psychosis, particularly of schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder. Psychiatric patients who experience this symptom falsely believe that some of their thoughts are not their own and that others (e.g., other people, aliens, or conspiring intelligence agencies) are putting thoughts into their minds (thought insertion). Some

this method can be vulnerable to sensory leakage and card counting. Among the most well known are the use of Zener cards and the Ganzfeld experiment. Putatively. is a less well established concept. with development. on one hand. The sender must select a random card and visualize the symbol on it. It entails the belief that in the early psychological experience of the child (during earliest infancy). on the other hand. they must repeatedly score a success rate that is significantly higher than 20%. telepathy is considered to be a form of extra-sensory perception (ESP) or anomalous cognition in which information is transferred through Psi. It is an idea found in the writings of early psychoanalysts.[7] When using the Ganzfeld experiment to test for telepathy. while the receiver must attempt to determine that symbol using Psi. It is often categorized similarly to precognition and clairvoyance. Psychiatrists and clinical psychologists believe and empirical findings support the idea that people with schizotypal personality disorder are particularly likely to believe in telepathy.[5] [edit] In parapsychology Main articles: Parapsychology and Ganzfeld experiment Within the field of parapsychology. The receiver is then required to receive information from the sender. the child is unable to tell the difference between his or her own mind.[7] If not conducted properly. so in order to demonstrate telepathy. the experience of either thought insertion/removal or unconscious memories of psychological symbiosis may have led to the invention of "telepathy" as a notion and the belief that telepathy exists. but. one individual is designated the receiver and is placed inside a controlled environment where they are deprived of sensory input. it ends. delusions of thought insertion may be reduced by antipsychotic medication. on the other hand. and his or her experience of the mother/parent.[8] . aspects of it can still be detected in the psychological functioning of the adult. Fuch him at night Psychological symbiosis. the receiver has a 20% chance of randomly guessing the correct symbol. This state of mind is called psychological symbiosis. purportedly. such as Melanie Klein.[6] Various experiments have been used to test for telepathic abilities. one individual is designated the "sender" and another the "receiver". When using them. Zener cards Zener cards are cards marked with five distinctive symbols. Along with other symptoms of psychosis. Statistically.patients feel as if thoughts are being taken out of their minds or deleted (thought removal). The exact nature of the information may vary between experiments. and another is designated the sender and is placed in a separate location.

as well as figures in many science fiction novels. and developed psychological techniques of cold reading and hot reading. Precognitive.[18] Skeptics also point to historical cases in which flaws in experimental design and occasional cases of fraud were uncovered. Notable fictional telepaths include the Jedi in Star Wars. including latent telepathy and precognitive telepathy. self-delusion and/or self-deception and that telepathy does not exist as a paranormal power. such as mediumism. involves tapping into the superconscious [11] to access the collective wisdom of the human species for knowledge.[edit] Types Parapsychology describes several different forms of telepathy. through Psi. use telepathy. [edit] Skepticism and controversy Although not a recognized scientific discipline.[3] Latent Telepathy. A technique which shows statistically significant evidence of telepathy on every occasion has yet to be discovered. etc..[9] is described as being the transfer of information. is the process of transferring kinesthetic sensations through altered states. They have identified. formerly known as "deferred telepathy". about the past. people who study certain types of paranormal phenomena such as telepathy refer to the field as parapsychology. This lack of reliable reproducibility has led skeptics to argue that there is no credible scientific evidence for the existence of telepathy at all. through Psi.[14] Parapsychologists and skeptics agree that many of the instances of more popular psychic phenomena. The mechanics of telepathy in fiction vary .[12][13] Skeptics say that instances of apparent telepathy are explained as the result of fraud. and Intuitive Telepathy is described as being the transfer of information. also known as remote influence [10] or emotional transfer. described.[3] Emotive Telepathy. with an observable time-lag between transmission and receipt.[15][16][17] Magicians such as Ian Rowland and Derren Brown have demonstrated techniques and results similar to those of popular psychics. Parapsychologists claim that some instances of telepathy are real. future or present state of an individual's mind to another individual. with a number of superheroes and supervillains. without paranormal means.[3] Retrocognitive. Superconscious Telepathy. can be attributed to non-paranormal techniques such as cold reading.[18] [edit] In popular culture Telepathy is commonly used in fiction.

or even to receiving thoughts from a specific other person. In the John Wyndham novel The Chrysalids. telepathy is a magical skill known as Legilimency. In the book "Eragon". E. Nevada. including his dragon Saphira. ultimately. Rowling. a vampire in Stephenie Meyer's book New Moon. Jean Grey. In the Harry Potter series by J.[19] Some humanoids can tap into this field through a kind of sense organ located in the brain. Some fictional telepaths possess mind control abilities. telepaths can sense portions of the psionic field. Heinlein's 1956 novel Time for the Stars. telepathy emerges across the entire human species as a result of the Pied Piper Virus. a telepath involved in the fight of good and evil. Some writers view telepathy as the evolutionary destiny of humanity. certain pairs of twins are able to send telepathic messages to each other. but it is possible to block people from one's mind with a barrier. They always know each other's thoughts. along with Matt Parkman from the television series Heroes. in Robert A. USA. the mutant hero Jommy Cross can read the minds of ordinary humans. telepathy is seen as a latent ability that emerges only when the distractions of language are bypassed. Psylocke. Some telepaths can read the thoughts only of those they touch. such as Vulcans in the Star Trek media franchise and Aro. For example. a psionic field is the "medium" through which unspoken thoughts and feelings are communicated through space. Eragon can communicate through his mind with almost anyone. and numerous other characters in the Marvel Universe. paralysis. Just a Couple of Days. The film Scanners concerns around people born with this kind of telepathy as well as those with telekinetic abilities. has revealed that telepathy within the Star Trek universe works via the "psionic field. feelings. van Vogt's science fiction novel Slan. control them." which he used to mask his presence from others. the main character and narrator David Strorm is one of a group of nine telepaths. which inadvertently eliminates humanity's symbolic capacity. causing pain. Emma Frost. altering or erasing memories. in the same manner that human eyes can sense portions of the electromagnetic field. In Tony Vigorito's novel. The radio crimefighter The Shadow had "the power to cloud men's minds. In Anthony Horowitz's Power of Five series twins Jamie and Scott Tyler were born with telepathic powers that enable them to read people's minds and. ." According to Bormanis. In this instance. Star Trek science consultant and writer André Bormanis. or completely taking over another person's mind and body (similar to spiritual possession). Examples of this type of telepath include Professor Xavier. In A. Some fictional telepaths are limited to receiving only thoughts that are deliberately sent by other telepaths. or unconsciousness.widely. which earns them money doing tricks at a circus in Reno. which can include "pushing" thoughts. K. or hallucinatory visions into the mind of another person. The Urdu novel "Devta" is based on the character of Farhad Ali Taimur.

informational and cognitive technologies (NBIC) for enhancing human performance. feelings and memories. Certain Conjoiners are able to read. often involving the usage of neural implants of some description. a 2002 report exploring the potential for synergy among nano-. The MindFlex made by Mattel in collaboration with NeuroSky was even ranked in Time Magazines top 100 toys of all time [20] [21]. Another example is the Conjoiners in the Revelation Space series by Alastair Reynolds. The NeuroSky MindWave was awarded it for the. Recent BCI toys like those developed by NeuroSky have brought real life telepathy to the general public. often having similar effects to other telepaths in fiction. Robert Silverberg's 1971 story Tower of Glass features a technology called a "shunt room" where participants wearing "shunt helmets" are able to probe one another's thoughts. More generally.Technological enabled mental connections (occasionally seen as a form of 'telepathy' as in the following section.[24] . See also a composite list of fictional characters with telepathy. the concept of technological mental connections quite often features in science fiction stories featuring group minds. an electroencephalogram is used to judge the persons level of concentration through direct measurement of the electrical activity in their brain. For example. attack and control the minds of other Conjoiners and machines (though not standard humans) using digital attacks. Conjoiners rely on their technological telepathy (referred to by them as "Transenlightenment") to the extent that they no longer actually speak. In this game the player floats a ball by concentrating on it. such as the Borg in Star Trek. “Heaviest machine moved using a brain control interface”. [22][23] In 2011 a Guinness Book of World Records category was created for BCI based telepathy. [edit] Technologically enabled telepathy See also: Thought identification Converging Technologies. this headset then communicates with a platform controlling the speed of a fan and thus the ball. bio-. but not usually described using this word) are also present in science fiction.

And if man-machine-man bridges can be made. and a man-machine-man bridge is considered very possible. He believes techno-enabled telepathy will in the future become the primary form of human communication. Technologically enabled telepathy is also called "techlepathy." "synthetic telepathy. then such a link can be achieved over great distances using Internet. There has already been progress in connecting brains with machines. Kevin Warwick of the University of Reading.[25][26] [edit] See also ." Some people. believe that technologically enabled telepathy is a technology that humans should pursue in order to improve themselves.Futurists think that brain-computer interfaces may make telepathy possible. occasionally referred to by themselves or others as "transhumanists"." or "psychotronics. England is one of the leading proponents of this view and has based all of his recent cybernetics research around developing technology for directly connecting human nervous systems together with computers and with each other.

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